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Aspects of African Civilization
Paris: Presence africaine. 1972. P. 140
Notes on the concept of people in Peul and Bambara traditions Notes on Culture
The wisdom and the language question in subSaharan Africa
Reflections on the Islamic religion
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Dialogue between Christians and Muslims Religion and Science Religion and Prayer Religion and marriage Religion and gesture of charity Religion and development
The traditional relationship of the African man with God
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Supreme Being Transcendence and Immanence Intermediate agents Ancestors Presence of the Sacred in all things. Animism Matches between the analog and its manifestation Sacred Supreme Regulatory ritual life Wedding Food No worldly Sanctity of traditional crafts Blacksmiths Sexual Symbolism Heaven and Earth, Father and Mother Mother Earth The Sun and the Moon Ethics linked to a sense of unity of all things Encounter with Islam
Person For the Fulani and Bambara Traditions (the only ones that I will refer, because I think knowing them), two terms used to designate the person. For the Fulani, are Neddho and neddhaaku ; For the Bambara, are Maa and Maaya. The first word means "the one" and the second "people person".
The tradition teaches that there is indeed first Maa, Person-bin, and then Maaya, That is to say the various aspects contained in the Maa Maa-bin. As the saying goes Bambara " Maa ka ka sa Maaya Yere kono "" Persons of the person are multiple in person. "We found exactly the same concept in Fulani.
The notion of person is initially very complex. It involves multiple internal plans or stacked concentric existence (physical, mental and spiritual at different levels), and a constant dynamic. The existence, which begins with conception, is preceded by a preexisting cosmic where man is supposed to reside in the realm of love and harmony, called Benke-N.
The birth of a child is considered as tangible proof that a part of life anonymous broke loose and became flesh in order to accomplish a mission on our land. Particular emphasis will be given to the baptism ceremony in which we give a " Togo ", Or name, the new3|Page
the tribe. The development of the person will be to the rhythm of the major periods of growth of the body. The introduction is intended to give the person a psychic power which determines moral and mental support and the perfect realization of the individual and total. Literally" water poured '. the nyangan. and each period of seven years marks a 4|Page . The Togo defines the small individual. called menkono Or " nyangan ". He is in the larger community. The traditional view that the life of a normal man has two major phases: one ascending. each of which corresponds to a degree of initiation. one hundred and twenty-six. a prelude to the birth of an extraordinary being. Literally" long belly ". Each section of twenty-one marks a high point in the initiation. and on a wider scale.born. Three types of birth can take place: abortion " ji-good ". composed of three periods of seven years. the whole of humanity Finally. Each phase includes three main sections of twenty-one. who comes into the world armed with a powerful potential. post-term birth. up to sixty-three the other descending. That is to say on the sorcerer. regarded as evil birth to term called banngi "Happy event not only for parents but for the village.
From fourteen to twenty-one years. it is considered to have completed his active life and is no longer restricted by any requirement which does not prevent it. From seven to fourteen years. man will mature lessons he has received in the previous period. it is supposed to have virtually reached maturity and is among the masters. he was in school life and its masters. the child will remain intimately connected to his mother whom he is dependent for all aspects of his life. The age of twenty-one marks a very important threshold. or probation. he must teach others what he has learned and matured during the first two periods of his life. as is the ritual circumcision and initiation ceremonies of the gods.threshold in the evolution of the human person. It is then considered wise to listen to. In the second installment of twenty-one years. For example. who remains his criteria. 5|Page . and if it happens we now call it a favor. Forty-three per cons. possibly to continue teaching. and not by right. Sixty-three years finally end the great upturn. when the trainee requires the most care possible. he is confronted with the external environment which influences it receives. Having the right to speak. and slowly moving away from the influence of his mother. during the first seven years of its existence. but it always feels the need to refer to his mother. if such was his vocation or his ability.
He mixed it all together and used it to create a 21st hybrid. limited to his physical body. such as vegetable seed. That is to say the first word component his own divine name. The forces generated by this potential are in perpetual motion. But he noticed that among the top 20 creatures. that is to say. let us briefly recall the myth of the creation of man in the Bambara tradition: Maa-Ngala (Or God-Master) s'autocréa. That is to say: "Man is the universe in miniature. Each is the gateway to a state of being.At no time. This is why the tradition considers the body of man as the world in miniature. Then he lifted a bit on each of the 20 existing creatures. " The whole body corresponds to a specific symbolism. and is guarded by a deity. Being all-in-one Maa-Ngala designed a special body. To illustrate this. but as a complex. or world. The head. The human person. vertical and symmetrical. the human person is therefore regarded as a monolithic unit. none was able to become his kumanyon. for example. his interlocutor. 20 Then he created beings. the man to whom he gave the name Maa. Each 6|Page . represents the upper level of being pierced by seven large openings. who constituted the entire universe. in the words " Maa Diny merenin of ye ye . To contain Maa. depending on terrain and conditions encountered. can contain both a bit of all existing beings. inhabited by a multiplicity in constant motion. This body. is evolving from a valuable asset which is its own potential. It is therefore not a static or be completed. like the cosmos itself. called FariSymbolizes a sanctuary where all things are in circumduction. It will grow throughout the rising phase of his life.
that only a well done on the evolution path of initiation allow him to order. its known part is nothing compared to what remains to be seen." says the adage. through which faculty Maa becomes 7|Page . It calls its essential purpose: to become the interlocutor Maa-Ngala. is not an imaginary being. and so on ad infinitum. There. It is he who gives birth to imagination. the divine name which Maa is invested gives the mind. or psychic people. Each corresponds to an inner world that revolves around an axis or central point. and immortal immaterial principle. The multiple and varied forces that move in the universe hidden Maa are states. Like a vast ocean. On the other hand. The face is considered the main facade of the habitat of those deep Maa..door opens to another door inside. and trappings can decipher the characteristics of these people.. The grandeur and drama of Maa just what is the meeting place of opposing forces in perpetual motion. The Spirit. the various elements that make him the confluence of all the cosmic forces. " Why this complexity? On one hand. "Show me your face. The maxim Mali speaks on the subject: "It never ceases to know Maa . from the spirit of Maa itself. and to share in the Supreme Force. The human psyche is a complex whole. throughout the phases of his life. the highest as the lowest. and I'll tell you how to be your people home. real power (not to be confused with the imaginary).
Because of this deep feeling of unity of life. both internal and external.capable of vision and come into contact with spirits or beings living out of it or outside the visible world. The spirit Maa allows him to know. the person is connected to his fellows. the person is not closed in on itself. The various beings. like a box securely closed. As has been perceived. They are related to each other and. several dimensions. It opens several directions. To borrow a phrase from my friend Boubou HamaHe "embodies the abstract". in relation to the outside worlds. or states that are in it correspond to worlds that lie between the man and his creator. understand and strengthen its attention. Maa becomes able to judge. codified rules of behavior it teaches the traditional doctrine Bembaa-sira. First and foremost. Just as life is unity. the human person is not cut off from the natural world that surrounds and maintains relations with it's length and balance. Specific laws determine the behavior of man vis-à-vis all the beings inhabiting 8|Page . through man. By developing these skills. which takes him image and form. one might say. the human community is one and interdependent. We can not conceive isolated or independent.
the ordinary man. Insofar as he returned to his true nature (that of Maa important). good or bad conduct of kings and traditional religious leaders. plants and animals.. not man made. That is to say a kind of homunculus. and interdependence. rainfall patterns. prosperity depend on soil. the balance of forces of nature. MaaWhich contains within it an element of all existing things. it is Maa-Nin. These laws can be violated. Tradition says: " Maa ka se i Kakan Yere Nooter has to bè Maa or yala . as the axis required to preserve the many outdoor fall into chaos. I will draw attention to the fact that the tradition is concerned about the human person as multiplicity interior 9|Page . is to become the guarantor of the balance of the outside world or the cosmos. as it may cause. As long as man has not ordered the worlds. That is to say: We can not leave the state of Maa-ninTo reinstate the rule of Maa. etc.the vital part of the earth: minerals. if one is not master of himself. the man appears in the world. forces and people who are into it. The concept of unity of life comes from the fundamental concept of equilibrium exchange. in the balance of nature and the forces that underlie it. To conclude. a disturbance that would turn against him. Thus.
according to Islamic teaching resulting from the content of the Quran and sayings of the Prophet Mohammad. Synthesis of the universe and the crossroads of life forces man is called upon to become the point of equilibrium where can be conjoined. the various dimensions that it carries. "Fulani proverb. Interlocutor Maa-NgalaAnd maintain the balance of creation. Proverb Bambara. through him. Why all the prophets do they come from Saudi? Why there is there no prophets black? The very important question deserves a preliminary explanation. "When a snake or any animal emerges from the forest. 1. three categories of men of God: 10 | P a g e . Reflections on the Islamic religion 1 "May your actions have an effect comparable that of the baobab seeds. including Islam.unfinished initially expected to be ordered and to unite to find its rightful place within larger units such as the human community and the entire cosmos. It's about understanding the meaning of the word "Prophet" as understood in the revealed religions. So it really deserve the name Maa. you can throw what you have in your hand. There.
God reveals His Word to His messenger. of human evolution. They can be manifested or not manifested Nabis externally. These are very rare Great Emailed. improve on some points. consequently. and a way back to the Lord. intended to be a great nation. that becomes a sacred book for men. Then there is the Nabis. or Great Emailed. The Islamic tradition has six Great Emailed Adam. unlike Rasul. literally the "Prophets". that of One God and Lord. Each new "descent" of divine revelation comes through them both confirm the previous revelations and supplement. a holy law for conduct inside and out. Noah.a. Generally with each of these major Emailed appeared a new religion. They are also called "Prophets". They are sometimes called "Sent legislators" because each of them received a new law. Abraham. containing the commandments of God. The Rasul is chosen by God through an act of His will to be the instrument of a major revelation from God. unlike Rasul is always shown. b. This is also holy men who received a divine revelation that they are humble servants. At the top. tailored to the needs of the time. and sometimes they must keep secret almost. and adapt to new weather conditions. From each of them came out a Community. Jesus and Muhammad (" Muhammad "in Arabic). their message is aimed at large to a small group of men. Moses. or humanity as a whole. Rasul. Their appearance marks a new stage of revelation and. but. literally: "Messengers of God. although in reality they have always preached a single and eternal religion. 11 | P a g e . who came down to earth "with the Words of her Lord.
It is found that the six Rasul.000 Nabis. they are of all ages and all races. A Nabi is always a Waly. that is to say. Such is the case of the Prophets of the Bible. that is to say a Saint of God. Likewise. bearing the quality of Nabi. Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula." In fact. in union with Him. Only four came from Arabia. Islamic tradition says that there were 124. He never brings a "Law" new for humanity. We do not know the number. some are mentioned in the Koran. or prophets.000 Nabis.The Nabi. messengers of God or the Great belong to a specific branch of humanity: the Semitic branch. The concept of "Revelation" and "Prophecy" is the basis of the three monotheistic religions say. regardless of the revelation that he is responsible for transmitting. the great mission of revealing God's Word men. and living in His love. c. Many left the Middle East. prophetic dignity. moreover. a Saint of God. We 12 | P a g e . receiving a special mission. and receiving. Of the 124. commonly called the "Saints of God. Waly word means "one who is close" to God. Christianity and Islam) from Abraham. One can even say they are out of each other. remains under the law of large Rasul that preceded it. The revelation was thus its cradle in the Middle East. father of monotheism. Then come Waly. (Judaism. the Rasul is also always a Waly. who exhorted the Jewish people to return to the pure law of Moses.
