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CAPITOL HILL

EcoDistrict
A proposal for district-scale
sustainability
Prepared by GGLO
Full Report
March 23, 2012
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Funding for this work was provided by:
iii Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT
VISION
STUDY AREA
STATION AREA SITES
PERFORMANCE AREAS
COMMUNITY
TRANSPORTATION
ENERGY
WATER
HABITAT
MATERIALS
NEXT STEPS & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
APPENDIX A: EcoDistrict Best Practices
APPENDIX B: EcoDistrict Examples
APPENDIX C: Outreach Summary
APPENDIX D: EcoDistrict Roadmap
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1
7
13
15
21
What is an EcoDistrict?
An EcoDistrict is sustainability applied at the neighborhood scale. EcoDistricts
provide a framework for realizing advanced sustainability — increasing
ef ciencies, reducing pollution, restoring ecosystems, and improving
communities — through behavior change, building design and infrastructure
investments. EcoDistricts are measured for improved performance over time.
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Capitol Hill EcoDistrict iv
v Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In March 2011 the Bullitt Foundation awarded Capitol Hill Housing a grant to spearhead the creation
of a new “EcoDistrict” on Capitol Hill, allowing them to work with GGLO to conduct the research and
outreach eforts detailed in this report. The intention of this report is to support the establishment
of an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill with an inventory of information and recommendations for action;
it is a catalogue of goals, targets, metrics and strategies. As this EcoDistrict initiative grows, Capitol
Hill Housing looks forward to continuing to work with the Capitol Hill community to improve the
neighborhood’s environmental impacts, and thereby serve as a role model for other neighborhoods,
encouraging city, state and national governments to match Capitol Hill's commitment.
2012 CH
STATION SITE RFQ
2016 CH
LIGHT RAIL
OPENS
STREETCAR &
CYCLE TRACK
ON BROADWAY
2025 SEATTLE
70% RECYCLING
RATE GOAL
CITY
CANOPY
COVERAGE
30% GOAL
SEATTLE
CLIMATE ACTION PLAN
SOV TRIPS <36%
CARBON
NEUTRAL
SEATTLE
2030 CHALLENGE
REDUCTION TARGETS
CAPITOL HILL (CH)
STATION PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT
CAPITOL HILL TIMELINE
REDUCTION TARGETS
EXISTING BUILDINGS: 20%
NEW BUILDINGS: 70%
EXIST: 50%
NEW: CARBON NEUTRAL
EXIST: 20%
NEW: 80%
EXIST:35%
NEW: 90%
REDUCE WATER
DEMAND BY
+15 MIL
GALLONS/DAY
2010 2015 2020 2030 2040 2050
NO MORE THAN
THAT 1 CSO
OVERFLOW
PER OUTFALL PER
YEAR BY 2025
Capitol Hill Timeline in the context of major City and Architecture 2030
Challenge goals. (Image Credit: GGLO)
Why Here?
Increased social and environmental challenges, both global and regional, have highlighted the need
for an evolving approach to sustainable community building. The EcoDistrict approach is a good
model for meeting those demands, while supporting citywide eforts such as creating a carbon
neutral Seattle by 2050, by leveraging community action and the ef ciencies of district-scale systems.
Why Capitol Hill Housing?
Capitol Hill Housing has been working to make Capitol Hill a sustainable community for 35 years. As
a Public Development Authority and Community Development Corporation, Capitol Hill Housing
has been providing leadership in creating a vibrant and engaged community on Capitol Hill. Taking a
leadership role on the creation of an EcoDistrict is the logical next step.
Why Now?
Several recent developments and neighborhood sustainability outreach eforts have motivated
Capitol Hill Housing to initiate work on forming an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill:
• Light rail station and streetcar infrastructure investments are planned for Capitol Hill
• Cooperative eforts have demonstrated the value of community building around sustainability
• The Federal Sustainable Communities program inspired Capitol Hill Housing to more explicitly
connect afordable housing with transportation access and the environment
• Organizations such as The Bullitt Foundation have provided sustainable leadership in the
neighborhood through the pursuit of the "Living Building Challenge"
[Opposite Page]
The streetcar, pedestrians, and mix of housing and commercial uses at the ASA
Flats + Lofts by GGLO, sets the scene for a transit oriented community.
(Image Credit: Gregg Galbraith)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Approach
The general approach to creating a functioning EcoDistrict can be organized around six primary
phases, as illustrated below. This study includes tasks in four of six phases: Research, Outreach, Vision,
and Strategies. The initial structure for this study is outlined in the "EcoDistrict Roadmap" (available in
Appendix D).
RESEARCH
OUTREACH
VISION
Research
Collect and analyze information on the site context, EcoDistrict best practices nationwide
and around the world, and relevant related projects and initiatives that can inform the
development of local vision, goals and strategies. Research includes EcoDistrict best practices
(see Appendix A & B) as well as an analysis of Capitol Hill (see Study Area chapter) which includes
a wide range of assets (see Performance Areas chapter) that together make the case for the an
EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill.
Strategies
Determine a set of EcoDistrict strategies, at both the building and infrastructure scales,
to pursue. Establish metrics and targets, and current performance baselines to track
improvements over time. EcoDistrict best practices and site asset research as well as outreach
feedback informed suggested Goals, Targets, Metrics, and Strategies catalogued in this report. Future
phases of the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict will continue to infuence these items.
Vision
Defne a vision for the EcoDistrict that establishes overarching guiding principles.
The starting point has been a vision of a high-performing, socially vibrant and equitable neighborhood
that grows from the Station Area Sites to achieve advanced environmental performance goals in six
areas. Visioning and goal setting "Postcards from the Future", written by community members at a
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict outreach forum, are summarized throughout this report .
Implementation
Set priorities and implement the strategies.
Tasks will occur in future phases.
Measurement
Conduct ongoing assessment of EcoDistrict performance, provide feedback, and make
improvements.
Tasks will occur in future phases.
Outreach
Engage partners, resources, stakeholders, and the community to discuss priorities,
brainstorm potential strategies, and solicit valuable feedback. A series of meetings were
conducted in this phase (see Appendix C) to engage potential partners and stakeholders, identify
resources, and discuss priorities. Continued outreach will be an essential component of the
EcoDistrict's future development.
STRATEGIES
IMPLEMENTATION
MEASUREMENT
These wayfnding icons are found throughout the documents.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
vii Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Creating a Catalogue for Capitol Hill
In this early phase of Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, a site analysis of neighborhood resources and
preliminary community outreach was conducted in order to inform initial recommendations for
sustainability work on Capitol Hill. This report is the catalogue of that work to assist Capitol Hill to
develop its EcoDistrict, with goals, metrics and strategies identifed around specifc environmental
‘performance areas’: Community, Transportation, Energy, Water, Habitat and Materials.
Study Area
The specifc areas of focus for this Capitol Hill EcoDistrict Study include the:
1) Capitol Hill Urban Center Village and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village
2) The Sound Transit–owned properties on and around the planned LINK light rail station
The existing city boundary designations for Urban Center Villages provide a useful district-wide
boundary for compiling and comparing data about neighborhood demographics, land use, and
utilities, and for establishing baselines and evaluating future progress; however, the area is not
intended to prescribe a specifc EcoDistrict boundary. The EcoDistrict boundary will evolve as the
EcoDistrict is develops.
Ultimately, it is hoped that the Station Area development becomes a catalyst for the surrounding
neighborhood, kick-starting its evolution into a mature, district-scale EcoDistrict and model for the
region.
*
*
*
EcoDistrict Study Areas Map Diagram
This map shows where the Station Area Sites are along Broadway, as well as the
EcoDistrict study area boundary defned by the Capitol Hill Urban Center Village
and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village boundaries. The Urban Center Villages
provide a useful district-wide boundary for compiling and comparing data
about neighborhood demographics, land use, and utilities, and for establishing
baselines and evaluating future progress; however, the area is not intended to
prescribe a specifc EcoDistrict boundary. (Image Credit: GGLO)
E THOMAS ST
E HARRISON ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E MERCER ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
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POTENTIAL ECODISTRICT PARTNER: SEATTLE UNIVERSITY
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
PARCEL/ROW GRID
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict viii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
Recommended Goals & Strategies
Capitol Hill is a prime neighborhood for establishing an EcoDistrict. An extensive account of the
neighborhood's many site assets and baseline performance for each of the six performance areas is
detailed in the Performance Areas chapter. Further, this chapter catalogues initial recommendations
for performance goals, targets, metrics, and strategies for each performance area. Criteria for
developing recommended strategies in the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict included consideration of:
1. Best Practices from EcoDistrict Case Studies (see Appendix A & B)
2. Stakeholder Priorities (see Appendix C)
3. Existing Sustainability Projects, Opportunities and Local Resources
4. Site Assets and Quantitative Data Analysis of Baseline Performance
(see Performance Areas chapter)
5. Potential Equity, Economic, and Environmental Impacts
Strategy 'Scatter Plot' Summaries
Recommended strategies are summarized on Scatter Plot diagrams in this Executive Summary and
at the end of each performance area section in the Performance Areas chapter. In order to organize
the strategies on the Scatter Plots, each is given an identifcation number and a "dot" that indicates
whether the strategy should be implemented District-wide and/or on the Station Area Sites (see
example graph at left). These numbered dots are then located on the Scatter Plots based on the
perceived implementation time frame and sustainability impact of each strategy:
Implementation: Short Term – Long Term
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with the Station Area Sites
due to the imminent development, (shown at the top of the summary graph) while other strategies
are more long term and will require more time to completely implement and yield full benefts
(shown at the bottom of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some strategies have
increased levels of impact (shown to the right of the summary graph) – more carbon reduction,
greater impact on an equitable community, additional water ef ciency, more carbon sequestered,
greater waste reduction, or more potential for EcoDistrict awareness to excite the community to take
action. It will be important to explore a variety of strategies—short & long term with an assortment of
impact—at the beginning of the EcoDistrict work in order to achieve steady progress over time.
1
1
4
Create
Habitat
Corridors
Set Up a
Neighborhood
Tool Library
Building
Integrated
Renewable
Energy
Generation
For Example...
6
6
4
Materials Strategy #6: Set Up a Neighborhood Tool Library
Energy Strategy #4: Building Integrated Renewable Energy Generation
Habitat Strategy #1: Create Habitat Corridors
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Example Strategy Summary Scatter Plot
Dots are color coded by Performance Area — Community, Transportation,
Energy, Water, Habitat, and Materials. Numbers are for identifcation
purposes only and do not refect a judgement about the importance or priority
of any recommended strategy. See explanation at right for more about the
organization of this Scatter Plot.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
ix Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
Community
Intent: Create an equitable, healthy and vibrant community that supports sustainable living
Goals:
• Beneft the Broadest Possible Spectrum of People
• Increase Human Health and Well-Being
• Maximize Sustainable Behaviors
• Enrich Social Networks and the Cultural Environment
• Increase Quality of the Public Realm
• Increase Density, Diversity of Uses, and Street Activity
Strategies:
Equity
1. Build New Afordable Housing
2. Develop a Community Fruit Tree Harvesting & Food Bank Donation Program
Health
3. Grow a Capitol Hill Community Orchard
4. Map all Urban Fruit Trees
5. Establish an Urban Farm Plot at the New TOD Development
6. Relocate the Broadway Farmers Market at the New TOD Development
7. Retroft Wood-Stoves and Wood-Burning Fireplaces
8. Restrict Gas-Powered Yard Equipment
9. Monitor Air Quality Inside and Outside Buildings
Cultural Vibrancy
10. Develop Piazzette in Underutilized Spaces
11. Improve Hillclimbs Adjacent to I-5
12. Organize a Community Public Art Project Event
13. Increase Population and Employment Density Near High Capacity Transit
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5
8
7
11
3
4
13
13
12
2
9
1
1
6
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Note: The number on each dot corresponds to the Strategies listed at right.
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict x
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
Transportation
Intent: Reduce the negative environmental impact of automobile use by maximizing the
opportunities for walking, biking, and transit use.
Goals:
• Prioritize Active Transportation
• Maximize Access to Clean, Low Carbon Transportation Options
• Reduce Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMTs)
• Enable Car-Free Households (also a UDF goal)
• Increase the Safety of Walking and Biking
• Improve Wayfnding around District and to Various Transportation Options
Strategies:
Transit
1. Provide Transit Passes to Tenants
2. Install Real-Time Arrival Info Monitors at Transit Stops
Vehicles
3. Minimize Installation of New Parking Stalls
4. Convert Parking Stalls/Street Parking to New Use
5. Create a Parking Management District
6. Increase Car-Sharing Stalls & Stops (for ZipCar, Avego, etc)
7. Separate Parking Stall Cost from Rent/Lease Costs
8. Plan a “Guerilla Parking Day”
9. Campaign to Remove Subsidies for Restricted Parking Zones
Walking/Pedestrians
10. Develop a Neighborhood Wayfnding Program/Install Wayfnding Signage
11. Create an EcoDistrict Pedestrian Zone
12. Create an Annual Pedestrian Count Program
13. Conduct a Neighborhood Walkability Audit
14. Improve Alleys
15. Repair/Replace Inaccessible Sidewalks
16. Install Woonerfs/Convert Low Traf c Streets or Alleys to Woonerfs
17. Advocate for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Funding
Biking
18. Install More Bike Boxes at Major Intersections
19. Install Creative Bike Racks
20. Implement a Bike-Sharing Program
21. Open a Bikestation on Capitol Hill
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21 16
7
6 4
5
12
3
14
17
13
2 20
1
15
8
11
19
9
10
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Note: The number on each dot corresponds to the Strategies listed at right.
xi Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
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4
9
7
6
1
2
5
3
3
8
10
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Energy
Intent: Reduce non-renewable energy use & associated greenhouse gas emissions.
Goals:
• Reduce Energy Use by Minimizing Demand and Maximizing Conservation
• Provide New and Expand Existing Options for Improving Energy Ef ciency in Buildings and
throughout the District.
• Optimize Infrastructure Ef ciencies at all Scales
• Use Renewable Energy
• Reduce Mix of Energy Generated from Fossil Fuels Consumed in the District | Increase the Mix of
Renewable Energy
Strategies:
1. Energy-Ef cient Building Design (Target Big Users)
2. Energy Retrofts on Existing Buildings (Target Big Users)
3. Integrate with External District Energy System
4. Building Integrated Renewable Energy Generation
5. Certify All New Development to LEED Gold Minimum
6. Renewable Energy Purchase Agreement
7. Small-Scale Hydropower
8. Participate in the Seattle 2030 District
9. Advanced Metering
10. Visualize Energy Use - Dashboards & Pavement
Water
Intent: Conserve potable water; reduce blackwater production and stormwater runof
Goals:
• Reduce Stormwater Runof within and from the District
• Reduce Potable Water Consumption
• Use Potable Water for Highest and Best Use - Utilize Greywater for Appropriate Tasks
• Maintain Availability, Reliability and Afordability of Water
Strategies:
1. Convert Underused PGS's to Habitable or Permeable Uses
2. Water Visualization - Education: Residential
3. Water Reuse: New Multi-family and Non-Residential
4. Ef cient Water Fixture Retrofts & Installations
5. Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (New)
6. Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (Retroft)
7. Stormwater Management - Swales/Raingardens
2
4
6
3
7
5 7
1
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Note: The number on each dot corresponds to the Strategies listed at right.
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict xii
Habitat
Intent: Enrich urban habitat in the district and in the surrounding neighborhoods to promote
biodiversity and support the community, even as development increases the intensity of the built
environment.
Goals:
• Advance Current and Emerging Watershed Goals
• Protect, Regenerate, and Manage Habitat and Ecosystem Function at All Scales
• Prioritize Native and Structurally Diverse Vegetation
• Create Habitat Connectivity within and beyond the District
• Avoid Human-made Hazards to Wildlife and Promote Nature-friendly Urban Design
• Prioritize High-quality, Habitat-creating, Flexible Open Spaces (parks, plazas, community gardens,
and recreation felds)
Strategies:
1. Create Habitat Corridors
2. Increase Tree Canopy
3. Create Habitat - Parks
4. Create Habitat - ROW
5. Create Habitat - Green Roofs & Walls
6. Create Habitat - Backyards
Materials
Intent: Reduce the negative environmental impacts of materials through conservation and diversion
Goals:
• Zero Waste
• Reduce Material Use
• Reduce Solid Waste - Maximize Reuse, Salvage, Recycling, and Composting
• Minimize Use of Virgin Materials
• Maximize Use of Recycled and Salvaged Materials
• Make the Local/Regional Product Choice the Easy Choice
Strategies:
1. Develop Outreach to Reduce Residential Waste & Increase Diversion Rates
2. Provide Ample Space for Recycling, and Organic and Waste Disposal
3. Maximize Use of Recycled, Regional & Salvaged Materials in Buildings
4. Optimize Procurement Activities through Group Purchasing
5. Promote Yard/Garden Shares
6. Set Up a Neighborhood Tool Library
4
2
3
4 5
1
5
6
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
2
4
5
6
1
3
3
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
Note: The number on each dot corresponds to the Strategies listed at right.
xiii Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: GOALS & STRATEGIES
Next Steps
This report represents the initial phase of the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict. Subsequent phases will: expand
public outreach; establish an EcoDistrict management structure within a clear boundary; refne goals,
metrics, and strategies; develop an Action Plan; embark on detailed feasibility studies of individual
polices and strategies under consideration; implement strategies, policies and projects in support
of EcoDistrict goals; measure progress against baselines to assess performance and adjust the
EcoDistrict's course as necessary.
Dancers' Series: Steps,1982
Public Art by Jack Mackie, on Broadway, Capitol Hill
(Image Credit: Joel Davis-Aldridge)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
1 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT?
What is an EcoDistrict?
An EcoDistrict is sustainability applied at the neighborhood scale. They promote a comprehensive
approach to advanced sustainability that addresses improved performance over time. EcoDistricts
provide a framework for increasing ef ciencies, reducing pollution, restoring ecosystems, and
improving communities—through behavior change, building design and infrastructure investments.
Around the world, some of the most innovative sustainability work is currently taking place in
EcoDistricts.
Why are EcoDistricts formed?
It is widely recognized that the prospects for sustainable development are greatly improved when
design is approached from a systems perspective. In the case of the built environment, this means
thinking beyond a single, isolated building, and tapping into synergies with the surrounding
buildings, infrastructure, and community. An EcoDistrict is a conceptual framework designed to
facilitate this scale jump. To that end, an EcoDistrict can entail a wide variety of sustainability strategies
implemented at scales ranging from a few buildings to entire neighborhoods.
EcoDistricts are formed to help create sustainable communities in the fullest sense of the defnition,
covering the spectrum of social, economic, and ecological realms. Technical sustainability strategies
are a means to an end, not an end in themselves. An EcoDistrict need not sacrifce afordability or
equitable access for environmental performance—energy ef ciency translates to reduced utility
expenses, for example. Indeed, a successful EcoDistrict leverages untapped district-scale synergies to
create a win-win for both people and the planet.
How long have EcoDistricts been around?
Neighborhood scale sustainability has been around for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Examples
of communities living in balance with the environment include historical settlements such as Native
American clif dwellings, modern, intentional communities like EcoVillages, which were created
during the latter part of the twentieth century to enhance social, economic and environmental
sustainability, and University campuses, which have some of the most established examples of
district-scale systems found in the U.S.
Over the last decade or so, growing environmental challenges, as well as population shifts towards
cities, have led to renewed interest in sustainable design at the neighborhood scale and the
important role that urban neighborhoods play in creating a sustainable future. The recently launched
LEED for Neighborhood Development program and the Portland Sustainability Institute's EcoDistrict
Initiative are two of the most prominent examples of this trend in thinking.
"EcoDistrict" as a self-referential term is rather new, but there are many examples of EcoDistrict-
related projects nationally and internationally, both conceptual and constructed, that set specifc
sustainability goals around sustainable behavior and the built environment, apply design strategies at
the building-scale and district-scale to meet them, and establish management structures to support
initial and ongoing development. (See Appendix B for some example EcoDistrict case studies)
While EcoDistrict and District Energy
sound alike, they are not synonymous.
E∙co∙Dis∙trict /ē-kō 'dis-trikt/
An EcoDistrict is sustainability applied
at the neighborhood scale. EcoDistricts
provide a framework for realizing advanced
sustainability — increasing ef ciencies,
reducing pollution, restoring ecosystems, and
improving communities — through behavior
change, building design and infrastructure
investments. EcoDistricts are measured for
improved performance over time.
Dis∙trict En∙er∙gy /'dis-trikt 'e-nәr-jē/
District Energy is a systems-strategy for
generating and distributing energy across
multiple buildings. District energy strategies
have been widely implemented in Europe,
particularly Scandinavia — Seattle Steam is
a local example of a district energy system.
District energy systems are only one potential
infrastructure component of a comprehensive
EcoDistrict.
World Urbanization:
For the frst time, the number of people living
in urban areas surpasses the number of
people living in rural areas and, by 2050,
two-out-of-three people will live in
cities.
(Source: UN DESA, 2010)
[Opposite Page]
Raingardens at Burien Town Square by GGLO.
(Image Credit: Derek Reeves)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 2
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT?
How are EcoDistricts assessed?
EcoDistricts assess sustainability through the lens of "Performance Areas"—Community,
Transportation, Energy, Water, Habitat and Materials—which provide a comprehensive
view of sustainability across a broad spectrum of issues (such as energy ef ciency, waste
management, and community health). Through performance areas the EcoDistrict promise of
advanced sustainability is realized; no one area dominates and all are considered together.
Each performance area has its own:
• declaration of intent, or statement that details the overall vision of the performance area,
• set of high-level goals that identify what the EcoDistrict should strive for in that performance area,
• set of targets that quantify the goals with specifc measurable targets within a defned time period,
• list of metrics or ways of measuring performance and assessing when goals and targets are met,
and
• set of strategies or projects for achieving performance goals and targets.
Performance areas provide a useful framework for measuring EcoDistrict success over time and for
clarifying community goals. As EcoDistricts form and initial research and goal setting begins, baseline
measurements of neighborhood "performance" in each performance area will set the base point from
which improvements can be measured over time. Additionally, baseline measurements can reveal
which areas may be in more need of work than others and thereby help inform which strategies
should be implemented sooner rather than later.
Measuring Performance
GGLO collaborated with Capitol Hill Housing in the design of Broadway Crossing
(LEED Silver), and then continued with measuring building performance after
building occupancy. Lessons learned allowed the team to fne tune building
operations. (Photo Credit: William P Wright)
PoSI
With the 2009 launch of their EcoDistrict
Initiative, the Portland Sustainability Institute
(PoSI) elevated the neighborhood sustainability
discussion. They drafted an
EcoDistrict Framework, which included
work on performance areas and a
selection of toolkits, initiated fve
pilot EcoDistricts in Portland, and created
an annual EcoDistrict Summit. Throughout
this report, PoSI's toolkits are referenced as
resources to aid in the development of the
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict.
3 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT?
How are specifc sustainability strategies chosen?
The choice of a specifc set of appropriate strategies to pursue in any EcoDistrict depends on
numerous site-specifc factors – including community goals, site location, context, stakeholders, the
regulatory environment, economics, demographics, politics, etc. While all strategies contribute to
neighborhood performance, individual strategies address a variety of scales. For example:
• Buildings: Sustainable design strategies at the building-scale or site scale can individually
contribute to neighborhood goals such as energy and water ef ciency, waste management,
and sustainable education through building design. High performance buildings are integral
to EcoDistricts. While building scale strategies do not require site-wide management or shared
ownership, these strategies should be established, regulated, and measured for progress across an
entire EcoDistrict.
Increasing the number of building-scale projects in the neighborhood has many benefts such
as: growing a local, experienced workforce; identifying and removing regulatory barriers; and
supporting market shift and behavior change.
• Infrastructure: Green infrastructure strategies tackle sustainability at the district-scale, beyond the
borders of individual sites. They can be essential for achieving higher levels of neighborhood-wide
sustainability, while distributing costs that might be dif cult for a single urban site. District-wide
energy, stormwater and materials ef ciencies, habitat creation and protection, and transportation
infrastructure are examples of green infrastructure strategies that connect high performance
buildings and individual sites to large district-wide systems. As a shared resource, district-scale
infrastructure may require common ownership and/or management across an EcoDistrict.
While some infrastructure is most ef cient at the regional scale, in many cases, sustainable
infrastructure strategies are best implemented locally. District-scale infrastructure allows for more
control to channel investments to neighborhood priorities and to fast-track implementation. These
district-scale systems are often more resilient in the face of crisis than regional systems that rely on
one central plant.
• People: Strategies that encourage sustainable behavior, or people-scale sustainability, are best
suited to address equity, health, and cultural vibrancy through outreach and education. EcoDistrict
strategies for people-scale sustainability involve people who live and work in the EcoDistrict, as
well as members of the surrounding community. They provide an essential balance for EcoDistrict
sustainability by directly addressing the social realm, while helping ensure that the strategies
employed at the building-scale and district-scale (infrastructure) beneft the community in a
holistic way and operate to their fullest potential.
People-scale strategies promote behavior change through access to new information, education
and training, as well as through ofering monetary and other incentives.
The research detailed in this report represents the frst phase at assessing Capitol Hill's assets and
current performance in each performance area in order to provide an initial set of recommended
strategies, at each scale, for the community to consider as work continues towards developing a fully
functioning EcoDistrict.
The upcoming Bullitt Center on Capitol Hill is a great example of sustainability
strategies implemented at the building scale. It is designed by Miller Hull to
generate all its own energy, collect and reuse rainwater, and support the health
of its occupants with non-toxic materials, natural ventilation, and daylighting.
(Image Credit: Miller Hull Partnership Architecture; Seattle, Washington)
Bioswales and rain gardens are excellent strategies at the infrastructure scale to
sustainably manage district stormwater. (Image Credit: GGLO)
BUILDINGS
INFRASTRUCTURE
PEOPLE
Community gathering places like Cal Anderson park, events like Outdoor Movies,
and neighborhood CSA food deliveries by bike are great strategies for supporting
a sustainable and vibrant community. (Image Credit: Fork & Frame)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 4
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT?
How are EcoDistricts created?
EcoDistrict creation can be separated into three phases:
(1) organization and establishment,
(2) pre-assessment and strategy development (which includes research of best practices,
neighborhood site assets, and performance baselines), and
(3) project planning, implementation and performance monitoring.
In the United States, most of the EcoDistrict work to date has only progressed through phases
(1) or (2), which are less capital-intensive than phase (3). In some cases a single entity starts the
organization of an EcoDistrict with pre-assessment research, while a formal management group
is being established. In other cases, a formal management group initiates the pre-assessment and
planning phase. Once an appropriate set of strategies have been determined, the next step is to
implement them through projects overseen by an established EcoDistrict management entity.
In Europe and Canada, several EcoDistrict-type projects have progressed through phase (3), but the
capital-intensive district-scale systems involved were primarily funded by the private sector and/
or government. Notable examples include: BedZED, Dockside Green, Southeast False Creek, EVA
Lanxmeer, and Malmo Western Harbour (see Appendix B for other case studies).
Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, BC
(Image Credit: Don Vehige)
Example Case Study: Southeast False Creek (Vancouver, BC)
SCALE: 80 acres, eventual build out of 6.3 million sf of residential development (~6,600 units)
GOALS: Create a leading model of sustainability in North America, incorporating forward-thinking
infrastructure, strategic energy reduction, high-performance buildings and easy transit access.
METRICS: Energy use 40% Better than ASHRAE 90.1 2001, 50% Reduction in water use, 100% of site
stormwater diverted
SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES: Passive building design, district energy (neighborhood energy utility,
waste heat recovery), rainwater harvesting and reuse, green roofs, LEED-ND Platinum, 1/3 of housing
afordable, sustainability indicators and targets adopted
MANAGEMENT: City of Vancouver
FINANCE: Millennium SEFC Properties (private), City of Vancouver (public)
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: First phase complete (1,100 units and a 68,000 sf commercial)
(see Appendix B for other case studies)
5 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WHAT IS AN ECODISTRICT?
Capitol Hill Housing with the assistance of a grant from the Bullitt Foundation is
spearheading the exploration of creating an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill.
How are EcoDistricts implemented?
In order to implement projects to meet neighborhood goals, EcoDistricts need a clearly defned
management structure, fnancing, and policy support:
• Management: Management entities, which vary in form from EcoDistrict Steering Committees to
Business Improvement Districts, support initial and ongoing EcoDistrict development. Establishing
a management structure is a critical early step in the process of creating an EcoDistrict. The
entity may be a new organization, an existing organization expanded to take on the new role,
or an alliance of existing organizations. The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts Toolkit
recommends an “Engagement to Governance” process, which emphasizes the importance of up
front community engagement in determining the optimum management structure. Management
entities must have the authority to act on behalf of the EcoDistrict, guide the development of an
EcoDistrict's vision and strategies, manage funding and investments, and assess performance.
• Finance: Financing is needed to support initial and ongoing research, design, and development.
The implementation of district-scale sustainability strategies typically requires substantial fnancial
investment. There are several factors that create challenges for EcoDistrict fnancing, including
multiple stakeholders and property owners, project complexity, risk associated with large up front
costs and a long time frame for build out, and the dif culty of separating the public and private
benefts provided. The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts Toolkit identifes a wide range
of potential sources of capital, including cost-sharing/partnerships, below-market-rate loans, debt/
bonds, grants, impact/service fees, private equity, revolving loans, subsidies, tax assessments, tax
increment fnancing, third party ownership, and voluntary contributions.
• Policy Support: The prospects for EcoDistrict success are strongly infuenced by public policy,
which includes regulations, incentives, and other government actions. In general, public policy
should be crafted to create certainty, reduce fnancial risk, and incentivize sustainable behavior
and investment. Almost as importantly, any existing policy that unintentionally creates barriers to
EcoDistrict implementation must be addressed. The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts
Toolkit provides a list of public policy actions that have the potential to facilitate EcoDistrict
development, such as regulations (zoning codes, building codes, and energy codes); public-
private partnerships; fnancial incentives (tax credits, grants, subsidies, etc); technical assistance for
assessments and projects; and third party certifcation requirements or incentives for compliance.
EcoDistricts Beneft
Neighbors:
"Provides a tangible way to get involved in improving and enhancing the
neighborhood’s economic vitality and sustainability, as well as a new form
of organization."
Businesses: 
"Provides a platform to deliver district-scale infrastructure and building
products and services to market. "
Developers and Property Owners:
"Creates a mechanism to reduce development and operating costs by linking
individual building investments to neighborhood infrastructure."
Utilities:
"Creates a model for integrated infrastructure planning to guide the
development of more cost-efective and resilient green infrastructure
investments over time. EcoDistricts also provide a mechanism for scaling
conservation and demand-side management goals by aggregating district-
wide projects."
Municipalities: 
"Supports a neighborhood sustainability assessment and investment strategy
to help meet broader sustainability policy and economic development goals.
EcoDistricts put demonstration projects on the ground, save local money and
resources, and stimulate new business development."
(Source: The EcoDistricts Framework, v1.1, June 2011, Portland
Sustainability Institute )
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 6
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT
7 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT
Why Here?
Increased social and environmental challenges, both global and regional, have highlighted the need
for an evolving approach to sustainable community building. Globally, climate change threatens
the establishment and continuation of a high quality of life for ourselves and future generations,
particularly the poor. Locally, increasing water and air pollution, the depletion of fsheries and timber
stock, and loss of wildlife are negatively afecting human health and habitat. To reverse these trends,
and restore the world's concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to sustainable levels
—350ppm (see www.350.org/about/science)—cities and neighborhoods must lead the way to
radically cutting carbon emissions between now and 2050. Further, they must reach a sustainable
balance with all resources to create planet-healthy, habitat-healthy, and people-healthy communities.
The EcoDistrict approach is a good model for meeting those demands by leveraging community
action and the ef ciencies of district-scale systems.
The Capitol Hill neighborhood is an ideal location for an EcoDistrict in Seattle, from its vibrant,
walkable urban form to its progressive, engaged residents, the area is rich in assets that facilitate
sustainable and equitable urban living (greater analysis of the neighborhood's many assets appears
in the Performance Areas chapter). Additionally, the Capitol Hill neighborhood, like much of Seattle
and the Pacifc Northwest, has a long history of championing environmental sustainability. Creating
an EcoDistrict would contribute to and grow that legacy, as well as support citywide eforts to create a
carbon neutral Seattle by 2050.
Upcoming development on the Sound Transit-owned LINK light rail Station Area Sites ofers an
unprecedented near-term window of opportunity for implementing ef cient district-scale systems
from the ground up, for building green buildings, and promoting a culture of sustainability in a
concentrated area of Capitol Hill. Much of the site analysis reported here has focused on the Station
Area Sites, since its development can plant the seed for a new EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill; this seed
of development can serve as a catalyst for the surrounding neighborhood, kick-starting its evolution
into a mature, district-scale EcoDistrict. (See the Study Area chapter for more information about the
EcoDistrict Study Area boundary.)
Why Capitol Hill Housing?
Capitol Hill Housing has been working to make Capitol Hill a sustainable community for 35 years.
Founded by community activists in 1976, Capitol Hill Housing initially focused on combating
neighborhood disinvestment. The organization provided fnancing and a tool lending library to help
local residents fx up their homes. Capitol Hill Housing's early work exemplifed social equity, smart
growth and collaborative consumption.
Today Capitol Hill Housing owns and operates 1,132 apartments, all afordable for low and moderate
income families. Their portfolio covers 8 neighborhoods across Seattle as well as White Center,
while retaining a focus on Capitol Hill and the 12th Avenue Corridor of the Central Area. Capitol Hill
Housing's commitment to sustainability has grown with time, as have visible connections between
thriving urban neighborhoods, access for low-income people, and protection for the environment.
As a Public Development Authority and Community Development Corporation, Capitol Hill Housing
has been providing leadership on Capitol Hill in creating a vibrant and engaged community. Taking a
leadership role on the creation of an EcoDistrict is the logical next step.
Seattle Residents use their bodies to spell out 350ppm on the Fisher Pavilion at
Seattle Center as part of a Climate Action Now event.
(Image Credit: Jay Dotson Photography)
[Opposite Page]
Visualizing the Station Area Sites as a "seed" of EcoDistrict Development that can
grow across the neighborhood over time. (Image Credit: GGLO)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 8
The Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Under Construction
(Image Credit: Sound Transit)
Why Now?
Several recent developments and neighborhood sustainability outreach eforts have motivated
Capitol Hill Housing to initiate work on forming an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill:
• Light rail and streetcar planning have sparked a neighborhood-wide reevaluation of the
neighborhood's auto-infrastructure needs and use of space. Community organizing has focused
on how to maximize the benefts of new development around the Sound Transit LINK light rail
Station Area Sites on Broadway. It is hoped that EcoDistrict planning can capitalize on the planning
momentum established for the area by the recently released Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites
Urban Design Framework (UDF).
• Cooperative eforts like Sustainable Capitol Hill have demonstrated the value of community
building around sustainability.
• The federal Sustainable Communities program (a collaboration between the U.S. Department
of Housing and Urban Development, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency) and the Puget Sound Regional Council's Growing Transit
Communities that it funds inspired Capitol Hill Housing to more explicitly connect afordable
housing work with transportation access and the environment.
• The Bullitt Foundation approached Capitol Hill Housing about creating a neighborhood-scale
sustainability initiative after locating its new "Living Building Challenge"-designed headquarters on
Capitol Hill.
As this EcoDistrict initiative grows, Capitol Hill Housing looks forward to continuing to work with the
Capitol Hill community to improve the neighborhood’s environmental impacts, and thereby serve as
a role model for other neighborhoods, encouraging city, state and national governments to match
Capitol Hill's commitment.
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT
What will replace the Red Wall?
(Image Credit: Carissa Franks)
9 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Successful implementation of EcoDistrict goals and strategies requires a management entity that has
the authority to act on behalf of the EcoDistrict, fnancing to fund initial and ongoing research, design
and development, and public policy support to facilitate implementation of projects. Capitol Hill's
EcoDistrict can beneft from the Portland Sustainability Institute's work on governance, fnancing,
and policy, as well as the local and regional resources listed below as it explores these issues in future
phases.
Management
Example Management Structures
Because EcoDistricts are still a relatively new concept, there are limited relevant management
examples. PoSI's "Steps to Governance" will be a useful framework for Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict
development. Many of the EcoDistrict examples cited in Appendix B deviate from the community-
driven EcoDistrict model either because they are privately owned, or because they are managed and
funded by municipal governments. Appendix B summarizes several examples of EcoDistricts with
management entities most relevant to the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict (note: management may evolve
over time).
Local Management Resources
There are several existing neighborhood organizations in Capitol Hill that have the potential to take on
the EcoDistrict management role individually, or in alliance, including: Capitol Hill Housing, the Capitol
Hill Chamber of Commerce, the Capitol Hill Community Council, and the Capitol Hill Champion.
Finance
Example Financing Models
District-scale funding mechanisms identifed in PoSI's EcoDistrict Toolkit include Business
Improvement Districts; Local Improvement Districts; Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Districts;
Parking Beneft Districts; Voluntary Transportation Management Association Contributions; Urban
Renewal Areas; and System Development Charges (impact fees). Potential future models include
Climate Beneft Districts, Local Commercial REITs for Renters; Local Investing Opportunities Networks
(LION), and Community IPOs.
Funding Resources
Similar to the Seattle 2030 District, there are a variety of funding sources available at the federal,
regional and local level. A few sources particularly applicable to Transit Oriented Development
projects on the Station Area Sites are listed at left.
PoSI's Steps to Governance
Step 1: Engage Stakeholders
Determine Representatives in your Community
Make an Inventory of Community Resources
Define the Message and Goals
Step 2: Create an EcoDistrict Steering Committee
Step 3: Develop a Vision and Priorities and
Document Commitments
Step 4: Determine Stakeholders' Roles and
Responsibilities
Understand that the stakeholder created entity
must have the following basic powers: Ability to
design an organization, form a Board, and oversee
operations; Enter into contracts and agreements
with private parties and government agencies; Hold
title to real estate; Accept grants and borrow funds;
Purchase, construct, improve, operate and maintain
sustainability projects within the EcoDistrict
Step 5: Formalize the EcoDistrict Governance Entity
(Source: EcoDistricts Organization,
Engagement and Governance, 2011, v1.1 )
Local Funding Resources
• Dept of Parks Opportunity Funds
• SPU Natural Drainage Systems Project
• SPU Environmental Grants
• Seattle Dept of Neighborhood's:
> Neighborhood Project Funds
(SDOT and Parks projects)
> Neighborhood Matching Funds
• SDOT's Neighborhood Street Fund
• Sound Transit Bicycle Facilities Partnership
within a half mile of its facilities (motion
#M2009-36 Attachment A)
• Seattle Foundation Grants
• Local Improvement District
(Source: Capitol Hill-Broadway Transit Oriented Development,
Development Guidelines and Urban Design Recommendations Report,
February 2010, p.14)
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT: IMPLEMENTATION
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 10
CAPITOL HILL ECODISTRICT: IMPLEMENTATION
Cover of the Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites Urban Design Framework
Multiple City Programs Promote
Sustainability
The City of Seattle has a range of sustainability-related programs in several
departments that could potentially provide guidance or assistance for the
proposed EcoDistrict:
Of ce of Sustainability and Environment: District energy
feasibility study that rates Capitol Hill as one of Seattle’s most promising sites for
district energy; Climate Action Plan, and ongoing programs to reduce Seattle’s
carbon footprint.
Department of Planning and Development: Energy
Benchmarking and Disclosure; “Priority Green” permitting; Sustainable
Communities; Sustainable Infrastructure; Green Factor
Seattle Planning Commission: Transit Communities Report issued
in 2010; Housing Seattle afordable housing report issued winter 2011
Of ce of Economic Development: Community Development
Loan Program; Community Development Block Grant Small Business Loan Fund;
Seattle Climate Partnership
Department of Transportation: Broadway Streetcar design in
progress; Transit Master Plan update in progress; Bridging the Gap; Pedestrian
Master Plan and Bicycle Master Plan completed
City Council: The Regional Development and Sustainability Committee can
be expected to support district-scale sustainability strategies
such as district energy
Of ce of Housing: Supports afordable, transit oriented development,
and infll housing.
Mayor’s Of ce: Walk, Bike, Ride Initiative
Policy
Example Policy Frameworks
Because EcoDistricts are a relatively new concept, policy frameworks specifcally designed to
promote district-scale sustainability strategies do not yet exist in the U.S. But there may be potential
opportunities to tap existing policy mechanisms.
Local Policy Resources
Currently there is little in the way of existing local policy that would help promote an EcoDistrict on
Capitol Hill. Possible new or modifed approaches include:
• Adaptation of the City’s Priority Green permitting program to fast track permitting for projects that
meet sustainability requirements established by the EcoDistrict.
• Application of lessons learned from the Bertschi School’s Science Wing and Bullitt Foundation’s
Cascadia Center, both projects pursuing living building certifcation, e.g. code that applies to water
reuse
• Application of relevant policy developed for Yesler Terrace
• Pilot project for energy-use metering to demonstrate compliance with the City’s reporting
requirements
The City of Seattle has been proactive about planning for the Capitol Hill light rail station sites that
comprise the catalyst site of the proposed EcoDistrict. In particular, the Capitol Hill Light Rail Station
Sites Urban Design Framework (UDF) establishes a vision for the area with many potential synergies
with EcoDistrict strategies, though a UDF does not mandate compliance. In June 2011 Sound Transit
and the Seattle City Council initiated talks to negotiate a development agreement for the Capitol Hill
light rail station sites. The intention of these negotiations is to craft a development agreement that
ensures future development responds to the vision of the UDF. It is expected that this process will
lead to amendments to the Seattle Land Use Code specifc to the sites. This development agreement
represents an ideal opportunity to formalize new policy that defnes or establishes an EcoDistrict.
11 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
13 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
VISION
The overall vision of Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict will evolve over time, but the starting point for this
study has been a vision of a high-performing, socially vibrant and equitable neighborhood refected
in the Broadway light rail Station Area development and across the neighborhood, that meets
environmental performance goals in six areas – Community, Transportation, Energy, Water,
Habitat, and Materials. This working vision was derived from a synthesis of the research presented
in the following chapters, and input from community stakeholders (see Appendix C: Outreach for a
summary of all outreach eforts and contributors to date). Finer grain, specifc visions and goals are
detailed in the Performance Areas chapter.
A Vision for the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
It is possible to envision a future when all members of the Capitol Hill community, including low-
income individuals and families, can access quality goods, services, and jobs without the need
for a car. Walking and biking has become a part of daily life, keeping people healthy. Utility bills
are low because energy and water use is ef cient. Sharing and renting reduce material expenses
while minimizing waste. Revenue is generated from recycling and composting the waste that
remains. Everyone has access to healthy, delicious, and sustainable food. More money is invested in
people, rather than material goods; growing work skills and expanding experiences are prioritized.
Residents have a strong voice in neighborhood decisions and can aford to stay in their homes as the
neighborhood changes. A more sustainable way of life facilitates new social interactions that build
relationships, community and political power.
A Day in the Life: Postcards from the Future
Here is one imagined "day in the life" description of an Autumn Saturday afternoon on Capitol Hill
in 2050 based upon the common themes found in the "Postcards from the Future" that community
members wrote at the December 2011 Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict convened by Capitol Hill
Housing. It is written from the perspective of a grandmother thinking about her grandchildren's
upcoming visit and refecting on her day.
This morning I woke up full of excitement over your arrival...and a head full of to-do tasks. Your
room in the community guest room is reserved, but I still have to get dinner fixings and run my
weekly errands. Fortunately I can run them all on foot! I love how easy it is to walk everywhere in
my neighborhood - the grocery store is only three blocks away! As I walked I marvelled at how
much Capitol Hill has changed in the last forty years. Things that I thought could only be a dream
are all around me now: there are lush, beautiful bioswales along the streets, more people walking
and biking around than driving through, and a neighborhood energy dashboard at the transit
station. And of course, the excellent network of buses, along with the streetcar, came in handy
when the clouds broke and the rain began to fall just as I finished my errands. Once I was home
and dry, and the sun came back out, I spent some time in the community garden, helping to tend
the plants and picking out some fresh brussel sprouts for dinner. Soon after that it was time to
catch the LINK light rail to the airport to pick you up!
Capitol Hill Housing's Goal
"Our goal on Capitol Hill is to take advantage
of the development of the light rail station—
that giant hole in the ground—to implement
systems, from the ground up, that can
grow over time to district-scale or connect
to district energy as it approaches Capitol
Hill. We are exploring strategies including
high performance buildings, on-site energy
generation, potable water conversion, zero
waste, district energy and others. We have
the density and we have the opportunity
but the timing is urgent. We do not want yet
another opportunity lost."
Chris Persons, Capitol Hill Housing Executive Director
[Opposite Page]
Overlook at Fremont Peak Park by GGLO.
15 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
STUDY AREA
The goal of establishing an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill is to promote sustainability at the neighborhood
scale. One near term goal is to leverage the potential of the Sound Transit-owned Station Area Sites to
act as a realizable catalyst for EcoDistrict development. To analyze both the larger neighborhood site
assets and the Station Area Sites site assets, the following two specifc geographic areas are the focus
of this study:
1) Capitol Hill Urban Center Village and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village (aka the "District-wide" area
and "EcoDistrict Study Area")
2) The Sound Transit–owned properties on and around the planned LINK light rail station (aka the
"Station Area Sites")
The Urban Center Villages provide a useful district-wide boundary for compiling and comparing
available City of Seattle data about neighborhood demographics, land use, and utilities, and for
establishing baselines and evaluating future progress; however, the area is not intended to prescribe a
specifc "EcoDistrict Boundary."
The Study Area boundary does not preclude strategies from being applied to areas outside the
Study Area. Many district-wide strategies presented in the Performance Areas chapter are applicable
to adjacent areas (such as Volunteer Park to the north, Miller Play Field & Community Center to the
east, and Seattle University to the south). In fact, coordination with and inclusion of these areas
will enhance the success of the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict. As the EcoDistrict develops, the Study Area
boundary and a defned "EcoDistrict Boundary" will evolve.
*
*
*
EcoDistrict Study Areas Map Diagram
This map shows where the Station Area Sites are along Broadway, as well as the
EcoDistrict study area boundary defned by the Capitol Hill Urban Center Village
and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village boundaries. The Urban Center Villages
provide a useful district-wide boundary for compiling and comparing data
about neighborhood demographics, land use, and utilities, and for establishing
baselines and evaluating future progress; however, the area is not intended to
prescribe a specifc EcoDistrict boundary. (Image Credit: GGLO)
*
POTENTIAL ECODISTRICT PARTNER: SEATTLE UNIVERSITY
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
PARCEL/ROW GRID
[Opposite Page]
View from the Station Area Sites to the City Beyond
(Image Credit: Carissa Franks)
E THOMAS ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
M
A
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IS
O
N
S
T
1
8
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A
V
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B
R
O
A
D
W
A
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B
E
L
L
E
V
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E

