UMTS Network Pre-Launch | Simulation | Decibel

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Document Number: P/TR/005/O046/v2



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UMTS Network Pre-launch
Optimisation
O046


UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation 2
©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004

Contents
1 Introduction 5
1.1 Course Overview 5
2 Optimisation Overview 7
2.1 What is Optimisation? 7
2.2 Pre-launch Optimisation 8
2.3 Post-launch Optimisation 11
3 Network Dimensioning and Planning 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Dimensioning for Indoor Coverage 21
3.3 Dimensioning for a fixed loading level 23
3.3.1 The impact of mixed services 24
3.4Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site Location and High Sites 26
3.4.1 Imperfect Location of Sites 26
3.4.2 High Sites 27
3.5 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models 32
3.6 Serving Very High Traffic Densities 38
3.7 Evaluating Simulator Results 41
3.8 Pilot Pollution 42
4 Further issues: Neighbours, Scrambling Codes, GSM co-location 47
4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 Producing and Prioritising the Neighbour List 48
4.2.1 Intra-frequency carriers 48
4.2.2 Practical Guidelines to Ncell Planning 49
4.2.3 Inter-frequency neighbours 52
4.2.4 Inter-Technology Neighbours. 52
4.3 Scrambling Code Planning 56
5 Assessing a Plan 57
5.1 Coverage 57
5.1.1 The effect of MHAs on the coverage targets 59
5.1.2 Summarising 60
5.2 Interference 61
5.2.1 Pilot SIR and Ec/No 61
5.2.2 Predicting levels on a heavily loaded network 61
5.2.3 Expected predictions on a lightly loaded network 62
5.3 High Data Rate services 63
6 Drive Test Analysis 77

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6.1 Introduction 77
6.2 Dividing a Network into Clusters 78
6.3 Choosing the drive test route. 80
6.4 Cells covering more than one environment 80
6.5 Measured values of Ec/ No. 80
6.6 The effect of network loading levels. 81
6.7Measurement Samples, Scanner Settings and Drive Test Speeds 83
6.7.1 The Lee Sampling Criteria 84
6.7.2 The Anritsu Scanner 85
6.7.3 The Effect of Varying Averaging Distance 86
6.7.4 Summary of Results 87
6.7.5 Implications 88
6.7.6 Anritsu Selection Procedure and Recommended Settings 89
6.7.7 Wide-Band Measurements with a Rake Receiver 91
6.7.8 Reference Table 92
6.7.9 The need for averaging 93
6.8 Interpretation of Measurements 99
7 The Pre-launch Optimisation Procedure 107
7.1 Introduction 107
7.2 Hardware Checks 107
7.3 Configuration Checks 107
7.4 Optimisation Team Structure 108
7.5 Using Drive Test Data 112
7.5.1 Coverage problems 113
7.5.2 Interference issues 114
7.6 The need for consistency 118
7.7 Using drive test data to tune Neighbour list 120
7.8 Load Testing of a Network 125
7.9 Testing of a network for IRAT success 127
7.9.1 IRAT at coverage edge 128
7.9.2 Success of hand over 128
7.9.3 Designing the test route 129
7.9.4 IRAT in an urban environment. 129
7.9.5 Designing the test route. 129
7.9.6 IRAT at hotspots. 129
7.9.7 Designing the test route 130
7.10 IRAT: Conclusions. 130
8 Functional Testing 137
8.1 Introduction 137
8.1.1 Coverage/ Interference Problem 137
8.1.2 Hand over failure 138
8.1.3 Network problems 138
8.1.4 Handset issues 138
8.2 UE and UTRAN Measurements 139
8.3 3G Specifications and Event Reporting 143
8.4 Identifying the cause 147
8.4.1 Example 1: Examining measurement reports 151
8.4.2 Example 2: Examining active set update reports 152
9 Summarising Case Study 167

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9.1 Introduction 167
9.2 The initial situation 167
9.3 Making the measurements 168
9.4 Analysing Measurements 168
9.4.1 Coverage 168
9.4.2 Interference 169
9.4.3 Downlink Capacity 170
9.5 Taking corrective action 172

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1 Introduction
1.1 Course Overview
The objective of this three day course is to provide delegates with
knowledge of optimisation methods and techniques which will enable
them to plan and optimise UMTS 3g networks. Exercises and examples
via software and a state-of-the-art 3g simulator will be provided to aid in
the understanding of concepts and theories used in optimisation.