Self-preservation then triggers a response against it normal and humanly conceivable. Saint and Sage of the living God and by God's love in the mysterious circle of "Divine Proximity.can not say where and when the other appeared. 2. the quality of Waly knows no limit in time and space. for instance. like all new converts. However. selfishness and sometimes snobbery. But it must be stressed that the quality of ships or Grand Prophet appears in the heart of the quality of Waly. made insulting remarks against other Muslims. proponents of Kabaru. But it would be wise to consider the small differences that preclude practitioners Kabaru to rivals like little pecks that will give the chicks 13 | P a g e . In this regard. having committed blunders. We must also mention the fact that in many cases. but it does it very badly. Black Africa has been and still is a land especially rich in Waly. Why do we condemn the centers' Kabaru? It condemns centers Kabaru ignorance. The Kabaru would sometimes supplant its predecessors.
from the same clutch when sustenance. Note also that this numbering is closely linked to science numéralogique . Why the discrepancy in numbering of the verses of the Koran? This difference in numbering corresponds to different ways to cut some verses.or the science of numbers it would take too long to discuss here.a difference of 430 units on all the Koranic verses. Nevertheless. This numbering is in fact occurred well after the death of the Prophet. 14 | P a g e . the authorities must ensure that these pecks do not degenerate into bloody brawls. that is to say. Peace is something sacred and its preservation is an imperative duty that falls to the authorities. many revelations concerning the same subject were laid end to end. while others preferred to give schools a different number for each passage of Revelation. others several times. in fact. It may be pointed out that punctuation does not exist in Arabic. Some verses. 3. In the latter case. we could be faced with different ways to split sentences. This produces.which incidentally are not many . were revealed to the Prophet at once. some gave only one number to this verse. according to different schools .
according to his temperament or temporary requirements of his spiritual life. As for the Sabians. and ordered by the standards of the divinely revealed law. This is comparable to a high bank that receives all day long the assaults of waves and managed to resist them. We saw many Sufis and spend part of their lives in full retirement and return to society to take God's presence among men and be among them. The Sufi does he live alone or in community? What a Sabaean? It is open to the Sufi. these are the people of Saba.4. the connection with God in some way. or live alone in the bush or in town. a region in Arabia. known as the 15 | P a g e . but its inclusion in the presence of God. but of the sacred in each of its acts. This ancient country was ruled by a famous queen. This design is probably due to the fact that the ideal of Islam does not rejecting the world. This is not to give up on life. either to share the normal community life. as less "realized" that anyone able to maintain the same quality of inner life while leading a normal life among men. The Sufi who lives far from the noise and temptations of everyday life is generally considered in the tradition. a source of blessings.
could prevent the unity of man. One day science will explain why the color of the skin.. In fact. but they viewed as "the soul of the world. They confessed the existence of God. but not all have the same coat color: there are red horse. The unity of man is a religious truth confirmed by science. All cattle are of the same species.or evil . I do not see how the color. inhabited the same basic feelings and capable of reason and wisdom . which is the epidermis. Balqa consider as "their aunt. 16 | P a g e ."Queen of Sheba" (spoken of the Bible and the Koran) and the Arabs call "Balqa '. Is this a scientific question? or a religious truth? I take this question wrong. them. But she can never deny the unity of man as a human being. black. Men are different colors and talk about the unity of man. etc. they say. 5. The Sabians. the horse white.whatever its origin. Tradition tells us that the Queen of Sheba and later married the great king Solomon. were worshipers of the stars. yellow-stained white. The Fulani. subject to the same natural laws everywhere.
Faith puts people before a mystery that he sensed the existence of which he can feel the greatness. or the certainty of being.A verse from the Quran says: "We (ie God) have created you all from a single being. by modern standards of investigation. and he may even. either spontaneously or after a long religious discipline. " 6. it proceeds by union and integration. Then you are grouped by families . essentially secular and quantitative rather than qualitative. That which the mind proceeds by analysis and deduction. and arises from the certainty of the heart.. that is to say.. the faith. separating the elements to better examine and compare. is a world that defies analytical instruments and the limits of ordinary human mind. I would however point out that the idea of God is largely due to an attitude of faith. the origin of the belief in one God. as they wish. discover and enjoy the mysterious presence without a physical law external 17 | P a g e . What is the origin of the belief in one God? It is not easy to define. sometimes. Everything is relative to God's Holy. want to discuss or reason to how 'Cartesian' is to fill a barrel of water holes. and this is certainly not me who can do it.
the reflection of the unity of the origin of man? Perhaps it is even a memory "préexistentiel? The Koran teaches us. the "Great Recall". A quantitative law external and purely physical she could never explain the mystery of love? The belief in a supreme God seems to have always lived in the heart of men. prevent us from him again. in fact. even polytheists. they replied.." or a "Supreme God" too remote to be addressed to him . one might say. and we find echoes in all traditions. the souls of men were convened in the presence of God. There is much talk of the "father of the gods" or "God of gods.. we bear witness! " This memory is in us but our corporeality. our desires. certainly. It is important that echo. dissect and explain this phenomenon. obscures it. The gravity of matter numbs us and leads us away from the center of our being. The noise of our thoughts. God told these souls: "Am I not your Lord? Yes. Perhaps this belief is it like an echo. forces that run through us. Revelation is also called in the Quran.to weigh. perpetually forgotten by men. that long before going down to earth. Then you go to the middle forces. which they attested existence. 18 | P a g e . that Divine Revelation is periodically remind men by the voice of his Great Emailed. to hear his echo.
etc. mindful of God.monotheism or actual .and this is one meaning of word "dhikr" recall ". for example in Islam. in my humble opinion. It is said that man is created to the image of God (Bible). 7. This expression should. theologically speaking. or rather extended to the origin by integrating them into the only power of God.. Judaism and its two offshoots . The prospect pure monotheism dissolves and forms the middle forces. Jesus sanctified and sent Mohammad (transformed into "Mohammed" in French) to close and seal of Revelation. while admitting the existence of other gods.Christianity and Islam . be understood not in the 19 | P a g e . He bequeathed to his descendants through Isaac and Jacob. righteousness of God. Generosity God. true monotheism.are. The idea of one God . Is not this the man who created God in his image? who invented to find explanations that were missing? The Bible says that man is created in the image of God. The One God of Abraham is the same one who appeared to Moses. the "Attributes": God's Mercy. they become. in this cycle of human history.is distinguished from religious forms which are implicitly recognizes one God or supreme. Abraham is the Father.
20 | P a g e . weapons." There is therefore something of God in man. and moreover. of all created beings. The man. cars. The joke contained in the end of the matter. but as a metaphor.strict literal meaning of words. etc. But perhaps this "something" does he not found in man. then give shape and life to that thought by making the outside world. a truth to a theologian and a mystic could understand otherwise. contains in its way. The various sacred books say that "God breathed His Spirit into man. the creative man is material and mortal. which also exists in Islam.as though . chemicals or harmful ideas. man is the only one who holds a creative power . planes.) can destroy and kill. A lot would say this sentence from the Bible. however. in fact. has the ability to imagine and design (that is to say. his creations (machines. to gradually purify our "inner house" of decluttering and make it the receptacle of the Divine Presence forgotten. the whole place that was his due? Hence the need to conform to the teachings of the holy prophets. to create in his mind). but we do not want to overly the modest reply..in the likeness of the Creator. But when God the Creator is immaterial and eternal and that His creatures can neither reach nor to harm him. He must understand by this phrase that God delegated to man a piece of his creative power. Indeed.
intensity and responsiveness. we must also recognize that many people. how to serve and look to Him. that is to say in his own way. in his Revelations. we can not achieve.. This is to preserve us from these mistakes that God has taught us. However. In addition. 21 | P a g e . For God does not manifest itself at all with the same intensity. if not in spirit. To say that God exists is a way to maintain peace and to create tolerance among all men. each man conceives God in the faculties of his mind. from whatever religion they are. in his image. To say that God exists is not enough to keep the peace. The wars of religion are there to testify. the spirits of men differ from each other in quality. 8. not to say "their service" . In other words. the voice of his holy prophets. God is transcendent and immaterial.. much less to build tolerance among people.Indeed. The acceptance and attestation of the existence of God are not a sure way to maintain peace. they are God's image to suit them.
It is as if the homeowner discovered dark and closed. has been much ink and will run again. man can be led to discover in himself a presence . but none has ever been solved.or an act of God . I mean that God can illuminate the heart and mind of man by an act of His will. the sun can illuminate every corner of his house. 9.that's the usual inner chaos prevents him from perceiving. You speak of a manifestation of God in men. By an effort of inner purification. Only he can establish peace in the minds and hearts and from there to the rule in human relations. whatever. 22 | P a g e .It is the sincere love of God which alone can lead men to love and respect his neighbor. 10. opening doors and windows. for many centuries. There is no question that I can resolve this issue. This problem. It can inspire and facilitate human spiritual development. resting on the sacred practices that promote the relationship between man and God. that all the elders have tried to deal with. What does this mean? As a manifestation of God in man. The sun has always been there. But does it still have the house ready to welcome him. Is God responsible for the destiny of every man? Ask if God is responsible for the destiny of every man is to rephrase the problem of free will and that of predestination.
because God has endowed with a spirit that allows him to choose. This is a result of his limited freedom. or not. from this ordeal. peace of heart.the train . Similarly. enclosed in a number of determinations. as a passenger in a boat or a train. courage.However one can not deny a man's free will. But this free content is like. perhaps it is because it has a dual dimension: man is both free and not free.and free to take his journey with dignity. cowardice. to take such a position they like or behave in different ways. selfishness. aggressiveness. man can always choose among several possible attitudes: dignity. but it is possible inside the car. Depending on the chosen approach sometimes after an intense inner struggle . 23 | P a g e .the man out or grown or declined. and a will to act and allows him to decide.or less well-armed .to confront the future events of his life. If the question is so confusing to human logic. general and special . etc. transformed in one way or the other. that is to say. meanness. or. The traveler can not alter the general direction of the vehicle. It will emerge better equipped .. conversely. in certain inevitable events of life. generosity. for example. "embedded" in a general predestination of mankind.
etc. hell. God created men. can reflect the sun and reproduce his entire image. the smallest drop of dew. Why talk of punishment. God does not manifest itself equally in every man. in his "inner house" has a window more or less open to the sky. small or large. great spiritual masters are like huge lakes whose water was quite peaceful and pure 24 | P a g e . ? As I have said for Question 7The minds of men differ in quality. can shine to the surface of the earth. Even the smallest puddle. or mirror the more modest in its own way may contain the sun and bounce light around him. But is it still that the window is properly cleaned. Thus. does not receive the light with the same intensity or in the same way. capacity and responsiveness. the great saints. or open. for one sun in the sky. It could still take another picture: Each pool of the bush. large and small. So every place on earth. to let go its share of light. As was also said to Question 9Each of us.11.. thousands of suns. Envoys of the Great God. And yet. But it's always the same light.
even if just a tiny pool of bush can try to keep water pure and quiet of his soul. many men would steal and violate unrestrained . no? Faith depends on both God and man. how boys behave well for sweets and jams. For a certain type of man. They have no reward in sight. Furthermore. make a little paradise! Besides these categories of men.reflection of sunlight. not because it distributes punishment or reward. On the question of punishment and reward in other words. The spark that ignites the faith comes from God. 12. Each of us. so that the sun comes admire them whole. but its maintenance for the increase in us depends 25 | P a g e . The intensity of the faith depends on God and not man. hell or heaven .we must not forget that if there was the fear of prison. They do not act out of fear of hell or desire for paradise. somehow. the fear of hell is beneficial. Huge crowds can come and drink there. without altering a single ray. there are also those who do good only by love of good. that is to say. This phalanx of men is symbolized in Islam by the Sufis who worship God because He is God.
26 | P a g e . dhikr. It was he who wants it.. The question raises another problem: How good faith is it? The Koran speaks of those who praise God when everything goes well according to their desires. When a man loses his fervent faith. 13. Then the little red dot grows gradually until the entire piece of coal become fire and light. It will just be a piece of coal cold and dark. it is God who lights the faith in us. As we have said. submission to the Divine . it seems that this is God's fault. The athlete receives his strength from nature. But it behooves us to maintain by the means that God Himself has given us through his messengers. the desire to get something for yourself. If he keeps this fire and fuels by appropriate means: prayer ritual sincere. if the man leaves the light on the abandonment. Said that the man is like a piece of coal which is on a small red dot: the spark of faith. meditation. By cons.. While faith is based on a hidden selfishness.on ourselves. But it is through constant practice and proper that maintains and develops. is the fault? When you lose faith. and who revolted when an event affects them. and revealed Books and inspired men. and did not fanning the breath of spiritual life. the ashes cover them and it will soon die. it is subject to variations and shock more or less violent can make it disappear. My Master Tierno Bokar.