A
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E
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6
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A
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E ALOHA ST
E ROY ST
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O
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Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 16
At the center of the Study Area, the Station Area Sites are comprised of four development properties
adjacent to the future Capitol Hill light rail station that were acquired by Sound Transit as part of the
construction process. Covering approximately 1.6 acres distributed across four sites (designated A,
B, C, and D in the site diagram at left), the properties will be sold of for mixed-use development to
coincide with the completion of the station. The station is slated to open in 2016, and Sound Transit
plans to initiate a Request for Qualifcations (RFQ) process for the development sites in 2012. The
simultaneous development of these properties, combined with the construction of the light rail
station, makes this area ripe for capitalizing on district-wide development synergies.
Small-Scale, Manageable, Integrated Design Opportunity
The Station Area Sites ofer a unique opportunity to design an integrated group of buildings
from the ground up. While the developable property comprises a land area that is relatively small
compared to a full EcoDistrict, that limited scale is an asset because implementation of projects will
be a more manageable undertaking. Implementing smaller projects in the near-term can provide
on-the-ground examples of success that can act as a catalyst for work on the EcoDistrict scope and
boundaries.
Consolidated Control Over the Site: Master Developer
The Station Area Site's single owner and upcoming sale are an asset for facilitating the start of an
EcoDistrict. The property sale will be regulated by a development agreement, which ofers a potential
mechanism to require and regulate participation in the EcoDistrict, or at least to establish a unifed
vision for future developers. The importance of Sound Transit’s potential role in providing a binding
framework for establishing the EcoDistrict via a development agreement cannot be understated.
Sound Transit has worked pro-actively with the Capitol Hill community on planning for the Station
Area Sites, and can be expected to engage on the EcoDistrict. However, the level of engagement
necessary to craft a development agreement that helps establish an EcoDistrict is beyond Sound
Transit’s normal purview. The sale of the Station Area Sites to a single Master Developer or
Development Team would best provide for the ability of the development to meet community goals
as outlined in both the Urban Design Framework (UDF) and this study.
Diagram of the Capitol Hill light rail station development sites.
(Image Credit: Sound Transit)
Rendering of the planned streetcar line and cycle track at the corner of Broadway
and Denny Way (Image Credit: SDOT)
Artist's rendering of one of three new station entries to the underground LINK light
rail station platforms. (Image Credit: Hewitt Architects)
STUDY AREA: STATION AREA SITES
17 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
STUDY AREA: STATION AREA SITES
JOBS
CORE CENTER VILLAGE DESTINATION COMMUTER
HOUSING
BICYCLE/PEDESTRIAN
CONNECTIVITY
TRANSIT
CONNECTIVITY
1
2
5
4
3
1
2
5
4
3
1
2
5
4
3
1
2
5
4
3
This high-capacity transit station area typology was developed for the 2009
report Transit-Oriented Communities: A Blueprint for Washington State. Station
areas are categorized by urban form and land use intensity, and ranked by a set
of performance metrics, including jobs, housing, bicycle/pedestrian connectivity,
and transit connectivity. As a general rule, the greater magnitude of these
measures, the more community and regional benefts provided by the TOC.
The Capitol Hill light rail station area falls in the high range of the “Center”
station area type, and has great potential to become
a high-performing transit-oriented community.
(Image Credit: Futurewise, GGLO, and Transportation Choices Coalition)
Potential for a Transit-Oriented Community
With the coming of a light rail station and the Broadway streetcar, the Capitol Hill neighborhood is set
to become one of Seattle’s best opportunities for realizing an ideal transit-oriented community (TOC).
TOCs are neighborhoods that give people greater access to housing, jobs, services, and recreation
without relying on a personal vehicle—a land use pattern that leads to a lower cost of living and
higher quality of life for people of all economic levels, and long-term sustainability for the planet. Well
designed TOCs deliver substantial economic, social, and environmental benefts to local residents as
well as to the greater region.
The area around the Station Area Sites supports key ingredients for a high-performing TOC, including
density of housing and jobs, a diverse mix of uses, a walkable, bikable street network, and open space.
Developing the Station Area Sites as an EcoDistrict "seed" at the core of the Capitol Hill neighborhood
has the potential to fully leverage all the benefts of a TOC, and elevate the neighborhood to an even
higher level of sustainability.
Planning Support
for a TOC at the Station Area Sites:
"Zoning: Allows multi-use structures
up to 40', 65', and 105' Station Area Overlay: Removes
upper level lot coverage limitation, allows higher
foor-area-ratios (in combination with commercial
zoning designation), allows single purpose residential
uses, and removes minimum parking requirements
(in combination with commercial zoning designation)
Urban Center Designation: Removes parking
requirements (in combination
with commercial zoning designation)"
(Source: Capitol Hill-Broadway Transit Oriented Development,
TOD Precedent Study, February 2009, p.36)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 18
STUDY AREA: STATION AREA SITES
Urban Design concept sketch for the Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites Urban
Design Framework (Image Credit: City of Seattle)
Previous Intensive Planning
The Station Area Sites have benefted from many previous community- and City-guided
neighborhood urban design and planning eforts, including:
• Sound Transit Capitol Hill Station Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Sites Baseline Report (2008)
• Capitol Hill - Broadway TOD Development Guidelines and Urban Design Recommendations Report
(2010) by Schemata Workshop and Makers Architecture
• Nagle Place Extension Workshop (2010)
• Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites Urban Design Framework (2011) by City of Seattle
These previous planning eforts are an asset to EcoDistrict development as they inform EcoDistrict
goals and strategies, as well as build support for EcoDistrict planning. Of all the completed studies,
the UDF is the best resource for this study; it builds on the previous planning work and establishes
guiding principles that are well-aligned with the EcoDistrict approach. For example, the UDF
envisions the Station Area Sites as a "dynamic heart for the Capitol Hill Community", "a model for
transit-oriented communities", a place with "afordable housing and community services that
support the diversity of the neighborhood", and the site of "sustainable and collaborative design and
development" that results in a "dynamic place" of a "civic quality." The UDF also calls out the following
strategies that have potential synergy with an EcoDistrict:
• Seek opportunities for innovative and integrated sustainable building practices across the
development sites.
• Work with eforts already underway to explore the viability of shared design solutions that result in
more environmentally responsible form and function, such as district energy, water and stormwater
resources, management of “waste”, optimizing food production and composting, etc.
• Explore fow through ventilation, maximization of passive heating and cooling systems.
• Include consideration of green stormwater infrastructure.
The UDF also explicitly mentions the proposed EcoDistrict, which may assist the EcoDistrict plan to be
included in some capacity in the Sound Transit developement agreement. (See sidebar)
UDF Recommendations
Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Design and
Programming Solutions: Development Guidance
Work with eforts already underway to explore the
viability of shared design solutions that result in more
environmentally responsible form and function. Refer
to the fndings of the Capitol Hill Housing study on the
potential for an EcoDistrict centered on the station sites
(funded by a Bullitt Foundation grant).
19 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 20
21 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
PERFORMANCE AREAS
In this chapter, Capitol Hill EcoDistrict research and suggested strategies are laid out for each of the six
performance areas – Community, Transportation, Energy, Water, Habitat, and Materials
– as follows:
• Intent: This statement details the overall intention or vision of the performance area and has been
crafted in consideration of supporting the overall EcoDistrict Vision.
• Site Assets: These detail a wide range of neighborhood characteristics that together make the
case for the neighborhood as an ideal location for a successful EcoDistrict.
• Goals: These identify what the EcoDistrict should strive for, or what it values, and frames the
development of specifc targets. They are informed by known City goals, the Urban Design
Framework, the Architecture 2030 Challenge, and the Portland Sustainability Institute's work on
EcoDistrict performance goals.
• Suggested Targets: These quantify the goals with specifc, measurable targets within a defned
time period.
• Metrics: These list possible ways of measuring performance and assessing when goals and targets
are met; as new goals and targets get developed, additional metrics will be established.
• Baselines: Current measurements for each of the listed metrics set the base point from which
improvements can be measured over time. Many baselines are presented graphically, and some
appear as part of the Site Assets sections of this chapter. Other baselines require further study to
provide necessary data.
• Strategies: The tangible ways to realize EcoDistrict goals. These are the suggested projects
and practices that make everything real, from the building-scale to the neighborhood-scale;
they respond to local neighborhood assets, goals and resources. The sustainability impact and
recommended implementation area (on the Station Area Sites or district-wide) for each strategy
are identifed.
As future phases of the EcoDistrict proceed, building community support, initiating public policy
work, developing an action plan, assessing project feasibility, and project development will continue
to infuence the development of goals and strategies. The current list is intended to frame that
continued work and provide a catalogue of research and strategies for Capitol Hill.
[Opposite Page]
Green Roof and Community Gardens at the ASA Flats + Lofts by GGLO
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 22
Hugo
House
Urban Farm
alleycat acres
at Lambert House
Howell
Collective
P-Patch
Unpaving
Paradise
P-Patch
Thomas St
Gardens
P-Patch
1
/4
M
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1
/
2
M
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 13
14
15
TASHKENT PARK
(0.5 acres)
THOMAS ST
MINI PARK
(0.25 acres)
SUMMIT
SLOPE PARK
(0.21 acres)
BELMONT PLACE
(0.02 acres)
SUMMIT PLACE
(0.02 acres)
BELLEVUE PLACE
(1.4 acres)
VOLUNTEER PARK
(48.3 acres)
WILLIAMS PLACE
(0.13 acres)
CAL
ANDERSON
PARK
(7.37 acres)
PLYMOUTH
PILLARS PARK
(0.6 acres)
FREEWAY PARK
(5.2 acres)
SEVEN HILLS PARK
(0.39 acres)
MCGILVRA PLACE
(0.06 acres)
TT MINOR
PLAYGROUND
(0.2 acres)
SPRING ST
MINI PARK
(0.3 acres)
FIRST HILL PARK
(0.2 acres)
CASCADE
PLAYGROUND
MILLER
PLAYFIELD
FEDERAL
& REPUBLICAN
(0.14 acres)
THE GREEN
(Seattle Univ)
LOWELL
PLAYGROUND
COMMUNITY: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Community Site Context & Assets Map Diagram
This map shows how well served the EcoDistrict study area is from a density, connectivity, and diversity of services perspective. There are
many community services like parks, grocery stores, arts and civic institutions within walking distance of the Station Area Sites.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
STREETS & ALLEY GRID
CAPITOL HILL HOUSING PROPERTY
SEATTLE HOUSING AUTHORITY PROPERTY
OTHER AFFORDABLE & SENIOR HOUSING
WALK RADIUS
BROADWAY BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT AREA
GROCERY STORE
URBAN AGRICULTURE: P-PATCHES & FARMS
FARMERS MARKET
HEALTH &/OR REHAB CENTER
LEARNING CENTER OR CIVIC INSTITUTION
RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION
PUBLIC ART
"Waterworks" by Douglas Hollis (Cal Anderson Park)
Jimmy Hendrix Statue (Broadway & Pine)
"Contour" by Iole Alessandrini (Capitol Hill Branch Library)
ARTS VENUE
1. Harvard Exit
2. Launch Dance Theater
3. Artattack Theater
4. Artist Trust
5. Velocity Dance Center
6. The Egyptian
7. Theater Schmeater
8. NW Film Forum
9. Repertory Actors Theare
10. Annex Theatre
11. Printer's Devil Theatre
12. Balagan Theatre
13. Vox Box
14. Odd Duck Studio
15. Photographic Center Northwest
E THOMAS ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
M
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IS
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1
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A
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E ALOHA ST
E ROY ST
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23 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
COMMUNITY: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Create an equitable, healthy and vibrant community that supports sustainable living
An EcoDistrict needs to implement environmentally sustainable projects that also increase the
overall equity, health and cultural vibrancy of the district. In many respects, Capitol Hill already is an
equitable, sustainable and culturally vibrant place – afordable housing is a priority of the community
and local property developers like Capitol Hill Housing, sustainability is supported by both the urban
form and community groups, and there are many cultural events and activities held throughout the
year, day and night. The list of community site assets that appears in this section summarizes these
existing people and place assets that can be leveraged in the continued formation of an EcoDistrict
on Capitol Hill.
Density: Sustainable Urban Form
Capitol Hill's density supports a diverse array of neighborhood businesses, transit infrastructure, and
community gatherings. As of 2009, Capitol Hill’s population density (50 people per acre) was second
only to the Belltown neighborhood (54 people per acre) in downtown Seattle. New EcoDistrict
development on the Station Area Sites and throughout the greater neighborhood that maximizes
density will only enhance this existing neighborhood asset.
Active Streets
Many of the streets on Capitol Hill are active and lively, especially the main thoroughfares and
retail streets like Broadway, which are predominantly lined with low-rise commercial and mid-rise
multifamily uses. The smaller grain and historic fabric of the Pike/Pine Corridor also contribute to
the pedestrian friendly and active street character of the neighborhood. The UDF supports design
strategies that activate the street at the Station Area Sites through mixed-use development.
Accessible Services & Afordable Housing
The neighborhood's strong mix of afordable housing options, as well as learning institutions
(which include public and private elementary and secondary schools, a Community College, and a
University), grocery stores, and parks within a short walk of the Station Area Sites are major site assets
that support community equity and accessibility.
Activated street on 12th Ave. (Image Credit: Dan Bertolet)
A breakdown of uses by Zoning and Existing Use in the Capitol Hill Urban Center
Village and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village show how the EcoDistrict Study Area
has a high percentage of residential uses provided by a combination of mixed-
use buildings, multi-family buildings, and single-family homes. While there are a
low percentage of vacant sites available for development, underdeveloped sites
(such as surface parking lots) and under used ROW areas present opportunities
for achieving necessary growth in accordance with EcoDistrict goals and
Seattle's Comprehensive Plan. *Note: The ROW percentages include a portion of
I-5, which is included in the Urban Center Village boundaries; approximately 5%
of the total ROW percentages are from I-5.
(Image Credit: GGLO from 2000 Census)
LAND USE BY ZONING
(2000 CENSUS)
PARKS + OPEN SPACES
2.2%
SINGLE FAMILY
0.0%
INSTITUTION
2.5%
DOWNTOWN
0.0%
INDUSTRIAL
0.0%
RIGHTS OF WAY
39.2%
MULTI-FMAILY
36.3%
COMMERCIAL
MIXED USE
19.7%
(5% I-5)
LAND USE BY EXISTING USE
(2000 CENSUS)
PARKS + OPEN SPACES
2.2%
SINGLE FAMILY
4.8%
INSTITUTION
4.2%
VACANT
0.2%
HIGHRISE
0.0%
INDUSTRIAL
1.0%
RIGHTS OF WAY
39.5%
MULTI-FMAILY
31.3%
COMMERCIAL
MIXED USE
16.7%
(5% I-5)
Capitol Hill is the nucleus of Seattle’s LGBT Community
(Image Credit: Flickr Curtis Cronn)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 24
Capitol Hill Ice Rink at Cal Anderson Park
(Image Credit: Sound Transit)
Capitol Hill has hosted a weekly farmers market since 2005. The current
Broadway Sunday Farmers Market is held right in front of Seattle Central
Community College on Capitol Hill, at Broadway and Pine. It is open every
Sunday, May 8 through December 18, from 11am to 3pm.
(Image Credit: Capitol Hill Seattle blog)
Healthy Living
Capitol Hill provides a diversity of options to support healthy living, such as a farmer’s market and
local grocery stores, walking and biking commute options, and multiple parks and recreation felds
within the neighborhood.
Urban Agriculture Resources
There are multiple urban agriculture resources on Capitol Hill that promote public health, sustainable
behavior and equitable access to food: there are three P-Patches within a 1/2 mile walk of the Station
Area Sites, an upcoming urban farm from Alleycat Acres at the Lambert House, various urban tree
harvesting eforts, multiple local CSAs (like Fork & Frame, which delivers all of their produce in the
Capitol Hill area by bike) and a weekly Farmers Market. A new EcoDistrict could expand and enhance
many of these existing assets.
Community Gathering Spaces and Events
Capitol Hill has many parks, squares and community gathering places, the largest of which is the 7.37
acre Cal Anderson Park adjacent to the Station Area Sites. Cal Anderson is home to both formal and
informal community events year round, such as outdoor movies in the summer and ice skating in the
winter. The public plaza next to Seattle Central Community College, on the corner of Broadway and
E Pine, is another large open space that serves the community well – from May to December it is the
site of the Broadway Sunday Farmers Market. These gathering places create a strong sense of place
and promote community interaction. The Capitol Hill community is hoping to expand its public open
spaces with the new development on the Station Area Sites; the UDF locates a new public plaza and
pedestrian walkway in the middle of the Station Area Sites, connecting the transit station entries from
north to south.
Strong Arts Community
Capitol Hill has a strong arts community, with many theater, dance, art, and music venues, and public
artwork located throughout the neighborhood. There is great potential for an EcoDistrict community
public art project that builds awareness about urban sustainability.
Existing Engagement Infrastructure
There are many existing community groups and initiatives that can support EcoDistrict engagement
eforts. "12th Ave Meets Broadway," a joint initiative of Capitol Hill Housing and the Capitol Hill
Chamber of Commerce (funded by OED and Impact Capital) is one such example of a group working
on complementary EcoDistrict eforts (ensuring diversity, strengthening community, supporting small
businesses, and improving the pedestrian realm).
Cal Anderson Park, adjacent to the proposed EcoDistrict Station Area Sites.
(Image Credit: Dan Bertolet)
COMMUNITY: SITE ASSETS
25 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Logos of Potential EcoDistrict Allies
"Site D" adjacent to SCCC is highlighted in blue on the aerial photo above; the
other station area sites are highlighted in red.
(Aerial Photo via Seattle Central Community College)
COMMUNITY: SITE ASSETS
Allied Non-Profts and Agencies
• Bullitt Foundation: Ongoing engagement in EcoDistrict work and related sustainability initiatives;
their Living Building project, now under construction, has the potential to become an anchor in the
southeastern extents of the EcoDistrict.
• Preservation Green Lab: The lab has been actively researching district energy and performance-
based energy codes.
• International Living Future Institute: This recent consolidation of Cascadia, the Living Building
Challenge, ECOtone, and the Natural Step Network was founded with the mission of “community-
driven transformation.”
• Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC): Their recent Sustainable Communities Grant will fund
planning for the LINK light “north corridor” which includes Capitol Hill station. PSRC also runs the
Building Ef ciency Testing and Integration (BETI) Center and Demonstration Network, which could
provide resources for building energy ef ciency strategies.
• Seattle 2030 District: This public-private collaborative is working to create a high-performance
building district using the 2030 Challenge for Planning as a foundation. Members can access
tools and resources such as Clinton Climate Initiative Preferred Purchasing network, streamlined
permitting, Federal Block Grant low interest funding, and energy monitoring software.
• Cascade Land Conservancy (recently renamed For Terra): Their Cascade Agenda Cities Program
has been actively engaged in the Capitol Hill station sites planning process.
• Green Futures Lab (GFL): Work within the University of Washington and local communities to
provide education and collaboration around urban green infrastructure and a sustainable public
realm.
Other organizations that have the potential to contribute to the EcoDistrict project include the Capitol
Hill Chamber of Commerce, the Capitol Hill Community Council, the Capitol Hill Champion, and
Sustainable Capitol Hill. (The Champion, a joint committee of the Chamber and the Council was a
coauthor of the Urban Design Framework.) The Greater Seattle Business Association can be expected
to play a role in shaping the EcoDistrict, and the Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance (operators of
the Broadway Farmers Market) will be an important collaborator for the open space planning.
Proactive Neighborhood Property Owners & Developers
Many Capitol Hill property owners and developers have been actively engaged in environmental
and community issues for years. As noted in Appendix C, many have participated in outreach eforts
during this initial phase of the EcoDistrict and can be expected to have important, constructive
input on the EcoDistrict formation moving forward. Several signifcant local businesses could
also potentially provide support for the project, including members of the Broadway Business
Improvement Area.
Large property owners in the vicinity of the EcoDistrict include higher education institutions, such
as Seattle University which has the potential to contribute signifcantly to the EcoDistrict in terms
of visioning, educational program implementation as well as through direct staf and student
participation. Seattle Central Community College (SCCC) owns 15 acres adjacent to the Station Area
Sites; if the Sound Transit parcel on the west side of Broadway is developed by SCCC ("Site D"), SCCC
will have the opportunity to play an important role in creating the EcoDistrict.
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 26
Note: Community metrics and targets will be further explored in a future phase of the EcoDistrict
study as community outreach increases. Growing public engagement is recognized as a critical action
for determining community goals and projects, generating excitement, and building community
investment in the EcoDistrict. As this EcoDistrict initiative matures, community organizing eforts will
empower residents to shape their future while paying extra attention to impacts on the poor and
disenfranchised. The existing engagement infrastructure highlighted in Community: SIte Assets will
be a valuable tool for growing outreach and developing synergies between community groups, such
as "12th Ave Meets Broadway."
Goals:
• Beneft the Broadest Possible Spectrum of People
• Increase Human Health and Well-Being
• Maximize Sustainable Behaviors
• Enrich Social Networks and the Cultural Environment
• Increase Quality of the Public Realm
• Increase Density, Diversity of Uses, and Street Activity
Suggested Targets:
• Increase Afordable Housing Near Transit Nodes to Meet Housing Seattle Recommendations
• At least 50% of all Housing Units on the Station Area Sites are Afordable (income at or below 80%
AMI) for at least 50 years from development completion, and 25% of that 50% should serve income
levels at or below 50% AMI (also a UDF goal)
• Increase Air Quality in the Region (And Beacon Hill Monitoring Station) as Monitored by Puget
Sound Clean Air Agency
• Increase Amount of Locally Grown Food Donated to Local Food Banks
• Lower Obesity Rates
• Lower Waitlist Length and Time for P-Patch Plots
• Increase # of P-Patch Plots and/or Urban Farms
• Improve Public Realm (Add more gathering spaces, maximize under-utilized spaces, re-purpose
parking areas for community use, etc.)
Thomas Street Gardens P-Patch
Address: 1010 E Thomas Street
http://www.thomasstreetgarden.blogspot.com/
Size: 3,200 sq ft | Plots limited to 10 x 10
Number of Plots: 35
Avg Length of Waitlist: 173
Avg Wait: 4-5 years
Ownership of Land: Seattle Dept. of Parks & Rec
Unpaving Paradise
Address: E John St & Summit Ave E
http://unpavingparadise.blogspot.com/
Howell Collective
Address: 16th Ave E & E Howell St
http://howellcollective.wordpress.com/
(Image Credit: Seattle P-Patch Community Gardens)
COMMUNITY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"Engaged, Safe, Lively, Pedestrian. I can
afford to live here. Anyone can afford to
live & create here."
27 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Housing Seattle
Seattle lacks afordable family-sized housing with
three or more bedrooms.
Inadequate supply:
16,000 very low-income housing units
50,000 very low-income renter households
Housing is more afordable near arterials with
frequent transit service
Findings from Housing Seattle
A Report by The Seattle Planning Commission, Winter 2011
Metrics
The following metrics can be used to measure the EcoDistrict's performance now and over time in the
area of community sustainability in relation to equity, health and cultural vibrancy.
Equity
• Total % Afordable Housing Units
• % Monthly Income Spent On Housing
(baseline requires study)
• % Monthly Income Spent on Transportation per Household
(15 - 19% of monthly income - Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology)
• # of Neighborhood Food Banks and Amount of Locally Grown Food Received for Distribution
(baseline requires further study)
COMMUNITY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
Annapolis
Apts
Bellevue/
Olive
Apts
Wintonia
(92 DU)
Mercer
Court
Pardee
Townhomes
Olive Ridge
(105 DU)
Capitol
Park
(124 DU)
Reunion
House
(28 DU)
Harvard
Court
(80 DU)
Primeau
Place
(53 DU)
Denny
Terrace
(218 DU)
Lincoln Court
(29 DU)
12th Ave Arts
(85 DU)
Holiday Apts
(30 DU)
Maxwell
(4 DU)
410
(6 DU)
Fredonia
(12 DU)
Harrison
at 15th
(19 DU)
Pantages
(49 DU)
Melrose
(30 DU)
Boylston
Howell
(30 DU)
Centennial
House
(30 DU)
Broadway
Crossing
(44 DU)
Oleta
(34 DU)
Silvian
(32 DU)
Villa
(62 DU)
Existing Afordable and Senior Housing Map Diagram
Pie chart shows the percent of afordable housing from the inventory of
afordable dwelling units shown on the map compared to the total number of
housing units in study area as calculated in the 2000 Census.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
Seattle Housing Authority
Other Afordable and Senior Housing
Capitol Hill Housing
Park
EcoDistrict Study Area
(Cap Hill UCV + Pike/Pine UCV)
Station Area Sites
7.6%
OF TOTAL
HOUSING UNITS ARE
DESIGNATED
AFFORDABLE
E THOMAS ST
E UNION ST M
A
D
IS
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S
T
1
8
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Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 28
Metrics
Health
• Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions from Wood Burning
• # Of Gas-Powered Yard Equipment Used / Owned within the District
(baseline requires further study)
• # of CSAs
• # of P-Patches and Urban Farms
(see also: map in Site Assets: Community for baseline information)
• # of Public Fruit Trees and Lbs of Fruit Harvested Annually
See Transportation: Metrics for additional metrics related to public health.
Cultural Vibrancy
• Amount of Public Art found throughout neighborhood
(see map in Site Assets: Community for baseline information)
• # of Community Events Held Annually
(see Site Assets: Community for some baseline information; additional research required)
• Land Use by Existing Use
• Population and Employment Density Near Transit Nodes
• % Employees at Large Employment Centers (such as Hospitals and Universities)
that Live within the District
(baseline requires further study)
Baselines:
Baseline fgures for most of the above metrics appear in the charts and fgures in the left margins
of this section, as well as on the Afordable Housing Baselines Map on the previous page. Other
baselines appear in the Site Assets section as indicated above.
1996 Regional Emissions Sources of PM2.5 Particles
‘Measured daily concentrations of PM2.5 do not meet the local health
goal at monitoring stations in three of the Agency’s four counties. Kitsap
County’s two monitoring sites meet the goal…Gas-powered yard equipment is
not only noisy but spews exhaust into the air – in the summertime contributing
about 13 percent of our region’s summertime ozone, which can result in smog.
(Data Source: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency; Image Credit: GGLO)
COMMUNITY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
Healthy Living: Air Quality
Air Quality is an essential component of healthy
living. Fine particulate matter (PM
2.5
) exposure
is related to respiratory disease, decreased
lung function, asthma attacks, and serious
health efects. Diesel & gasoline emissions from
‘mobile’ sources, outdoor burning, freplaces
& woodstoves, industry, and other sources
such as dust contribute to poor air quality. The
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency is a regional
agency working with the EPA and Washington
Department of Ecology to monitor and regulate
air pollution for Kitsap, King, Pierce, and
Snohomish counties. Top priorities include: fne
particles, air toxics, ozone, and environmental
justice. Eforts to increase air quality through
both Community strategies and
Transportation strategies will be
especially important as population increases
and behaviors, such as wood stove burning and
vehicular emissions, that contribute the most to
our poor air quality will potentially increase.
INDUSTRY
3%
OTHER
6%
SOIL
6%
MOBILE
24%
BURNING
61%
29 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Neighborhood Food Banks
There are three food banks in the study
area -- Chicken Soup Brigade (1002 E Seneca St),
Jewish Family Services (1601 16th Ave), Salvation
Army Food Bank (1101 Pike St) -- increasing
their supply of locally grown
food would contribute to equity and health goals
around access to sustainable food.
Strategies
Equity
Build New Afordable Housing
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Capitol Hill Housing has a new afordable housing
project in the works (12th Ave Arts) and is interested in participating in development on the Station
Area Sites. The UDF also supports the action of building afordable housing on the Station Area Sites.
Develop a Community Fruit Tree Harvesting & Food Bank Donation Program
Form a community group that harvests fruit from neighborhood trees for local food banks; Mapping