Aims of Course Aims of Course
• To deepen the understanding of UMTS networks so as to
plan a network with greater confidence and allow specific
required improvements to be targeted.
• To attain an understanding of the optimisation procedures
available within UMTS.
• The function and purpose of optimisation.
• To understand how to maximise the benefit of making drive-
test measurements.
• The use of simulation and planning tools to aid in
optimisation.
Introductory Session





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2 Optimisation Overview
2.1 What is Optimisation?
Depending upon your position within your organisation this question will mean
quite different things. Whilst business is about making money, the engineer’s goal is
usually focused on network efficiency. These two issues are linked but the strategy
for change and time scales can be, and very often are, different.

Business will benefit if the quality of service experienced by customers improves. The
engineer should be focused on obtaining the maximum performance and hence
delivering the optimum customer experience from a given resource.

What is Optimisation ? What is Optimisation ?
• Different approach at different stages in network evolution
• Pre-launch
• Get the network working
• Key issues
• Coverage
• Functionality
• Interference
• Post-launch
• Improving quality
• Increasing capacity
• Increasing range of services
• Maximise the return on investment
Optimisation Overview



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Optimising a UMTS network is distinctly different from the optimisation
of a GSM network. The fact that we have a single frequency on a cell
layer poses challenges for the network planner. For example, it is no
longer possible to use a frequency plan to help reduce the impact of
poorly position sites. Further, there is no fixed capacity of a TRX in a
UMTS network. The throughput possible depends on the services being
utilised and the radio environment.

The high level of mutual interference between users and cells leads to a
trade-off between capacity and coverage. As use of the network
increases, so does interference. This higher level of interference reduces
the maximum path loss over which a connection can be satisfactorily
made. Optimising for coverage and optimising for capacity will entail a
different approach, both to planning and to infrastructure investment.

When optimising any network, it is vital that any improvements can be
confirmed by means of measurements made on the network. Feedback
from drive-test measurements and OMC reports must be incorporated
into a continuous cycle of optimisation and monitoring.

Why is Optimising different for UMTS ? Why is Optimising different for UMTS ?
• Single Frequency
• Cannot frequency plan around problems caused by “rogue” sites.
• Need to optimise clusters of sites rather than single cells.
• Level of loading affects performance
• Cell activity affects coverage and throughput.
• Interpretation of measurements required.
• Flexible structure sensitive to small changes in performance
• Air interface performance directly affects capacity and coverage.
• Mixed Services
Optimisation Overview



2.2 Pre-launch Optimisation


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The starting point of the development of a UMTS network is the
formation of a plan using a planning tool together with site acquisition
resource. The focus of attention is then to build and launch the network
as planned. The process by which this is done can be summarised as:
a. Plan the network(using a planning tool)
b. Assess and Improve the plan (using a planning tool)
c. Build the network
d. Test the network
e. Diagnose problems
f. Rectify the problems
Steps d, e and f can be thought of as “pre-launch optimisation”. They are
essential steps to ensure that the launch is as successful as possible. It is
likely that the initial priorities are very much along the lines of those
employed in a 2G network: namely ensuring that coverage and
interference are acceptable throughout the area of interest. In the interests
of launching an acceptable network at the earliest possible date, capacity
implications (and network loading implications in general) are not
afforded priority at this stage. The priority is to get the network into an
acceptable situation by an agreed date. Once the network is launched and
activity/ loading increases it will be necessary to address capacity-related
issues and the “post-launch optimisation” phase is entered.
Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation
• Plan (using a planning tool)
• Assess and Improve (“optimise the plan”)
• Build
• Test
• Diagnose Problems
• Rectify
Optimisation Overview
•Pre-launch optimisation phase



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Quality
Definition
Quality
Definition
Quality
Targets
Quality
Targets
Monitor
Quality
Monitor
Quality
Configuration
Analysis
Configuration
Analysis
Quality
Reporting
Quality
Reporting
Improvement
Plan
Improvement
Plan
Corrective
Actions
Corrective
Actions
Specific
Quality
issues
Specific
Quality
issues
Specific
Corrections
Specific
Corrections
Network Quality Cycle Network Quality Cycle
Optimisation Overview