In addition. we warned by his Apostles and his doctors. ie between peace and war. religions themselves. They were not intended to be rivals. one must look into the cause of human contingencies (historical. if the war and everything else! As has been said. a willingness and ability to choose and act. which are external to the basic principles. since both have the same mother: "faith in God"? Yes. but perhaps complementary. so the Muslim religion must complement and supplant. The Christian religion was before. Since God knows everything and does what he wants is his fault that men have no faith. It is therefore not the absolute responsibility for our actions. If men were applying strict laws and commandments of God.14. they would respect their neighbor and justice could be established on earth. eternal. But why. 15. He gave us the means of distinguishing between good and evil. and if this was not the case in history. all three monotheistic religions are attached to a common core: the certificate of the oneness of God. God has given us a spirit. Many things escape us in the reasons underlying the emergence of 27 | P a g e . economic or passion).
was not presented as a new religion. The descent of a new revelation is sounded at a time and under conditions intended by God Himself. a new revelation did not "replace" the previous Revelations. With the course of time.many explanations and comments at length become necessary. Most often. and no doubt that the onset of the Great envoys. transforms the consciousness that man has life and the universe around him changes. While one prophetic word in early enough to completely transform a man . the "Great reminder" of the primordial Truth. periodically forgotten or neglected by men. and no Prophet of God has never claimed. humanity changes. A great impulse travels again the human soul and allows it to travel a new stage in its collective destiny. However. is not by chance and meets very specific needs. In this sense." Islam. there is reason to believe that the "descent" of Revelations. away from the time of a great Prophet. charged with the delivery men a most divine revelation. a "surrender to this" the eternal religion preached by Abraham. 28 | P a g e . is a of these events.some important events in the evolution of humanity.even a nation . which literally means "submission" (that is to say. Jesus said: "I do not come to destroy the Law but to fulfill it. the Eternal Religion. men lose contact with the essence of his divine message. Submission to the Will of God). but as a reminder. at determined times in human history.
sort of a preponderance of certain aspects related to the conditions and needs of human development (emphasis on action. has always called men of religion initial object. languages. many religions. or Love. Why are many prophets. or a knowledge encompassing both).External differences appear and it is inevitable. what is essential. but there was no more religions. We must accept as a condition of human life. poorly lit. When down in the eternal truth in human terms . see the "new religions" where there are only different interpretations. so there is only one God? This question builds on the previous. (The Koran speaks of "Religion Enduring which never changes. but trying to find ourselves beyond these differences.with each time it is true. The Prophets are considered light rays emanating from a single 29 | P a g e . some details of the external law is amended during the descent of a new law with Rasul. every Grand Envoy. Thus some.that is to say in the world of multiplicity: the multiplicity of races. etc. but that men do not understand. The basic principles never vary.16. the same eternal religion. There were actually several prophets..) By cons. the" Great Emailed. . which is love and submission to God . different or siding. ways of understanding. Every prophet.
source. which gives it its meaning. religion is no longer a folk fun. is the man on "the Way". symbolized by the Faith.Track-Truth (Shari'ah . as faith can not sustain itself and purified without the Truth. However. purifying themselves gradually leads man to "Truth". The religious law. intimate heart of man. lived with sincerity and perseverance. because it is interior. Religion cannot exist without faith. understanding are greater on the ground of faith than on external practices. What is religion without faith? Why do you insist more on faith than religion? Is it not to get rid of something embarrassing? Without faith. without conviction. The sun is unique.Haqiqa) Taught by Tierno Bokar school tidjanienne Bandiagara. towards which it tends.Tariqa . I dwell more on faith. like most 30 | P a g e . And this faith. 17. so that no one is deprived of its light. when a dialogue between men of different spiritual horizons. so that sometimes the external gestures of religion can be made automatically. but its rays are multiplying in all directions. the chances of reconciliation. Hence the triad Act .
to be bound by any religious discipline. I would say that freedom is relative. which also correspond to the three physical. 18. If freedom involves the power and the right total. both for the believer to the unbeliever. The unbeliever is not it more free than the believer? The believer is a slave to religion. and echoing the triad taught by the Prophet Muhammad: Islam: externals fundamental Iman: Faith inner Ihsan: perfect behavior. the believer is not bound by anything! It might be advisable to define the concept of freedom. For the pious man. is represented by the union of these three levels.and action aspects. full. Only the atheist finds religion "embarrassing". Love and Understanding. nothing that belongs to religion is never annoying. for the man choose and act in its own way. mental and spiritual rights . It goes without saying that Islam is perfect. Life on earth is a permanent slavery. where the man acts under the constant gaze of God. for the unbeliever. one way or another. The fact. meaning he provided it is freed from all shackles external or internal? No 31 | P a g e .Sufis Masters.
does not often fall under the yoke of other conventions.company exists in one area or another. prejudices. If the man managed to free themselves from any religious law. Would it be provided free of slavery inside? Free of his passions. But imagine. being a social par excellence. political or social events. can not totally eliminate the conventions that govern human relationships. sometimes? 32 | P a g e . ambitions. warned and warned. desires. even his habits? Ultimately.regardless of the continent it does not allow us to see the almighty power of conventions. sometimes even more stringent? Simply observing the world around us .at the risk of being alone. a man who had succeeded in throwing all conventions and social conventions outside . "systems" that enclose all kinds of people everywhere when it would be only the tyranny of "modes" and needs "to taste '? The man. the man can free himself from his conscience. and stifle the voice totally secret from the depths of himself. for a wonder. without a law to ensure its cohesion and allow it to move towards the goal it seeks. social. like a wreck adrift.
She gave birth to distinguished men. Is religion freed man. It is not my intention to condemn the policy. 33 | P a g e . as a balm for the heart and diseases of the soul. Outside institutions. or enslaves him? This extends the previous question. will all offer "free man". according to the very principles of His Prophet. But more often. whatever its label. and to what extent am I free? Are there different kinds of freedoms. they release a man from a scheme to place it under another. to seek the best way to manage human affairs. able to shake the horizons of social life. Yes. It can transform and liberate man from his slavery interior so powerful and so detrimental. it is to himself his own prison. and each of us should always get asked: What is freedom. religion understood and honestly exercised. religious or political. But it does not create men comforted and comforting. although by different routes. popular. My belief is that man is more enslaved or liberated by its intimate state by a system external to itself. As long as man keeps the heart of intolerance.The question is of great importance. and where do they lead? 19. whether religious or political. It is useful and even necessary.
able to soothe the hearts in the storms of life. It is a gift from God. On some level it is manifested in the here and now or in the beyond.. A holy man may be a politician. Such a man will share things. because life becomes futile. The believer is a slave to religion.. We say this is a pragmatist. a Muslim balance must be aware that it will only fleeting time on this earth and eternal life lies in the afterlife. God would have it said it had established 34 | P a g e . He worked for a life that is where it happens. frivolous or contemptible. Mohammad. Perhaps he ignores the words of the Messenger of Allah. and he thinks only a paradise uncertain . it can not be vain. does not necessarily lead to consider life as a "futility" if the result of a misinterpretation of the true religious teachings. who is the problem: "Works for the earthly world as if you were to live forever and works for the future life as if you were to die tomorrow. But a politician is not a saint either. " According to this teaching. 20. Life is a wonder. The fact that a believer to become a servant of God (or trying to become). Otherwise.
She mingles with the earth and from this union were born the plants that adorn the earth and serve as food for man and animals. I remember what I have already indicated in Question 4. It is not proposed to reject the man's life. cannot be all impostors. Islam does not rejecting the world. but its inclusion in the Presence of God. These are: the double formula of faith o Laa il'Allaha il'Allaahu Muhammadu Rasuul 'Allaah the five canonical prayers of the day tithe pouch Year End fasting month of Ramadan the firm intention to make a pilgrimage to Mecca believe and confess the existence of God believe in the Day of Resurrection believe in the existence of angels believe in God Sent believe the revealed Books accept the fate that God gives us. 21.the man "his representative on earth"? In another verse of the Koran. his consecration in somehow. What do you principial Islam? I call Islam principial all fundamental articles of faith issued by the Koran and promulgated by Muhammad. but to assume all aspects. namely that in its overall appearance. God compares life to water it down from the sky. in accordance with the Law revealed. 35 | P a g e . the Prophets and Saints." I would say that death itself is not uncertain and that the Great Messengers. who all spoke of a life beyond death. As for the "uncertain heaven.
for God and for God. they prepare the man to a moral and spiritual asceticism which will allow access to the spiritual level where dogma is reduced to four expressions as follows: How to worship God? The worship as if you can see. so they are constantly present in the consciousness of the Muslim and form as the fabric of his religious life. of which Islam is the final expression. awake and irradiated by the Holy Presence. where consciousness. if not a synthesis. happens a lot of ceremony. At this stage. It is rather a symbiosis. If one who does not see. This stage is divine Truth.These eleven Articles are the foundation of the Islamic faith. could he forget the Bible! This holy book is considered the maternal trunk of monotheism. The Koran is a part of the Bible. He sees us. How an educated Muslim who recites the Qur'an for all occasions. 36 | P a g e . On 6666 verses that make up the Quran 1080 some trace of Biblical events. Wellexecuted. the believer lives in God. Why Muslims do they forget the Bible? Why do Christians reject the Koran they? The Koran is not "part" of the Bible. 22. It is certainly a reminder of the most significant historical sacred earlier.
however. Yet many "baffling". it is necessary to put what is due to human instincts of the commentators. These are the understandings and interpretations. and probably by a survival instinct understandable. Perhaps it is only the destiny of our time to enable a better understanding. "a meaningful dialogue for mutual understanding could be established with a high chance of success. born over time and across the world. If Christians have denied the Koran. perhaps they have done. they do not separate. The moral rectitude. 23. A marabout must be in accordance with religion. The very principles of religion unite. sometimes by a superiority complex. rather than the very principles of religion.Again. separating. command that most Muslims are far from being "listened" to their fellow Christians and Jews. I take this opportunity to say that if Christians and Jews had for Mohammad-tenth of respect that Muslims devote themselves to Moses and Jesus called the Spirit of God. the conditions of the past did not allow. Why there is someone there to tell them? 37 | P a g e . he should never say something that put him out of religion.
on his prayer mat. like the Church. where a "higher" would remonstrate with someone. has no clergy. under the " Sharia "(Divine Islamic law). the perpetrators were prosecuted and severely punished. in fact. it is the community to exercise discretion. always possible. There has not been on earth one time who had recorded human failures in any area whatsoever. Disadvantages too.. There is no external hierarchy and organized. and marabou can not make an exception to the rule. it was the religious state which ensured the protection of the Act. 38 | P a g e . both among its bishops among its popes . Islam. because religions are now followed by more conviction than coercion. which presents at once the advantages and disadvantages. The Church has seen many examples in history. Nowadays. Otherwise. In ancient times. Each is his own priest.This question has not considered human weakness. Almost everywhere in the world. Islam holds more temporal authority. religions have been separated from the state and no longer carry the judiciary. for the holy law can not be saved within the community. and enthusiasts will no longer satisfy their personal hatred in God's name or under the banner of religion. and placed before the Imam to lead the prayer may be designated from any believer.. Benefits.
An old proverb says: "You become what we eat. The Koran says: "Wherever you are. God is with you. the flesh of pigs does not also an adverse effect in this area? Strictly speaking. somehow. The pork is indeed one of the most harmful to human health. Who can say that. The purpose of religion. to make it sensitive to the Holy Presence of God. As for the evils of wine and alcohol. moreover. lest we forget. And again: "Whichever way you turn. there is the Face of God. they are known. the Muslim has the right to absorb the flesh of animals killed ritually and not their 39 | P a g e . and what are not the African traditions that contradict. What are the motives that led to the prohibition of pork or liquor? God knows best His creatures that they do know themselves. Some do not see in these bans. especially in hot climates where Islam originated. and He knows what is good or bad for their development both physically and spiritually. is to refine and to awaken the conscience of man. just because a health and hygiene. " But the wine and alcohol and adding to numb the mind of man. But no doubt there deeper reasons that elude us in this prohibition.24.