fruit trees is a related strategy.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Community Harvest of Southwest Seattle (www.
gleanit.org), Solid Ground’s Community Fruit Tree Harvest (http://www.solid-ground.org/Programs/
Nutrition/FruitTree/Pages/default.aspx), and City Fruit (http://cityfruit.org) are all active local models.
Potential Funding includes City Fruit's South Seattle fruit harvest sells a portion of its fruit through
markets and restaurants located in south Seattle as part of a project to develop a model for covering
costs.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health)
Health
Grow a Capitol Hill Community Orchard
Use a park, or other underdeveloped site, or street trees in right of way, or college campus open
spaces to grow a community orchard, which can provide a free source of local fruit for neighbors and
local food security programs while providing space for public agricultural education and community
gathering -- support all equity, health, and cultural goals.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Community Orchard of West Seattle (http://www.
fruitinwestseattle.org/) is a good local resource; their orchard broke ground in January 2011 at
South Seattle Community College. The Beacon Hill Food Forest is also an emerging resource (http://
beaconfoodforest.weebly.com/index.html).
Related Performance Area(s): Habitat
Map all Urban Fruit Trees
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Use the City Fruit Online Tree Mapping Project
Related Performance Area(s): Habitat
Screenshot of City Fruit’s Online Tree Mapping Project
“The City Fruit mapping project has developed a simple way to map fruit trees
from a computer terminal or a mobile device, like a cell phone. Individuals tree
owners and other urban residents are urged to map fruit trees, and by doing so,
create a grassroots inventory of a so far undocumented urban resource.”
There are currently only a smattering of fg, apple, pear and cherry trees mapped
in the vicinity of Capitol Hill. More could be mapped and harvested through
community engagement.
COMMUNITY: STRATEGIES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 30
Health
Establish an Urban Farm Plot at the New Transit-Oriented Development
Implement on Station Area Sites
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: See resource list at left
Related Performance Area(s): Habitat
Relocate the Broadway Farmers Market at the New Transit-Oriented Development
Implement on Station Area Sites
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: This is also recommended in the UDF.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Cultural Vibrancy)
Retroft Wood-Stoves and Wood-Burning Fireplaces
Promote EPA-certifed wood stoves and wood-burning freplace insert retrofts
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency
Potential Funding: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Wood stove “buy-back” program
Related Performance Area(s): Energy
Restrict Gas-Powered Yard Equipment
This strategy could be integrated with a Materials Strategy around neighborhood tool sharing and
would improve neighborhood air quality.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency education
Related Performance Area(s): Energy; Materials
Monitor Air Quality Inside and Outside Buildings
Monitor and communicate air quality values to residents to increase awareness and support
information gathering.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: The US Embassy in Beijing monitors air quality and
shares the results via Twitter and in an iPhone App.
Urban Farming Resources
Solid Ground’s Lettuce Link
Program
Lettuce Link partners with the Department of
Neighborhoods P-Patch program to encourage and
support Seattle gardeners in growing extra produce
for Seattle food banks, meals programs and shelters.
Alleycat Acres
Urban Farming Collective
“Alleycat Acres is an urban farming collective
that aims to reconnect people with food. To achieve
this, we create community-run farms on under utilized
urban spaces.”
P-Patch Trust
Non-proft volunteer organization in Seattle that
works to build, preserve and protect community
gardens in Seattle’s neighborhood
by targeting eforts towards providing garden
acquisition and development in addition to program
support and advocacy.
City of Seattle
Urban Agriculture Ordinance
123378
In 2010, the City of Seattle mayor approved an
urban farm and community garden ordinance to
improve access to locally grown food. This ordinance
encourages urban agriculture by changing codes to
allow for increased development.
COMMUNITY: STRATEGIES
Today's gas-powered lawn mower emits as
much pollution in one hour as driving a newer
car 140 miles. An older mower may belch four
times as much pollution.
(Source: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency)
31 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Cultural Vibrancy
Develop Piazzette in Underutilized Spaces
Develop mini plazas or gardens in underutilized areas (see sketch plan map diagram at left)
to increase vibrancy while improving stormwater management and habitat amenities in the
right-of-way.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: WRP Associates is developing a new apartment
building adjacent to the piazzetta opportunity site at E Thomas St and Harvard Ave.
Related Performance Area(s): Transportation; Water; Habitat
Improve Hillclimbs Adjacent to I-5
Improve the use and safety of the stair climbs and hills adjacent to I-5 at E Republican St, E Harrison St,
and E Thomas St. This would improve the public realm and neighborhood connectivity. Incorporating
green infrastructure would help manage stormwater too.
Implement District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity and Health); Transportation (Walking/Pedestrians);
Water
Organize a Community Public Art Project Event
Organize a community public art project event that asks people to answer "What does an EcoDistrict
mean to you?" and create installations around the neighborhood.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: It would be good to partner with local arts
organizations, community organizations, and area schools. Integration on the Station Area Sites would
be a good frst step.
Related Performance Area(s): Could apply to all or none of the other performance areas; primarily
about community building and raising awareness and excitement about the EcoDistrict.
Increase Population and Employment Density Near High Capacity Transit
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Station Area Overlay District; Housing Seattle (http://
www.seattle.gov/planningcommission/docs/HousingSeattle.pdf ); Transit-Oriented Communities:
A Blueprint for Washington State (http://futurewise.org/priorities/TOCblueprint) ; Capitol Hill Urban
Design Framework; Seattle Transit Communities - Integrating Neighborhoods with Transit (http://
www.seattle.gov/planningcommission/projects/transit.htm)
Related Performance Area(s): Transportation
Piazzetta Opportunity Sites Sketch Map
There are a number of areas in the neighborhood where the street grid shifts
creating larger street widths and the opportunity for developing small plazas,
gardens, or wider sidewalks. These opportunity sites are identifed on the above
map diagram. (Image Credit: GGLO)
COMMUNITY: STRATEGIES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 32
COMMUNITY: STRATEGIES
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
Equity
1. Build New Afordable Housing
2. Develop a Community Fruit Tree Harvesting & Food Bank Donation Program
Health
3. Grow a Capitol Hill Community Orchard
4. Map all Urban Fruit Trees
5. Establish an Urban Farm Plot at the New TOD Development
6. Relocate the Broadway Farmers Market at the New TOD Development
7. Retroft Wood-Stoves and Wood-Burning Fireplaces
8. Restrict Gas-Powered Yard Equipment
9. Monitor Air Quality Inside and Outside Buildings
Cultural Vibrancy
10. Develop Piazzette in Underutilized Spaces
11. Improve Hillclimbs Adjacent to I-5
12. Organize a Community Public Art Project Event
13. Increase Population and Employment Density Near High Capacity Transit
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
10
5
8
7
11
3
4
13
13
12
2
9
1
1
6
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
33 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 34
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/4
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2
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11 84
12
2
84
49
60
9
8 43
11
14
43
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10
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14
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14
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25
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193
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TRANSPORTATION: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Transportation Assets Map Diagram
This map shows how well served the EcoDistrict study area is by a diversity of transportation options. All major bus routes, bike lanes, and
planned transit infrastructure improvements are shown. Existing locations for electric car charging stations and Avego car sharing pick
up points are also mapped.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
49
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
STREETS & ALLEY GRID
WALK RADIUS
WALKWAY
LINK LIGHT RAIL TUNNEL
FUTURE STREETCAR LINE
PROPOSED BUS RAPID TRANSIT
(Source: Seattle Transit Master Plan, Summary Report, 09/2011)
FUTURE STREETCAR EXPANSION
BUS ROUTE #
PRINCIPAL TRANSIT STREET W/ BUS ROUTE
BUS STOP
(Sources: King County Metro System Map, 10/2011;
GIS; Seattle Transit Master Plan)
MAJOR TRANSIT STREET W/ BUS ROUTE
MINOR TRANSIT STREET W/ BUS ROUTE
LOCAL TRANSIT STREET W/ BUS ROUTE
BIKE LANE
BIKE SHARROW
BIKE SHOP
(Source: Seattle Bicycling Guide Map 2011)
BIKE SHARROW W/ BIKE LANE ON UPHILL
BIKE ROUTE (CONNECTOR STREET)
BIKE TRAIL
SURFACE PARKING
AVEGO GO520 RIDE SHARE STOP
ELECTRIC CAR CHARGING LOCATION
ZIPCAR STOP z
E THOMAS ST
E HARRISON ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
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35 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
TRANSPORTATION: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Reduce the negative environmental impact of automobile use by maximizing the
opportunities for walking, biking, and transit use.
The majority of Seattle’s carbon emissions come from transportation, so to address the city’s
environmental impacts, the way people and goods are moved must change. Given this context,
Capitol Hill has an opportunity to expand transportation choices and lead the charge away from auto-
dependence. The neighborhood is already on track to do so: its lower than average single occupancy
vehicle car trips, high walkability, proximity to downtown, bike infrastructure, and frequent bus service
will soon be buttressed by a new light rail station, streetcar line and separated bike lane (cycle-track).
These assets are a great foundation for Capitol Hill’s EcoDistrict to build upon.
High Walkability
Capitol HIll is one of the most walkable neighborhoods in the city – Walk Score quantifes the
neighborhood's walkability with a score of 91 out of 100; the neighborhood favors walking as a
primary method of commuting at levels that support a carbon neutral Seattle. From the epicenter
of the Station Area Sites, much of the neighborhood's destinations are within a 1/2 mile walk. An
EcoDistrict could both capitalize on this high walkability and improve it with projects that improve
sidewalks and wayfnding, slow traf c (see James Ct woonerf project for example), and increase local
business and community space destinations. Improving pedestrian safety is also already a priority
of the Capitol Hill Community Council, which currently has a taskforce called the "12th Avenue
Transportation Safety Project" working on improving pedestrian safety along 12th Avenue.
Good Bus Service
There are ten bus routes that directly serve Capitol Hill within the EcoDistrict study area. Along each
route, there are bus stops approximately every two blocks. The strongest connections are to and from
downtown. Capitol Hill already exceeds city targets for transit use (see bar graph at left).
Good & Improving Bike Infrastructure
The bike infrastructure on Capitol Hill is fairly good – there are sharrows on three of the main north/
south streets, a designated bike lane on Pine St, two bike shops within 1/4 mile of the Station Area
Sites, a growing number of bicycle parking racks, and a few of the City's frst bike boxes (at 12th and
Pine and 12th and Madison) – and there are existing plans for additional infrastructure improvements,
such as the upcoming separated bike lane (cycle-track) on Broadway. Alta Bicycle Share is working
with the City on a feasibility study to bring a bicycle sharing program to Seattle and Capitol Hill would
be an ideal pilot location.
Excellent Future Transit Expansions
Capitol Hill is at the center of many new transportation projects: a new streetcar opening in 2014 will
connect Capitol Hill to Yesler Terrace and King St Station; the new LINK Light Rail extension opening in
2016 will connect Capitol Hill to downtown and the airport to the south and to the University District
to the north; and a new Bus Rapid Transit line identifed in the City's Transportation Master Plan will
run up and down Madison to improve the neighborhood's east/west connections.
Walk Score Maps of Seattle and Capitol Hill reveal that the neighborhood is
one of the most walkable in the city. (Source: www.walkscore.com/WA/Seattle/
Capitol Hill)
Capitol HIll's Transportation Mode Split and City Carbon Neutral Targets
(Sources: City targets for mode share from "Getting to Zero: A Pathway to a
Carbon Neutral Seattle"; Work Commute Mode Split based on 2000 Census data
for Capitol Hill Urban Center Village and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village )
(Image Credit: GGLO)
2050 2030 2000
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WALK BIKE TRANSIT
CARPOOL SINGLE OCCUPANCY VEHICLE
OTHER (Work at Home, Motorcycle, Other)
5.5%
22.9%
3.1%
28.2%
2.4%
32.9%
4%
9%
22%
30%
36%
4%
11%
25%
29%
32%
MAXIMIZE
ACTIVE
TRANSPORTATION
& TRANSIT
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 36
Alternative Vehicle Use Support
While driving cars is the least sustainable transportation mode choice, reducing the number of single-
occupant trips through car sharing and carpooling, and using alternative fuel vehicles, helps reduce
overall emissions. Two car sharing programs already serve Capitol Hill: Avego Car Sharing and ZipCar.
Additionally, there are two electric car charging locations along E Madison Street.
Goals:
• Prioritize Active Transportation
• Maximize Access to Clean, Low Carbon Transportation Options
• Reduce Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMTs)
• Enable Car-Free Households (also a UDF goal)
• Increase the Safety of Walking and Biking
• Improve Wayfnding around District and to Various Transportation Options
Suggested Targets:
• Reduce Carbon Emissions or VOC Emissions from Transportation Mix
• Increase All Active Transportation Trips (i.e., biking and walking) over baseline by 2030
• Surpass Seattle's Carbon Neutral 2030 Mode Share Goals of 9% for Biking by 2020 (all other mode
share targets have already been met or surpassed)
• Reduce Per Capita Daily VMT by 50% by 2030
• Reduce Total Car Parking Area over baseline by 2030
• Increase Total # of Car Sharing Stops over 2011 baseline by 2030
• Halve the # of Ped/Bike-to-Car Collisions by 2020 (The 2007 Bicycle Master Plan sets a goal of
reducing collisions by a third by 2020)
• Increase # of People Walking Along Key Pedestrian Corridors (like Broadway and E Pine St) over
baseline by 2030
• Increase Total Area of Bike Parking and/or Total # of Bike Racks over 2011 baseline by 2030
• Increase Membership in Bicycle Clubs/Coalitions (like Cascade Bicycle Club)
• Increase Freight Delivery by Bike and Low-emission Transportation Bicycle Collisions Reduction Goal
“The 2007 Bicycle Master Plan sets an ambitious
goal of decreasing the rate of bicycle-involved
collisions by a third over the 10-year life of the
plan.” (2010 Seattle Traf c Report, Section Four -
Traf c Collision Rates)
There are currently
260 bike racks within the Capitol Hill Urban
Center Village and Pike/Pine Urban Center Village.
(Source: SDOT)
In the Capitol Hill Urban Center Village, the average
number of vehicles per household
is 0.8; In the Pike/Pine Urban Center Village
the average number of vehicles per
household is 0.6; The average number of
vehicles per household citywide is roughly 1.
(Source: City Councilman Tim Rasmussen, June 2005)
TRANSPORTATION: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
37 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Metrics
The following metrics can be used to measure the EcoDistrict's performance now and over time in
the area of transportation.
• Total Annual Carbon Emissions and/or VOC Emissions from Transportation
• District Performance Relative to the Seattle Climate Action Plan goals
• Mode Split for the District of All Modes
(see Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
• Distance to/from Transit Options and Residences and Community Facilities
(see Community: Site Assets and Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
• Daily Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
(baseline requires further study)
• Vehicle Flow (Average Annual Daily Traf c) on Key Arterials
• Total Area of Car Parking and/or Total # of Parking Stalls
• Total # of On-Street Parking Spots
(baseline requires further study)
• Average # of Cars Per Household
• % Monthly Income Spent on Transportation per Household
(15 - 19% of monthly income - Source: Center for Neighborhood Technology)
• # of Car Sharing Stops and Programs
(see map in Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
• # of Ped/Bike-to-Car Collisions Annually
• # of People Walking Along Key Pedestrian Corridors
(baseline requires further study)
• Walkscore
(see Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
• Total Area of Bike Parking and/or Total # of Bike Racks
• Total # or Total Miles of Bike Lanes and Sharrows
(see map in Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
• # of Bikes Available for Use through a Bike-Sharing Program
• # of Bike Shops and/or Bike Storage Facilities
(see map in Transportation: Site Assets for baseline information)
Baselines
Baseline fgures for most of the above metrics appear in the charts and fgures in the left margins
of this section, and on the Transportation Baselines Map in the Site Assets section. Other baselines
appear in the Site Assets section as indicated above.
Seattle Citywide GHG Emissions by Sector
Road Transportation accounts for 40% of total annual carbon emissions.
(Source: 2008 Seattle Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory)
2005 Distribution of Summertime VOC Emissions
"Summertime" is defned as June, July and August
"Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are our main ozone precursor. Of these,
gasoline-powered vehicles make up the largest contributor."
(Source: Puget Sound Clean Air Agency, "2005 Air Emission Inventory")
TRANSPORTATION: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
ON-ROAD
VEHICLES
36%
NON-ROAD
ENGINES
20%
GASOLINE
DISTRIBUTION
4%
INDUSTRIAL
COATING + CLEANING
13%
ARCHITECTURAL
COATING
7%
OPEN BURNING
2%
AREA SOURCE
FUEL COMBUSTION
1%
LARGE INDUSTRIAL
SOURCES
3%
CONSUMER
EVAPORATION
14%
RES.
9%
ROAD
TRASPORTATION
40%
AIR, MARINE
& RAIL
TRANSPORTATION
22%
COMMERCIAL
12%
INDUSTRY
& WASTE
17%
TOTAL = 11.3 tCO
2
e
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 38
Strategies
Capitol Hill already performs strongly from a transportation point of view and its primary strategy
for further improvement is to leverage the many upcoming public transit projects that will help the
neighborhood meet many of its transportation goals.
Transit
Provide Transit Passes to Tenants
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community
Install Real-Time Arrival Info Monitors at Transit Stops
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community
Vehicles
Minimize Installation of New Parking Stalls
Convert Parking Stalls/ Street Parking to New Use (e.g. gardens, bike parking, or habitable area)
Create a Parking Management District
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle Zoning Code; UDF Parking Goals (< 1 stall
per unit); There are a number of on-street parking areas that could be converted to green street
infrastructure, bike parking, food stalls, or small plazas. Potential funding: Parking Benefts District
Related Performance Area(s): Community; Water; Habitat
Increase Car-Sharing Stalls & Stops (for ZipCar, Avego, etc)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Separate Parking Stall Cost from Rent / Lease Costs
Use parking policy to improve transportation behavior. Do not include parking in rent/ lease structure.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Plan a “Guerilla Parking Day”
Transform street parking into usable space.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: feet frst and PARK(ing) DAY - Seattle (http://
my.parkingday.org/group/parkingdayseattle); Permitting guidelines can be found online; Projects are
funded by participants
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health and Vibrancy)
Campaign to Remove Subsidies for Restricted Parking Zones
Parking permits in the "Area 1" RPZ are currently subsidized by Group Health, which allows
neighborhood residents to park up to four cars for free (see: http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/
parking/rpz_z4.htm). Removing these subsidies would accelerate behavior change away from
reliance on SOVs and support the conversion of existing parking spaces to more sustainable uses.
Implement District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health and Vibrancy); Water
Park(ing) Day 2009 Spots
(Image Credit: Flickr "carfreedays")
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"There are fewer automobiles in 2030.
There is more foot traffic. I have, in some
respects, everything I could want within
walking distance: film, theater, fashion,
books, clean air, a teen space, happy
neighbors."
TRANSPORTATION: STRATEGIES
39 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Walking / Pedestrians
Develop a Neighborhood Wayfnding Program / Install Wayfnding Signage
Facilitate increased walking and biking by developing a neighborhood wayfnding program.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: The "Legible London" (http://www.tf.gov.uk/
microsites/legible-london/) and "Walk Raleigh" (http://walk-raleigh.com) projects are two good
examples of city- and community-driven wayfnding strategies.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy)
Create an EcoDistrict Pedestrian Zone
Create an EcoDistrict Pedestrian Zone to manage street/sidewalk improvements and the installation
and maintenance of wayfnding signage.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy)
Create an Annual Pedestrian Count Program
Use the National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project methodology to count pedestrians
(http://bikepeddocumentation.org/) and establish a baseline count; continue this program over time
to monitor improvements and compare performance to other neighborhoods around the city and
country.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: The City uses the recommended methodology for their
pedestrian counts, but they do not cover Capitol Hill.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health and Cultural Vibrancy)
Conduct a Neighborhood Walkability Audit
Conduct a “Walkability Audit” to feld verify current sidewalk conditions, assess where sidewalks are
not accessible to disabled or aging populations, and engage the community around improving
neighborhood walkability.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: See http://www.walkinginfo.org/problems/audits.cfm
for more information on how to conduct walkability audits; Capitol Hill Community Council's 12th Ave
Pedestrian Safety Committee (http://capitolhillcommunitycouncil.org/blog/)
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health and Cultural Vibrancy)
Improve Alleys
Improve alleys to create better walkability throughout neighborhood and strengthen connections to
parks, piazzetta opportunity sites (see map in Community strategies), and pedestrian priority streets.
Incorporate green infrastructure to assist with district water goals.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: "Activating Alleys for a Lively Seattle: Seattle Integrated
Alley Handbook"
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy); Water
Photo of a Student Conducting a Pedestrian Count in Seattle
(Image Credit: City of Seattle, "Public Spaces Public Life" 2009)
Pedestrians in front of a "Legible London" wayfnding sign.
(Image Credit: Martin Deutsch)
Capitol Hill Alley Conditions
50% of the alleys have 2 or more drains
66% of the alleys are paved with concrete while
33% have asphalt pavement.
There is no discoverable furniture in the alleyways.
Around 50% of alleys are used for parking.
66% of the alleys have accessible business entries.
There are an average of 3.5 garage doors per alley.
Source: Adapted from
"Activating Alleys for a Lively Seattle: Seattle Integrated Alley Handbook"
TRANSPORTATION: STRATEGIES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 40
Repair/Replace Inaccessible Sidewalks
After conducting a neighborhood walkability audit, improve identifed sidewalks as part of an
EcoDistrict strategy for strengthening neighborhood walkability as well as equity and accessibility.
Implement District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity and Vibrancy)
Install Woonerfs / Convert Low Traf c Streets or Alleys to Woonerfs
Woonerfs (aka "streets for living") are an excellent strategy for slowing traf c, expanding shared public
space, and improving neighborhood walkability, bikability and permeability.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: 12th Ave Stewardship Committee and the Seattle Parks
Department; James Court Woonerf (http://www.seattle.gov/parks/ProParks/projects/12thAve.htm).
"Festival Streets" are recommended as part of the Station Area Sites' development in the UDF.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health and Vibrancy), Water
Advocate for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Funding
Walking is a primary form of transportation, but funding for pedestrian infrastructure is not
commensurate with its high use. Re-appropriating funds for car infrastructure and advocating for
pedestrians are priorities for rebalancing investments and improving the public realm.
Implement District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy); Water (related to converting
right-of-ways)
*
*
*
12,600
13,100
23,500
Transportation Baselines Map
Shows baseline information about the number and locations of pedestrian/bike
collisions with cars in 2008 as reported in the "Capitol Hill Specifc Neighborhood
Data" PDF (http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/cms/groups/pan/@pan/@plan/@
neighborplanning/documents/web_informational/dpds016985.pdf ); sidewalks
that need improvements as identifed in the 2007 Sidewalk Inventory Map
(http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/docs/SidewalkInventory2007.pdf ) from
the Seattle Pedestrian Master Plan; amount (16.6 acres) and location of parking
as identifed by parcel use and lot size in GIS, and average annual daily vehicle
fow on key arterials per SDOT . (Image Credit: GGLO)
TRANSPORTATION: STRATEGIES
Sidewalk In
5/2009: Nei
12,600
WALKWAY
ALLEY
SURFACE PARKING
PED OR BIKE COLLISIONS W/ CARS: 3+
PED OR BIKE COLLISIONS W/ CARS: 2
PED OR BIKE COLLISIONS W/ CARS: 1
(Source: 2008 Ped Collisions)
SIDEWALK IMPROVEMENT NEEDED
(Source: 2007 Sidewalk Inventory Map)
VEHICLE FLOW ON KEY ARTERIALS
(Source: SDOT, 2010)
E JOHN ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
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41 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Bike Box on Capitol Hill (Image Credit: SvR Design Company)
Photo of Bike Port in Pioneer Square
Bike Port (formerly Bikestation Seattle) provides secure bicycle parking, bicycle
repair, and bike rentals. It closed December 2011.
(Image Credit: Robert Ashworth "theslowlane")
Rendering of James Ct Woonerf and new "12th Ave & E James Ct Pro Park."
(Image Credit: Hewitt Architects)
Biking
Install More Bike Boxes at Major Intersections
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Bike boxes are expensive (about $10,000 each for the
special paint and labor), but they are a priority of the City's "Walk/Bike/Ride" program.
Install Creative Bike Racks
Host a design/build competition to install EcoDistrict-inspired bike racks to engage the community
and increase overall bike parking space.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: SDOT Rack Program helps provide bike racks
throughout the city and has experience with bike rack design competitions.
Implement a Bike-Sharing Program
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Potential partners include: Bike Works, The Bicycle
Alliance of Washington, Cascade Bicycle Club, and Feet First.
Next Step: Engage with the City and Alta Bike Share about bringing their bike sharing program to
Capitol Hill as a Seattle pilot project.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy); Materials
Open a Bikestation on Capitol Hill
Open a "Bikestation" facility that provides support services to bicyclists, including secure, stafed
bicycle parking and resources for repairs, maps, and other information.
Implement on the Station Area Sites or District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Ongoing funding may be a challenge - Seattle's only
Bike Port (formerly Bikestation Seattle) is closing December 31, 2011 due to lack of funds.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity, Health, Vibrancy); Materials
TRANSPORTATION: STRATEGIES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 42
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
Transit
1. Provide Transit Passes to Tenants
2. Install Real-Time Arrival Info Monitors at Transit Stops
Vehicles
3. Minimize Installation of New Parking Stalls
4. Convert Parking Stalls/ Street Parking to New Use
5. Create a Parking Management District
6. Increase Car-Sharing Stalls & Stops (for ZipCar, Avego, etc)
7. Separate Parking Stall Cost from Rent / Lease Costs
8. Plan a “Guerilla Parking Day”
9. Campaign to Remove Subsidies for Restricted Parking Zones
Walking / Pedestrians
10. Develop a Neighborhood Wayfnding Program/Install Wayfnding Signage
11. Create an EcoDistrict Pedestrian Zone
12. Create an Annual Pedestrian Count Program
13. Conduct a Neighborhood Walkability Audit
14. Improve Alleys
15. Repair/Replace Inaccessible Sidewalks
16. Install Woonerfs / Convert Low Traf c Streets or Alleys to Woonerfs
17. Advocate for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Funding
Biking
18. Install More Bike Boxes at Major Intersections
19. Install Creative Bike Racks
20. Implement a Bike-Sharing Program
21. Open a Bikestation on Capitol Hill
18
21 16
7
6 4
5
12
3
14
17
13
2 20
1
15
8
11
19
9
10
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
TRANSPORTATION: STRATEGIES
43 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 44
Providence
Medical Ctr
Swedish
Medical Ctr
Seattle
University
Seattle
Central
CC
Virginia Mason
Medical Ctr
Group
Health
Medical
Ctr
ENERGY: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Energy Assets Map Diagram
This map shows the many assets the neighborhood has for improving energy ef ciency: potential district energy systems are under
evaluation, energy audit and upgrade programs are available to homeowners and business owners, and nearby institutions and utilities
could provide resources and support for starting up new programs. (Image Credit: GGLO)
*
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
PARCEL/ROW GRID
SEATTLE 2030 DISTRICT EAST BOUNDARY
PRESERVATION GREEN LAB DISTRICT ENERY STUDY AREA
SEATTLE STEAM LINE
LINCOLN RESERVOIR
MAJOR INSTITUTION
HEAT SOURCE: GROCERY STORES & CREMATORIUM
E THOMAS ST
E HARRISON ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
M
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D
IS
O
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S
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1
8
T
H