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2.3 Post-launch Optimisation
Once the network is operating satisfactorily at the level required for
launch, attention can be paid to truly optimising the network. Activities
will be directed at:
a. increasing network capacity;
b. serving hot spots;
c. increasing coverage for high data rate services;
d. maximising the return on investment.
This will involve:
• adding more sites;
• adding more cells to existing sites (e.g. six cells per site)
• optimising parameters;
• reducing interference;
• utilising more than one carrier;
• implementing hierarchical cell structures;
• providing indoor solutions.





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Post-launch Optimisation Post-launch Optimisation
“Proper optimisation”
• Increasing network capacity
• Serving hotspots
• Increasing coverage for higher data rate services
• maximising return on investment
Optimisation Overview


Post-launch Optimisation Post-launch Optimisation
This will involve
• Adding more sites
• Further sectorisation of existing sites
• Optimising parameters
• Reducing intereference
• Utilising more than one carrier
• Implementing a hierarchical cell structure
• Providing indoor solutions
Optimisation Overview



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3 Network Dimensioning and
Planning
3.1 Introduction

It is necessary to be able to apply all the understanding of the technology
and capacity, dimensioning and link budget calculations in a practical
situation. Accordingly, it is imagined that a network is to be planned
providing a certain capacity over a certain area. Initially, certain
parameters will be over-simplified when compared with what can be
expected to be encountered in practice. For example, the first assumption
is that the terrain is flat, the traffic distribution is uniform and that the
network will be offering only a single service. After dimensioning and
examining the predicted performance of such a network, the effects of
problems such as “high sites” and being unable to position base stations
exactly where required will be demonstrated. After that, more realistic
terrain data is introduced together with the need to be able to
accommodate varying traffic density.


Planning a UMTS Network Planning a UMTS Network
• We will assume that a coverage area is defined.
• We have mapping data.
• We have a traffic forecast (in this case a
single voice service with uniform distribution.)
Planning a UMTS Network


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The Philosophy The Philosophy
• A strategy needs to be defined.
• For this environment, “continuous coverage for voice services” could
define the high level approach.
• Other issues: Path Loss; Cell Range
Planning a UMTS Network


Link Budget Link Budget
• Crucial to the planning process.
• Derived assuming a particular
Noise Rise.
• Combined with Path Loss model
to determine cell range.
Voice Service
Eb/No 5 dB
Power Control 2 dB
Shadow Fade 4 dB
Noise
Rise 3 dB
Antenna Gain 18 dBi
Proc Gain 25 dB
Mobile Tx Pwr 21 dBm
Cell Noise Floor -100 dBm
Max Path Loss 150 dB
Range 2.35 km
Planning a UMTS Network



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Iterative Spreadsheet Dimensioning Iterative Spreadsheet Dimensioning
• Carry out link budget to
determine range (remember
link budget assumes a NR)
• Assess loading of cell and
predict Noise Rise. This will
differ from assumed Noise
Rise.
• Re-calculate range using
predicted Noise Rise.
• Re-assess the loading of the
cell and re-predict the Noise
Rise.
• Keep Calculating Range and
re-assessing Noise Rise.
• Finally, the iterations should
converge so that the assumed
and predicted values of Noise
Rise agree.
Planning a UMTS Network


Graphical Explanation Graphical Explanation
• Increasing Range causes more traffic to be gathered.
• Gathering More traffic increases Noise Rise and reduces Range.
Range/PathLoss
Number of active users
Intersection gives the
operating point
Planning a UMTS Network



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A complication A complication
Range/PathLoss
Number of active users
Intersection gives the
operating point
• Range calculated from average
number of users.
• Noise Rise predicted from
estimated peak use of cell.
• Additionally, soft capacity must be
considered.
Planning a UMTS Network