40 | P a g e . 25. and to preserve and perpetuate a way of spiritual communication and communion among Muslim peoples.blood. which would be ridiculous. Why Muslims must learn Arabic to practice their religion? Ignoring the Arab has never prevented the Muslim faithful to practice their religion with fervor. also subject to prohibition. it is primarily to direct access to reading and understanding the Koran. for reasons perhaps of the same order. It should be noted that reading a holy book in its original language. and some basic formulas necessary for religious life. For anyone who has heard the Koran in Arabic. and some short passages from the Koran to include in prayer. that is to say in the language itself by which God has spoken. If Muslims learn Arabic. Just at least to know the Fatiha in Arabic contained in the mandatory ritual prayer. a simple comparison with a translation in French (which can only be approximated) is sufficient to prove it. carries a spiritual power and efficiency that does not contain translations. Believing that one can not practice Islam in Arabic speaker would be to suppose that God hears the Arabic language.
and the fact that there are many more Muslims in underdeveloped countries than elsewhere.. it is not at all sure that Muslims would come to mind. If we had accumulated. while Islam is subsequent to such institutions he has tried to limit and codify. countries in the Far North and some parts of Europe and Central Eastern.). 41 | P a g e . India. all people in all countries of the underdeveloped world.26. is intended to make people believe that religion is an obstacle to any development. etc. we realize the backwardness of young Muslim states. including in particular Latin America. The look he is talking to me seems somewhat superficial. the holy war and slavery. and that we make a comparison of numerical point of view of religion. in my opinion. But that is not the issue because. Is it because of religion is a brake? A perennial propaganda. is precisely the mistake of linking two phenomena that have nothing to do with each other. in fact. orchestrated by the enemies of Islam. When one looks at the world. This new tactic is to replace one that was to be attributed to Islam the original responsibility of polygamy.
desert or excess forests.. where religions have nothing to do.Underdevelopment material (as in fact it is only that). when examined impartially as did some leading economists and sociologists modern. As for Islam. Only Islam misunderstood or misapplied . 42 | P a g e . poor soil. appears as an essentially linked to the geographical. sometimes subjected to colonization or exploitation for centuries. to consider it as an obstacle to a possible development. you really do not know the religion or the prodigious civilization it has created a not so distant past. It is not my province to talk about the causes of underdevelopment. etc. Africa. Asia or Oceania fell short. resulting in a passive attitude toward life and poor mental development of children. religion is also there for nothing. and not as a religious phenomenon. If Europe and parts of the Americas are technically developed as a result of what is called the "Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century. malnutrition or poor diet.Could lead to inaction or passivity before the negative conditions of life. If South America.which is often the case. geological and climatic a country. but there is enough work in this area which indicate that the causes are manifold and certainly not original Islamic country's history. scheme purely agricultural country. alas! .
" In other words. and for the Hereafter as if you were to die tomorrow. even to China! " Need I recall the extraordinary progress made in the sciences and the sciences of observation by the Muslim scholars of the Middle Ages (astronomy. he said: "Seeking knowledge is an obligation for a Muslim" and "Go get science. even if adverse. does not eliminate the need for action. " 43 | P a g e . was instituted by God. algebra. to study the world around us to reflect on the wonders of creation. etc. The Koran contains numerous incentives to effort. "his representative on earth. then that effort is proper to man." his "Manager". we have said. but is keeping a peaceful heart at the result of the action. This is sin in the eyes of the law. because the results are in the hands of God..Man. medicine. chemistry.) Progress that Europe inherited the lead then to further? "Abandonment to God" (Tawakkoul) Preached by Islam. optics. I recall the words of the Messenger of God Muhammad quoted above: "Works for the life of this world as if you were to live forever. The great sage Ghazali said: "Only fools can imagine that state Tawakkoul (Surrender to God) we let go.
Dialogue between Christians and Muslims 27. without ever completely separate nor completely confused! Without doubt one and the other would win they would get richer and they each other. Agree that we adore the one God. Quote: "Say to the Jews and Christians:" 0 people of the Scripture! Come hear a single word. Christians and Muslims. Jews. and that we 44 | P a g e .Do not mix. " Before addressing the question itself. They offered the man a the inner asceticism can lead to balance and peace of heart (Incidentally that suicide is extremely rare in Islam). moving in one direction.. By cons.. I would like to quote a Koranic verse that will encourage dialogue between adherents of monotheism from Abraham. that is to say. Religions are not meant to promote material progress or technicality. happy or miserable . whatever its conditions of life. science has a mission to equip the man of many means to ensure its development and technical equipment. That everything is equal between us and you. How it would be desirable that science and religion were like two railroad tracks. We would like you to explain and even more you justifiiez this phrase so important to forget oneself and know: "Stop being who you are and forget what you know . two different domains. therefore.
will associate him anything. it is good to forget for a moment that you are and what we know. Now life is truly everlasting and it is always something to learn. Tierno Bokar. and ultimately deprives himself of the benefit of exchange and any chance to learn more. Even when he is silent. He wants to get to listen patiently to hear that it exposes something. can not be properly tuned to person. three truths: that of each partner (" my "truth and" your "truth") and THE Truth. "If they refuse. to be open. To understand each other. Tierno BokarTo encourage each partner of a dialogue. bringing everything to him. to be fully attentive to the speaker." The expression quoted in the question. say them: "You yourselves are witnesses to resign ourselves entirely to the will of God. " 45 | P a g e . The latter is located midway between the two. moreover. My Master. it is one of many lessons from my Master of Psychology. whatever. eager to spread his knowledge. he already pondering his answer. and we do not seek one from the other trainers besides God. used to say: "There is. available. A man so full of himself. and better listening to his interlocutor.
that is to say that of ponderable and measurable phenomena. But every birth is not she always miraculous? The development of the embryo takes place in humans.or "open" to another. which remains unsolved. she is able to explain the mystery of life. But if one has "identified" stages of development. She studied the "effects". it is necessary that both partners' moves toward the other .. nor that we can "explain" only in the limits of our rational knowledge. But just as it does not explain the mystery of the birth of Jesus. of course. Miraculous birth. according to laws and rules that science has studied. at least momentarily. a self-forgetfulness and his own knowledge. like the miracles testify to the sudden and direct a "higher world" in the laws of our earthly world. prodigious feats in the field has started to explore.. It enters the realm of "non-events" that go beyond our human understanding. This requires. but the mysterious world of causes escapes. We do not know what to think of the birth of Jesus ..To find THE Truth. "Science" human doing. The 46 | P a g e .. it has never provided solved the mystery of the origin of life. 28. no doubt. A calabash can not get fresh water . in an exchange. which. The birth of Jesus is not a fact that we can deal with the weapons of our minds and rational mind.
outpouring of life is a miracle that surrounds and sustains us forever. which directly implement the Power of God in our ordinary physical world. and not affect the event. Birth of Jesus." the miracles of the Prophets. 47 | P a g e . Does Jesus really exist? Jesus he rendered service to humanity? His words. but we see it more because it is "normal" to ask ourselves just what is outside the "usual". To accept or reject the item clears up the mystery. Religious teachings and testimonies of holy men say all there. when man denies desecrating everything and just fun. alongside our physical world and visible. the descent of "Revelations. spiritual worlds invisible to our earthly eyes. The fact remains that the birth of Jesus is a historical fact. Epilogue on the "how" of his birth is likely to lead us on the shifting sands of our time. after twenty centuries. they still find the way the human heart and there they awaken an echo deep? That should be our concern. are the intervention of spiritual worlds.
and yet always new in its formulation (such as life. In both cases. Fatiha and Pater are the same rite. we find seven verses. In both cases. but revealed and communicated by a Great Messenger of God. To this question. like always A and itself. the basic prayer was not invented by men. no doubt. 30. is the "rite"? If.29. like always through the diversity of beings). then yes. if not magic. and make us receptive to the divine forces for purifying action of the soul. Where does the truth of each religion? For Muslims. The Fatiha and the Lord's Prayer. for ritual. I can only echo propose another question: where does the life that animates every living being? 48 | P a g e .or the landlatest from the world of man (as in a "down" phase). I shall not repeat here what I said to questions 6 and 7 about raids revelation in time. and still comes from the same source: God. through the Prophets and the Great Messengers. including: first three speak of God alone the fourth in a relationship with the man . as for the Muslim to Christian prayer par excellence. is a revelation. guide our being to God. we mean a mystical way. Both are.
The establishment of a religion is the temptation of a group trying to dominate the world.particularly monotheistic religions born in the Middle East . patience and endurance of an individual to another. the appetite of a stomach to another.31.stood up against the abuses of rulers of the world. The establishment of any religion was initially driven by a preconceived idea of world domination. You see it in the church where the Pope is a political leader who is very nosy. Each is like an atom compared to others. None of them. Everyone has their own movements and is a small universe in the grand universe. and against the corruption of morals . as the speed varies from horse to another. As a result. the weight of the fist of a boxer to another. etc. But.. Rather. I do not share this view. the founders of religions . 32. against frustration of the poor and the oppression of the weak. moreover. alas! Men are odd. Are the rules of religion should be practiced the same way in all people? It would be ideal that the rules of religion are practiced in the same way by everyone. the practice of religious rules vary from one person to another. acted 49 | P a g e .
the challengers stand in it to request the return to the original tradition. over time. the education provided by its founder. The temptation of domination does not appear at the initial onset of a religion (rather than "creation"). 50 | P a g e . historical or economic interests of their era. which assured the expansion and entrenchment in the hearts of men. But whenever religion deviates. As for the indigenous African religions. with some leaders faced with political situations. This is not the ambition of the Great Emailed who were well without . They seek only to protect their people from all evils. The deviations are inevitable in human society. which is often a veil or expansionist desire to monopolize the truth. but eventually. visible and invisible.on his own. but only on an order from God.but the power contained in their message. sects and exegeses of all kinds know that all revealed religions. they ignore the proselytizing. This deviation of successive attempts to return to the original tradition explains the emergence. schisms. that is to say.
So I can imagine that engages in dialogue with modern politics. The simple observation of political customs practiced in the world is enough to prove it. morality and. the man within his community. It's all in the name of freedom that dominates his fellow man. because such is the nature of man. when not filled with the love of God and neighbor. I admit. either in law or humane. spiritual and moral leader of over five hundred million souls can not. with regret bitterly that religion can become in the hands of a few ambitious princes and religious leaders. they not act themselves to conquer the minds of the masses to their cause and bolster their power? The pope. political or religious. to defend a certain conception of the family. Modern ideologies. that religion is nothing but a subterfuge to dominate and enslave the masses. impassive witness to the deterioration of society which he is responsible. 51 | P a g e . frankly. But it is the same for any ideology. It is men who dominate or subjugate the masses. using ideas from whatever source.It should not honestly certify the slogan cleverly spread and maintained by modern anti-religious policy. which attack religion red ball. an instrument of power.
To summarize, it is important not to confuse a religion with the men who embody it in time and sometimes can depart from its principles. 33. Is it possible to change a religion? We should not "change" religion. Otherwise, this would create a new religion, which is not our responsibility.
By cons, it is always possible to interpret religion in the light of new contingencies occurring in the human mind. The Messenger of Allah Muhammad said: "Tell people to measure their understanding. "Just as the understanding varies from one being to another, perhaps she varies from one period to another. It belongs to man to meditate on the teachings of his religion according to the new conditions of life, and perhaps will find there new areas of understanding and application.
It goes without saying that the language of priests or marabou Middle Ages could not agree more with contemporary masses who attend, with their own eyes and not in a dream, journey man on the moon. The man has technically evolved, the field of consciousness has expanded outwards. Religion must marry this movement, otherwise remain isolated. Do not confuse adaptation and enlargement of understanding with resignation and easy solutions.
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It is down to the sacred world of religion into the new conditions of life, and not to desecrate it by leaving them. 34. Can there be a truth for every different religion? So why not Animism? Truth is one and undivided. But, as I reported in Section 27Each of us has their own. This is not necessarily "the" real truth. The Truth in its entirety belongs to God alone. When she descends on the human level, it is necessarily relative. Everyone sees it in his own way, looks at a different angle. In this vein, Animism has its truth, like Christianity, Judaism or Islam, Communism or Maoism. A man lives a day for the first time a palm tree, branches drooping charge. When asked what the palm, he said it was a tree made of branches drooping.
Another man saw for the first time a palm tree while he was in the form of a slender trunk crowned with palms. He described well. A third said that the palm was a slender trunk without branches or leaves.
Each of them had contemplated the palm of one stage of its growth, and thought to hold the whole truth of the palm.
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Also says that there were several blind put in the presence of an elephant. One felt one of his powerful legs and said: "It is a gnarled trunk and powerful, unshakable. The other, who palpated his side, said: "It is a large, rounded surface. The other finally, having entered the tube, said: "It is a flexible rod and winding like a snake."