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B
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E
1
6
T
H

A
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E ALOHA ST
E ROY ST
E
O
L
I
V
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W
Y
E MERCER ST
45 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
ENERGY: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Reduce non-renewable energy use & associated greenhouse gas emissions.
Designing and operating energy ef cient buildings and increasing the use of renewable sources of
energy are recognized strategies for combating climate change, since buildings are responsible for
nearly half of US CO
2
emissions (46% in 2011 according to U.S. Energy Information Administration /
Architecture 2030) through their energy use. Despite popular wisdom to the contrary, Seattle also
contributes to this story, so reducing consumption and increasing ef ciencies are important long-
term issues for Capitol Hill. Furthermore, population growth and an increase in electric vehicles will
likely grow electricity demand beyond the capacity of existing sources unless further conservation
measures are taken. Luckily, Capitol Hill has many assets that can support energy conservation, energy
ef cient building design, and renewable energy generation strategies.
Progressive Utility Providers
Utility providers that serve Capitol Hill have several programs that may be tapped to further the
goals of an EcoDistrict. Seattle City Light (electricity) and Puget Sound Energy (natural gas) both
have a range of conservation programs. Seattle City Light also has the "Green Up" program, which
allows customers to purchase Renewable Energy Credits and help the utility cover the slightly
higher cost of producing and integrating renewable energy into the Northwest grid. Seattle City
Light is also committed to increasing its supply of low carbon fuel sources. In 2008 hydroelectric and
wind power constituted 90.1% of Seattle City Light's supply, which is a great beneft for meeting
renewable energy supply targets and carbon neutrality goals, but electricity is not the whole energy
consumption story. According to the 2008 Seattle Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory, buildings
in Seattle use slightly more natural gas and oil (51%) than electricity (49%) to meet building energy
needs. Setting goals and implementing targets that improve energy ef ciency, as well as the
renewable energy fuel mix, in the Capitol Hill neighborhood will be important for achieving overall
neighborhood sustainability.
Seattle Building Energy Benchmarking & Reporting
Measure What Matters – Establishing actual energy performance through benchmarking is an
essential frst step toward energy ef ciency. Capitol Hill will beneft from Seattle’s mandated
benchmarking program that requires commercial and multifamily buildings of 5 or more units
to track and report energy performance on an annual basis. The legislation also obliges building
owners to disclose the information upon request by a prospective tenant, buyer, or lender in a real
estate transaction. Not only will this enable the City to monitor progress toward achieving citywide
ef ciency targets and provide building owners a baseline performance value to assist ef ciency
investment decisions, but create an informed market for the leasing and purchasing of real estate.
Community Power Works Program Service Area
"Community Power Works" (CPW) was founded with funding from the US Department of Energy's
BetterBuildings program and is administered by the City of Seattle. The program provides discounted
energy audits to a range of building types (single-family homes, multi-family buildings, hospitals,
large commercial associated with Seattle Steam, and food-service related businesses are all covered),
with the intention of helping building owners make important energy upgrades and increase their
88% HYDRO
6.4% NUCLEAR
2.5% COAL
2.1% WIND
1.1% OTHER
49% 46%
5%
N
A
T
U
R
A
L

G
A
S
E
L
E
C
T
R
I
C
I
T
Y
O
IL
12%
Seattle Building Energy Consumption by Fuel Type + Electricity Supply Fuel Mix
This chart shows the energy consumption mix for Seattle buildings in 2008, as
well as the energy supply fuel mix for electricity supplied by Seattle City Light in
2010. (Sources: 2008 Seattle Community Greenhouse Gas Inventory; Seattle City
Light) (Image Credit: GGLO)
Includes natural
gas, biomass,
waste, petroleum,
landfill gases and
other.
" Green Up is Seattle City Light's voluntary green power program for residential
and business customers. By enrolling in Green Up, customers purchase green
power for a portion of their electricity use and demonstrate their support for
wind power and other new renewable energy projects in the Northwest."
(Image Credit: Seattle City Light)
Capitol Hill Participation
164 Homes
0 Businesses
(Source: Community Power Works;
data for zip code 98122, as of 02/2012)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 46
energy ef ciency by at least 15%. The program also facilitates low interest loans for energy upgrades
and has a pre-approved contractor list. Since Capitol Hill is mostly built out and has many older
buildings, this could be a great asset for the EcoDistrict to exploit and promote. As of January 2012,
the program is available city-wide.
Carbon Neutral Seattle
Capitol Hill has the potential to be the testing ground for pilot project investments associated with
Seattle’s pursuit for carbon neutrality. In 2005, Seattle spearheaded the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection
Agreement which committed over 1,000 cities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to the levels
required in the Kyoto Protocol. In 2010, Seattle City Council adopted the ambitious goal for Seattle to
become the nation’s frst carbon neutral city. The Seattle Climate Action Plan will be our roadmap for
carbon neutrality by 2050.
High Performance District Neighbor: Seattle 2030 District
Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict is well located to learn from or partner with the Seattle 2030 District, which
abuts Capitol Hill to the west. As their website says:
"The Seattle 2030 District is an interdisciplinary public-private collaborative working to create
a ground-breaking high-performance building district in Downtown Seattle that aims to
dramatically reduce the environmental impact of building construction and operations...with
the Architecture 2030 Challenge for Planning providing our performance goals..."
As part of their work, the Seattle 2030 District is researching and developing fnancing models for
energy upgrades; these would likely be applicable to Capitol Hill too.
Potential Expansion of Seattle Steam Service
Seattle's existing district energy utility, Seattle Steam, is a candidate for providing thermal district
energy to Capitol Hill. Seattle Steam's lines currently come up to Capitol Hill via Harvard Ave and serve
a Seattle Central Community College building located at the corner of Broadway and Pine, just a few
blocks from the Station Area Sites. Seattle Steam could expand its service area, and the EcoDistrict,
if it pursues district energy, has the potential to act as a catalyst for extending service north along
Broadway.
Seattle 2030 District Map (Image Credit: Seattle 2030 District)
Seattle Steam Company in downtown Seattle
(Image Credit: Michael Stearns Hybrid3 Design)
The Seattle Climate Action Plan is undergoing an update to lay out a
roadmap for how Seattle can become carbon neutral by 2050.
(Image Credit: Of ce of Sustainability & Environment)
ENERGY: SITE ASSETS
47 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Thermal District Energy Studies in Pursuit
There is strong support for studying the feasibility of a thermal district energy system on Capitol Hill.
The City is issuing a RFEOI (Request for Expressions of Interest) in early 2012 for an entity to spearhead
the development of a proposal for building and operating a district energy utility in the city. As a
precursor to this RFEOI the City completed a pre-feasibility study on district energy systems in Seattle
and identifed Capitol Hill as a good candidate for a system.
In support of that assessment, the City recently contracted with Preservation Green Lab (PGL)
to conduct a deeper analysis of Capitol Hill's potential for a thermal district energy system. PGL's
study area overlaps the EcoDistrict study area (see boundaries on Energy Assets Map); their analysis
supplements this report. PGL's study will be issued in early 2012 and will outline potential district
energy concept plans, as well as contain a deep-dive study of Capitol Hill's building stock, including
type and age of buildings and HVAC systems.
Potential Heat Sources
From a high-level it is apparent that Capitol Hill has a number of potential sources of heat for a
thermal district energy system: there are six grocery stores (which often have excess heat available
from their refrigeration system), a crematorium next to the station area sites (and while a candidate
for redevelopment, excess heat may also be a resource), one hospital (with two more nearby ) and
two college campuses (from which waste heat recovery may be possible), and there is the Lincoln
Reservoir underneath Cal Anderson Park (which may have low grade heat potential in a district
energy system).
Most Promising Neighborhoods for District Energy in Seattle
This chart is excerpted from the 2011 Seattle District Energy Pre-Feasibility Study
and shows that Capitol Hill was designated as "most promising" for receipt of a
district energy system. (Image Credit: City of Seattle, 2011)
Cover of "Capitol Hill District Energy Opportunity Study"
A deep-dive study of Capitol Hill's building stock, including type and age of
buildings and HVAC systems, to be issued in early 2012.
(Image Credit: Preservation Green Lab)
ENERGY: SITE ASSETS
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 48
Goals:
• Reduce Energy Use by Minimizing Demand and Maximizing Conservation
• Provide New and Expand Existing Options for Improving Energy Ef ciency in Buildings and
throughout the District.
• Optimize Infrastructure Ef ciencies at all Scales
• Use Renewable Energy
• Reduce Mix of Energy Generated from Fossil Fuels Consumed in the District | Increase the Mix of
Renewable Energy
Suggested Targets:
• Existing Buildings & Infrastructure: Decrease Energy Use Intensity by 10% below National average
prior to 2015 with incremental targets (20% in 2020, 35% in 2025) reaching 50% by 2030 - based
on 2030 Challenge for Planning
• New Buildings & Infrastructure: Decrease Energy Use Intensity by 60% below National average for
project constructed prior to 2015 with incremental targets (70% in 2015, 80% in 2020, 90% in 2025)
reaching carbon neutral by 2030 - based on 2030 Challenge for Planning
• Decrease Annual Energy Use Intensity by 30% over 2011 baseline by 2030 and 50% by 2050 (per
capita in residential and per sf in commercial) - based on Carbon Neutral Seattle.
• Increase Mix of Renewable Energy Supplied to District (whether generated on-site or of-site)
• Reduce Carbon Emissions and/or PM2.5 Emissions from Energy Use
• Retroft 75% of Eligible Existing Buildings from 2011 baseline by 2030, 90% by 2050 (90% based on
Carbon Neutral Seattle)
• Decrease Energy Demand Associated with Water Supply by 50% by 2030
• Have the District be a Net Energy Producer by 2050
• Increase # of LEED Certifed or Living Building Challenge (LBC) Certifed Buildings to 100% of New
Construction by 2030
Energy Ef ciency
“Increase energy ef ciency in building design
and operations, as well as in vehicle ef ciency
[to] result in over 30% energy savings by 2030
(per capita in residential, per square foot in
commercial, and per-mile in vehicles) and over
50% by 2050, relative to 2008 levels.”
(Getting to Zero: A Pathway to a Carbon Neutral
Seattle, May 2011)
NUMBER OF BUILDINGS
80%
20%
BASELINE ENERGY BUDGET
50%
50%
BUILDING AREA
70%
30%
RESIDENTIAL NON-RESIDENTIAL
Neighborhood Energy Profle
Of the 1,500 buildings in the neighborhood, 80% (+1,200) are residential,
occupy 70% of total foor area, and have an annual baseline energy budget
which is 50% of the neighborhood’s total(based on national average energy
use intensity by building use).
Because non-residential energy use is disproportionately larger than its
percentage of total buildings (and building area) in the neighborhood
(20% and 30% respectively), targeting energy ef ciency strategies for
non-residential buildings should be a priority. Given the large numbers of
residential buildings, energy ef ciency strategies will require additional efort
to yield similar non-residential results.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
ENERGY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
49 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Metrics:
• Annual Energy Demand (Baseline & Actual) as measured by an Energy Use Index (kBtu/SF/year)
including:
Aggregate Building EUI (by Use Type)
Aggregate Public Infrastructure EUI (from street lights, etc)
Aggregate EUI for the Overall District per capita
• Annual Energy Supply Mix including:
Percentage of Energy Supplied by Renewable Resources (% = Renewable Supply ÷ Total Energy
Supply)
Percentage of Energy Supplied by Renewable Energy Produced On-Site/District (% = On-Site/
District Renewable Produced ÷ Total Energy Supply)
Percentage of Energy Supplied by Fossil Fuel GHG Emitting Energy (% = Fossil Fuel GHG Emitting
Supply ÷ Total Energy Supply) - see Site Assets for city-wide Energy baseline information.
• Net Positive Energy; calculate: Percentage of Excess Energy Produced over Total Consumed in
District
• Percent Reduction in Energy Demand (Per Capita, Aggregate Building, Public Infrastructure, Overall)
(% = Energy Demand ÷ Baseline Energy Demand)
• District Performance Relative to Architecture 2030 Targets and Seattle Climate Action Plan
• Percent of Building Retrofts Completed (% = Retrofts Completed ÷ Baseline Buildings Eligible for
Energy Retrofts)
• Carbon Emissions Reduction from Annual Energy Sources (% = Tons CO
2
÷ Baseline CO
2
)
• District Energy Ready - The ability for building systems to connect to future district energy systems
(Example: hydronic heating).
• # Buildings / Dwellings with Advanced Metering
• # Buildings Publicly Reporting Energy Use
• # Businesses, Employees, Households with Energy Ef ciency Training
• # of LEED Certifed Buildings and/or Living Buildings in District
• # of Homes and Businesses Participating in the Community Power Works program
Baselines:
Baseline fgures for most of the above metrics appear in the charts and fgures in the left margins
of this section, and on the "Annual Baseline Energy Budget" diagram on the following page. Other
baselines appear in the Site Assets section as indicated above.
$0 MIL
$3 MIL
$6 MIL
$9 MIL
$12 MIL
50%
reduction
25,000
vehicles
25%
reduction
12,500
vehicles
P
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I
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L

E
N
E
R
G
Y

S
A
V
I
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G
S

I
N

M
I
L
L
I
O
N
S

O
F

D
O
L
L
A
R
S
Represents annual greenhouse gas emissions
from 245 vehicles
25%
50%
Carbon Emissions
Neighborhood baseline carbon footprint is equivalent to the annual
greenhouse gas emissions from nearly 50,000 vehicles (average emissions
determined by the EPA). If each building targeted a 50% energy savings, it
would be the equivalent of removing almost 25,000 vehicles from the road
with a potential utility savings of more than $12 million annually.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"A Dick's Deluxe is cooked with solar
energy."
ENERGY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 50
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
500,000
550,000
600,000
650,000
B
A
S
E
L
I
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E