Spreadsheet Method Spreadsheet Method
• All relevant parameters (Eb/No, Tx Power etc.) known.
• From traffic forecast and coverage area, calculate density.
• Make initial estimate of the number of “trunks” required per cell.
• Estimate Noise Rise and hence “Cell Range 1”
• Using Erlang B and considering soft capacity estimate Erlangs served.
• Estimate area and hence “Cell Range 2”
• Adjust number of trunks until “Range 1” = “Range 2”
Planning a UMTS Network


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Planning a UMTS Network
Spreadsheet Method Spreadsheet Method
• All relevant parameters (Eb/No, Tx Power etc.) known.
• From traffic forecast and coverage area, calculate density.
Estimate Number of
Simultaneous
Connections per Cell
Estimate Noise Rise
Estimate Maximum
Path Loss (Uplink)
Estimate Number of
Erlangs Served per Cell
From Traffic Density
forecast, estimate
cell range
Estimate Maximum
Path Loss (using
Propagation model).
Path Losses Equal?
No

The method outlined above was used to dimension a network given the
following input parameters:

Voice Service
Data Rate: 12200 bps
Eb/ No 5 dB
Power Control Margin 2 dB
Antenna Gains 18 dBi
“other to own” interference ratio 0.6
Shadow Fade Margin 4 dB
Coverage Area 1000 km
2

Traffic to be Served 4000 Erlangs
Mobile Transmit Power 21 dBm
Cell Noise Floor -102 dBm
Path Loss Model: Loss = 137 + 35log(R) dB

The result is that 82 sites would be required. The Noise Rise limit should
be set to 3.9 dB in order to maintain continuous coverage.

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Example Output Example Output
• For voice service over an area of 1000 km
2
offering 4000 Erlangs of Traffic:
• 82 sites with 246 cells were required.
• Noise Rise Limit of 3.9 dB was required to maintain
continuous coverage.
Planning a UMTS Network


It is possible at this stage to place sites on a map such that continuous
coverage can be maintained. However, it is highly likely that the actual
location of sites will not be as required. Further, assumptions made when
creating the spreadsheet may not be accurate in practice. For these
reasons, and for other including those listed below, it is necessary to
utilise a planning tool that will consider practical variations from the
initial broad assumptions made.

The need for a tool The need for a tool
• If this can be done using a simple calculator, why do we need a planning tool?
• Planning tool can validate the strategy.
• We need to be able to simulate the effect of imperfections.
• Sites not placed perfectly
• terrain/environment factors
• Uneven traffic distribution
• Some parameters (for example interference ratio, i) have been assumed.
• Mixed services will have different coverage areas.
Planning a UMTS Network



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Using the 3G Planning Tool Using the 3G Planning Tool
• The coverage area was filled with the correct number of sites and traffic
was spread across the region.
• Coverage was checked to be in accordance with requirements.
Planning a UMTS Network


Summary of Initial Results Summary of Initial Results
• Parameters:
• Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control)
• S.D. = 7 dB
• 4000 Terminals
• NR limit 3.9 dB
• Results:
• Coverage Probability 98.0%
• Almost all failures due to Noise Rise
Planning a UMTS Network



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Action taken Action taken
• 3.9 dB NR limit provides continuous coverage even when all cells are
simultaneously at their maximum load.
• In reality not all cells would be
simultaneously at their maximum
loading. The neighbour can often
“assist” an overloaded cell.
• Noise Rise limit can be raised.
• Noise Rise was raised to 5 dB.
Planning a UMTS Network


Summary of Results Summary of Results
• Parameters:
• Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control)
• S.D. = 7 dB
• 4000 Terminals
• NR limit 5.0 dB
• Results:
• Coverage Probability 99.7% (c.f. 98.0%)
• Even split of failures between NR and UL Eb/No
Planning a UMTS Network



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Next Step Next Step
• As Noise Rise limit was raised without any apparent gaps in coverage
appearing, it should be possible to raise the amount of traffic served.
• Traffic spread raised to 4600 terminals.
• Results:
• Coverage Probability 98.7% (c.f. 99.7%)
• 83% NR and 17% UL Eb/No.
Planning a UMTS Network


3.2 Dimensioning for Indoor Coverage
The above process has been based on a link budget for outdoor coverage.
If the requirement was for ind oor coverage, then the link budget would
have to be changed to accommodate changes in standard deviation of
shadow fading and, further, allow for penetration loss. The result is that
more sites would be required in order to provide coverage. However,
because there would be more sites, the level of loading on each site would
be less and the noise rise limit would be lower. The difference is most
pronounced at lower levels of site density as the table below shows. Note
that each site is assumed to comprise of 3 cells and that a margin of 20 dB
was added to the link budget when indoor coverage was considered.