Each approach to truth is respectable, and contains a lesson for men. But the whole truth belongs to God, who alone can we move towards it. 35. In the current state of world religions can not they find a common ground? Beginning with the unification of the three monotheistic religions, what prevents therefore make only great religion? Religions do not need to seek common ground, it is readily found. It is God. This should be asked to religions is an approach that facilitates a common dialogue to an agreement and a mutual understanding.
What religions should look for is tolerance smart they will be listening to each other.
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Faith is in every man. it is better able to understand his fellow man. there would certainly have many commonalities in the areas of morality. and. including. remember. God thank you! there is more openness between the three monotheistic religions. 36. it is paradoxical that the spirit of the revealed religions do not exist in the non-revealed religions. for example. between Buddhism. As with African traditions. Ny there not also a common consideration to study between the revealed religions and non-revealed religions? Because of the unity of the human mind. As for "doing a great religion". as we have said elsewhere. they are certainly very numerous. it is not for man to "create" religions. they remain rivals and antagonists. in so doing.If each religion insists on monopolizing the real truth. Vishnu and Shiva. whatever direction it can take. and hope it has the same effect as a seed of the baobab. Some have sought to reconcile the Christian Trinity of the Hindu Trimurti: Brahma. the development corporation. Islam and Christianity. symbolizing the three energies of life: creation. as we said at Question 34Each approach to truth is respectable. No doubt. preservation and destruction. As for similarities. and even the 55 | P a g e . They destroy without building anything. The action is still modest and shy. but she was born. but to live as perfectly as possible the teaching of the Prophet .
The differences are more men and religions themselves. A Truth. who belongs to God alone. their nature. and this is not unrelated to the difficulty of "forget who we are and what we know . but it is also true within the 56 | P a g e . within the monotheistic family? I think I have tried in the previous questions. The divergence and discord are inherent in human nature. their character. their ability to understand. and perhaps they act sometimes as a stimulus for research in mind. to approach the problem somewhat. It is in human nature to focus more on what differentiates that which unites. The diversity of men. proves every time in a different light. A huge research work of reconciliation is offered to the goodwill of men in this area. Moreover. to complete our investigation. are there so many discrepancies? I suppose that the questioner has in mind the differences between religions. 37. leads to multiple interpretations and opinions. But dazzled man captures a reflection and often no longer wants to consider the other rays of light. How belonging to the same family. This is true in relations between major religions.existence of a single Creator lying beyond all gods.
It is this force that the believer calls God. generalizing.. 38. Science.same religion. father of modern science.. and this is true even within a human family. discovered the laws of physics hitherto unknown 57 | P a g e . was a believer. Why Europeans they accompany the Muslims in prayer? There is a lack of faith or a lack of religion? The fact that European officials to attend Muslim prayer is not an act of faith or a lack of religion. however. Religion and Science 39. where the community of blood does not everyone have different characters.): "He that believeth not is a wonderful infirm. but rather an act of political vanity. where similar problems exist with the emergence of various trends and this is true within any system thought whatsoever. that the experimental sciences grow man not to believe may be committing an error of assessment. Progress or decline of man? Say. the greatest scientist of our time mathematician. " I do not see why the study and deepening of the wonderful world around us could decrease the faith. There are many scientists that experimental research has. Science education experimental urges man not to believe. confirmed in their belief in the existence of a Force-Cause whose creation is a huge effect. indeed. It says somewhere (I'm quoting from memory . Einstein. quite the contrary.
and moved by power of an incredible power. 58 | P a g e . and remains available to our meditations. In addition. and the horizon of knowledge has been declining. that man has managed to domesticate. separated another by vast distances (relatively speaking). no more than anyone has ever been able to explain the origin of electricity. that is composed of energy in motion. ultimately. proved itself composed of elements swirling energy. The "why" of things they always escapes. but they never solved the mystery of life and the existence of the universe.men. where does the intelligence that rule this vast and remarkable organization? To these questions no one answer. they have plunged their faces into the worlds infinitely small and infinitely large to examine the mechanisms. the "truths" are constantly changing science. But what does this force. The nucleus of the atom itself. The fundamental questions remain unanswered. where is she. The men try to master this prodigious strength and use it. Thus. that it was believed for a time as the heart of the matter (the "limit". so to speak). the discovery of prodigious world of atoms sprayed the "beliefs" of the nineteenth century scientists on the matter by telling us that this.
As we have said. Scientific research is carried out only with the mental faculties of man. aided by internal faculties are not only brain. Any mistake is to ask for answers against a field that is not hers. Not to mention the deadly devices to which it gave birth. increase. It is even necessary. but progress stops to external facts. aided by material instruments manufactured by him. the cause of the existence of beings and things remain tight. the trouble is that it is often more destructive than really useful.Experimental science is good in itself. it would still be wise to specify in what sense it is performed: material or spiritual? These two advances may be parallel. but they are not identical. As for the second part of the question. development. in fact. we can only see the slow deterioration of the 59 | P a g e . It is. The search for religious experience is done with the whole being. Scientific discoveries in respect of certain laws of nature represent a major improvement on the intellectual level. it might be good that we agree on the concept of progress. two different worlds and two different approaches. As to technical progress. and supported by spiritual forces from another world. What progress is it? If progress means move forward.
The question. 60 | P a g e . water pollution of rivers in Europe. not so much the problem of the school that the problem was discussed in the previous question: the conflict between materialism and religious beliefs.which we have inherited in Africa . spiritually.. 40. morally.natural balance on the planet: air pollution from industrial emissions and exhaust (the inhabitants of Tokyo. The teaching is therefore a reflection. some days are forced to wear gas masks to breathe!).. the outlook may be worrying for him. everything is in the hands of man. Otherwise. Great scientists have been sounding the alarm on this.). Japan. Who to believe? What school secular and materialistic look naturally to atheism and a purely materialistic world is quite normal. and even the waters of the ocean. he can make a wise use of his scientific discoveries. If it progresses inwardly. There are contradictions between what we say religion and what we learned in school (eg on the origins of man .the result of a historical past where the conflict between secularism and religion resulted in the victory of secularism and atheism. ultimately. The direction of public education in France . between material and spiritual. and to benefit all humanity. In short.
and we speak the great symbols of the Books sacred. Who says that one day this theory will change does not turn? All men of science are also not uniformly agree on these theories. breaks down. The true origin of man remains a mystery. But it will still only hypotheses. that we sense in ourselves. 61 | P a g e . she describes as "random" or "spontaneous. To take the wrong step. analyzes. It is not my subject here deepen beyond my competence. I can only note the inability of men to solve the mystery of the origin of life. Science focuses on the examination of some fossil bones dating from the distant past. Science wonderful. which is teaches the basics in school. It scans. and especially the mysteries of spiritual life in man.I can only repeat what I have said previously." She is dizzy from the amplitude of the infinitely large and infinitely small. but it always ends remain prohibited at the mystery of the causes. She can not violate it. faces at every turn to the secret of life. and develops the hypothesis of a gradual and evolutionary lineage from ape to man. which change and change gradually as discoveries.
we understand why there is not one prayer for all believers who pray the same God. and it is very strongly recommended to do so.Religion and Prayer 41. Is it permissible to pray before the age? Yes. It said. however.. Why not the Muslims? Muslims separate men and women to pray in order to avoid the sight of women distract men from their prayers.. and vice versa. that except in rare individuals. Therefore it is recommended to accustom children to pray before the age required by law. 42. 62 | P a g e . 43. What we learn in his tender age is a trait that is marked on the stone. No doubt some men have a concentration of mind enough not to risk being distracted . when a woman enters the sight of man. Why not a single prayer for all if there is one God for all? When we know why there is no single language for all men created by one God. God leaves his heart and his mind. it is permissible to pray before the age. The praying man should concentrate and focus his entire being to God. Christians are men and women to pray.
Faith is one thing and marriage is another.The custom is a rule of prudence and wisdom. Marriage is he really faith? Obstruction Does he or deepens the faith? Faith need not be related or subordinate to the marriage or otherwise. Religion and marriage 44. Note also that this separation stops at the great pilgrimage to Mecca. Marriage is a social and a physiological necessity. that the prayer of man and woman is quite similar and equal in value. where men and women are mixed. Marriage is highly recommended in Islam. There is no difference between them from a religious perspective. which applies to all and does not include exceptions. but it is not a prerequisite of validity of the faith. 63 | P a g e . It should be noted however. as if approaching a center symbolizing the divine presence. all differences and dualities extinguished . There are more than their souls worshiping the Lord. Faith is immaterial and is the world of soul and spirit.
What is vehemently prohibited in Islam. Those who betray their faith will lose the fruit of his good works and will be in another world among the poor "(Koran. The Prophet of Islam has blessed the marriage. and without taking concubines. Sura V. while only two speak of celibacy. it is adultery. Live chastely with them (righteousness). The marriage is blessed and consecrated form which allows a man and woman to unite and start a family to perpetuate the race and avoid adultery and confusion of manners. Many Sufis living in the bush remained unmarried. Twenty-four verses in the Quran of marriage. A Muslim man can marry a Christian and vice versa? If yes. which is not obligatory in Islamic law. keeping you from debauchery. what religion to adopt? and children? Yes. 64 | P a g e . but it did not advocate celibacy. The Muslim master of his carnal passions is not tied to marriage. verse 7). 45. It is indeed a divine order and permission to read in the Qur'an: "You are allowed to marry the daughters of honest believers and those who received the Scripture before you. provided you give them their reward (dot). a Muslim man may marry a Christian or Jewish.
like Muhammad. The Act. but we must consider certain factors which justify the wisdom of this prohibition. A Muslim husband having a Christian wife has the duty to respect the religion of his wife. Indeed.For cons. meet Jesus and Moses as prophets of God. This woman may therefore remain herself. when women were rare. it can be said that there was a survival instinct of a community in its early days. the Muslim. ("No compulsion in religion". has banned such marriages. and even ensure that it observes well. The logic would there is reciprocity. But the deeper reasons lie elsewhere. we have said in other chapters. she had a husband who does not recognize his Prophet or his religion. if a Muslim marries a Christian or a Jew. the Muslim woman can marry a Christian or a Jew. an unbalanced and non-harmonious marriage. By cons. taking into account the general rule and not always possible exceptions on an individual level. It is at least as required by the Act. 65 | P a g e . according to Islamic law. and never hear the blasphemy against the Prophet. and generally try to make him quit. On a purely external. says the Koran). There should be no pressure on her to lead him to embrace Islam. It can only result in the greatest number of cases.
In general, the Act provides that Muslim children follow the religion of the father. But in practice, children often follow the influence is strongest, or most convincing. 46. Polygamy is it a necessity? Polygamy, according to the social, political and economic, appears in time and space, as an institution sometimes necessary, sometimes undesirable.
When we look around the beings of nature, we realize that the problem of sex is essential for the reproduction of the species. It is therefore much more the domain of physiology as the domain of faith.
There, in the animal kingdom - including humans - different ways of living sexuality:
the monogamy : When a male and a female live together in pairs, to procreate and multiply the polygamy : When a male lives with several females the polyandry : When a female is living with several males.
These different ways of life have existed matrimonial all three, both men and animals, well before the advent of monotheistic religions. A matrimonial regime, by itself, does not fundamentally affects the quality of faith, nor the possibilities of evolution.
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Polygamy is not an invention of Islam, any more than monogamy is a creation of Christianity. But these two denominations have spent marital each mode best suited to the inhabitants of its area, given the existing background.
To what extent imposed monogamy, either civilly or religiously, it is practically observed in the West? Who ignores the illegal polygamy is practiced secretly in monogamous countries, which also condemn vehemently and indignantly Islamic polygamy, polygamy also limited by the Act.
I believe that neither the heat nor the cold condition only valid sexual progress of a nation.
That said, I will answer the question in paragraph 46 by this: there are countries where polygamy is a compelling social need. There are others who, by reason of the collapse of the family, put up with monogamy.
In Islam, polygamy is not an obligation, but a tolerance (also limited), given the diversity of temperaments and social conditions of society. The main concern is to avoid adultery, the disorder of morals, illegitimate children and uprooted, only older women. A verse from the Koran, however, suggests that God prefers
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monogamy, but that if it is not possible, the man can marry under the conditions specified by the revelation. 47. Why Islam is so strict with the woman? Why religion punishes the woman? This, again, an issue little known, poorly studied and subject to easy jokes, but not verified. It should not be there either, attributed to religion which is attributable to the character of men. Let us not forget that Islam emerged in a society where women had no rights, no value, and, even, it happened that they buried the girls alive!