E
N
E
R
G
Y


(
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B
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A
0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000
BASELINE ENERGY
(MBTU/yr)
N
U
M
B
E
R
O
F
B
U
IL
D
IN
G
S
Bank
Convenience Store
Education
Grocery
Police/Fire
Hospital
Hotel
House of Worship
Library
Medical Ofce
Ofce
Other
Parking Garage
Assembly Space
Restaurant
Retail/Service
Warehouse
Bank
Convenience Store
Education
Grocery
Police/Fire
Hospital
Hotel
House of Worship
Library
Medical Ofce
Ofce
Other
Parking Garage
Assembly Space
Restaurant
Retail/Service
Warehouse
RESIDENTIAL NON-RESIDENTIAL
0 30 60 90 120 150 NUMBER OF BUILDINGS
Annual Baseline Energy Budget – By Building Type
By setting a baseline for the neighborhood, energy ef ciency improvements (including 2030 Challenge progress) can be measured as actual energy use data becomes available. When targeting energy ef ciency, programs that
focus on Residential buildings, Hospitals, Retail & Services buildings, and Restaurants will yield the greatest return -- these building types have the largest annual energy demand on Capitol Hill. Particular focus should be placed
on the two Hospital buildings that consume nearly 20% of the total energy demand and the nearly 150 Retail and Service buildings that consume about 10% of the total energy demand; approaches to energy ef ciency for
each building type will difer. (Sources: National Average Energy Use Intensity by Building Type - Architecture 2030, Target Finder, and CBECS) (Image Credit: GGLO)
ENERGY: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
51 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
LED Capitol Hill Pilot Project
60% of people surveyed about the
Seattle City LIght's streetlights program
said that they improved their ability to
see when walking and driving.
76% of people surveyed said they
would like to see LED streetlights more
widely used throughout the city.
Source: Seattle City Light website (http://www.seattle.gov/light/streetlight/led/)
LED Lights = Energy Savings
“The LEDs are expected to last at least 12 years,
increasing reliability and lowering maintenance
costs. They also are expected to use at least 40
percent less energy than our current lights. Once
all 40,000 lights are installed, the combined
savings is projected to be $2.4 million per year.”
(Seattle City Light website)
Strategies
When targeting energy ef ciency, designs that focus on new and existing Residential buildings,
Hospitals, Retail & Services buildings, and Restaurants will yield the greatest return -- these
building types have the largest annual energy demand on Capitol Hill (see "Annual Baseline Energy
Budget – By Building Type" on opposite page).
Energy-Ef cient Building Design (Target Big Users)
Design to meet 2030 Challenge at a minimum (hydronic and electric heat pumps over electric
resistance heating will be important for residential development)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: UDF: Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Design
and Programming Solutions (pg 20). Potential funding opportunities associated with the Seattle 2030
District (DPD, OED, Clinton Climate Initiative Preferred Purchasing network)
Energy Retrofts on Existing Buildings (Target Big Users)
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Community Power Works (CPW) >15% energy
ef ciency improvements; Home-Wise Weatherization (Of ce of Housing); Preservation Green Lab
Potential Funding: CPW; Home-Wise Weatherization
Integrate with External District Energy System
Connect EcoDistrict buildings to external district heating/cooling system (Existing System: Seattle
Steam or Future System: District Energy being explored by OSE)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Consider ‘district energy ready’ systems for connections
to future systems; Consider connection to Seattle Steam for southern parcels; Preservation Green Lab /
City of Seattle Capitol Hill district energy exploration
Building Integrated Renewable Energy Generation
Coordinate solar thermal opportunities with district energy exploration. New construction should
be 'renewable ready' at a minimum. Existing buildings should explore opportunities such as
timing renewables (solar thermal and photovoltaics) with building upgrades (such as SCCC roof
replacement).
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle Climate Action Plan; Preservation Green Lab /
City of Seattle Capitol Hill district energy exploration; Retrofts & new construction consideration vary.
Potential Funding: Federal and Washington incentives; Power Purchasing Agreement (PPA)
Certify All New Development to LEED Gold Minimum
Set minimum standard with aspirations to exceed the Living Building Challenge
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle market receptive to Living Building Challenge
and LEED certifcation
Related Performance Area(s): Water; Materials
1 LEED Certifed project - Silver
(Broadway Crossing - afordable housing), 7
LEED Registered Projects, 2 Living
Building Challenge-pursued projects
-Bertschi Science Wing (targeting 2012) to the north &
Bullitt Center (targeting 2013).
Source: USGBC Green Buildings Map
ENERGY: STRATEGIES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 52
Renewable Energy Purchase Agreement
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: SCL Green-Up; Bellingham example: 2007 EPA's Green
Power Partner of the Year for 16% green power commitment
Small-Scale Hydropower
In the past Capitol Hill's stormwater runof was used to generate power at a generator/Hydro House
on Eastlake next to Lake Union.
Implement District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Water
Participate in the Seattle 2030 District
Promote and identify opportunities for collaboration with the Seattle 2030 District.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: The Seattle 2030 District has tools and resources
(funding, policy work) that could beneft the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict.
Related Performance Area(s): Transportation; Water
Advanced Metering
Advanced metering supports the gathering of energy use data, which can then be used to fne tune
systems, as well as made available for energy visualization strategies (like Dashboards).
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Washington State policy HB 2289; SCL / Microsoft
Hohm partnership; PSRC BETI Initiative (http://psrc.org/econdev/beti)
Roads 0.23 tCO2e
Road Vehicles 1.58 tCO2e
Buildings 0.57 tCO2e
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Carbon
Existing Annual Carbon Emissions per Capita
(tons CO2e)
Subtotal 2.43 tCO2e
2.43tCO2e per Capita
assuming 50 year life of buildings
Operational Carbon
2%
4%
11%
Total annual carbon emissions per capita for the Capitol Hill EcoDisitrict,
including annual Embodied Carbon expended for the construction and
reconstruction of roads, vehicles, and buildings as well as Operational Carbon for
transportation, building operations, industry and waste. Capitol Hill Embodied
Carbon represents 21% of City-wide Operational carbon (11.3 tCO2e per capita)
(Sources: City of Seattle 2008 Greenhouse Gas Inventory; 2000 US Census;
Sightline Institute; Chester and Horvath, University of California at Berkeley)
(Image Credit: GGLO)
ENERGY: STRATEGIES
53 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Visualize Energy Use - Dashboards & Pavement
Energy monitoring and communication are key strategies for educating people about energy use
and encouraging changes in behavior that lead to reduced energy use, particularly during peak load
times. Installing energy dashboards or energy generating pavement tiles are two good strategies.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: There are a couple of regional examples of "energy
dashboards" that could serve as example programs for Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict and provide local
expertise: (1) The "Island Energy Dashboard" on Bainbridge Island from Positive Energy and Puget
Sound Energy; (2) The Building Dashboard partner program at the University of Washington Bothell
and Cascade Community College. Both dashboards display real time energy use data online and on
displays in buildings or kiosks, and encourage competition to reduce energy consumption across
neighborhoods (Bainbridge Island) and buildings (UW-Bothell and Cascade Community College).
"Pavegen" and "Sustainable Dance Floor" are global examples of energy generating pavement.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Cultural Vibrancy)
The building energy dashboard at the University of Washington Bothell campus
and Cascade Community College displays energy consumption and production
online and on monitors in campus buildings. (Photo Credit: University of
Washington via The Weekly Herald)
ENERGY: STRATEGIES
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
1. Energy-Ef cient Building Design (Target Big Users)
2. Energy Retrofts on Existing Buildings (Target Big Users)
3. Integrate with External District Energy System
4. Building Integrated Renewable Energy Generation
5. Certify All New Development to LEED Gold Minimum
6. Renewable Energy Purchase Agreement
7. Small-Scale Hydropower
8. Participate in the Seattle 2030 District
9. Advanced Metering
10. Visualize Energy Use - Dashboards & Pavement
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
4
4
9
7
6
1
2
5
3
3
8
10
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 54
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Historic
Pump
Station
WATER: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Water Assets Map Diagram
This map shows the general stormwater fow from the neighborhood to Lake Union via the Swale on Yale, the tree canopy coverage as
measured in 2007, designated and recommended Neighborhood Green Streets, and existing parks and green roofs that contribute to the
neighborhood's infltration. The Capitol Hill neighborhood is a predominantly partially separated sewer system, with a mix of combined
stormwater and sanitary sewers, and separated stormwater and sanitary sewers. Both the combined and separated sanitary sewers
convey water to West Point Treatment Plant. The separated stormwater sewers convey water to Lake Union after treatment at the Swale
on Yale ("This project, when completed, will treat an average of 190 million gallons of stormwater annually fowing from Capitol Hill into
Lake Union, greatly reducing the amount of pollution fowing into the lake."). (Image Credit: GGLO)
*
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
PARCEL/ROW GRID
CSO BASIN NPDES 175
(Conveyed to West Point or Discharged to Lake Union)
LINCOLN RESERVOIR
MINOR AVE OUTFALL (STORMWATER)
STORMWATER CONVEYANCE FLOW DIAGRAM
SWALE ON YALE
ABANDONED CSO BASIN
NOW PART OF PARTIALLY SEPARATED SEWER SYSTEM
(Stormwater Conveyed to Lake Union; Sanitary Conveyed to West Point;
Combined Conveyed to West Point or Elliott West CSO Facility)
RIDGE LINE
GREEN ROOF
GREEN STREET
(Code Designated or Adopted by Neighborhood Plan)
GREEN STREET
(Recommended by Neighborhood Plan)
TREE CANOPY COVER
(Source: 2007 City of Seattle Study)
E THOMAS ST
E HARRISON ST
E REPUBLICAN ST
E JOHN ST
E DENNY WY
E HOWELL ST
E OLIVE ST
E PINE ST
E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
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55 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WATER: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Conserve potable water; reduce blackwater production and stormwater runoff.
The Seattle area is famous for its rainfall, and the beauty and bounty of its rivers, lakes, and Puget
Sound. As the southwestern US and many parts of the world sufer record breaking droughts, water
must be recognized, and better utilized, as a regional asset. The keys to better utilizing water and
creating a sustainable water system are water conservation, reducing potable water consumption
and increasing ef ciency, reducing and cleaning stormwater runof, and using the right kind of
water for each use (such as potable water for drinking and washing versus greywater for irrigation).
Capitol Hill has excellent assets for supporting a sustainable water system, including a clean and safe
water supply, almost zero combined sewer overfow events, and city support for increasing water
conservation. Still, the neighborhood could do much better. For example, the full benefts of rain
and stormwater are not often realized; in fact stormwater becomes a liability as it picks up pollutants
and taxes infrastructure during storm events. Fortunately, Seattle, and by extension Capitol Hill, has
the design expertise and policy support to implement rainwater harvesting systems and green
infrastructure projects.
Conservation for a Clean and Safe Water Supply
Seattle's of cial water supply projections show no need for new water supply sources until 2060 (SPU
2007 Water System Plan). These projections take population growth forecasts and potential climate
change impacts into account. Additionally, the projections rely on the continuation of Seattle's overall
trend in reducing water demand, even as population grows, through successful water conservation
strategies. Conservation is a central strategy of Seattle Public Utilities for reducing potable water
use, managing demand during dry seasons, and increasing the capacity of sewer lines. Capitol Hill's
EcoDistrict could leverage both residential and commercial water use conservation strategies to
support the City's larger goals and contribute to the resilience of the region's water system.
Density: Fewer Pollutant Generating Surfaces
In many urban environments, rain falls on roads and parking lots (or “impervious pollutant generating
surfaces”), picks up pollutants, and conveys them to downstream water bodies. On Capitol Hill
the neighborhood's density is an asset for reducing the surface area of these pollutant generating
surfaces, as it requires far fewer roads and parking lots per person than most places. Continued
reduction of these surfaces, and replacement with pervious surfaces (like green infrastructure) and
non-polluting surfaces (like building rooftops) would improve the quality of the stormwater that
makes its way to Lake Union and other local water bodies via the streets, storm sewers and combined
sewers.
Seattle Rainfall Comparison Diagram
Data Source: NOAA (Image Credit: GGLO with photo from Flickr User Eduardo8s)
Seattle Water Supply Map Diagram
This map shows the water supply lines from Seattle's two primary watersheds.
The Capitol Hill EcoDistrict study area is marked in dark blue. (Watershed facts
via Seattle Public Utilities)(Image Credit: GGLO with Seattle GIS data)
Miami: 51.9 in
Houston: 47.0 in
NYC: 41.8 in
St Louis: 37.5 in
Seattle: 37.1 in
Seattle's annual rainfall
in context...
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 56
Controlled Combined Sewer Overfows
Capitol Hill contributes to less than one combined sewer overfow event per year on average, which
is considered "controlled" by the Washington State Department of Ecology; the CSO basin at the
north end of the study area (NPDES Basin 175) only averages 0.7 discharge events per year, and the
outfalls for Basins 125 and 126 were plugged and eliminated in 1997 (2010 CSO Reduction Plan
Amendment). Consequently, Capitol Hill is not a high priority area for implementing additional CSO
reduction strategies; however green infrastructure that helps manage stormwater runof would help
increase the capacity of both the combined sewers and separated storm sewers, as well as clean toxic
stormwater runof before it makes its way into Lake Union or other local water bodies.
Green Infrastructure Policy Support
There are a number of City policies and programs that would support green infrastructure
development in Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, including: Seattle's Green Factor program, Green Streets
Plan, Sustainable Infrastructure Initiative, Natural Drainage Systems Projects, Green Stormwater
Infrastructure program, and the Street Sweep Project.
Local Green Stormwater Treatment
Stormwater runof is one of the biggest sources of pollution for local water bodies, which is why
increasing infltration and providing green stormwater infrastructure throughout the neighborhood
is important. Capitol Hill already has a good start on sustainable stormwater management: much
of its stormwater runof is on track to be treated in a bioswale downhill of the neighborhood at the
new "Swale on Yale" west of I-5; electricity was historically generated from stormwater fow through
a micro turbine at the pump station located to the northwest (near Lake Union); there are already 13
Neighborhood Green Streets designated or recommended for Capitol Hill (Seattle ROW Improvement
Manual); and parks and buildings with green roofs increase the area's overall permeability.
"Whenever it rains, untreated stormwater
from more than 630 acres of Capitol Hill
drains directly into Lake Union
via the Minor Avenue outfall. Currently, stormwater
fows across the streets of upper Capitol Hill,
collecting silts, oils, heavy metals and other
pollutants before being piped downhill, under the
Cascade neighborhood, and into the lake."
(Source: Swale on Yale website)
Swale on Yale Bird's Eye Diagram
Shows the stormwater piping that will take a portion of Capitol Hill's
stormwater and carry it to the biofltration swales to cleanse before discharge
into Lake Union. The Swale on Yale will create 4 interconnected swales across
two blocks in conjunction with future developments.
(Image Credit: City of Seattle, Swale on Yale website)
WATER: SITE ASSETS
57 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WATER: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
Goals:
• Reduce Stormwater Runof within and from the District
• Reduce Potable Water Consumption
• Use Potable Water for Highest and Best Use - Utilize Greywater for Appropriate Tasks
• Maintain Availability, Reliability and Afordability of Water
Suggested Targets:
• Decrease Right-Of-Way (ROW) Impervious Area
• Decrease Parcel Impervious Area
• Increase Quantity of Green Roofs
• Existing Buildings & Infrastructure: Decrease Water Use Intensity by 10% below National average
prior to 2015 with incremental targets (20% in 2015, 20% in 2020, 35% in 2025) reaching 50% by
2030 - based on 2030 Challenge for Planning
• New Buildings & Infrastructure: Decrease Water Use Intensity by 50% below National average -
based on 2030 Challenge for Planning
• Increase Non-Potable Water (greywater or reclaimed water) Use for Toilet Flushing in New
Construction by 2015
• Decrease Energy Demand Associated with Water Supply
Metrics:
• Imperviousness / Perviousness
Parcel Impervious Area (% = Acres Impervious ÷ Total Parcel Area)
Parcel Pervious Area (% = Acres Pervious ÷ Total Parcel Area)
ROW Impervious Area (% = Acres Impervious ÷ Total ROW Area)
ROW Pervious Area (% = Acres Pervious ÷ Total ROW Area)
Impervious Per Capita
• Green Roofs
EcoDistrict Green Roofs as percent of City Total
(% = Square Feet of Coverage within District ÷ Square Feet Total for Seattle)
http://www.seattle.gov/DPD/cms/groups/pan/@pan/@sustainableblding/documents/
web_informational/dpdp020213.pdf
NUMBER OF BUILDINGS
80%
20%
BASELINE POTABLE WATER BUDGET
79%
21%
BUILDING AREA
70%
30%
RESIDENTIAL NON-RESIDENTIAL
Neighborhood Water Profle
Of the 1,500 buildings in the neighborhood, 80% (+1,200) are residential,
occupy 70% of total foor area, and have an annual baseline potable water
budget which is 79% of the neighborhood’s total(based on regional average
water use intensity by building use).
(Image Credit: GGLO)
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"Reducing rainwater runoff has helped
reduce our negative impact on Puget
Sound. The raingardens are beautiful and
serve a great purpose. Visit soon."
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 58
8% PERVIOUS
92% IMPERVIOUS
ROW
PARCEL
PARK
BUILDING RUNOFF
POLLUTANT GENERATING
SURFACE (PARCELS)
POLLUTANT GENERATING
SURFACE (ROW)
Baselines:
Neighborhood Permeability
Pervious: 8% (40 acres)
• 10 acres ROW
• 18 acres Parcels
• 12 acres Parks
Impervious: 92% (488 acres)
• Two Thirds (323 acres) of Impervious surfaces are from pollutant generating surfaces
- 196 acres ROW (including 8 acres of alleyways)
- 127 acres Parcels
• One third (165) acres of impervious surfaces generate runof from buildings
Total Pervious/Impervious per capita
• Pervious: 0.001 acres per capita
• Impervious: 0.022 acres per capita
Green Roofs
• 19,724 square feet within study area (<1% of the EcoDistrict site area)
• 1, 852,193 square feet City of Seattle Total
Annual Water Flow
• 38.6 average annual rainfall
• 550 million gallons of rainfall within the neighborhood annually
- 340 million gallons runof ROW & pollutant generating surfaces
- 170 million gallons runof from buildings
- 40 million gallons rainfall on pervious areas
• 680 million gallons Annual Baseline Potable Water Budget
Annual Water Demand by Building Use:
• 79% Residential
• 6% Restaurant
• 6% Retail / Service
• 3% Hospital
• 2% Assembly Space
• 1% Of ce
• 1% Hotel
• 2% Remainder of Other Non-Residential uses
Annual Watergy [Water + Energy] Impact
• 15 tons CO
2
emissions associated with water use (decreasing potable water demand by 1 million
gallons can reduce electricity use by nearly 1,500 kWh - Source: EPA)
• Equivalent to annual greenhouse gas emissions from 3 vehicles (Source: EPA)
Neighborhood Baseline Permeability
(Image Credit: GGLO)
WATER: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
"Watergy"
a term to describe the relationship
between water and energy—
treatment and distribution of potable water is
an energy intensive activity.
59 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
$0.0 MIL
$0.5 MIL
$1.0 MIL
$1.5 MIL
$2.0 MIL
$2.5 MIL
$3.0 MIL
$3.5 MIL
$4.0 MIL 50%
REDUCTION
TARGET
25%
REDUCTION
TARGET
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SEWER
POTABLE
SEWER
POTABLE
Represents capacity of 100,000 bathtubs
50% 50% 55555500000% 0% 0% 0%%%%%%%% 55555500000% 0% 0% 0%%%%%%%%% 50%%
Annual Baseline Potable Water Budget
Baseline water demand in the neighborhood is over 680 million gallons annually
which is equivalent to the capacity of more than 20 million bathtubs. If every
building type targeted a 25% reduction in water use, potential water savings
equivalent to the capacity of more than 5 million bathtubs and approximately
$1.7 million potable & sewer utility charges are possible. (Image Credit: GGLO)
WATER: STRATEGIES
Strategies
Convert Underused Pollutant Generating Surfaces (PGS's) to Habitable or Permeable Uses
Convert underused ROW to buildable lots. Additionally, break up the concrete and asphalt of
underused lots, ROW areas, and parking lots (aka Pollutant Generating Surfaces) and restore to
vegetation while the sites are unbuilt. This could be a temporary intervention and a community
building event.
Implement on the District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Portland's "depave" organization has a great store of
information on their website about how to remove pavement as a community-driven activity.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Cultural Vibrancy & Health); Transportation; Habitat
Water Visualization - Education: Residential
Integrate water into public art, and public building disclosure information
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Local art schools are a potential partner.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Cultural Vibrancy)
Water Reuse: New Multi-Family and Non-Residential
Do not use potable water for toilet fushing - use greywater or reclaimed water
Implement on the Station Area Sites
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Municipal reclaimed water system is not present on
Capitol Hill and this challenge would necessitate the construction of a greywater system. While
infrastructure costs can be shared on a district-wide scale, consolidating new construction closely will
be key. Residential areas and grey water potential supply are not balanced with existing commercial
demand. Bertschi Living Science Wing & Bullitt Center are individual site case studies nearby.
Related Performance Area(s): Energy
Ef cient Water Fixture Retrofts & Installations
For new & existing residential and commercial buildings, adopt 2030 Challenge water targets and
install plumbing fxtures to exceed current code standards. Additionally, multi-family P-patch areas
and single family to install rain barrels. Restaurants to upgrade kitchen equipment.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Multitude of residential, restaurant, retail & service
buildings that are not necessarily owner occupied. Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) goals support water
conservation and education.
Potential Funding: SPU conservation measures
Related Performance Area(s): Energy
Areas of Focus:
ways to visualize water use
as educational tool
micro hydro power from stormwater and
sewage conveyance
(Source: Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 60
Rain Garden and Informational Sign in Burien, WA by GGLO.
(Image Credit: Derek Reeves)
Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (New)
For new construction, incorporate green roofs and walls at lower roof levels (podium level) while
balancing the possibility for renewable energy generation at upper level roofs.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Green Factor & Priority Green incentives.
Related Performance Area(s): Energy; Habitat
Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (Retroft)
Coordinated with major institution roof replacement, retroft with green roof and/or solar
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle Central Community College will be reviewing
roof replacement in the near future. Green Factor & Priority Green incentives.
Related Performance Area(s): Energy; Habitat
Stormwater Management - Swales/Raingardens
Create a network of swales and raingardens along identifed Green Streets to infltrate stormwater,
flter airborne pollutants, increase habitat connectivity. Start at the Station Area Sites and connect
throughout the District.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle Green Street program can support eforts. Green
Factor & Priority Green incentives.
Related Performance Area(s): Energy; Habitat
WATER: STRATEGIES
The GGLO designed Green Wall at the Bertschi School Science Wing serves as
both infrastructure and education. This project is on target to be the frst Living
Building in WA. (Image Credit: Benjamin Benschneider)
61 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
WATER: STRATEGIES
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
1. Convert Underused PGS's to Habitable or Permeable Uses
2. Water Visualization - Education: Residential
3. Water Reuse: New Multi-family and Non-Residential
4. Ef cient Water Fixture Retrofts & Installations
5. Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (New)
6. Stormwater Management - Green Roofs/Walls (Retroft)
7. Stormwater Management - Swales/Raingardens
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
2
4
6
3
7
5 7
1
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 62
POLLINATOR PATHWAY
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12.7%
TASHKENT PARK
(0.5 acres)
THOMAS ST
MINI PARK
(0.25 acres)
SUMMIT
SLOPE PARK
(0.21 acres)
BELMONT PLACE
(0.02 acres)
SUMMIT PLACE
(0.02 acres)
BELLEVUE PLACE
(1.4 acres)
WILLIAMS PLACE
(0.13 acres)
CAL
ANDERSON
PARK
(7.37 acres)
PLYMOUTH
PILLARS PARK
(0.6 acres)
FREEWAY PARK
(5.2 acres)
SEVEN HILLS PARK
(0.39 acres)
MCGILVRA PLACE
(0.06 acres)
TT MINOR
PLAYGROUND
(0.2 acres)
SPRING ST
MINI PARK
(0.3 acres)
FIRST HILL PARK
(0.2 acres)
FIREHOUSE
MINI PARK
(0.3 acres)
MILLER
PLAYFIELD
FEDERAL
& REPUBLICAN
(0.14 acres)
THE GREEN
(Seattle Univ)
LOGAN FIELD
(Seattle Univ)
CHAMPIONSHIP
FIELD (Seattle Univ)
LOWELL
PLAYGROUND
HABITAT: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Habitat Assets Map Diagram
This map shows how densely built Capitol Hill is and how many parks are within an 1/8 mile walk. It shows the site area's infltration
assets in the form of parks, tree canopy coverage and existing green roofs. It also shows nearby habitat corridors like the Swale on Yale
and the Polinator Pathway; both models for additional habitat corridors on Capitol Hill.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
STREETS & ALLEY GRID
BUILDING FOOTPRINT
HABITAT CORRIDOR
1/8 MILE PARK SERVICE RADIUS
(Parks > 10,000 SF)
1/8 MILE PARK SERVICE RADIUS
(Parks < 10,000 SF)
TREE CANOPY COVER
(Source: 2007 City of Seattle Study)
TREE CANOPY STUDY AREA
(12.7% Tree Canopy in 2007)
GREEN ROOF
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E PIKE ST
E UNION ST
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63 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
HABITAT: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Enrich urban habitat in the district and in the surrounding neighborhoods to promote
biodiversity and support the community, even as development increases the intensity of the built
environment.
Prioritizing habitat in EcoDistricts is not an "either-or" proposition about buildings and parks,
or people versus animals and plants. Local habitat can be protected and strengthened, while
also making neighborhoods better places for people. Compact urban neighborhoods provide
environmental stewardship by preserving working farms and forestlands while delivering public
services and amenities more ef ciently. At the same time, urban open space, such as parks and
recreation felds, provide safe and welcoming opportunities for play, build community, and increase
vegetation. Further other strategies, such as building integrated vegetation, roof gardens, and tree-
lined streets can provide habitat, reduce stormwater runof, flter air pollutants, produce oxygen and
sequester carbon.
Density: Preserving Habitat on the Urban Periphery
Re-prioritizing and channeling development to existing areas of development such as Seattle's Urban
Center Villages (like the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict study area) will be essential to getting the region's
growth management goals back on track and preserving habitat on the urban periphery. The central
Puget Sound is striving to integrate the majority of its forecasted growth by 2040 - 1.7 million new
residents and 1.3 million new jobs - within designated urban growth areas (as established by the
Washington State Growth Management Act), since actual population growth trends in recent years
indicate that "Smaller Cities", "Unincorporated Urban Growth Areas" and "Rural" areas, which were
intended to receive less growth, have grown disproportionately quickly. Capitol Hill can embrace its
density as an asset for protecting habitat.
Seattle - The Emerald City
Surrounded by Olympic mountains to the west, Cascades to the east, and with views of Mt Rainier to
the south & Mt. Baker to the north, Seattle is idyllically situated in an abundance of natural resources.
The Emerald City is rooted in its environment and its strong connection to the surrounding
mountains, lush vegetation, hundreds of parks, water bodies and waterfront recreation opportunities.
Parks
Over a dozen parks provide habitat as well as recreation opportunities for healthy living in Capitol Hill,
most notably, Cal Anderson Park which includes Bobby Morris Playfeld and the Lincoln Reservoir Lid
(at the north end of the park) is situated at the heart of the neighborhood. Outside the study area,
Volunteer park to the north and Miller Playfeld & Community Center to the east provide important
connections to additional habitat corridor opportunities.
Tree Canopy Cover
Seattle's trees provide environmental, social and economic benefts while enhancing the livability
and health of our city. In addition to providing habitat for pollinator and native species, reducing
stormwater runof and cleaning our air, they have been shown to "increase property values, calm
traf c, reduce crime, and improve the walkability of our neighborhoods" as noted in the Urban Forest
City of Seattle Tree Canopy Cover Goals by Land Use Category
(Source: Seattle reLeaf Urban Forest Management Plan 5-year Implementation
Strategy 2010 - 2014)) (Image Credit: GGLO)
Percentage of allocated 2000-2040 growth achieved in 2000-2008 by county
and regional geography from "Transit Oriented Communities: A Blueprint for
Washington State". Population growth trends in recent years indicate that
"Smaller Cities", "Unincorporated Urban Growth Areas" and "Rural" areas, which
were intended to receive less growth, have grown disproportionately quickly -
with some areas already achieving in eight years nearly 80% of their allocated
growth for the 40 year period. (Image Credit: GGLO)
Vision:
Seattle’s urban forest is a thriving and
sustainable mix of tree species and ages that creates
a contiguous and healthy ecosystem that is valued
and cared for by the City and all of its citizens
as an essential environmental,
economic, and community asset.
(Source: Seattle Urban Forest Management Plan)
20%
33%
20% 15%
10%
20%
24%
RIGHTS OF WAY
SINGLE FAMILY
DEVELOPED PARK
MULTI FAMILY
INDUSTRIAL
COMMERCIAL/MIXED-USE
INSTITUTIONAL
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 64
Management Plan. In 2007, in an efort to increase these benefts, the City of Seattle set the goal
of achieving 30 percent tree canopy cover in 30 years and developed a comprehensive strategy to
achieve this target (see Seattle Tree Canopy Cover Goals by Land Use Category to the left). Capitol
Hill has nearly 13% tree canopy coverage providing habitat, stormwater management, air pollutant
fltration, and carbon sequestration assets.
Goals:
• Advance Current and Emerging Watershed Goals
• Protect, Regenerate, and Manage Habitat and Ecosystem Function at All Scales
• Prioritize Native and Structurally Diverse Vegetation
• Create Habitat Connectivity within and beyond the District
• Avoid Human-made Hazards to Wildlife and Promote Nature-friendly Urban Design
• Prioritize High-quality, Habitat-creating, Flexible Open Spaces (parks, plazas, community gardens,
and recreation felds)
Suggested Targets:
• Decrease ROW Impervious Area
• Decrease Parcel Impervious Area
• Increase Green Roof to 50% of New Construction by 2020
• Increase Tree Canopy to 21% by 2025
• Increase Connectivity of Green Roofs, Canopy and Stormwater Strategies
• Create a Habitat Master Plan
• Create an ongoing "Open Space Program Elements Evaluation" process that measures the quality
and amenities of neighborhood open spaces
Metrics:
Imperviousness / Perviousness
• Parcel Impervious Area (% = Acres Impervious ÷ Total Parcel Area)
• Parcel Pervious Area (% = Acres Pervious ÷ Total Parcel Area)
• ROW Impervious Area (% = Acres Impervious ÷ Total ROW Area)
• ROW Pervious Area (% = Acres Pervious ÷ Total ROW Area)
Tree Canopy Cover
• Neighborhood Canopy Cover Table http://www.seattle.gov/trees/canopycover.htm
(% = Acres of Coverage ÷ Total Area)
• Canopy Coverage by Use Type
HOLLOW TREES INDICATE SHORTAGE
EACH TREE ICON REPRESENTS 2 ACRES
FILLED TREES INDICATE PRESENT COVERAGE
Acreage of Tree Canopy Needed to Meet City Tree Canopy Goals
Study Area will need to achieve 21% coverage as a minimum given its
land use area by adding approximately 56 acres of canopy. Currently the
Study Area has a 12.7% Tree Canopy Coverage.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
HABITAT: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
65 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Parks & Open Space
• Percentage of Dwellings within 1/8 Mile of Park
• Percent of Area Dedicated to Parks http://www.seattle.gov/parks/quickfacts.htm
(% = Acres of Park ÷ Total Area)
• Percentage of Open Space dedicated to outdoor recreation within a 15 min. walk of EcoDistrict
residents (baseline requires further study)
• Quality, Diversity of Amenities, and Number of People Using Open Spaces
(baseline requires further study)
Green Roofs
• EcoDistrict Green Roofs as percent of City Total
(% = Square Feet of Coverage within District ÷ Square Feet Total for Seattle)
http://www.seattle.gov/DPD/cms/groups/pan/@pan/@sustainableblding/documents/web_
informational/dpdp020213.pdf
Baselines:
Total Pervious / Impervious:
• 8% Pervious / 92% Impervious (see Water section)
Tree Canopy Cover in Study Area (2007)
• 12.7% Canopy Coverage
• 23% City of Seattle Average
Parks & Open Space
• 5% Parks Area within Study Area
(excludes: Volunteer Park to the north and Miller Playfelds to the east)
• 11% City of Seattle Average
• 13 parks within Study Area
Green Roofs
• 19,724 square feet within study area (<1% of the EcoDistrict site area)
• 1,852,193 square feet City of Seattle Total
Habitat Opportunity Sites Sketch Map
There are already a number of adopted or recommended green streets in the
neighborhood. By expanding the network of green streets, piazzetta, and parks,
the neighborhood can expand the amount of habitat in public rights of way and
increased tree canopy. These opportunity sites are identifed on the above map
diagram. (Image Credit: GGLO)
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"I'm sitting here at
a cafe in Capitol
Hill, enjoying the
HABITAT: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
sunshine filtering down through the
maples along the street. The trees and
natural vegetation I see all along the streets
are now embraced with enthusiasm as
critical infrastructure, They are not only
valued for aesthetics, but more importantly
their ecosystem services!"
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 66
Strategies:
Create Habitat Corridors
Link all of the strategies below through a corridor master plan that connects individual eforts.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Consider partnering with the Pollinator Pathway to
create another pollinator corridor on Capitol Hill.
Related Performance Area(s): Water; Community (Cultural Vibrancy)
Increase Tree Canopy
(see sketch plan map diagram on previous page)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Potential Funding: Neighborhood Matching Fund Grants possible for improving the
Tree Canopy
Related Performance Area(s): Water
Create Habitat - Parks
(see sketch plan map diagram on previous page)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Water
Create Habitat - ROW
(see sketch plan map diagram on previous page)
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Pollinator pathway; Neighborhood Green Streets
Potential Funding: Neighborhood Matching Fund Grants possible for adding habitat corridors like the
Pollinator Pathway
Related Performance Area(s): Water; Transportation
Create Habitat - Green Roofs & Walls
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Green Factor & Priority Green incentives.
Related Performance Area(s): Water
Create Habitat - Backyards
Certify the yards of single-family homes in the neighborhood as “habitat” through the National Wildlife
Federation.
Implement District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: In Seattle, the Woodland Park Zoo hosts a website
(http://backyardhabitatworkshop.blogspot.com/) for Backyard Habitats with information about
partners, resources and workshops.
Related Performance Area(s): Water
Screenshot of Pollinator Pathway Website
http://www.pollinatorpathway.com/
National Wildlife Federation Backyard Wildlife Habitat Sign
(Image Credit: Nancy J Ondra, http://www.hayefeld.com)
HABITAT: STRATEGIES
67 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
HABITAT: STRATEGIES
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
1. Create Habitat Corridors
2. Increase Tree Canopy
3. Create Habitat - Parks
4. Create Habitat - ROW
5. Create Habitat - Green Roofs & Walls
6. Create Habitat - Backyards
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
4
2
3
4 5
1
5
6
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 68
MATERIALS: SITE ASSETS
EcoDistrict Materials Assets Map Diagram
This map shows major land uses by parcel as a way of visualizing where the commercial, single family, and multi-family uses are.
Municipal solid waste is tracked by use-origin. Seattle's current waste breakdown is: 48% commercial, 30% single family, 10% multi-
family, and 12% self haul (which is largely construction and demolition debris).
(Image Credit: GGLO)
Parc
STATION ENTRY
STATION AREA SITES
ECODISTRICT STUDY AREA BOUNDARY
(Capitol Hill Urban Center Village + Pike/Pine Urban Center Village)
BULLITT CENTER
PARK
WATER BODY
PARCEL/ROW GRID
COMMERCIAL
RESIDENTIAL: MIXED-USE
RESIDENTIAL: MULTI-FAMILY
RESIDENTIAL: SINGLE-FAMILY
PARCELS BY USE
EDUCATIONAL & INSTITUTIONAL
URBAN AGRICULTURE: P-PATCHES & FARMS
E UNION ST
M
A
D
IS
O
N
S
T
1
8
T
H