Subscriber Density (E/km2)
Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB)
5 0.09 4.4 0.7 0.6
10 0.13 7.3 0.8 1
20 0.23 10.8 0.9 1.6
50 0.54 15 1.1 3.1
100 1.1 15 1.5 5.8
200 2.2 15 2.4 8.8
400 4.4 15 4.4 14
Outdoor Parameters Indoor Parameters

Examining the table, it can be seen that, if outdoor coverage only is
required then the site density quickly becomes directly proportional to
the subscriber density, with the cells operating at near full load. By
contrast, when indoor coverage is required, the site density is greater but
the cells operate at a lower level of loading. As the subscriber density

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becomes very large, it is seen that the network is capacity limited and
there is no noticeable increase in the number of sites when predictions for
indoor coverage are considered.

Site Density vs. Sub Density
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 100 200 300 400 500
Subscriber Density (E/km2)
S
i
t
e

D
e
n
s
i
t

(
/
k
m
2
)
Outdoor Coverage
Indoor Coverage


• The link budget was appropriate for outdoor coverage.
• If indoor coverage is required, margins have to be added to
accommodate:
• higher shadow fading standard deviation
• penetration loss
• Total margins of 20 dB are typical.
• Results:
• More sites needed
• Sites loaded less heavily
Planning a UMTS Network
Dimensioning if indoor coverage is Dimensioning if indoor coverage is
required required



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• Effect is dependent on subscriber density
• At very high densities, network is capacity-limited and the extra 20 dB
loss does not have a significant effect on site density.
• At low subscriber densities, the network is coverage limited and the extra
20 dB loss can reduce the range by a factor of 4 (and increase site
density by a factor of 16).
Planning a UMTS Network
Subscriber Density (E/km2)
Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB)
5 0.09 4.4 0.7 0.6
10 0.13 7.3 0.8 1
20 0.23 10.8 0.9 1.6
50 0.54 15 1.1 3.1
100 1.1 15 1.5 5.8
200 2.2 15 2.4 8.8
400 4.4 15 4.4 14
Outdoor Parameters Indoor Parameters
Dimensioning if indoor coverage is Dimensioning if indoor coverage is
required required


Dimensioning if indoor coverage is Dimensioning if indoor coverage is
required required
Planning a UMTS Network
Site Density vs. Sub Density
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 100 200 300 400 500
Subscriber Density (E/km2)
S
i
t
e

D
e
n
s
i
t

(
/
k
m
2
)
Outdoor Coverage
Indoor Coverage


3.3 Dimensioning for a fixed loading level
It may be decided that, perhaps for initial rollout purposes, each cell will
have a fixed maximum uplink loading. This would be defined by a noise
rise limit, 4 dB being a typical value. Adopting this approach simplifies
the rollout process by making every site configuration nearly identical. In