In such a society, Islam, through the power of the Word of God, has established complete religious equality between men and women who practice exactly the same rituals and are called to the same spiritual destiny. From the social point of view, Islam has established a property regime which not only the rights of women, but its assets are safeguarded, that did not exist before, and no long existed in Western countries modern.
According to Islamic law, women can be married without his consent. She has the right to seek divorce if the marriage does not suit him. It retains the absolute disposal of his own property in marriage, including property resulting from the dowry given by her husband. It can sell, manage, operate its own property without the
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) Whatever the personal wealth of the Muslim woman. nor to live cloistered. but we did find neither the obligation to veil themselves fully. reserve maintenance and morals. you will find verses certainly inviting the woman to hide his "bait" in order not to disturb the men outside his home. The Koran recommends all occasions modesty. she is entirely dependent on her husband who must support herself. Islam does not accept the husband's property encroaches on his wife. (Incidentally that this possibility did not exist for the French woman until recent years. but does not go beyond. decency. With Islam.permission of her husband. As for the accusation that the veil of Islam and cloistered women. but this is due to family structure of the companies concerned. including women . the woman receives less than men. where the man is still head of the family and responsible for meeting the needs of his family. The custom of locking up women and crush them under the authority of the man is an ancient custom which existed long before 69 | P a g e . women acquired the right to testify in court. In matters of inheritance. You can read the Koran carefully. It puts men and women on guard against the dangers of promiscuity. That's it. discretion. it also rests on a misunderstanding.
irrespective of gender. that women are equal to men before the Islamic Law. as we have already done elsewhere. Noted that in Islam the charity has two different forms: There the Zakkat. This phenomenon is not due to religion but the very nature of men. either by love of God or love of neighbor. When religion was "Act of State". who sometimes used the pretext of religion to perpetuate and maintain their way of acting.Islam. The Zakkat provides some movement of goods within the community and can help the disadvantaged. This is the tenth of the property must be capitalized that give annually to the poor. whether by a Christian. Religion and gesture of charity 48. a Muslim or an atheist. 70 | P a g e . If an atheist denies God. that is to say firstly that a man takes on his own property to give charity. to someone poorer than himself. Which is mandatory. The distribution is usually done by religious leaders. and this does not prevent him from having to charity. The purpose of the charity is it the same for Christians than among Muslims? The charity. As for "punishment". he does not deny the existence of its neighbor. she punished the guilty. let us. is still a charity.
"Who for the love of God. in addition to faith. This is why Islam. It is written in the Quran (11. travelers and those who ask. There alms free. the Prophets. The man is invested with enormous responsibility. True piety can be selfish. who redeem the captives. God has made man on earth to be his representative. the bursting of the legacies of all children to avoid 71 | P a g e . orphans. which is to wisely manage and operate the property of the earth for the good of all. or closed upon itself. Giving a portion of its property is to be pious. and so on. gives her assets to her relatives. 172): "Righteousness does not consist turn your faces towards the east or west. to help his fellow man Love of God. the zakkat annual requirement to run a tenth of the property. "Pius is one who believes in God and the Last Day. 49. Alms free is recommended in the Koran and the Prophet. the Angels and the Books. and not to selfishly accumulate. the poor. by all means available under the Act tries to prevent hoarding: prohibition of usury. According to the Koran. but that does not relieve the obligation to pay Zakkat. Why? Anyone who donates part of his property that does not make a beautiful act of solidarity. " Being pious is therefore. everyone can always make whenever they want.
This does not mean they do not depart again. may stop on the road of progress for blowing their fatigues. but he has already done. with a magnitude that has marked human history. The Muslim civilization. etc. recommendation Koranic not hoard. Religion and development 50. Principial Islam can contribute to the development of humanity? Yes. and cannot enter ... if we consider the problem from a higher perspective. to become the receptacle of the Divine Presence . I do not repeat what I said in this Question 26On the fact that Muslims are not the only ones who know underdevelopment.the accumulation of assets in the hands of a single. was nevertheless the mother of Sciences who served as a launching pad for modern science. which 72 | P a g e . God said through the mouth of its ships: "70 times a day I look in the heart of man. to go down. we see that God invites man to divest himself constantly to "empty" of selfishness. " To love his fellow man and help him is to love God. as we said at the Question 26. who created it. But I find it almost always full of himself. More importantly. Islam can not only contribute to the development of humanity. Nations. not to have been the midwife of monsters techniques.. like the marchers.
Like any authentic divine revelation. could greatly help humanity to find a better balance between the material and the spiritual world. that is to say. Science without conscience is killing the possessor. We must never cease to be human. both paid and harmonized under the eyes of God and in respect of his Law. But my 'no' is a warning for myself as for all young 73 | P a g e . What I want is to become the rider of technological civilization. is the moral regression. It is disastrous if it is supported by powerful means of domination or destruction. 51. if not dangerous. Today. The true regression in humans. if implemented seriously and lived by men. Any discovery that would not serve to humanize and to ensure the happiness of the human masses will fizzle. There are more Muslims in the underdeveloped countries than in other countries. Islam. Islam is currently on leave the path of modern progress. would be futile. not its frame. Is that not the religion that shun progress? How I would have liked to end my answers in a more gay than the word "no.is due to various causes and not for religious causes.
not to dominate. and that. Think about it. moreover. It has inherited slogans orchestrated by the anti-religious spirit. The time when. reinforced by the antiIslamic. but not be dominated. they would soon hear the death knell for their decline. The time has come for religions to unite and participate in the conquests of science. religious and political forces of the West strove to make Islam responsible for all evils and sins of the world is over. The era of convergence religious rang.Muslims educated in secular schools. under which all underdeveloped countries do not have a Muslim majority. 74 | P a g e . Islam has never understood "snubbed" progress (it has proved in the past). I will not repeat the arguments Question 26 and the previous question. when it does not affect the moral and spiritual man. that day the two rails necessary for the running of our happiness would be raised. either by ignorance or prejudice. On a day where religion and science is comply and to cooperate in the common interest of mankind. If the various religious denominations were closing their ears to calls for reconciliation.
Dialogue with students of Niger 75 | P a g e .Note 1.
There is finally the man of the forest. Mossi. Dealing with 'traditional relationship of African man with God. living in the basin of the Mediterranean or the Atlantic Ocean coast. could lead to errors deep. Dogon. the traditions of the region I know best: that of Mali. an "African man" who represents a type valid for the entire continent. "as has been proposed. etc.. Peul. former French Sudan from the colonial era. Malinke. many traditional religious forms. from north to south and from east to west. as we will see later. some of which have given birth in the past great empires before they met. 76 | P a g e . conduct. Both types of character. more than elsewhere in continuation of the previous opposition. has created a new traditional type of behavior vis-à-vis God. There is not. it should be treated separately from the religion of a given ethnic group: Bambara. both ethnic groups. To remain in the truth and not to risk sweeping generalizations. in fact. and sometimes their merger with Islam. and Dogon.Reports of the Traditional African Man with God. This country is savanna traditions Bambara. Baoulé. There is a man of North African. generalizing the religious situation throughout Africa. which borders with that of the savannah. I therefore. in the context of this study. There is a man of the Sahara.
what is the place of "God"? Supreme Being The existence of a "Supreme Being". "The gods . and sometimes quite unusual to the observer from the outside. the proverb says Bambara. and at the same time everywhere: "Wherever there is the sky. I hasten to say 77 | P a g e . God is considered the Supreme Being . In this motley pantheon. single Creator of all that exists. or" Geno "(Jehovah) and" Dundar "Fulani. for whom the opposites are separated once and for all and can not meet. lies beyond any contingency beyond human intelligence. "It is true that most traditional religions observable addressed to a plurality of gods. If this ambivalence can hit a logical mind. different levels of importance." and cults that are made. the traditional relationship of man with God in Africa can be multifaceted: the events of "Sacred. and yet as both transcendent and immanent to its being on his event...As we noted at the outset. vary the gods. Both above and beyond any scope of any attack. not definable and residing in heaven. Transcendence and Immanence Whether "Maa Ngala (Master of All) or Masa Dembali (Master uncreated and infinite) Bambara. there is" Maa Ngala. "is found in most religious traditions of the area. and black Africa in general.
the relationship of man with God did not directly established in the manner favored by the Prophets of Revelation in the monotheistic religions.can not reach directly. the Supreme Being is considered too remote from men so that they have revered him live. used to describe God in the Bambara language). They prefer to turn to intermediate agents. It is appropriate vehicles to transport up her complaints and praises of men. the "God of Heaven. son Adam . among many others. Indeed.. The tradition teaches that the distance between God and man who knows the claim is no greater than that between the nail and the flesh of the finger it covers. AllAble "(expression. the" Mighty King.the little man.. sometimes picturesquely called" Framing Spaces "or" Bones of the Sky> (ngalakolo) is located at a distance so remote in space and the voice of "Maanin" . 78 | P a g e . while the man who does not sacrifice to God and do not pray it is separated by a distance equal to the depth of heaven . In the African tradition of Mali.that no ambiguity interferes with the African spirit. and even less when it relates to " Sebaa Kolibali Mansa ". or" distant and Kaydara "Fulani. Intermediate agents In most cases however.
etc.managing a parcel of the Supreme Power. These are all agents sacred .that will address the ritual words. It 79 | P a g e .or spent . and man. the other is secret. incantations that more prayers . not the Supreme Being . regular. Their incarnation (or be in the media object) takes place in ways that are the basis of secret brotherhood. however. which powers have been delegated to some extent by the Supreme Being. the 'through some agents. There is an echo of the scale "exoteric" and "esoteric" revealed religions. These agents of the Supreme Being is also divided into two complementary groups: one is public. is the remote origin of various traditional religious brotherhoods secret. presided over by gods. or a natural phenomenon or supernatural. It is these forces that manage the happiness and misery of men." which can be embodied in the form of animal. occult. spreads out a Sacred income support and springing into the Sacred Supreme. This manifestation of the sacred through an agent other than himself.. Some animists of Mali. Thus the animist traditions Malian know the gods: o o o o o o Ntomo Nama Komo Nya Nyawrole Jarawa. vegetable or mineral. which they call "Maa Ngala.Between Sacred Supreme inaccessible directly. and propitiatory offerings to appease them when they are unleashed. and in turn empties into forces on the auspicious or inauspicious universe. give more freedom to the Supreme Being itself.although it remains the sole creator of all things .
Placing and always an intermediary between the Supreme Being and he who seeks finds its echo in everyday life: indeed. or "magic". But there is. This Supreme Being is terrible. have found that the cook always goes through the boy to ask something to the boss. In Bambara. and vice versa . or nearby. We know the nature of libations and how he likes to spread as to reach him. sacrilegious words that can trigger anger and get his retribution on those who utter them: all the secret motive of the rite is there in "the Word. yet compassionate.was then that he rammed the winds and waves rise in the water. and whose voice made of thunder and storm. while a link milk and umbilical cord connecting it to its offspring by women. or the ancestor of the tribe. is feared.. But the closest and most efficient intermediaries is still the ancestor ancestor-founder of the village. He falls in love with punish or frighten people or animals who offend. It was he who instructed the thunder. It was he who inspired the sacramental words. Each has a king. 80 | P a g e . land and water . each god has one." It is this which constitutes the basis and the active agent of ritual.fire. for cons. is closer to its offspring than is the Supreme Being that dwells in the empyrean. The ancestor. because a secret bond of blood connects to his male offspring. Many who lived in Colonial A. They can touch and to bend. Africans regions discussed here always will employ an intermediary to express their wishes or desires someone. the four basic elements of nature . You can talk to the ancestor in the language he used and bequeathed to his posterity. air. It is this situation that gave the "interpreter" official intermediary between citizens and their leader.F. the interpreter is called "Met-mouth. a prominent place in the colonial administration.played a role.. whose tomb should be located in the village or within the family itself. Ancestors These intermediaries between the divine and human.O. He agrees to be implored.