A
V
E
B
R
O
A
D
W
A
Y
1
6
T
H

A
V
E
E ALOHA ST
E ROY ST
E
O
L
I
V
E
W
Y
1
4
T
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A
V
E
69 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
MATERIALS: SITE ASSETS
Intent: Reduce the negative environmental impacts of materials through conservation & diversion.
If everyone on earth lived like North Americans, we would need fve planets to sustain our high-waste,
high pollution habits.
Materials fow in and out of neighborhoods on a daily basis - from the material goods purchased and
discarded, such as groceries, household goods and of ce supplies - to materials used to construct
the built environment. The waste stream is determined by consumption and material recovery
(reuse, recycle, and compost). The less people spend on raw materials, the more they can spend on
experiences and skill building. The more waste recovered from the waste stream, the more value of
that “waste” is captured. Capitol Hill has a variety of assets that can help the community move in both
these directions.
Reduce - Reuse - Recycle
There are many ways to reduce waste and make the most of the embodied energy that was created in
the extraction, manufacturing, and transportation of materials that constitute the Capitol Hill fow of
materials:
• Reduce the amount of materials used and discarded
• Reuse materials, products and household goods (Capitol Hill has approximately 27 thrift stores
located within the EcoDistrict Study Area)
• Recycle items that have reached the end of their useful life and purchase materials with recycled
content
• Compost organic waste
There are ongoing neighborhood discussions about how to address nightlife related trash and
dumpsters in the Pike/Pine area, which may support EcoDistrict waste reduction goals.
Zero Waste
In 2007, the City of Seattle adopted a Zero Waste Resolution such that the City will not dispose of
any more total solid waste in future years than went to the landfll in 2006 (438,000 tons of municipal
solid waste 'MSW'). As Seattle's population increases, a reduction in municipal solid waste per capita
through increased recycling, composting, and overall reduction in consumption will be required to
achieve the Zero Waste goal.
Seattle Public Utility's city-wide yard waste and food composting system covers the needs of the
EcoDistrict, but given Capitol Hill's land use types have low diversion rates collaborative enhancements
may be necessary.
A mile-long train of Seattle's waste is
transported to Oregon every day
(Source: Arcade Vol 27. Issue 3)
A one-mile long train full of municipal solid waste – equivalent to nearly 9 Space
Needles long – departs Seattle daily for an Oregon landfll.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 70
Goals:
• Zero Waste
• Reduce Material Use
• Reduce Solid Waste - Maximize Reuse, Salvage, Recycling, and Composting
• Minimize Use of Virgin Materials
• Maximize Use of Recycled and Salvaged Materials
• Make the Local/Regional Product Choice the Easy Choice
Suggested Targets:
• Reduce Total Waste (by average use per: single family, multi-family, commercial)
• At a minimum, no net increase in neighborhood solid waste disposal compared to that sent to
landfll in 2006 (2007 City Council Zero Waste Resolution 30990)
• Increase Awareness of Waste Impact
• Increase Recycling Rate to 70% by 2020 (accelerating city-wide target of 70% by 2025)
• Increase Composting Rate
• Increase Construction and Demolition Diversion Rates to 90% by 2015
• Increase # of Buildings Adaptively Reused and Historically Preserved
• Green the Supply Chain and Procurement Procedures of Businesses & Residents in the District
• Increase Retail Resale of Household and Building Materials (at businesses like the ReStore, Second
Use, and area thrift stores)
• Increase Online Classifed Advertisement Use (such as Craigslist and Freecycle)
• Decrease the Amount of Packaging Used throughout the District
Metrics:
Total Seattle Waste
Multi-Family (% = Tons of Multi-Family Waste ÷ Total Waste)
Commercial (% = Tons of Commercial Waste ÷ Total Waste)
Single Family (% = Tons of Single Family Waste ÷ Total Waste)
(Capitol Hill specifc waste baselines are needed. City-wide averages are available)
Total Seattle Waste that could have been Diverted
Multi-Family (% = Tons of Materials that Could Have Been Diverted ÷ Total Multi-Family Waste)
Commercial (% = Tons of Materials that Could Have Been Diverted ÷ Total Commercial Waste)
Single Family (% = Tons of Materials that Could Have Been Diverted ÷ Total Single Family Waste)
(Capitol Hill specifc waste baselines are needed. City-wide averages are available)
What does "Zero Waste" mean?
"The chances of achieving 100 percent
reuse are challenging, if not impossible, but…
if we are short of 100 percent, it means we’re not
imitating nature and its cycles in the appropriate way.”
- Richard Conlin, Seattle Council Member
(Source: Arcade Vol 27, Issue 3)
The International Sustainability Institute Trash Fashion Bash
An annual Seattle fundraising event created to highlight waste and the need for
our community to think about ways we can reduce Waste. Civic leaders walk the
catwalk wearing haute couture made exclusively from materials diverted from
the landfll. (Image Credit: Lindy Gaylord)
MATERIALS: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
71 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
Diversion Rates: Recycling, Composting
Multi-Family (% = Tons of Materials Diverted ÷ Total Waste)
Commercial (% = Tons of Materials Diverted ÷ Total Waste)
Single Family (% = Tons of Materials Diverted ÷ Total Waste)
• # of Adaptive Reuse & Historic Preservation Building Projects
(baseline requires further study)
• Point of Sale Rates: New Materials vs. Reused / Salvaged / Thrift Goods
(baseline requires further study)
• # of Sharing Programs (tools, of ce space, etc)
• # of Yard/Garden Shares
• # of Households Using Reusable Containers in lieu of Disposable (Example: milk bottles in lieu of
milk cartons)
(baseline requires further study)
• # of Disposable Shopping Bags Used within the Neighborhood
(baseline requires further study)
• % Compliance with Compostable Food Containers
(% = Tons of Containers that should have been composted ÷ Total Containers)
(baseline requires further study)
Baselines:
Baseline fgures for most of the above metrics require further study, particularly for Capital Hill specifc
baselines (as opposed to city-side averages). Some baselines appear in the charts and fgures in the
left margins of this section.
Total Seattle Waste
Commercial 48% of City Total
Single Family - 30% of City Total
Multi-Family - 10% of City Total
Self Haul - 12% of City Total (a large portion is Construction & Demolition debris)
34% 38%
28%
TO
RECYCLING
AND
COMPOST
TO LANDFILL
SHOULD
HAVE BEEN
RECYCLED OR
COMPOSTED
Neighborhood Baseline: Residential Waste Profle
When applying city-wide average diversion rates to study area land use mix,
over one-third of residential waste within the neighborhood should have been
recycled or composted. Given the neighborhood's predominantly residential use,
targeting improvement of multifamily diversion rates (29.6%) will be necessary.