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this situation, a clear boundary is drawn between the coverage limited
and capacity limited situation, whereas previously we have been
dimensioning our network by considering both capacity and coverage
requirements. A previous link budget suggests that a voice service can
tolerate a path loss of 149 dB if a noise rise of 4 dB exists on the uplink. If
a building penetration loss of 15 dB is added in, the maximum loss to be
planned for reduces to 134 dB. For a path loss model in which L = 137 +
35 log(R), the maximum range is calculated to be 820 metres and the area
covered by a site (3 sectors) would be 1.37 km
2
. Thus, coverage
dimensioning is very simple. If voice is taken as the standard
“benchmark” service, then the loading level (4 dB noise rise is equivalent
to a loading factor of 60%) can be converted to a certain number of
Erlangs. If the combination of the required Eb/ No and a 2 dB power
control margin require that the target Eb/ No is 7 dB, then the pole
capacity is { } 766 10 3840
7 . 0
· kbit/ s. This translates to 63 full rate voice calls.
This number of simultaneous connections would support 52 Erlangs of
traffic. External interference would reduce this by, typically, a factor of
1.6. Thus the maximum capacity of a cell would be approximately 32
Erlangs. This would decrease in areas of high inter-cell interference (such
as areas where the site density is very high). Thus, for a particular
configuration, coverage in areas of low subscriber density would lead to a
site density of 0.7/ km
2
. In areas of high subscriber density, each site (3
sectors) would be expected to serve approximately 100 Erlangs of traffic.
3.3.1 The impact of mixed services
The above capacity based calculation would be affected if the network is
expected to serve subscribers of different services. Suppose that there is a
second service: video telephony at a bit rate of 64 kbit/ s and an Eb/ No of
4 dB. This would have a relative amplitude of
( )
6 . 2
10 2 . 12
10 64
7 . 0
4 . 0
·
×
×
.
Suppose that a network is expected to serve an equal number of Erlangs
of the two different services. The “capacity factor” is 9 . 2
6 . 2 1
6 . 2 1
2
·
+
+
. If each
cell could serve 63 simultaneous voice connections, then the new number
to be used in the Erlang B calculation is 22 9 . 2 63 · ÷ . The Erlang B tables
would predict that 15 “Erlangs” of traffic can be served by this. The
procedure is then to multiply this value by the capacity factor (2.9) to get
43. This has to be divided by 3.6 to get the number of Erlangs of voice
and video telephony. Thus, each cell could be regarded as serving 12
Erlangs of voice plus 12 Erlangs of video telephony. Interference from
other cells would reduce this in practice to 8 Erlangs of voice plus 8
Erlangs of video telephony This is an average loading equivalent to 29
Erlangs of voice, compared with 32 Erlangs for the voice only network.
The reduction indicates the lower trunking efficiency that is achieved
when higher resource services are offered.

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3.4 Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site
Location and High Sites
3.4.1 Imperfect Location of Sites

Simulating the Effect of Problems Simulating the Effect of Problems
• Imperfect location of sites.
• 50% of sites moved randomly by
up to 1 km from ideal position.
• Gaps appear in coverage.
Planning a UMTS Network


Summary of Results Summary of Results
• Parameters:
• Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control)
• S.D. = 7 dB
• 4600 Terminals
• NR limit 5.0 dB
• Results:
• Coverage Probability 97.5% (c.f. 98.7%)
• 78% NR and 22% UL Eb/No
• Uneven distribution of failures
• Results:
• “Problem area” gives 95%
coverage probability (c.f. 97.5% for
whole area).
Planning a UMTS Network



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Action taken Action taken
• Antennas were re-pointed in an attempt to restore coverage.
• Improvement was marginal (96.0% c.f. 95.8%)
• Problem is uneven distribution of load
due to improper placement of sites.
Those sites with largest area suffered
Noise Rise failures.
• NR failure occurs if more than approx.
29 terminals attempt to access a cell.
Average is 19 terminals.
Planning a UMTS Network

3.4.2 High Sites
High sites occur frequently in networks where there is extensive re -use of
GSM sites. In a GSM network it is common to employ “umbrella” cells
that give wide area coverage in order to ensure that there are no gaps in
the coverage provided. They are typically located on a high building or
on a hillside overlooking a city. From a radio propagation viewpoint they
can be characterised by their low path loss to a point at a particular
distance. Inevitably, interference problems represent a price that has to be
paid in return for the benefit of good coverage. In a GSM system the
frequency plan would ensure that network-wide interference levels were
acceptably low. UMTS networks cannot use frequency planning to avoid
interference problems such as this. The high site will gather uplink
interference, rapidly reaching its noise rise limit, and generate downlink
interference, drastically reducing capacity and perhaps causing pilot
detection problems. Action to combat the effect of high sites includes
down-tilting of the antennas as well as varying parameters such as noise
rise limit (which should be increased) and downlink pilot and common
channel powers (which should be decreased).