Please contact the spirits of the ancestors is preferable and more effective than approach the Supreme Being himself. dying. The old. the ancestor is placed in conditions that allow it to speak to the Supreme Being. become "guardian spirits".Being disembodied.. between the latter and itself lies the obstacle of plains. It therefore refuses the dialogue that establishes the relationship. 3rd. samo. you're thirsty or not. This religious custom is also remained usual: if you enter a house where tradition is in effect. mountains and dunes of the clouds. provided that their descendants or their country have their remains returned to the traditional funeral honors due to dead ceremonies of the 1st. said the law" Dialan "(great God animist FerloSenegal). The human voice may be carried and dispersed by the winds that inhabit the space where is the Supreme Being. etc. It will not be giving the floor to the visitor when he has wet his lips. you will immediately water to drink. mianka. The custom command you to take a small sip. "Use something to drink. It is a ritual. It serves always to drink to the soul of the ancestor before asking him a question or seek a service. Bobo. 81 | P a g e .. Indeed. "Whoever refuses refuses water life. For animist Bambara. as the thirsty man is a man without his wits.
Once disembodied soul is a good basis from which it can fly to each call to avert the danger which threatens the individual or the community of his lineage. many of which have survived. Surrounded by a universe that is tangible and visible: humans. and which inspired them. it is true.7th and 40th days after death . plants. practices varied. any time. once stripped of its carnal weight which kept close to the ground. which remains in the body and makes it impure. But for him. She gives life to ensure its development and. The African black man is a believer born. stars. their original meaning deep. It is this gravity. etc. All of these beliefs has received the name of "animism" by 82 | P a g e . Presence of the Sacred in all things. Animism. The black man.. Death allows the soul to regain its fluidity astral. perceived that deep down these people and these things lay something powerful that he could not describe. This perception of a sacred force in all things was the source of many beliefs. sometimes stripped. this heaviness.. animals. He did not wait for the Books revealed to be convinced of the existence of a Force-Power Source of existence and motor actions and movements of people. It is in every being. its reproduction. over time. that force is not outside of creatures. possibly.
a very great age. becomes a receptacle or place of event privileged This divine quality. etc." or "do" mean the sacred in itself. but also all that. 83 | P a g e . its insignia. par excellence. a ritual stick. Matches between the analog and its manifestation Sacre Supreme In the spirit of the Bambara. and sometimes sacrifice. a hat and alligator-mouth turban blessed. because in fact the Black attributes a soul to everything. Indeed. The notion of sacred is essentially "ambiguous". etc. The words "nyama. He therefore made up residence in the body of every age. Thus. It uses almost the same words for both the sacred itself that its manifestations. Bozo's. Among other things.. a bowl dedicated. which alone ought officer. soul-force that seeks to reconcile with magical practices. a ritual knife. the transcendent God is the origin of time is. is the oldest member of the tribe who is custodian of the sacred powers.. special sandals. In Bambara. and age and became a sacred privilege. being in the "likeness" of a quality or skill of the divine.Western anthropologists. advanced age gives a man or a woman of "nyama.
respect. by extension. Good character. tree.The "Koro-ta" . or royal position) . of where. charity. sacred force. the rescue of his fellow men and even animals. Whoever violates this prohibition did at his expense.or the fact of "being high" or "be high" (mountain. "Ngala Korot Kii! > ("God raises thee up!") Is a propitiatory prayer formula used by both the animist Bambara as a convert to the two great revealed religions: Christianity and Islam. What are its effects that act against those who come into contact with it recklessly. It was banned in the name of the Deity. 84 | P a g e . to touch everything that was described as "nyama. because he exposed himself to receive a punishment commensurate with the seriousness of the breach.is also a sign of presence of the "Se". outside the conditions established ritual. This active force which lurks in the being or object which it lives is a manifestation emanating from the Sacred very high. were considered as means to neutralize the "nyama" and to prevent manifest as a punishment. more common in Black Africa that the Judaism. the presence of divinity.
boosted by touch. This notion of an invisible presence. or do . the invisible and very diffuse Creator King of the universe. Only the master of the knife knows the secret words to speak before touching ritual objects. For the latter. it can also be "known" in a particular subject or location. powerful. loss of property and sometimes violent death .Se. ritual masks. tools rituals are not mere objects but symbols which. or tools used for "master of the knife" (murutigi) (The priest to the gods). as such. and therefore participating in its immutability. Any other than the master of the knife which would handle the tools and rituals commit a prohibited or face punitive shock (strange diseases. If the sacred force . statues "loaded". or nyama. sacred sites. living in multiple places and people.living creatures and having a match with a quality analog Sacred very high.).. the following a consecration on the part of man: for example. This is why we find some stones or some caves objects of veneration.The power source is also considered as residents in some minerals. as it immutable over time. are also containers of the infinite power of Mansa-See-Ba (Mighty King).. bring together those who handled them with powerful hidden forces. is linked to the existence of "spirits" or 85 | P a g e .
family. food. Religious life. marriage. Nothing is left to chance.the sexual act is often done to please the guardian gods of the clan. Regulatory ritual life Immersed in a world filled with forces that inhabit and animate all things. The form of customs may vary from one ethnic group to another. Although very powerful.. to respect the laws of prohibition and obligation to govern its relations with the surrounding forces: he not throw down a tree without having first asked the forces that inhabit it to vacate it will not satisfy his natural needs to apologize before the invisible place. His whole life will unfold according to a rule passed by the ancestors. and with prohibitions and obligations.Wedding Thus the husband did not seek his wife to obey only his instinct. animist Mali was brought to ensure his gestures and his words. but the fact remains a ritual more than sexual behavior in this area ."geniuses" jinns). The physical beauty.. genius obey men when they are invoked by special formulas inherited from ancestors who concluded pacts with them very specific transmitted to their offspring. . but it will do for a specific purpose ordered by tradition. This explains that most marriages are not made animists in the sole name of love. everything is governed by specific rules. craft. the natural inclination and age 86 | P a g e . and once dictated to them by a god. asking them to move away from the place it will stain .
which is considered as the place where the divine power descends gives the food its nutritional center of everything is like his heart belonging to the gods. Everything is connected. if not all. for a "worldly" in the modern sense of the word. Whoever violates the risk of angering the Supreme Being and to introduce into his stomach enough to make you sick.Food The laws governing food and drink are rigorous. There is not a sacred side and the other profane. and during the entire time she is breastfeeding a baby.. No worldly . It is quite a ritual etiquette should be practiced. He will respect the middle of the plate. 87 | P a g e . everything involves the forces of life are the many aspects of the "Se" primordial sacred force itself aspect of God. The woman is subject to certain prohibitions Preliminary menstrual periods. The disease is always a sign of displeasure of the gods. . there is little room.are not absolute criteria in this area. Whoever takes his meals in the bush begins to throw a few pieces to the four cardinal points before putting anything in his mouth. some time after mourning for a former spouse. As you can see..
The thirty-three loom parts were not cut at random. The "language" of the loom is a great lesson in philosophy. but according to a time-honored formula. winding time.the tools. Maa Ngala. although few were those that did not contain a sacred aspect. law graduate. The use of each tool was also preceded by a prayer incantation. but as sacred works. In fact. roller. etc. Everything speaks: the shuttle. 88 | P a g e . the weft yarn. etc. past. at least in its symbol. Each element represents one aspect of the game of life cosmic creative Word. the weaver sings or recites a litany precisely because he knows he touches one of the mysteries of life. the smooth. comb... the pedals. He had to reconcile the Force-Source to help transform its initial work and divine a human endeavor . present. dualism. which for him is the same. the roller.Sanctity of traditional crafts Among the traditional human activities. the trades were not considered mere domestic utilities or economic pursuits. performed by insiders in order to please God. future. By manipulating each piece.
" Ancestor initiator of a knowledge received "from above" Most of the animist rituals being done are considered as the repetition of a primordial act.. The farmer does not allow open imprudently bowels of the earth without first say the word properly and dedicated. because female symbolism of all that is hollow and therefore. inspired by "Masa-Dembali (Master uncreated and infinite). a shoemaker. so that disruption is not playing and that cucumbers do not put themselves to push on branches of baobab . It would be difficult to reconstruct the integrity of Black primitive religious thought.. which monitors everywhere and on everything at once.It is the same for each traditional activity: blacksmith (which will be discussed later). But we can say that it is always an elder or ancestor of each clan or tribe. pottery (the pottery is traditionally reserved for women. The shepherd does not run his flock in the bush without having requested it "to open his mouth good and shut the bad. It might kill his seed after having it blessed and recommend to the Force-Source. and forwarded through the chain of ancestors insiders. who first came into contact with the 89 | P a g e . container).
when accomplished this "encounter"."forces of nature agents of God. and that clan Diarra was initiated by a toothless old lion without claws . who only discover or reveal the time chosen by Masa-Dembali. and it is through the transmission of this 90 | P a g e .. and whoever receives: man. One always finds in the Malian tradition. and who received a certain knowledge he transmitted to his progeny.. the principle of any real knowledge of any kind it is.. The ancestors of the farmers. The thing existed before the man. trees and water. usually through a be fabulous (spirit.. the initiator. the ancestor. "So do not we say that man" invents "something. but he" discovered "or" rediscovered ". or atmospheric phenomenon of a astronomical). always comes from above. Thus the ancestor of Samake was put in touch with the invisible by an old elephant lonely. For older traditional societies. animal. the three elements of a triad: the invisible force that inspires and reveals the agent of transmission or revelation which often takes the appearance a fabulous animal or mythical. goats and sheep) were once made contact with forces hidden in the bosom of the earth. "We can not do anything that we come from Masa-Dembali and when he chooses. "two hunters (hunter and fisherman) and the" three pastors (shepherds of cattle.
The Fulani. It is the only traditional power to be able to pay without difficulty. or understood. The infinitive " waylude "Which means change. who is his ally-sacred. named him " Bayle . represents the masculine principle transmitting life in the form of steam. It is reserved for gods. The forge was in Africa. In Bambara. while the mass symbolizes the male organ. His tools and his person is sacred. and even untouchable. Master of the god Komo. capable of getting in touch with the invisible. The anvil. The blacksmith became a demi-god. So far. Nunfayiri. was a "divine service". as well as any other craft workshop. once traditionally round or oval represents the womb. one of the oldest shrines in which man has worshiped a god. He has rights to everyone. The construction of these sanctuaries was previously undertaken workshops to all villagers. 91 | P a g e . Who first came into contact with the spirits of three lights: o o o fire of green wood fire within the earth Sky Fire He learned from them to extract iron and converting it into tools. which enters the home. and they were places of worship of a particular strength of life. the blacksmith is not despised. Mali. Blacksmiths It is the ancestor of blacksmiths. He sometimes gives the title of "First Son of the World.knowledge by means of initiation. which means "egg" and by extension "the egg of the world. each element forge is a sacred symbol of one aspect of the creative force: the bellows. The forge. As for the loom. through the fire of the forge. the home is called "fan". It is feared. the blacksmith remained the "Komotigui". Contrary to what some have written. home run by the breath being here the feminine principle. before the upheaval born of the clash of colonial and modern civilization does have come to "demystify" into the current workplace. which can be accomplished these traditional activities. a creator. the eternal conflict between the pastor to the farmer.
"marry". like an echo. two fundamental principles: "tyeeya (masculinity) and" musei (femininity). in that it is on earth. 92 | P a g e . which were with all beings. Anything that is hollow is a symbol of femininity. In West Africa. an object will be considered masculine or feminine. the symbol is not abstract or mental. Indeed. but concrete. but reflect inhabited. The things below reflect the principles from above. which constitutes the basis of his masculinity. or projecting concrete . without this being of living beings like Adam and Eve. for Africans. Again. so feminine and maternal. vegetable and animal. Thus the sky is male.Sexual Symbolism The sexual symbolism of which we have spoken about the forge is in fact regarded as inherent in all things. we must emphasize that. the principle of sexuality is applied to beings and things of the three kingdoms: mineral. one aspect of the primordial force. Depending on its shape. because it covers the land. while the projection of an object is equated with masculinity. "Covering" actually means still today. animist traditions of Sudan acknowledged the establishment by the Supreme Being. receptacle or place of Presence. among the Fulani. while the earth is receptive.
where they are at work: in the heart and guts the Mother in the womb of the Earth Mother. the Supreme Being. Father and Mother Thus. while the wife is a wife-partner physical enjoyment. his power of love and mercy. but the Divine Mercy itself. While the sacred intimate and close to God. It is therefore the privileged place of transcendence. Therefore a child weaned too early 1 is regarded as having been deprived of food for Mercy.Heaven and Earth. ascends to 93 | P a g e . the "wrath of Heaven" were manifestations of the existence and power of Masa-Dembali. The curse mother. but in the same event. tornado. It's not just drink milk that the baby hung in his mother. to ensure the smooth. This is why the tradition assigns to the woman-mother a row of half-god. but that of force: the thunder. On land. it is in "the Father" embodied what this force. or that power. God at work. which was to impregnate his early life. The mother's womb (in correspondence with the analog blacksmith's shop) is considered the workshop where the Supreme Being to germinate and grow in life. and love. not to seek "heaven". as her blessing. the distant and transcendent sacredness of the sky (the male principle and creator) Has not been established on a basis of love.