Seattle, with a current 53.7% diversion rate, will fall short of its 2012 target of
60%, which was established in 2004. Specifc city-wide diversion rate averages
(and targets) include: Commercial 58.9% diversion rate (63% target) Single
Family 70.3% diversion rate (70% target); Multi-Family 29.6% diversion rate
(37% target); Self Haul 13.5% diversion rate (39% target).
(Image Credit: GGLO)
(Source: Postcard from the Future,
Forum on Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict, December 2011)
"We have recycling
cans on every corner
& all restaurants
MATERIALS: GOALS | TARGETS | METRICS | BASELINES
compost (you can even bring your own
to-go containers). Gotta run to the re-use
store (where I bring in my own containers)
for some quick grocery shopping. P.S. I am
so glad I opened the architectural salvage
business here!!"
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 72
Strategies:
Develop Outreach to Reduce Residential Waste & Increase Diversion Rates
Target outreach specifc to SPU, Multi-Family Tenants and Landlords. Given the neighborhood's
predominantly residential use, targeting improvement of multifamily diversion rates (29.6%) will be
necessary. Since existing multifamily retrofts are a challenge, increasing these diversion rates will
need to rely more on education and less on infrastructure.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Transient nature of tenants and non-resident building
ownership are potential obstacles to tackling residential education.
Provide Ample Space for Recycling, and Organic and Waste Disposal
Provide adequate infrastructure, such as pneumatic tubes or multiple waste chutes, for recycling, and
disposing of trash & organic material in multifamily buildings. Also consider neighborhood facilities
for composting.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health)
Maximize Use of Recycled, Regional & Salvaged Materials in Buildings
Specifying recycled content, regional and salvaged materials in both new construction and building
renovations would reduce the environmental impacts of extracting, manufacturing and transporting
virgin materials. Recycled, regional and salvaged materials can also contribute to a building's "story."
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Sustainable Building Programs like LEED and Living
Building Challenge; Local Salvaged and Reused Materials Retailers like "The RE Store", "Earthwise", and
"Second Use."
Related Performance Area(s): Transportation, Community (Cultural Vibrancy)
Optimize Procurement Activities through Group Purchasing
Group purchasing can make the green and local/regional choice easier while supporting the greening
of the supply chain.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Seattle Climate Partnership
Promote Yard/Garden Shares
Develop outreach to promote programs that match gardeners to land.
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: Urban Garden Share (http://www.urbangardenshare.
org); Shared Earth (http://sharedearth.com/); the British program “Landshare” (http://www.landshare.
net/) ofers a good model for connecting land owners, gardeners, and helpers.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Health)
Set Up a Neighborhood Tool Library
Implement on the Station Area Sites and District-wide
Challenges, Opportunities, & Local Resources: West Seattle and Phinney Ridge both have tool libraries
that can be emulated.
Related Performance Area(s): Community (Equity & Vibrancy)
Urban Garden Share Screenshot
West Seattle Tool Library Screenshot
(http://wstoollibrary.org/)
Urban Garden Share (http://www.urbangardenshare.org)
Capitol Hill Listings: 5 Gardens
51 Gardeners
Shared Earth (http://sharedearth.com/)
Seattle Listings: 2 Gardens
5 Gardeners
MATERIALS: STRATEGIES
73 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
MATERIALS: STRATEGIES
Strategies Summary
The Scatter Plot at left summarizes the previously listed strategies and organizes them based on
implementation time frame and sustainability impact. The dots signifying each strategy are coded
by their implementation area: District-wide, Station Site (only), and District-wide + Station Site. The
number of each dot corresponds to the list below:
1. Develop Outreach to Reduce Residential Waste & Increase Diversion Rates
2. Provide Ample Space for Recycling, and Organic and Waste Disposal
3. Maximize Use of Recycled, Regional & Salvaged Materials in Buildings
4. Optimize Procurement Activities through Group Purchasing
5. Promote Yard/Garden Shares
6. Set Up a Neighborhood Tool Library
Implementation Time Frame
Some strategies are relatively quick to implement, such as many associated with
the Station Area Sites due to the imminent development (shown at the top of
the summary graph), while other strategies are more long term and will require
more time to completely implement and yield full benefts (shown at the bottom
of the summary graph).
Sustainability Impact
All recommended strategies can contribute to EcoDistrict success; however, some
strategies have increased levels of sustainability impact (shown to the right of
the summary graph).
2
4
5
6
1
3
3
Long Term
Implementation
Low
Sustainability
Impact
Short Term
Implementation
High
Sustainability
Impact
# # #
District-wide District-wide
+ Station Site
Station Site
(only)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 74
75 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
NEXT STEPS & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Next Steps
This report represents the initial phase of the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict. Subsequent phases will: expand
public outreach; establish an EcoDistrict management structure within a clear boundary; refne goals,
metrics, and strategies; develop an Action Plan; embark on detailed feasibility studies of individual
polices and strategies under consideration; implement strategies, policies and projects in support
of EcoDistrict goals; measure progress against baselines to assess performance and adjust the
EcoDistrict's course as necessary.
Acknowledgements
Contributors
[Opposite Page]
Dancers' Series: Steps,1982, Public Art by Jack Mackie, on Broadway, Capitol Hill
(Image Credit: Joel Davis-Aldridge)
Capitol Hill Housing and GGLO
thank the following people for
contributing their time and ideas
to this project.
City of Seattle
Geofrey Wentlandt, Department of Planning and Development
Jayson Antonof, Department of Planning and Development
Jess Harris , Department of Planning and Development
Vanessa Murdock, Department of Planning and Development
Charlie Cunnif, Of ce of Economic Development
Ryan Curren, Of ce of Housing
Christie Baumel, Of ce of Sustainability and Environment
Joshua Curtis, Of ce of Sustainability and Environment
Nancy Robb, Seattle City Light
Brian de Place, Seattle Department of Transportation
Mark Jaeger, Seattle Public Utilities
Alessandra Carreon
Alice Quaintance
Alison Van Gorp
Amalia Leighton
Beth Dufek
Betsy Hunter
Brian Grif th
Cameron Hall
Casey Corr
Cathy Hillenbrand
Clayton Smith
David Brugman
David Easton
David Schraer
Don Blakeney
Doug Hobkirk
Enana Kassa
Eric Moe
Evan Conroy
George Bakan
Hendrik Van Hemert
Henryk Hiller
Jeana Wise
Jef Kinney
Jenny Kempson
Kathryn Beck
Liz Dunn
Lyall Bush
Matt Roewe
Maximilian Dixon
Melora Hiller
Michael Seiwerath
Michael Wells
Mike Mariano
Neelima Shah
Norma Jean Straw
Patrick Aro
Rachel Ben-Shmuel
Rebecca Herzfeld
Ric Cochrane
Roger Tucker
Ryan Moore
Sherry Williams
Tom Hajduk
Tom Puttman
Team
Capitol Hill Housing
Chris Persons, Executive Director
David Dologite, Director of Real Estate & Sustainable Communities
Alex Brennan, Sustainable Communities Manager
GGLO
Chris Libby AIA, Principal
Alicia Daniels Uhlig NCARB, Director of Sustainability
David Cutler AIA, Marieke Lacasse ASLA, Amanda Reed,
Dan Bertolet, Carissa Franks, David Bramer, Don Vehige AIA,
Jenny Kempson, Jon Hall AIA, Lauren Kuester, and Tina Wong
Sound Transit
Debra Ashland, Sound Transit
Cynthia Padilla, Sound Transit
Kate Lichtenstein, Sound Transit
77 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
Appendix A
EcoDistrict Best Practices
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 78 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES
Olympic Village - Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, B.C.
(Image Credit: Don Vehige)
CONCEPTUAL
CONSTRUCTED
Rendering of the planned Heudelet 26 EcoDistrict in Dijon, France
(Image Credit: EXP Architects, Studiomustard Architecture,
and Sempervirens Landscape Designers)
Energy Network Diagram Plan for Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, B.C.
(Image Credit: City of Vancouver)
EXAMPLE CASE STUDY: Southeast False Creek (Vancouver, BC)
SCALE: 80 acres, eventual build out of 6.3 million square feet of residential development
(~6,600 units)
GOALS: Create a leading model of sustainability in North America, incorporating forward-thinking
infrastructure, strategic energy reduction, high-performance buildings and easy transit access.
METRICS: Energy use 40% Better than ASHRAE 90.1 2001, 50% Reduction in water use, 100% of site
stormwater diverted
SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES: Passive building design, district energy (neighborhood energy utility,
waste heat recovery), rainwater harvesting and reuse, green roofs, LEED-ND Platinum, 1/3 of housing
afordable, sustainability indicators and targets adopted
MANAGEMENT: City of Vancouver
FINANCE: Millennium SEFC Properties (private), City of Vancouver (public)
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: First phase complete (1,100 housing units and a 68,000 sf commercial
Civic Center)
There are many examples of EcoDistrict-related projects nationally and internationally, both
conceptual and constructed. Some are explicitly self-identifed as EcoDistricts, and others are more
generally categorized as sustainably designed blocks, neighborhoods, and cities. All have the
following in common:
• A defned area
• A specifc goal or goals around sustainability in the community and built environment
• Metrics for measuring performance and assessing if goals are met
• Community-focused sustainability strategies and sustainable design strategies at the building-scale
and district or infrastructure-scale
• A management structure to support initial and ongoing development
• Financing for research, design, and development
A summary of 28 EcoDistrict examples particularly pertinent to this study appears in Appendix B.
Each district's size, goals, primary strategies, management and fnance structure, implementation
status and areas of measurement are highlighted (see Southeast False Creek example at left and
below). The list includes examples from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and the Middle East.
All together, these EcoDistrict case studies provide a global view of EcoDistrict "Best Practices" from
which Capitol Hill's EcoDistrict can pull as appropriate.
Note: EcoDistrict creation can be separated into three phases: (1) organization and establishment,
(2) pre-assessment and planning, and (3) project implementation and performance monitoring. In
the United States, most of the EcoDistrict work to date has only progressed through stages (1) or (2),
which are less capital-intensive than stage (3).
79 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES
The upcoming Bullitt Center on Capitol Hill is a great example of sustainability
strategies implemented at the building scale. It is designed by Miller Hull to
generate all its own energy, collect and reuse rainwater, and support the health
of its occupants with non-toxic materials, natural ventilation, and daylighting.
(Image Credit: Miller Hull Partnership Architecture; Seattle, Washington)
Bioswales and rain gardens are excellent strategies at the infrastructure scale to
sustainably manage district stormwater. (Image Credit: GGLO)
Community gathering places like Cal Anderson park, events like Outdoor Movies,
and neighborhood CSA food deliveries by bike are great strategies for supporting
a sustainable and vibrant community. (Image Credit: Fork & Frame)
There are a wide spectrum of sustainable design strategies, management structures, fnancing
options, and policy frameworks that support EcoDistrict development. The most applicable of these
to the Station Area Sites, from the 28 national and international examples studied, are summarized
in this section and serve as a kind of catalogue of "Best Practices" for creating both physical and
operational neighborhood sustainability.
Best Practices: Built Environment
Sustainable design strategies at the building-scale or individual site scale are grouped under "Best
Practices: Built Environment" and summarize the energy, water and building design strategies
that create high performance buildings. EcoDistrict strategies for the built environment apply to
specifc components or locations on the site and do not require site-wide management or shared
ownership, but these strategies should be established, regulated, and measured for progress across an
entire EcoDistrict.
Best Practices: Infrastructure
Sustainable design strategies at the district-scale are grouped under "Best Practices: Infrastructure"
and summarize the green infrastructure strategies common in district energy, district water,
habitat and transportation systems. EcoDistrict strategies for infrastructure are shared resources
throughout the EcoDistrict, and therefore may require common ownership and/or management.
Best Practices: People
People-focused sustainability strategies, or those strategies that encourage sustainable behavior,
are grouped under "Best Practices: People" and summarize the sustainable design and economic
strategies that promote equity, education, and a vibrant culture. EcoDistrict strategies for
sustainable behavior involve people who live and work in the EcoDistrict, as well as members of the
surrounding community; they provide an essential balance for EcoDistrict sustainability by directly
addressing the social realm; they help ensure that the strategies described in the Built Environment
and Infrastructure sections beneft the community in a holistic way and operate to their fullest
potential.
Best Practices: Management, Finance, and Policy
Management structures, fnancing options, and policy frameworks that have to do with
implementing the physical and community sustainability strategies discussed in the Built
Environment, Infrastructure, and People sections are summarized in the "Best Practice: Management",
"Best Practice: Finance" and "Best Practice: Policy" sections respectively.
Best Practices: Summary (Potential for Capitol Hill)
Throughout all of the Best Practices sections specifc strategies and frameworks are given a ranking
on their potential for application on the catalyst Station Area Sites (ranked as "low", "medium" and
"high"). These rankings are intended as a frst-pass assessment based on knowledge of Station Area
Sites. Since the choice of a specifc set of appropriate strategies to pursue in any EcoDistrict depends
on numerous site specifc factors – including community goals, site location, site assets, scale,
context, stakeholders, the regulatory environment, economics, demographics, politics, etc. – a fnal
set of District-wide recommended strategies that respond to a deeper site analysis and community
visioning process unique to Capitol Hill appears in the Performance Areas chapter.
BUILDINGS
INFRASTRUCTURE
PEOPLE
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 80 APPENDIX A
ENERGY
Building-scale sustainable design energy strategies are intended to:
Reduce non-renewable energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions.
Energy-Ef cient Building Design
APPROACH: Require adherence to building energy performance standards.
METHODS: Potential standards include the 2030 Challenge, Passivhaus Standard, Living Building
Challenge, Net Zero Energy design, LEED; Design options include passive design, natural ventilation,
daylighting, envelope, heat recovery ventilation
EXAMPLES: Southeast Falls Creek, Dockside Green, Pringle Creek, and Baltimore State Center (LEED);
Freiburg-Vauban (Passivhaus)
LOCAL RESOURCES: 2030 District; Priority Green Permitting; Integrated Design Lab
POTENTIAL: High - Seattle is already a national leader in green building
Energy Retrofts
APPROACH: Retroft existing buildings for energy ef ciency
METHODS: Envelope improvements, upgraded systems
EXAMPLES: Seattle 2030 District, Kansas City Green Impact Zone, Living City Block
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle’s Community Power Works Program; Preservation Green Lab
POTENTIAL: Medium - It is anticipated that the EcoDistrict will expand beyond the catalyst
development at the station area sites, at which point there will be ample retroftting opportunities,
including retrofts for district energy.
Building-Integrated Renewable Generation
APPROACH: Establish a target for energy production on-site
METHODS: Rooftop or facade-mounted photovoltaics, solar hot water
EXAMPLES: BedZED, Freiburg-Vauban, Heudelet 26 EcoDistrict, Malmo Western Harbour
LOCAL RESOURCES: Federal and Washington State incentives
POTENTIAL: High - cost/beneft will improve over time
Advanced Metering
APPROACH: Make energy use data easily accessible to inform users and encourage conservation
METHODS: Individual meters for every unit, publicly visible displays of energy use
EXAMPLES: BedZED, Dockside Green, EVA Lanxmeer
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle Building Energy Benchmarking and Reporting
POTENTIAL: High - cost efective
Renewable Energy Purchase Agreement
APPROACH: Maximize use of renewable energy from utility
METHODS: Require participation green power programs
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle City Light’s “Green Up” program
POTENTIAL: High - relatively easy strategy
Rooftop photovoltaic panels cover the Freiburg-Vauban 59 Plus Energy Solar
Settlement. (Image Credit: Wikipedia)
A 2.5-acre photovoltaic array was recently installed on the rooftop of the Century
Link Field Event Center in Seattle (Image Credit: First & Goal/Vulcan NW)
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: BUILT ENVIRONMENT
Electricity use monitor used at Pringle Creek in Salem, Oregon
(Image Credit: Pringle Creek)
81 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: BUILT ENVIRONMENT
WATER
Building-scale sustainable design water strategies are intended to:
Conserve potable water; reduce blackwater production and stormwater runof.
Ef ciency
APPROACH: Require high-ef ciency fxtures, appliances, and landscape
METHODS: LEED or other established standard, custom standard
EXAMPLES: Southeast Falls Creek, Dockside Green, Pringle Creek, and Baltimore State Center
LOCAL RESOURCES: Multiple LEED projects
POTENTIAL: High - techniques are well established
Reuse
APPROACH: Require systems to capture stormwater and/or greywater to supply toilets or irrigation
METHODS: Storage cisterns, dual piping systems
EXAMPLES: Southeast Falls Creek, Dockside Green
LOCAL RESOURCES: Several local projects provide precedence; Cascadia Green Building Council’s
water research (http://cascadiagbc.org/resources/research); King County Wastewater Treatment
Division Resource Recovery
POTENTIAL: Medium - relatively high cost premium, but the cost/beneft will improve over time; some
local precedents
Blackwater Treatment
APPROACH: Reduce blackwater generation, process black water to supply toilets and irrigation
METHODS: Composting toilets, digester, “Living Machine”
EXAMPLES: Treasure Island, Dockside Green
LOCAL RESOURCES: Cascadia Green Building Council’s water research (http://cascadiagbc.org/
resources/research)
POTENTIAL: Low/Medium - relatively high cost premium for high density projects
Stormwater Management
While stormwater can be addressed on a site by site basis, the probability of success is increased
when addressed at the district scale. See “Best Practices: Infrastructure: District Water: Manage
Stormwater”.
APPROACH: Reduce fows to municipal stormwater system at the building scale level
METHODS: Green roofs and walls
EXAMPLES: Treasure Island, Dockside Green, Pringle Creek, South Lake Union
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle Green Factor
POTENTIAL: High - the techniques are well established
Green roof on the Bart Harvey, a low-income apartment in South Lake Union,
Seattle (Image Credit : Mike Seidl)
Green roofs and courtyards at Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, B.C.
(Image Credit: Recollective, http://recollective.ca/2010/07/21/sefc-certifcation/)
Green wall at Dockside Green, Victoria, B.C.
(Image Credit: Hattie Hartman)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 82 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: BUILT ENVIRONMENT
BUILDING DESIGN
Sustainable building design strategies, unrelated to water or energy, are intended to:
Contribute to a broad range of sustainability goals through good design.
Optimize Density
APPROACH: Maximizing the number of residences and businesses in the EcoDistrict will enhance
neighborhood vitality and economic development and leverage the transit investment.
METHODS: Don’t allow “underdevelopment,” take advantage of all existing density bonuses and
transfer of development rights, propose upzones if appropriate, ofer density bonuses for participation
in the EcoDistrict, minimize space given over to parking, consider small units
LOCAL RESOURCE: “Transit Oriented Communities: A Blueprint for Washington State”
POTENTIAL: Medium - building height to relate to existing neighborhood
Activate the Street
APPROACH: Design building frontages and plan for uses that bring people and activity to the adjacent
streets, alleys, plazas, and other areas of the public realm. Thoughtful, district-scale urban design will
lay the groundwork for a high-quality public realm and seamless integration with the surrounding
context.
METHODS: Ground-related housing, active street-level commercial uses that spill out onto the
sidewalk, permeable facades, reinforced pedestrian connections; use form-based codes or similar to
regulate frontage. Create urban design plan and require adherence.
EXAMPLES: Southeast False Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Capitol Hill Urban Design Framework
POTENTIAL: High - support has been established in the planning process; would be best facilitated by
a single master developer
Express Sustainable Design Features
APPROACH: Sustainable design features that are prominently featured as design elements can help
educate the public and create a visual identity for the EcoDistrict
EXAMPLES: BedZED
POTENTIAL: High
Cover of TOC Blueprint
(Image Credit: Futurewise, GGLO, Transportation Choices Coalition)
TRANSIT-ORIENTED COMMUNITIES:
A BLUEPRINT FOR WASHINGTON STATE
Futurewise | GGLO | Transportation Choices Coalition
BedZED incorporates colorful passive ventilation cowls
(Image Credit: Bioregional)
83 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: INFRASTRUCTURE
DISTRICT ENERGY
District-scale energy infrastructure is intended to:
Reduce energy use with ef cient district energy systems
Integration With External System
APPROACH: Connect EcoDistrict buildings to external district heating/cooling systems (existing or
future system).
METHODS: Require buildings designed to integrate with water loops, encourage uses with
complementary peak use cycles (e.g. of ce and residential)
EXAMPLES: Southeast False Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle District Energy Study (report due July 2011), Seattle Steam
POTENTIAL: Medium/High - Seattle Steam service is nearby, and they are interested in expanding as
other infrastructure (streetcar) expands
Dedicated District Heating System
APPROACH: On-site system designed to serve the EcoDistrict buildings, potentially with the option of
also serving neighboring buildings
METHODS: Central boilers (biomass, CHP, microturbines), ground-source heat pump/solar hot water
system; could be owned and operated by private utility provider or the EcoDistrict itself
EXAMPLES: South Waterfront, BedZED, Dockside Green, EVA Lanxmeer, Freiburg-Vauban, Malmo
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle District Energy Study
POTENTIAL: Medium - EcoDistrict boundary will need to be enlarged to justify some types of systems
Shared Renewable Energy Generation
APPROACH: Large-scale, on-site generation systems operated by the EcoDistrict or by a third party
energy provider, located in commonly owned facilities or shared spaces.
METHODS: Photovoltaics, solar hot water, methane from digester
EXAMPLES: Treasure Island, Masdar City
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle’s Community Solar Project; Large roof area on adjacent SCCC
buildings
POTENTIAL: High for solar, Medium for digester (no precedent)
Southeast False Creek’s “Neighborhood Energy Utility” mines wastewater heat to
provide district heating (Image Credit: Ausenco Sandwell)
University of Washington Central Power Plant, c.1939
(Image Credit: University of Washington Libraries)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 84 APPENDIX A
DISTRICT WATER
District-scale water infrastructure is intended to:
Conserve potable water and reduce blackwater production and stormwater runof by taking
advantages of opportunities for district-scale systems.
Water (Rainwater, Greywater, Blackwater)
APPROACH: Supplement potable supply through capture, processing, storage and redistribution
METHODS: Shared, site-wide systems for rainwater harvesting, greywater reuse, blackwater
processing/reuse, centralized, shared storage (cisterns); possible integration with adjacent properties
EXAMPLES: Dockside Green, BedZED
LOCAL RESOURCES: Yesler Terrace District Study; Cascadia Green Building Council’s water research
(http://cascadiagbc.org/resources/research)
POTENTIAL: Medium - no local precedents for shared systems
Manage Stormwater
APPROACH: Site-wide stormwater management and natural drainage systems to reduce runof
METHODS: Pervious pavement, rain gardens, and swales in right of way and shared open space,
integrate site-wide plan with individual buildings.
EXAMPLES: Lloyd District, Portland State, South Waterfront, Pringle Creek, Southeast Falls Creek,
Dockside Green, Gateway, South Lake Union
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle SEA Streets; Seattle Green Factor
POTENTIAL: Medium/High - techniques are well established
HABITAT
Habitat infrastructure is intended to:
Enrich urban habitat on site and in the surrounding neighborhood to promote biodiversity
even as development increases the intensity of the built environment.
Create Habitat
APPROACH: Create new habitat for insects and birds, enhance urban wildlife corridors
METHODS: Establish wildlife-friendly standards for design and plantings for green roofs, walls, and
gardens, maximize use of natives
EXAMPLES: Portland State University, Dockside Green, Southeast False Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Cal Anderson Park; Pollinator Pathway
POTENTIAL: Medium - strategies are straightforward but the site has relatively little available area
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: INFRASTRUCTURE
Dockside Green’s integrated natural drainage system handles stormwater and
treated wastewater. (Image Credit: Erin Wark)
Rainwater harvesting system at Southeast False Creek
(Image Credit: City of Vancouver)
Habitat Island at Southeast False Creek in Vancouver, B.C.
(Image Credit: City of Vancouver)
85 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
TRANSPORTATION
Transportation infrastructure is intended to:
Reduce the negative environmental impact of automobile use by maximizing the
opportunities for walking, biking, and transit use.
Minimize Parking
APPROACH: Apply a range of strategies to minimize the use of the site’s space and resources for on-
site parking stalls
METHODS: Parking maximums, shared parking, parking management district
EXAMPLES: Lloyd District (proposed parking management district and bike sharing)
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle zoning code
POTENTIAL: Medium/High - community support is strong, but depends on developer/lenders
Enable Car Free Households
APPROACH: Provide transportations options for residents and neighbors who opt not to own a car
and to maximize light rail and streetcar usage, and other modes of transportation
METHODS: Zipcar stalls, car sharing center, bike sharing center, bike storage, transit passes for tenants,
separate parking stall cost from unit cost, electric vehicle charging station
LOCAL RESOURCES: City of Seattle electric vehicle charging station program; UPASS program at
University of Washington
POTENTIAL: High/Varied - some methods are established, others are more untested
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: INFRASTRUCTURE
Bikeshare station in Denver, CO (Image Credit: Denver Bike Sharing)
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 86 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: PEOPLE
EQUITY
People-scale community practices that promote equity are intended to:
Enable an EcoDistrict to beneft the broadest possible spectrum of people.
Afordability
APPROACH: Ensure access to the EcoDistrict by people across the full range of incomes
METHODS: Afordable housing, afordable commercial space, afordable artist space, reduction in
household transportation expenses associated with excellent access to high-quality transit
EXAMPLES: Treasure Island, Dockside Green, Southeast Falls Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Capitol Hill Housing, Low-Income Housing Institute, Housing Resources Group,
Artspace, Urban Design Framework
POTENTIAL: High - there is broad support for creating afordable housing on the site
Diversity
APPROACH: Attract a diverse range of residents and users by providing a diversity of housing types
and commercial space
METHODS: Provide units designed for families or seniors, and commercial spaces of varying sizes
suitable for a wide range of uses, including of ce.
EXAMPLES: Southeast Falls Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Artspace
POTENTIAL: Medium/High - depends on perceived market demands
Economic Development
APPROACH: Leverage district sustainability to connect to and support regional green job
opportunities, and create high quality, accessible jobs for neighborhood residents.
METHODS: Ofer opportunities for demonstration and beta-testing of green technologies; tie building
and district infrastructure development and operation to workforce training for neighborhood
residents; explore economic development co-benefts opportunities in district strategies; provide
fexible commercial space that can serve a wide range of business types and sizes.
EXAMPLES: Kansas City Green Impact Zone, Living City Block
LOCAL RESOURCES: Urban Design Framework, PSRC’s Building Ef ciency Testing and Integration
(BETI) Center and Demonstration Network, McKinstry Innovation Center, King County Workforce
Development Council Green Jobs Training program, Community Power Works
POTENTIAL: High - Deep local resources and strong support in the Capitol Hill neighborhood
Mixed market-rate and afordable housing in Southeast False Creek, Vancouver,
B.C. (Image Credit: City of Vancouver - The Village on False Creek)
University of Oregon design studio rendering of a vision for revitalizing the Lents
“Town Center,” in the heart of the Lents EcoDistrict pilot in Portland Oregon
(Image Credit: Renee Wilkinson)
87 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: PEOPLE
EDUCATION
People-scale community practices that educate are intended to:
Support sustainable behaviors through education on sustainable living for EcoDistrict
residents and users, as well as for the community at large.
Tenant/User Education
APPROACH: Educate EcoDistrict residents and commercial tenants on how be best utilize the
resources of the EcoDistrict to maximize sustainability performance.
METHODS: Demand management, visible meters, conservation competitions, training, workshops
EXAMPLES: BedZED, Pringle Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Better Bricks
POTENTIAL: High - user participation is key for EcoDistrict success
Community Education
APPROACH: Utilize the EcoDistrict as a living laboratory to educate the community on how to
maximize their sustainable living habits; establish the EcoDistrict as a center for sustainability
education.
METHODS: On-site learning center, tours, seminars, collaboration with public schools and higher
education institutions, youth programs
EXAMPLES: Cleveland Ecovillage, Pringle Creek
LOCAL RESOURCES: Sustainable Capitol Hill, City of Seattle Of ce of Sustainability and Environment,
Seattle Central Community College, Seattle University, University of Washington, Northwest School,
Seattle Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Lowell Elementary.
POTENTIAL: High - there is widespread interest and support for sustainability in Seattle
Assessment
APPROACH: Monitor EcoDistrict performance against goals, provide feedback, and target
improvements
METHODS: Post occupancy surveys, transportation surveys, energy and water use audits.
EXAMPLES: Dockside Green, Southeast Falls Creek, BedZED, EVA Lanxmeer
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle 2030 District, Green Futures Lab
POTENTIAL: High - assessment is a core component of the EcoDistrict approach
Informative signage at Dockside Green explains the neighborhood's wastewater
treatment process. (Image Credit: Erin Wark)
Graph from GGLO Building Performance Evaluation
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Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 88 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: PEOPLE
CULTURE
People-scale community practices that enrich the neighborhoods culture are intended to:
Enrich the social networks and cultural environment of both EcoDistrict residents and the
community at large.
Community Gathering Places
APPROACH: Involve the surrounding community with the EcoDistrict by providing event and meeting
spaces for use by neighborhood groups and the general public
METHODS: Design to include spaces such as a community center, performance space, farmer’s
market, and plazas; program activities in these places.
EXAMPLES: Pringle Creek, Southeast False Creek, Malmo Western Harbour
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle Parks and Recreation
POTENTIAL: High - community support is strong; preliminary site design includes a public plaza
Arts
APPROACH: Support the local arts community
METHODS: Subsidized artist housing and studios; exhibition and performance spaces, public art
EXAMPLES: Oberlin Project
LOCAL RESOURCES: Artspace, City of Seattle Of ce of Arts and Cultural Afairs
POTENTIAL: Medium - community support is strong but depends on developer
Urban Agriculture
APPROACH: Engage residents and the greater community in sustainable urban agriculture
METHODS: Establish common gardening areas for EcoDistrict residents (and also possibly for
neighborhood residents), herb gardens for local restaurants, site-wide composting system
EXAMPLES: Pringle Creek, Kansas City Green Impact Zone ("Sowers of Sustainability")
LOCAL RESOURCES: Seattle P-Patch Trust (http://www.ppatchtrust.org/),
POTENTIAL: Low/Medium - the station area sites have limited available area for agriculture
Sharing Programs
APPROACH: Reduce consumption of material goods and the associated negative environmental
impacts by encouraging sharing of resources
METHODS: EcoDistrict resident sharing systems for space, appliances, tools, recreational gear, food,
transportation, childcare, etc.
EXAMPLES: Lloyd District (bike share), Pringle Creek (Bio diesel co-op), Dockside Green, EVA Lanxmeer
(car share)
LOCAL RESOURCES: West Seattle Tool Library; Urban Garden Share and Shared Earth; Of ce Nomads,
Agnes Underground; ZipCar, Avego, and PBSC Urban Solutions and Alta Bicycle Share
POTENTIAL: High - Capitol Hill Housing has a history of tool sharing; of ce and garden sharing
are growing in popularity; transportation sharing like bike-shares are starting and car-shares are
established
Community Greenhouse renovation at Pringle Creek in Salem, Oregon
(Image Credit: Pringle Creek)
Waterfront public open space in Malmo Western Harbour
(Image Credit: reddit.wired.com)
89 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: MANAGEMENT
Successful implementation of an EcoDistrict vision requires a management entity that has the
authority to act on behalf of the EcoDistrict. The establishment of management is a critical early
step in the process of creating an EcoDistrict, and can be expected to require signifcant efort to
accomplish. It is no small task to convince multiple stakeholders and landowners with a variety of
interests to cede authority to a common management entity that typically has no precedent.
Role of Management Entity
The key roles of a management entity are to guide the vision and strategies, manage funding and
investments, and assess performance. The entity may be a brand new organization, an existing
organization expanded to take on the new role, or an alliance of existing organizations. Community
Development Corporations, Business Improvement Districts, and Neighborhood Associations are
examples of potentially appropriate organizations. The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts
Toolkit recommends an “Engagement to Governance” process, emphasizing the importance of up
front community engagement in determining the optimum management structure.
Examples
Because EcoDistricts are still a relatively new concept, there are limited relevant management
examples. Many of the EcoDistrict examples cited in Appendix B deviate from the community-driven
EcoDistrict model either because they are privately owned, or because they are managed and funded
by municipal governments. Listed below are several examples of EcoDistricts with management
entities most relevant to the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict. Note that management may evolve over time.
• BedZED: Homeowners Association
• Cleveland Ecovillage: Partnership between Community Development Corporation and EcoCity
Cleveland (non-proft)
• Downtown DC EcoDistrict: Business Improvement District
• Kansas City Green Impact Zone: Metropolitan Planning Organization
• Living City Block: Initiated by Rocky Mountain Institute, spun-of into new non-proft
• Seattle 2030 District: New non-proft to be created to run the project; initial partnership formed
with the City of Seattle with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding
• Oberlin Project: Partnership between the College and the City
• EVA Lanxmeer: Initiated by non-proft foundation, followed by partnership with City
Potential for Capitol Hill
There are several existing neighborhood organizations in Capitol Hill that have the potential to take
on the EcoDistrict management role individually, or in alliance, including: the Capitol Hill Chamber of
Commerce, the Capitol Hill Community Council, the Capitol Hill Champion, and Capitol Hill Housing.
(Source: EcoDistricts Organization, Engagement and Governance, 16/2011, v1.1 )
PoSI's Steps to Governance
Step 1: Engage Stakeholders
Determine Representatives in your Community
Make an Inventory of Community Resources
Define the Message and Goals
Step 2: Create an EcoDistrict Steering Committee
Step 3: Develop a Vision and Priorities and
Document Commitments
Step 4: Determine Stakeholders' Roles and
Responsibilities
Understand that the stakeholder created entity
must have the following basic powers: Ability to
design an organization, form a Board, and oversee
operations; Enter into contracts and agreements
with private parties and government agencies; Hold
title to real estate; Accept grants and borrow funds;
Purchase, construct, improve, operate and maintain
sustainability projects within the EcoDistrict
Step 5: Formalize the EcoDistrict Governance Entity
Capitol Hill Housing with the assistance of a grant from the Bullitt Foundation is
spearheading the exploration of creating an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill.
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 90 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: FINANCE
The implementation of district-scale sustainability strategies typically requires substantial fnancial
investment. There are several factors that create challenges for EcoDistrict fnancing, including
multiple stakeholders and property owners, project complexity, risk associated with large up front
costs and a long time frame for build out, and the dif culty of separating the public and private
benefts provided.
EcoDistrict creation can be separated into three phases: (1) organization and establishment, (2) pre-
assessment and planning, and (3) project implementation and performance monitoring. In the United
States, most of the EcoDistrict work to date has only progressed through stages (1) or (2), which are
less capital-intensive than stage (3). In Europe and Canada, several EcoDistrict-type projects have
progressed through stage (3), but the capital-intensive district-scale systems involved were primarily
funded by the private sector and/or government. Notable examples include: BedZED, Dockside Green,
Southeast False Creek, EVA Lanxmeer, and Malmo Western Harbour.
The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts Toolkit identifes a wide range of potential sources
of capital, including cost-sharing/partnerships, below-market-rate loans, debt/bonds, grants, impact/
service fees, private equity, revolving loans, subsidies, tax assessments, tax increment fnancing, third
party ownership, and voluntary contributions.
District-scale funding mechanisms identifed in the Toolkit include Business Improvement Districts;
Local Improvement Districts; Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Districts; Parking Beneft Districts;
Voluntary Transportation Management Association Contributions; Urban Renewal Areas; and System
Development Charges (impact fees). Potential future models include Climate Beneft Districts, Local
Commercial REITs for Renters; Local Investing Opportunities Networks (LION), and Community IPOs.
Potential Local Funding Resources
A key local resource for Capitol Hill EcoDistrict funding strategies is the City of Seattle Of ce of
Economic Development (OED). In particular, the OED administers Federal Block Grants, which fund
their Community Development Loan Program: “Funding may be available for construction bridge
fnancing, low-income housing development projects and site acquisition through Section 108 Loans
and Float Loans.”
The Washington State legislature recently passed a bill that links transfer of development rights (TDR)
to tax increment fnancing (TIF). If a development project takes advantage of TDRs to increase density,
the jurisdiction can then issue bonds against the additional future property tax revenue generated by
the new development. The intention is that the bonds would be used to fund public infrastructure
around the development site. It may be possible for this mechanism to be used to fnance EcoDistrict
infrastructure such as district energy or water systems.
91 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: POLICY
The prospects for EcoDistrict success are strongly infuenced by public policy, which includes
regulations, incentives, and other government actions. In general, public policy should be crafted
to create certainty and reduce fnancial risk. Almost as importantly, any existing policy that
unintentionally creates barriers to EcoDistrict implementation must be addressed.
Because EcoDistricts are a relatively new concept, policy frameworks specifcally designed to
promote district-scale sustainability strategies do not yet exist in the U.S. But there may be potential
opportunities to tap existing policy mechanisms. The Portland Sustainability Institute’s EcoDistricts
Toolkit provides the following list of public policy actions that have the potential to facilitate
EcoDistrict development:
• Regulations, such as zoning codes, building codes, and energy codes
• Public-private partnerships
• Financial incentives and assistance, such as tax credits, grants, subsidies, etc.
• Technical assistance for assessments and projects
• Shared ownership of infrastructure, buildings, or services
• Demand management programs for reduced consumption or use
• Education, such as monitoring programs, resource centers, public outreach, etc.
• Third party certifcation requirements or incentives for compliance
• Infrastructure and project investment
Potential Local Policy Resources
Currently there is little in the way of existing local policy that would help promote an EcoDistrict on
Capitol Hill. Possible new or modifed approaches include:
• Adaptation of the City’s Priority Green permitting program to fast track permitting for projects that
meet sustainability requirements established by the EcoDistrict.
• Application of lessons learned from the Bertschi School’s Science Wing and Bullitt Foundation’s
Cascadia Center, both project pursuing living building certifcation, e.g. code that applies to water
reuse
• Application of relevant policy developed for Yesler Terrace
• Pilot project for energy use metering to demonstrate compliance with the City’s reporting
requirements
The City of Seattle has been proactive about planning for the Capitol Hill light rail station sites that
comprise the center of the proposed EcoDistrict. In particular, the Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites
Urban Design Framework (UDF) establishes a vision for the area with many potential synergies to
EcoDistrict strategies, though a UDF does not mandate compliance. In June 2011 Sound Transit and
the Seattle City Council initiated talks to negotiate a development agreement for the Capitol Hill
light rail station sites. The intention of these negotiations is to craft a development agreement that
ensures future development responds to the vision of the UDF. It is expected that this process will
lead to amendments to the Seattle Land Use Code specifc to the sites. This development agreement
represents an ideal opportunity to formalize new policy that defnes or establishes an EcoDistrict.
Cover of the Capitol Hill Light Rail Station Sites Urban Design Framework