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Problems caused by High Sites Problems caused by High Sites
• 15% of sites made “high sites” with a
path loss 10 dB less than that of
“normal” sites at a given range.
Planning a UMTS Network


Problems caused by High Sites Problems caused by High Sites
• Uneven loading causes
disastrous results.
• Coverage probability
reduced from 98.7% to
78.6%.
Planning a UMTS Network



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Problems caused by High Sites Problems caused by High Sites
• Probability of NR failure
very high in high site area.
• FRE for high site ~ 48%
(63% average)
• Throughput for high site ~
26 E (18 E average)
Planning a UMTS Network


Action taken Action taken
• Excess coverage area reduced by down-tilting the antennas of the
high-sites.
• Result:
• Coverage probability increased to 95.1% (c.f. 78% before
down-tilting and 98.7% with “perfect” sites).
Planning a UMTS Network



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Alternative Action Alternative Action
• Instead of down-tilting, reduce pilot power of high sites by 10 dB to equalise service areas.
• Result:
• Problem made worse! This is because terminals still caused Noise Rise even though they
were not connected. Reduction of High Site service area causes an increase in Mobile Tx
power hence aggravating the problem.
Pilot Power Equal
Mobile Connects to High Site
Pilot Power scaled to equalise service areas.
Mobile Connects to Low Site - Tx Power increased
Planning a UMTS Network


Alternative Action Alternative Action
• Increased NR Limit of High Site by 10 dB
• Decreased Max Tx power, Common Chan power and Pilot power by
10 dB.
• Result:
• A dramatic improvement. Performance of network
indistinguishable from ideal case.
• High NR experienced by High Site but continued to perform
satisfactorily.
• Detecting the existence of High Sites is crucial.
Planning a UMTS Network



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Spotting a High Site Spotting a High Site
• Examining the Best Server by
Pilot array is informative.
• Spreading a traffic terminal and
examining traffic captured is
possibly more informative as it
considers traffic distribution.
• Site35C: 18.0946
• Site36A: 18.2301
• Site36B: 19.5065
• Site36C: 18.4447
• Site37A: 13.9719
• Site37B: 14.4915
• Site37C: 18.2414
• Site38A: 37.0476
• Site38B: 38.7644
• Site38C: 36.72
• Site39A: 10.6173
• Site39B: 18.9417
• Site39C: 10.1203
– High Site
Planning a UMTS Network


High Sites High Sites - - a final word a final word
• There is no single definition of a high site.
• Do not think that it is “wrong” to place UMTS base stations on
hilltops.
• High sites tend to gather uplink interference generated by other
users.
• Problems occur as area becomes more heavily loaded (if the traffic
is reduced from 4000 terminals to 2000 terminals, coverage is
excellent even with “untreated” high sites).
• If coverage area is very lightly loaded - no problem.
Planning a UMTS Network


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3.5 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models

The path loss model used so far is too simple to be realistic. More widely
used models reduce to similar equations if the height of the mobile is
fixed and, also, the terrain is flat. However, incorporation of the more
sophisticated models is essential if terrain height variations are to be
considered.

A typical “Okumura-Hata” style of equation was used to predict the path
loss over a terrain that included substantial variations in height. The
variation in height caused coverage gaps to appear in the shadows of the
hills. These were filled by the provisioning of additional base stations
such that almost 95% of the areas covered to the required level of 146 dB
path loss. It was found that some of the base stations fell into the category
of “high site” and caused excessive blocking. The level of blocking could
be reduced by careful re-pointing of the antennas.


Incorporating more sophisticated Path Loss Incorporating more sophisticated Path Loss
Models Models
( ) ( ) ) log( ) log( ) log( ) log(
) log( ) log( ) log( ) log( log Loss
6 2 5 4 3 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
d h k k h k h k h k k
d h k h k h k h k (d) k k
eff eff ms ms
eff eff ms ms
+ + + + + ·
+ + + + + ·
• “Cost 231 - Hata”
• If h
ms
is fixed then variations are only dependent on heff. Using
typical default parameters:
Antenna Ht Model
15 140.0 + 32.3 log(d)
20 138.2 + 31.5 log(d)
25 136.9 + 30.8 log(d)
30 135.8 + 30.3 log(d)
Planning a UMTS Network



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A More Challenging Terrain A More Challenging Terrain
154 km
2
. Heights vary from zero to 135 m a.s.l.
Planning a UMTS Network