Whoever does not land on his feet can not be "gonngon-duuru. feminine and maternal power as we have seen. We can accept even an insult directed at the father. The cult of the earth is the very basis of religion. the sky becomes her husband.. animism.. we should do that once his father. It is the lap. but never let pass an insult to the mother. The father is a "sower sometimes distracted. The proverb "Nii me gonngon yaa-i duuru 94 | P a g e . As soon as our feet leave the ground. but twice to his mother. literally. one who" raises dust. the sun's pole. if not frivolous .heaven and never falls . that is to say. confidence of the child based on his mother's womb.." one who acts "or. " Whoever does not raise any dust. Mother Earth The land. back and breast maternal beings.."Lennaya" lies in her "Lennaya" is the confidence that brings peace. is the receptacle of the total power that comes from heaven through the "ji" (Water) "Yeelen (light) and even" dibi ( darkness).or god . Regarded as the Mother of all beings. we cease to feel at peace. As they say in saying: "Everything we have. The spirit . the moon its star.
could be "master of the earth. No singer disclaims any god without paying tribute to the earth. belongs to nobody. or on it. skeleton. The earth. Agriculture and livestock are the two core businesses animists." It could neither be transferred to a private landlord or mortgaged. Without it. on which we come and to which we return inevitably. "Dugu" means city . Even the king. 95 | P a g e . He sacrificed because of its fertility depends on that of the whole universe. The land is called "kolo Dugu. what are the realms of the cosmos. These two trades are land and those who practice them are more likely to animism than others. Thus each village had its priest he called "manager of the land.and "kolo" means bones . for be realized. neither dwelling of man nor lair of the beast would find their footing. land is the backbone of the city. mother of beings. This came on earth is paramount and is prepared with great care at the time of the birth of a child.by extension framework. must exist on the earth. or under it. where there was one. In this matrix.ntron fla Be Dugu man" ("If you hear" gonngon-duuru "is that your two heels are in contact with the earth") implies that being. Thus.and by extension the habitat .
Indeed. while only women are allowed to bury the seed in the bosom of the earth as a matrix. declines and dies. because of their kinship with her analogue. He asked forgiveness before splitting with his hoe. It grows. so that it accepts the injury without anger.The farmer does not sow nor plant before asking the earth to accept at first. it is men who split the land. Life began in a cave. but the mother is the perfect being of the child. the deep secrets of life are hidden in the bowels of the earth and its excavations. The land is considered a living being. that of germination. It developed into a well and was manifested by leaving a slit. so in some places. so we can indeed be unknown father. It legitimizes the child after helping to procreate. are of paramount importance in the animist tradition. in terms of the sacred he gives way to the mother. 96 | P a g e . We can not be without a mother. The field work was regarded as a reproductive process. manifestations of the same mystery. The mother and earth. says the myth. of fertility and life. then watch over the transformation of the seed he says. If the father is considered an agent of cosmic contact.
moon. he pours his seed on the earth as rain. though their lives depend on this force. placed too high. and his breath: the heat. "Se bamassa" therefore means: "King endowed with strength.The Sun and the Moon The sun. sometimes "Se-Ba" and some add a third term. It is preceded by "Se". The morning star is the emblem of the supreme power. 97 | P a g e . strength. They each embody one of the many strengths of the Supreme Being. whose place of residence could not be determined exactly. is mythically represented by the sun. which. can kill or vivify. massa. stars and all the major atmospheric phenomena are regarded as agents of the heavenly power." The power of the heavenly king. which do not enter the beings of the earth. The median word "ba" is here a relative pronoun which represents the "force unnamed" which also evokes the grandeur. King of the visible sky. according to their intensity. The Bambara called the force "Se". and followed by "massa" king. "massa" to form a triad: "Sheba.
Emblem of the king. Luck and misfortune of each are attached to his feet. It is not the same one that is sometimes regarded as his wife. some eclipses. appearance of new moon. and eternal renewal of things: it reappears after three days of damaging his disappearance. For the animist. We sing to honor: Appearance. Its appearance depends on the willingness of Se-ba-massa. The crescent moon heralds a change. 98 | P a g e .The sun does not always appear to human eyes. But it is invariable in form. Nobody will act in place of another. that is to say not suffer the fate of his neighbor. clouds may obscure its presence. and its outputs are regulated. If such is the inexorable law of becoming. and gives everyone the opportunity to act to achieve. everyone must act by itself. finally decreases and disappears. At night. rounded and full. It is the very image of the cycles of life: design. She. the moon. as kings traditional sometimes not. growth and death. What everyone seeks the little which he is entitled. He is convinced that no "live the life of his neighbor. But it turns. has moments of release. like her royal husband. and the secret of motherhood and phases of life lies in her: she first appears thin and hollow. What everyone seeks the little which he is entitled. the moon renews contingencies.
which obey the law. The moon. the moon is also the mistress of the waters.. It administers the plants.. But it is especially the great queen's magic time. It is considered the agent of a deity governing femininity. when the matrix is supposed to be occupied by the god of procreation: "Soro". it's time. human reproduction and fruiting plants. It therefore serves as a timetable for covert operations. including the tides. In it "being hidden" from the woman during her menstrual periods resides. his fate.The "tle" to someone. "Among the Dogon. His calendar is carefully tracked and used to 99 | P a g e . He was asked not to disrupt the weather. When the storm is a harbinger of rain. opportunities and misfortunes. Land of the dead. To say she is menstruating. It guides the migration of creatures on land and in water. It is considered the "abacus" counter Eternity. in a word. this period is marked by an actual retirement of women in a house closed to men. holds a prominent place in the life of the animist. It remains there throughout this period. called" pna pna-. which has a more magical than the sun. sexuality. and not to make the barren land. the woman said: "I went into the moon . inexorably staff. the moon we pray not to "suck the rain".
the highway illuminated only Masa-Dembali borrowed when he had to visit his establishment. but they are not her power. They are an emblem embodying a transcendent power. and spend the day and night in each. That is to say that there is a key mantra for every home. It is through the mansions of the moon that matches all things were made by insiders. They are the ones that connect them all beings. air and water . But do not be deceived: neither the sun nor the moon are worshiped for themselves. As for the Milky Way. The singers of the gods and the masters of ritual knife known secrets of these homes and what to ask for the moon as her husband is there or not. This teaching is based on a profound conviction that "everything is" in the universe. It was with twenty-eight mansions. Ethics linked to a sense of unity of all things One can not deny the primitive animism educational background required each individual society to encourage them to do good and avoid evil. the sign of the operation of this power. The four elements parentfire. so for each day. Her husband visits her every night. Any violation of 100 | P a g e . earth.govern each of these seven homes. The ancestors of humans have their remains.mark the dates of major religious practices of the year. Nothing is isolated.
. In Mali. considered as a person is also responsible for his actions: his good actions will prevent epidemics.. but if you throw a large piece of wood. . so shocking to our ethics and our current sensitivity. Not only do they run the risk of damaging them. the waves did not rest until they filled the entire pond and have reached the shores. but they will return to their point of departure and their encounter with the waves in the opposite direction can cause a shock to disastrous unforeseen consequences. the community itself. That's why every violent manifestation of nature . Bambara proverb compares the universe to a large pool: "Be careful what you throw in the" pool of life ". " Everywhere where tradition is respected. whose consequences will affect him or around him.Is regarded as the consequence of sins committed against morality or against tradition. resulting in our land by major upheavals. because of turmoil that is sure to result! If you throw a small rock.volcanoes. the depletion of mines and wells.. If the individual can make mistakes..the sacred laws causes a disturbance in the balance of the occult universe. etc. The family first. earthquakes. It is in this context that one must try to understand certain acts of ancient societies. The sacrifices for the salvation of the community were mostly sought after by volunteers as a title of honor. drought . then the tribe or village. but unfortunately begins to crumble under the growing influence of modern individualism and the "beggar thy in the race for wealth and power . are units whose interest or premium or destiny that includes individuals who compose them. but they know the massive destruction wrought by the Supreme Being to punish the breach of men. the waves will not go away. floods. wars. the animists ignore the concept of "flood". to mark the African society. etc. the individual does not count to the community. This profound sense of unity also explains the family solidarity that continues even today. 101 | P a g e .
the existence of a Supreme Being transcendent yet immanent presence of the Force all things and in all places .the human community or universe .) found their continuation in Islam. as a Muslim to deal with it. including Christianity and Islam.as it still survives.. I cannot speak of the encounter with Christianity. having no authority. The empire of Islam. despite the blows that are worn by religious and philosophical and technical civilization led by Western colonization . The main principles of animism (sacred and secular non-daily life. in Africa was established. and expressed the hope that this interesting question is treated by a qualified Christian personality. found a fertile ground for their spread. while simplifying and purifying themselves. sense of belonging to a unit which it is attached .but on its foundations. The revealed religions.. 102 | P a g e . like all African countries south of Sahara. I will not say on the ruins of animism . the idea of the Sacred and a mysterious force creates the universe.Encounter with Islam The animistic religions prepared Mali.
Who will intercede with Him except by His Permission? He knows What lies before men. Their continued existence Do Him is not a burden. the Inaccessible. His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth. The Sacred and defined. and behind them While they embrace His Science That what he wants. saw its different aspects and hierarchical oriented towards one pole: God the Creator became the All-Cause103 | P a g e .The great fear of the mysterious forces lurking everywhere was one of the bases of animism. The Subsisting Himself. defined by 255th verse of Surat II : God There is no god but He. Neither slumber nor sleep were making on Him. but reduced to values more accurate: they became subject to a force more powerful and sublime. These forces were not overturned. God's One (Allah). He is the Most High. Everything in heaven and on earth He belongs. the Living.
. to become the prerogative of God.. through his great messengers. But she is forgetful.Source of all energies. to enable 104 | P a g e . at times. The divine mystery since ceased to be the privilege of anonymous forces. It is the feeling intimately experienced the sacred bond that binds the creature to his Creator. but both "closer to man than his jugular vein . in Islam. but a "awe" drawing its source of deep love. is more powerful than the child feels for its progenitors. He is reaching the eyes . from God.. This love. "beyond which there is no God. Anything that was previously a set of powers and forces all became diffuse "attributes" of God at work in the world. "And wrapping it in his eyes:" The eyes of the men did not reach. emanating from a divine place where she tied at the beginning of time. a "Covenant" with God. not a superstitious fear. the prophets. "(Quran). The human soul. fear of displeasing him coupled with an unshakeable faith in his "God-all-clasping. The Supreme God will be with Islam. Also rites were they taught him.. is living in a transient stay (on earth) where it must remain a time before returning to his eternal origin. immense and inaccessible as to its essence as the Supreme Being animist.
five times a day. Prepared by the ancient tradition to identify all around him a living Presence hidden behind the appearance of things. the prayer ritual. and must be preceded by a purification by a pure water. perhaps the Black African Muslim. facing the Kaaba shrine cubic at Mecca. the east and west. This sacred office. man or woman. where every believer. at times marked with the solar cycle. It includes a set of gestures accompanied the sacramental words. Wherever you turn. the heart of the believer is able to get in touch with the Divine Power. which became a center of attraction on her prayer mat. heart and body. Having completed the physical and spiritual purification. considered the world center. is like his own priest spent on his carpet. while directing his body ritually to the Centre's image what the Kaaba it is particularly well placed to achieve the mystery contained in this Qur'anic verse: To Him (God). there is the Face of God. requires the participation of the mind. located in the power of God. and a firm intention. 105 | P a g e . The essential rite of the Muslim celebration.him to maintain contact with his principled Source.
Note 1. Tradition states that children must remain "attached" to her mother for 33 months. which is the backbone. composed of 33 vertebrae. Only then it is considered ritually strengthened the structure of his body. That is to say 9 months in the matrix and 24 months in her lap. 106 | P a g e .
107 | P a g e .
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