Multiple City Programs Promote
Sustainability
The City of Seattle has a range of sustainability-related programs in several
departments that could potentially provide guidance or assistance for the
proposed EcoDistrict:
Of ce of Sustainability and Environment: New study on district energy
rates Capitol Hill as Seattle’s second-most promising site for district energy;
Climate Action Plan, and ongoing programs to reduce Seattle’s carbon footprint.
Department of Planning and Development: Energy Benchmarking and
Disclosure; “Priority Green” permitting; Sustainable Communities; Sustainable
Infrastructure; Green Factor
Seattle Planning Commission: Transit Communities Report issued in 2010;
Afordable Housing Report currently in progress
Department of Economic Development: Community Development Loan
Program; Community Development Block Grant Small Business Loan Fund;
Seattle Climate Partnership
Department of Transportation: Broadway Streetcar design in progress;
Transit Master Plan update in progress; Pedestrian Master Plan and Bicycle
Master Plan completed
City Council: The Regional Development and Sustainability Committee can be
expected to support district-scale sustainability strategies such as district energy
Mayor’s Of ce: Walk, Bike, Ride Initiative
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 92 APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: SUMMARY
Best Practices Near-term Potential for Station Area Sites
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Energy-Ef cient Bldg Design High Seattle is already a national leader in green building and has many local resources
Energy Retrofts Medium
It is anticipated that the EcoDistrict will expand beyond the catalyst development at the
station area sites, at which point there will be ample retroftting opportunities, including
retrofts for district energy
Bldg Integrated Renewable Generation High Incentives available and cost/beneft will improve over time
Advanced Metering High Cost efective and easy to do
Renewable Energy Purchase Agreement High Relatively easy strategy; can work with Seattle’s “Green Up” program
WATER
Ef cient Water Fixtures & Landscaping High Techniques are well established
Bldg Water Reuse Medium
Relatively high cost premium, but the cost/beneft will improve over time; some local
precedents are helping to pave the way
Bldg Blackwater Treatment Low / Medium Relatively high cost premium for high density projects, but techniques are well established
On-Site Stormwater Management High Techniques like Green Roofs and Living Walls are well established
DESIGN
Optimize Density Medium Site area already very dense, but high potential to increase density around transit site
Activate the Street High
Support has been established in the planning process; Would be best facilitated by a single
master developer
Express Sustainable Design Features High Easy to do and helps establish neighborhood identity
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Integration w/ External District Energy System High
Seattle Steam service is nearby, and they are interested in expanding as other infrastructure
(streetcar) expands
Dedicated District Heating System Medium EcoDistrict boundary will need to be enlarged to justify some types of systems
Shared Renewable Energy Generation Medium / High High for solar panels on SCCC’s roofs; Medium for digester (no precedent)
DISTRICT WATER
Shared Water Systems Medium / High No local precedents for shared systems
District-Scale Stormwater System High Techniques are well established
TRANSPORTATION
Minimize Parking Medium / High Community support is strong, but depends on developer/lenders
Enable Car-Free Households High / Varies
Some methods of vehicle sharing are established, others are more untested; great proximity
to public transit
HABITAT Integrate Habitat Medium Strategies are straightforward but the site has relatively little available area
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Afordability High There is broad support for creating afordable housing on the site
Diversity of Uses and Spaces Medium / High Depends on perceived market demands
Economic Development High
Successful precedent and strong support in the Capitol Hill neighborhood for supporting
local businesses
EDUCATION
Tenant/User Education High Easy to do and user participation is key for EcoDistrict success
Community Education / Living Laboratory High There is widespread interest and support for sustainability in Seattle
Assessment and Monitoring High Assessment is a core component of the EcoDistrict approach
CULTURE
Community Gathering Places High Community support is strong; preliminary site design includes a public plaza
Arts Support Medium Community support is strong but depends on developer
Urban Agriculture Low / Medium The site has limited available area for agriculture, yet programmed for Farmers Market
Sharing Programs High There are many resources and support for sharing programs
MANAGEMENT
Successful implementation of an EcoDistrict vision requires a governance entity that has the authority to act on behalf of the EcoDistrict. There are several existing
neighborhood organizations in Capitol Hill that have the potential to take on the EcoDistrict governance role individually, or in alliance, including: the Capitol Hill
Chamber of Commerce, the Capitol Hill Community Council, the Capitol Hill Champion, and Capitol Hill Housing.
FINANCE
A key local resource for Capitol Hill EcoDistrict funding strategies is the City of Seattle Of ce of Economic Development’s (OED). Federal Block Grants, which fund
their Community Development Loan Program | The Washington State legislature recently passed a bill that links transfer of development rights (TDR) to tax
increment fnancing (TIF). It may be possible for this mechanism to be used to fnance EcoDistrict infrastructure.
POLICY
Currently there is a lack of policy that would help promote an EcoDistrict on Capitol Hill, but potential new or modifed approaches include Seattle’s Priority Green
program, density bonuses, pilot programs, and procedures developed for recent projects such as the Bullitt Foundation Living Building.
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93 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX A
ECODISTRICT BEST PRACTICES: SUMMARY
Best Practices: Summary (Potential for Capitol Hill)
Clearly, Capitol Hill is a prime location for an EcoDistrict. There are many EcoDistrict Best Practices that
have a high potential for application in the neighborhood.
Refer to the research and strategies in the Performance Areas chapter in the full report to move from
this global review to a deeper look into neighborhood specific, district-wide EcoDistrict values and
resources.
95 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Baltimore State Center
BedZED
Cleveland Ecovillage
Clonburris EcoDistrict
Dockside Green
Downtown D.C. EcoDistrict
EVA Lanxmeer
Freiburg-Vauban
Gateway (PoSI pilot)
Heudelet 26 EcoDistrict
Kansas City Green Impact Zone
Lents (PoSI pilot)
Living City Block
Lloyd District (PoSI pilot)
Lok Ma Chau Loop
Masdar City
Malmo Western Harbor
Oberlin Project
Portland State University (PoSI pilot)
Pringle Creek
Project Green
Seattle 2030 District
South Lake Union
South Waterfront (PoSI pilot)
Southeast False Creek
Southwest EcoDistrict
Treasure Island
Yesler Terrace
109
109
108
100
100
101
101
102
102
103
105
103
104
104
96
106
96
106
105
97
107
108
97
107
98
98
99
99
A broad range of EcoDistrict-related work has been conducted nationally and internationally.
A summary of 28 pertinent EcoDistrict examples appears on the following pages organized
alphabetically by country or region; each district's size, goals, strategies, management and
fnance structure, implementation status and areas of measurement are highlighted. The list
includes examples from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Some of
the examples ft well within the conventional defnition of an EcoDistrict, while others serve as
case studies of specifc features that have relevance to EcoDistricts.
Appendix B
EcoDistrict Examples
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 96 APPENDIX B
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
Rendering of proposed Baltimore State Center redevelopment
(Image Credit: Design Collective)
Architectural rendering of the Cleveland Ecovillage from visioning process.
(Image Credit: City Architecture)
Baltimore State Center (Baltimore, MD)
SCALE: 28-acre site, $1.5 billion redevelopment over 15
years, estimated build out of 2 million sf of public and
private of ce space, 1,400 housing units and 250,000 sf of
retail.
GOALS: Transform an aging group of state government
of ces into a vibrant mixed use community.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Sustainability Action Plan, LEED Silver
buildings, LEED ND Platinum, reuse of buildings, green
guidelines for tenants
MANAGEMENT: Public-private partnership
FINANCE: Shared through public-private redevelopment
(City of Baltimore and Ekistics LLC)
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Planning and design
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment in progress
Cleveland Ecovillage (Cleveland, OH)
SCALE: Neighborhood centered around a transit station.
GOALS: Demonstration project to redevelop a
neighborhood around a transit stop, and “realize the
promise of urban life in the most ecological way possible.”
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Green building, community garden,
energy retroft assistance, education, new rail transit
station, and stormwater management.
MANAGEMENT: Detroit Shoreway Community
Development Organization
FINANCE: (partial list) George Gund Foundation,
the Katherine and Lee Chilcote Foundation, and the
Cleveland Cityworks program, U.S. EPA
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Ongoing, with several isolated
projects completed
MEASUREMENT: Some utility use data has been recorded;
transit ridership and traf c data
97 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Boundary of the Gateway urban renewal district, which roughly delineates the Gateway pilot EcoDistrict
(Image Credit: University of Oregon)
Proposed Downtown D.C. EcoDistrict in Washington, D.C. (Image Credit: Downtown D.C. BID)
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
Downtown D.C. EcoDistrict (Washington D.C.)
SCALE: Entire downtown D.C. Business Improvement
District (BID) area: 68 million sf of of ce, a dozen civic and
cultural institutions, and 6,000 residences
GOALS: Reduce the BID area’s carbon footprint and
consumption of resources and, at the same time, increase
market share and proftability.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Phase 1: Research, benchmarking and
tracking, marketing and communications, organizing and
cooperation
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: Business Improvement District
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Launched April 2011
MEASUREMENT: N/A
Gateway (PoSI pilot, Portand, OR)
SCALE: 658-acre urban renewal area (“the most tangible
defnition of Gateway”)
GOALS: Explore EcoDistrict potential at underdeveloped
transportation crossroads
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Unite multiple initiatives already
underway, community behavior project
MANAGEMENT: The existing Gateway Program Advisory
Committee is a good candidate to take on a future
management role
FINANCE: Not yet identifed; potential large-scale private
development with Gilbert Brothers
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Process initiated in 2009; Series
of engagement meetings have been conducted with
identifed stakeholders
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment completed 2010
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 98 APPENDIX B
Map of the Lents neighborhood and the Lents pilot EcoDistrict
(Image Credit: ilovelents.com)
Map of the Kansas City Green Impact Zone courtesy of MARC (Image Credit: http://www.greenimpactzone.org/)
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Kansas City Green Impact Zone (Kansas City, MO)
SCALE: 150-Block Green Impact Zone
GOALS: Revitalize and urban area that has experienced
severe abandonment and economic decline.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Housing rehab, weatherization,
community policing and services, job training and
placement, health and wellness programs, youth
programs, community gardening.
MANAGEMENT: The Mid-America Regional Council, in
partnership with 10 neighborhoods and community
development organizations
FINANCE: $50 million Federal TIGER grant
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Launched in 2009
MEASUREMENT: Baseline demographic data
Lents (PoSI pilot, Portand, OR)
SCALE: 3.75 square mile primarily residential neighborhood;
part of a larger urban renewal area
GOALS: Explore the challenges associated with creating
an EcoDistrict in a diverse neighborhood with higher than
average poverty rates, where residents are more concerned
with getting their basic needs met.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Build neighborhood relationships, bring
together multiple initiatives already underway, focus
on the “engagement to management” process, build
on previous Bullitt funded “EcoDistrict MANAGEMENT
Project,” partner on Metro funded green infrastructure
strategic plan, integrate Clean Energy Works program
MANAGEMENT: Not yet identifed
FINANCE: Bullitt Foundation grant
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Process initiated in 2009; fact-
fnding and relationship-building
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment completed 2010
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
99 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Diagram of the Lloyd District EcoDistrict pilot site in northeast Portland (Image Credit: PoSI)
Boundary (in yellow) of the Living City Block project in Denver, Colorado (Credit: Color over BING Birds Eye)
Living City Block (Denver, CO)
SCALE: One city block (replicated)
GOALS: Ceate a replicable, exportable, scalable and
economically viable framework for the resource ef cient
regeneration of existing cities, one block at a time.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Deep energy retrofts, job creation
MANAGEMENT: 501(c)(3) organization
FINANCE: Originally a program of the Rocky Mountain
Institute; currently the non-proft has multiple funding
sources
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Launched in 2010
MEASUREMENT: Baseline energy use data
Lloyd District (PoSI pilot, Portand, OR)
SCALE: 275-acre neighborhood consisting primarily of
commercial buildings
GOALS: Reduce carbon emissions and energy consumption,
improve multimodality of transportation, create marketing
value with sustainable district brand
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Green streets, district energy, food
waste composting, bike-sharing
MANAGEMENT: Plan to create Sustainability
Management Association, Sustainability Director
has been hired, the Lloyd District Transportation
Management Association may also be involved
FINANCE: Lloyd BID, City of Portland, Oregon Metro
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Process initiated in 2009;
declaration of Cooperation signed in 2010, Sustainability
Director hired in 2011
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment completed 2010
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 100 APPENDIX B
Portland State University pilot EcoDistrict systems diagram (Image Credit: SERA)
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Site of proposed Oberlin Project (Image Credit: Oberlin)
Oberlin Project (Oberlin, OH)
SCALE: 13-acre block near the city center.
GOALS: Eliminate carbon emissions; create green arts
district
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Sustainable development or renovation
of a dozen buildings during the next fve to seven years.
MANAGEMENT: Oberlin College and City of Oberlin
FINANCE: DOE grant, assistance from Clinton Climate
Initiative, others sources being sought
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Conceptual stages
MEASUREMENT: N/A
Portland State University (PoSI pilot, Portand, OR)
SCALE: Large urban university campus
GOALS: Take advantage of the large amount of property
controlled by a single owner, along with the progressive
university culture to advance a broad range of sustainability
strategies
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Stormwater management, green roofs,
habitat provision, pocket parks, and bicycle infrastructure,
extension of existing district energy system, Portland
State University (PSU) EcoDistrict Engagement Program.
MANAGEMENT: PSU, but mechanism to include other
property owners not yet determined
FINANCE: PSU earmarked $10 million for 2011-2013,
26 million for 2013-2015, matching funds from area
stakeholders
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Process initiated in 2009;
EcoDistrict Strategy integrated into the PSU Framework Plan
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment completed 2010
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
101 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Rendering of urban design and redevelopment concept for EcoDistrict implementation by Mithun. (Image Credit: Mithun)
Rendered Site Plan for Pringle Creek in Salem, Oregon (Image Credit: Pringle Creek)
Pringle Creek (Salem, OR)
SCALE: 32-acres, 139 residential lots, small mixed-use center
GOALS: Develop a new sustainable residential
neighborhood
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: ground-source heat pumps, LEED-ND
participant, low-impact development, sustainability
living center, community partnerships, community
gardens, bio-diesel co-op, planning for some net-zero
energy homes, real-time energy monitoring
MANAGEMENT: N/A
FINANCE: Private development
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Lots are for sale
MEASUREMENT: Energy use data
Project Green (Austin, TX)
SCALE: Six-acre on fve blocks, the site of a decommissioned
water treatment plant; 2.5 million square feet of of ce,
hotel, residential, and retail space
GOALS: High density mixed-used redevelopment striving to
achieve water and carbon neutrality
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Photovoltaics, wind turbines, green
roofs, rainwater harvesting, gray water reuse, LEED Gold
target, public open space, afordable housing trust fund,
public art
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: Public-private partnership
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Project awarded to Trammell
Crow in 2008, on hold since then
MEASUREMENT: N/A
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 102 APPENDIX B
South Lake Union neighborhood in Seattle (Image Credit: GGLO)
Seattle 2030 District boundary (Image Credit: GGLO)
Seattle 2030 District (Seattle, WA)
SCALE: Over 1100 commercial buildings in downtown
Seattle and the First Hill, Denny Triangle, and South Lake
Union neighborhoods
GOALS: Develop strategies to assist district property
owners, managers, and tenants in meeting aggressive goals
that reduce environmental impacts of facility construction
and operations.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Use Architecture 2030 Challenge for
Planners as a target for new and existing buildings,
master dashboard to track energy and water use for all
buildings, standardized audit process, energy ef ciency
contracting packages
MANAGEMENT: New entity in the process of being
created
FINANCE: EPA Climate Showcase Communities Grant
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Project initiated in 2009;
commitment letters signed by a large consortium
of property owners, building operators, professional
stakeholders, utilities, and the City of Seattle
MEASUREMENT: Baseline energy use estimates
South Lake Union (Seattle, WA)
SCALE: 340-acre neighborhood adjacent to downtown
Seattle
GOALS: 2002 study commissioned to “identify design and
technology solutions appropriate to South Lake Union that
will reduce the short and long-term environmental impact
of urban development and construction.” LEED ND pilot
neighborhood.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Wide range of recommendations
grouped according to Process, Site, Energy, Water,
Materials and Resources
MANAGEMENT: None
FINANCE: Study funded by Vulcan, LEED ND administered
by City of Seattle
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Report issued in 2002, LEED ND
achieved in 2010
MEASUREMENT: Assessment conducted for LEED ND
metrics
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
103 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Rendering of the proposed Schnitzer Campus & OHSU Commons, the focus of the Southwest EcoDistrict in Portland
(Image Credit: OHSU)
Boundaries of the proposed Southwest Ecodistrict, Washington, D.C.
(Image provided courtesy of The National Capital Planning Commission)
South Waterfront (PoSI pilot, Portand, OR)
SCALE: The South Waterfront District is a 402-acre urban
renewal area; focus is on the north end of the district, where
land is primarily undeveloped
GOALS: Take advantage of major planned redevelopment
to establish district-scale systems
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: District energy, collective wastewater
treatment, greywater, and stormwater management
systems, green streets, sustainability master plan,
transportation management programs
MANAGEMENT: Oregon Health Sciences University is a
major property owner
FINANCE: Not yet identifed; private development may
contribute
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Process initiated in 2009;
Stakeholders have been convened, green street priority
project identifed
MEASUREMENT: Baseline assessment completed 2010
Southwest Ecodistrict (Washington, D.C.)
SCALE: 110 acres of private and publicly owned land on 15
blocks
GOALS: Advance innovative sustainable development
practices for a precinct of buildings, related infrastructure,
and open space
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Energy and natural drainage retrofts,
add retail and housing, create pedestrian-friendly
connections, considering a lid on the freeway and
railroad tracks
MANAGEMENT: National Capital Planning Commission,
with multiple partners
FINANCE: Federal Government
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Planning stages; task force
convened in spring 2010
MEASUREMENT: N/A
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 104 APPENDIX B
Rendering of Treasure Island, San Francisco (Image Credit: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)
Rendering of Yesler Terrace, Seattle (Image Credit: GGLO)
Treasure Island (San Francisco, CA)
SCALE: $1.5 billion redevelopment with 8,000 housing units
(25% afordable), three hotels, a retail/commercial center,
an expanded marina, a ferry terminal, and about 300 acres
of open space.
GOALS: Create the “most sustainable redevelopment in the
United States.”
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Photovoltaics, wind farm, district energy
(CHP plant), organic waste digester, pedestrian-oriented
urban design, organic farm, 275 acre park.
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: Joint venture between Lennar
Corporation and Kenwood Investments
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: In fnal planning stages, ground
breaking slated for 2012.
MEASUREMENT: Some baseline assessment has been done
Yesler Terrace (Seattle, WA)
SCALE: 30-acre mixed-income, mixed-use redevelopment
GOALS: “Integrate sustainable design and implement
equitable environmental and economic practices to achieve
a positive and healthy community for current and future
generations living within the Yesler Terrace community
while preserving housing afordability.”
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Smart growth principles, housing
diversity, development manual to regulate the public
realm, planned action ordinance, Sustainable District
Study
MANAGEMENT: Seattle Housing Authority and City of
Seattle
FINANCE: Afordable housing to be funded by sale of
land for private development, HUD Grants
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: In master planning phase
MEASUREMENT: Baseline energy and water use were
measured for the Sustainable District Study
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: UNITED STATES
105 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Dockside Green, Victoria, B.C. (Image Credit: Dockside Green)
Concept Plan for Southeast False Creek, Vancouver, B.C.
(Image Credit: VIA Architecture; provided courtesy of City of Vancouver)
Dockside Green (Victoria, B.C)
SCALE: 1.3 million sf mixed-use community on 15 acre
former brownfeld
GOALS: Create a socially vibrant, ecologically restorative,
economically sound and just community
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Centralized biomass gasifcation
system; wastewater treatment facility treats 100% of all
sewage from the development, treated water used for
toilets, irrigation and creek system; user meters for water,
heat and electricity; green roofs, car share program, LEED
ND, afordable housing program
MANAGEMENT: Privately developed
FINANCE: Privately fnanced; afordable housing
supported by City of Victoria
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: As of 2011 two residential and
two commercial phases complete
MEASUREMENT: 2009 Annual Sustainability Report has
limited metrics
Southeast False Creek (Vancouver, BC)
SCALE: 80 acres, eventual build out of 6.3 million sf of
residential development (~6,600 units)
GOALS: Create a leading model of sustainability in North
America, incorporating forward-thinking infrastructure,
strategic energy reduction, high-performance buildings and
easy transit access.
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Passive building design, district energy
(neighborhood energy utility, waste heat recovery),
rainwater harvesting and reuse, green roofs, LEED-ND
Platinum, 1/3 of housing afordable, sustainability
indicators and targets adopted
MANAGEMENT: City of Vancouver
FINANCE: Millennium SEFC Properties (private), City of
Vancouver (public)
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: First phase complete (1,100
units and a 68,000 sf commercial)
MEASUREMENT: Energy use 40% Better than ASHRAE 90.1
2001, 50% Reduction in water use, 100% of site stormwater
diverted
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: CANADA
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 106 APPENDIX B
BedZED (Image Credit: Bill Dunster)
Clonburris EcoDistrict master plan (Image Credit: City of Dublin)
BedZED (Beddington, U.K.)
SCALE: 99 low-rise multifamily units and 15,000 sf of
commercial space on X acres
GOALS: Zero-carbon footprint development
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Passive design, photovoltaics, CHP
system (not operating), Living Machine (not operating),
visible meters, tenant education
MANAGEMENT: Homeowner Association
FINANCE: Peabody Trust (London-based housing
association and urban regeneration agency)
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Completed in 2002
MEASUREMENT: Post-occupancy studies completed, data
available
Clonburris EcoDistrict (Dublin, Ireland)
SCALE: 10-15 year phased development of 11-16,000
homes and up to 570,000 sf of commercial eight new
neighborhoods on 650 acres
GOALS: Minimize carbon emissions, promote biodiversity
and maximize quality of life
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Create complete walkable, transit-rich
neighborhoods; Incorporate a range of sustainable
environmental performance targets
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: City of Dublin
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Planning phase; Sustainability
Toolkit and Design Standards published
MEASUREMENT: N/A
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: EUROPE
107 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Rendering of the planned Heudelet 26 EcoDistrict in Dijon, France
(Image Credit: EXP Architects, Studiomustard Architecture, Sempervirens Landscape Designers)
Plan for EVA Lanxmeer (Image Credit: EVA Lanxmeer)
EVA Lanxmeer (Culemborg, Netherlands)
SCALE: 59-acre district in an ecologically sensitive area near
railway station, 250-units of low-rise housing, 430,000 sf of
commercial (of ce, restaurants, hotel, community center),
urban farm
GOALS: Create a model for a more sustainable way of
building housing in urban areas
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Focus on participation of residents;
closed water circuit, biogas production facility, CHP
plant, use of sustainable building materials, organic food
production, car sharing
MANAGEMENT: Initiated by EVA Foundation, and grew
into a partnership with Culemborg
FINANCE: German Ministry for Education, Science,
Technology and Research, Dutch Ministry for Housing,
Spatial Planning and the Environment, multiple private
grants
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Started in 1994, completed in
2009
MEASUREMENT: Household energy use has been tracked
Heudelet 26 EcoDistrict (Dijon, France)
SCALE: 300 housing units (subsidized, rental, and privately
owned), 130,000 sf commercial and services, and nine artist
workshops
GOALS: Focus on sustainable mixed-income and mixed-
generational housing
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Passive building design, on-site
renewable generation, below grade parking capped with
green corridor
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: Société d’Economie Mixte
d’Aménagement de l’Agglomération Dijonnaise
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Planning and design stages
MEASUREMENT: N/A
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: EUROPE
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 108 APPENDIX B
Freiburg-Vauban (Image Credit: City of Freiburg)
Malmo Western Harbour (Image Credit: Joakim Lloyd Rabof)
Malmo Western Harbour (Malmo, Sweden)
SCALE: 346 acres, 10,000 residents and 20,000 employees
and students at full build out.
GOALS: Transform a heavy-duty industrial area to a
diversifed conurbation with homes, businesses, schools,
service facilities, parks and green oases
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Perhaps the world’s most
comprehensive implementation of the full range of
sustainable development practices
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: City of Malmo
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Ongoing; multiple phases
completed
MEASUREMENT: Multiple studies available, see for example
http://www.managenergy.net/resources/199
Freiburg-Vauban (Freiburg, Germany)
SCALE: Neighborhood with 5000 residents and 600 jobs
GOALS: Create a “sustainable model district.”
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Low-energy consumption standard
(100 units designed to Passivhaus), CHP fueled by wood
chips, PV, solar hot water, 59-unit PlusEnergy Solar
Settlement, 70% of households are car free
MANAGEMENT: Forum Vauban and Freiburg City Council
FINANCE: Private development, co-housing groups,
University of Freiburg
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Construction began in mid
1990s; built out in 2006.
MEASUREMENT: Multiple studies available, see for example
http://www.vauban.de/info/abstract5.html.
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: EUROPE
109 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX B
Lok Ma Chau Loop (Hong Kong)
SCALE: The Loop is 87ha of undeveloped land, formed by
the re-aligned Shenzhen River at the northern boundary of
Hong Kong – adjacent on either side to high density urban
areas
GOALS: South China’s frst low-carbon cross-boundary
development
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Wide range of sustainable design
strategies
MANAGEMENT: Hong Kong-Shenzhen Joint Task Force
on Boundary District Development
FINANCE: Assumed future public-private partnerships
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Planning (initiated in 2007)
MEASUREMENT: N/A
Rendering of the vision for Lok Ma Chau Loop in Hong Kong (Image Credit: Arup)
Rendering of Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates (Image Credit: Foster + Partners)
Masdar City (United Arab Emirates)
SCALE: Brand new city
GOALS: Zero-carbon, zero-waste
STRATEGIES:
SUSTAINABILITY: Entirely powered by solar and other
renewable energy sources.
MANAGEMENT/FINANCE: The Abu Dhabi Government-
owned Mubadala Development Company
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS: Initial phases in construction;
10 MW PV plant operational
MEASUREMENT: N/A
ECODISTRICT EXAMPLES: ASIA & THE MIDDLE EAST
111 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX C
Appendix C
EcoDistrict Outreach
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 112 APPENDIX C
Engage partners, resources, stakeholders, and the community to discuss priorities,
brainstorm potential strategies, and solicit valuable feedback.
Summary of Outreach Eforts to Date
July 2011 Partnering and Program Opportunities
Given all the work on similar topics such as District Energy, Seattle 2030 District, Capitol Hill Light Rail
Station and Street Car extension to Capitol Hill, attendees shared a summary of their initiatives and
the group discussed potential synergies and opportunities between the current eforts. Attendees
included:
• Capitol Hill Housing & GGLO - Capitol Hill EcoDistrict
• Sound Transit – Capitol Hill Light Rail Station
• Department of Planning and Development – Urban Design Framework
• Department of Planning and Development – Seattle 2030 District streamlining a package of
incentives and permitting services
• Of ce of Economic Development – Seattle 2030 District funding resources such as Clinton Climate
Initiative Preferred Purchasing network; OED traditional funding opportunities include Grow Seattle
Fund, New Market Tax Credits, Only In Seattle (Community Development Block Grant)
• Of ce of Sustainability & Environment – Of the ten sites in the District Energy Pre-feasibility Study,
First Hill was identifed as frst priority and Capitol Hill second. Community Power Works program is
targeting existing home and business energy retrofts.
September 2011 Visioning & Goal Setting
Vision and goal setting meeting on development of EcoDistrict goals in relation to the Urban Design
Framework and current Capitol Hill activities and opportunities.
November 2011 Site Inventory Gap Analysis
Working group contributed insight into the neighborhood inventory process around key
environmental performance areas: community, transportation, energy, water and habitat. Metrics
were identifed and recently completed or current activities being planned that will inform
opportunities as the EcoDistrict moves forward were discussed.
November 2011 District Energy Charrette
Led by Preservation Green Lab, a group of city agencies, transit agencies, technical partners and
neighborhood stakeholders participated in exploring district energy opportunities on Capitol Hill.
Thermal energy demand for Capitol Hill, supply (ranging from geothermal, hydro, sewer, waste heat
from groceries, hospitals and other industrial uses) and distribution scenarios of demand corridors and
clusters were discussed.
(Image Credit: GGLO)
(Image Credit: GGLO)
OUTREACH
113 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX C
OUTREACH
(Image Credit: GGLO)
December 2011
Forum on Capitol Hill: 12th Avenue Meets Broadway Advisory Council Annual Meeting
Capitol Hill Housing and the Capitol Hill Chamber of Commerce convened stakeholders in a visioning
and goal setting session which started with writing a ‘Postcard from the Future’.
Participants were asked to imagine a time in the future, 10- 15- 20- or more years had passed, and
write a postcard to a close friend or family member about one specifc thing about the EcoDistrict
that should be shared. What does the neighborhood look like? What has changed or been enhanced
in your daily routine? It was an open exercise in which people wrote about activities, physical
characteristics, and touched upon all environmental performance areas before any topics were
assigned to breakout groups.
Small breakout groups focused on specifc environmental performance area topics were then formed.
Groups shared their broad 'Postcard Visions' and then explored visions, goals, and priorities specifc to
their breakout topic. Summary feedback included (see following page):
(Image Credit: GGLO)
(Image Credit: GGLO)
Community
• Like an organism
• Gentrifcation is a concern
• Green space vs. density
• Diversity – “more colors”
• Need better name than “district”
Transportation
• Transportation = “Public Space”
• Time to commute is large impact on
lifestyle
• So, increase quality of commute
• How: increase education & coordination of
way fnding & usability – public awareness
Energy
Postcard Vision in common:
• Walkable
• Loving neighborhood
Vision for Energy:
• Tangible, practical projects – policy &
fnancial for multifamily
• How to make the EcoDistrict real: Access to
bike storage; Infrastructure
• Submetering & Education
• Education promote neighborhood
regionally
Water
Postcard Vision in common:
• Sustainable ecosystems
• Walkable
• Great place that you don’t have to leave,
but connected everywhere
Vision for Water:
• Ways to visualize water
• Hydro power from the runof of sewer
Materials
Postcard Vision in common:
• Food & urban agriculture
• Going car less
• Shopping locally – harvesting & distributing
Vision for Materials:
• Reduce materials consumption at front
and back end
• Local focus at the appropriate scale
• Metrics based
• Net exporter of materials / energy
115 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX D
Appendix D
EcoDistrict Roadmap
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 116 APPENDIX D
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
This document presents GGLO’s recommended roadmap for the Capitol Hill
EcoDistrict Study. In the following pages, we lay out a roadmap that we
believe will achieve the goals of the Capitol Hill Ecodistrict Study, consisting
of the following six components:
RESEARCH
OUTREACH
VISION
STRATEGIES
IMPLEMENTATION
MEASUREMENT
Highlighted Area of Capitol Hill Station Area Sites
117 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX D
The “Environmental Benefts Statement” is a tool developed my GGLO to assist developers and communities in
identifying and promoting their project’s sustainability features.
RESEARCH
Collect and analyze information on the site context, EcoDistrict best
practices nationwide, and relevant related projects and initiatives.
There is a wide spectrum of strategies that can be applied to an EcoDistrict.
The choice of an appropriate set of strategies to pursue depends on numerous
factors, including site location, scale, context, stakeholders, the regulatory
environment, economics, demographics, politics, etc.
To provide a resource for determining the most promising strategies for the
Capitol Hill site, a summary of EcoDistrict strategy best practices are divided
into six categories: (1) built environment, (2) infrastructure, (3) community,
(4) management, (5) fnance, and (6) policy. Conceptually, these strategies
can be grouped according to two basic purposes: those that have to do with
creating physical sustainability (1 and 2), and those that have to do with creating
operational sustainability (3, 4, 5 and 6).
Station area typology developed for the “Blueprint for Transit Oriented Communities”
ENVIRONMENTAL
BENEFITS
STATEMENT
South Lake Union Urban Center
Seattle, Washington
Prepared by GGLO
March 2011
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 118 APPENDIX D
OUTREACH
Engage partners, resources, stakeholders, and the community to discuss
priorities, brainstorm potential strategies, and solicit valuable feedback.
Partners
Key departments with which to form partnerships at the City of Seattle are the
Of ce of Sustainability and Environment, the Of ce of Economic Development,
and the Department of Planning and Development. Because Sound Transit
controls the property on which the EcoDistrict will be located, the agency will
play a critical partnership role in setting up development agreements or other
mechanisms to ensure that new owners participate in the EcoDistrict.
Resources
Local resources for that could provide benefcial guidance include the
Preservation Green Lab, Cascadia Green Building Council, International Living
Building Institute, the Seattle 2030 District, and the TOD Champion.
Stakeholder Engagement
Key stakeholders for the Capitol Hill EcoDistrict site include potential developers
of the Sound Transit properties, the Capitol Hill Chamber of Commerce, the
Capitol Hill Community Council, Seattle Central Community College, Seattle
Steam, and local property owners and business owners.
Community Engagement
Capitol Hill residents are passionate about their neighborhood. It will be
important to engage the community at large throughout the process, educate
them about the potential, and gather insights and suggestions. An engaged,
supportive Capitol Hill community will be a tremendous asset for generating
broad stakeholder buy-in on the outcomes from the initial partner/stakeholder
engagement.
Outreach for the North Rainier Neighborhood
Plan Update (above), and King County Housing
Authority’s Greenbridge (left)
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
119 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX D
VISION
Defne a vision for the EcoDistrict that establishes overarching guiding
principles. This vision will provide guiding principles that will not only inform
the choice of strategies, but also provide inspiration to the community at large.
EcoDistrict Motivation
The frst step in establishing a Vision for the EcoDistrict is to articulate the
motivation. Why are we doing this? What are the big-picture end goals, at the
site, city-wide, regional, and global scales?
EcoDistrict Scope
The second step in establishing a Vision is to defne the scope of the project,
which entails determining the physical boundaries, ownership, timeline,
authority, requirements for owner participation, role of community, etc. The
scope may evolve over time as new participants are identifed.
.
The 2009 North Rainier neighborhood plan update focused on
opportunities in the Mount Baker light rail station area.
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 120 APPENDIX D
STRATEGIES
Determine a set of EcoDistrict strategies, at a variety of scales, to pursue.
Establish metrics and targets, and current performance baselines to track
improvements over time.
Buildings: Energy ef ciency, production, and retrofts; design to accommodate
future district systems; and building uses and synergies that will best ft the
vision and enhance equity.
Infrastructure: District utilities, on-site energy generation, alternative
transportation, green infrastructure, greywater/blackwater treatment.
People - Sustainable Behavior: Foster participation by the community in the
EcoDistrict over the long term, engagement, marketing, culture of sustainability,
demand management, incorporation of community assets, e.g. a community
center or community garden.
Management: EcoDistricts require innovative and reliable mechanisms for long-
term management. As an established non-proft, Capitol Hill Housing is uniquely
poised to establish successful management.
Finance: The Seattle 2030 District is a local resource and potential partner for
help on addressing up front costs. They are already working with the City of
Seattle, the Clinton Climate Initiative, the Northwest Energy Ef ciency Alliance,
and Seattle Steam to address EcoDistrict fnancing challenges.
Policy - Regulatory Mechanisms: Tools to explore include development
agreements, incentive zoning, contract rezones, design guidelines; form-based
codes; and the City’s urban design framework.
Living Building and Multifamily Conceptual Design for Capitol Hill, “The
Future of Sustainable Design,” October 2010
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
121 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX D
IMPLEMENTATION
Set priorities and implement the strategies. The implementation of the
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict would be carried out in a future phase. Implementation
would begin with the creation of an action plan that assigns a timeline, baseline,
tasks, and management responsibilities for each of the chosen strategies. The
scale of time frame of implementation could vary greatly depending on the fnal
choice and defnition of strategies.
Green wall as infrastructure and education at the Bertschi School Science
Wing, on target to be the frst Living Building in WA
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
Capitol Hill EcoDistrict 122 APPENDIX D
MEASUREMENT
Conduct ongoing assessment of EcoDistrict performance, provide
feedback, and make improvements. EcoDistrict assessment would occur
during future phases of this project. The metrics associated with each of the
goals would be periodically measured and analyzed. Results would provide all
important feedback on the level of success. Deviations from expected results
would inform modifcations to methods and process, and provide insight for
future work. Ideally measurement would become an established process of the
EcoDistrict management structure.
EcoDistrict ROADMAP
Measuring Performance
GGLO collaborated with Capitol Hill Housing in the design of Broadway Crossing
(LEED Silver), and then continued with measuring building performance after
building occupancy. Lessons learned allowed the team to fne tune building
operations. (Photo Credit: William P Wright)
123 Capitol Hill EcoDistrict APPENDIX D
G G L O
architecture | interior design | landscape architecture | planning & urban design
What is an EcoDistrict?
An EcoDistrict is sustainability applied
at the neighborhood scale. EcoDistricts
provide a framework for realizing
advanced sustainability — increasing
ef ciencies, reducing pollution, restoring
ecosystems, and improving communities
— through behavior change, building
design and infrastructure investments.
EcoDistricts are measured for improved
performance over time.