The Challenge The Challenge
• Challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs of demand for voice service.
• Even spread of traffic across the whole area.
• 13 E/km
2
• With 20 m antenna heights, initial calculation suggests 25 sites.
• Max path loss should be 146 dB, range 1.8 km.
• Peak Noise Rise will be 8.7 dB.
Planning a UMTS Network



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Placing the Sites Placing the Sites
• Due to irregular outline, 31 sites were required to provide
continuous coverage at a range of 1800 metres.
Planning a UMTS Network


Coverage Analysis Coverage Analysis
• Initial site placing leads to 80% of
area being covered to required
level.
• UMTS simulation suggests
coverage probability of 87% with
failures split between uplink
Eb/No and Noise Rise.
Planning a UMTS Network



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Increasing Percentage Coverage Increasing Percentage Coverage
• Adding four more sites (35 in
total) resulted in 94.3% coverage
based on pathloss and 92%
coverage probability from UMTS
simulator.
• Again failures split between
Eb/No and Noise Rise.
Planning a UMTS Network


Analysing Reason for Analysing Reason for Eb Eb/No Failures /No Failures
• Eb/No failures follow high path loss areas. If the path loss is too great the
required Eb/No cannot be achieved.
Coverage Eb/No Failures
Planning a UMTS Network



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Analysing Reason for NR Failures Analysing Reason for NR Failures
• Noise Rise failures concentrated on High Sites. An example is shown.
Coverage
Strongest Pilot
Planning a UMTS Network


Action taken to decrease NR failures. Action taken to decrease NR failures.
• Starting statistics: Throughput 382 kbps
(approx 31 connections); 20 blocked
connections due to NR.
• Action: Height reduced to 10 m; antenna
down-tilted by 3 degrees.
• Result: Throughput 294 kbps; 0.65
blocked connections due to NR; no
noticeable increase in failures on
neighbouring cells.
Coverage
For the cell being
investigated:
Planning a UMTS Network



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Covering an Urban Area. Covering an Urban Area.
• 2000 Erlangs over 154 km
2
is not a very
big density.
• New challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs
of voice service generated by users within
an area of 2.36 km
2
.
• This Urban area is not flat (zero to 50 m
a.s.l.) or regularly shaped, posing
significant challenges.
Planning a UMTS Network


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3.6 Serving Very High Traffic Densities

In practice, it is possible to encounter traffic densities far in excess of the
13 Erlangs per km
2
examined in the last simulation. Accordingly, a small
(2.4 km
2
) urban area was investigated with a view to servicing 2000
Erlangs of voice traffic: a density of approximately 800 Erlangs per km
2
.

The main finding was that the “other to own” interference ratio tends to
be much higher when the cells are packed closely together. Rather than
the assumed value of 0.6, values of 1.5 were encountered. This reduces
the capacity per cell. Lowering the antenna heights and down-tilting
helped improve the situation but not to the extent where the assumed
value of 0.6 was realised. Thus it seemed impossible in the first instance
to service the level of traffic with the number of cells first calculated. The
network provided good coverage for 1600 terminals as opposed to the
required 2000 terminals. Increasing this level to 2000 would entail re-
starting the dimensioning exercise assuming a more realistic value for the
interference ratio (unity being a suggested value for such situations).

This is another example of a simulation tool being required to validate
spreadsheet calculations.

Spreadsheet Dimensioning. Spreadsheet Dimensioning.
• Initial dimensioning exercise predicts that
coverage can be achieved by 22 sites
each of range 240 metres.
• Low path loss means that very high (20
dB+) Noise Rise can be tolerated.
• Cell capacity effectively become Pole
Capacity.
• Coverage prediction suggests that path
loss will not be a problem.
Planning a UMTS Network



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UMTS Simulation. UMTS Simulation.
• Only 65% Coverage Probability achieved.
• All failures due to Noise Rise.
• Estimation of Pole Capacity of a cell is
erroneous.
• Cell Reports indicate very low FRE
(~40%) suggesting a value for the
interference ratio, i, of 1.5 (c.f. 0.6
assumed).
• Increasing FRE is crucial to increasing
capacity. Coverage Probability
Planning a UMTS Network


Optimisation Procedures. Optimisation Procedures.
• Lowering antenna heights and making the
downtilt as high as 10 degrees improved
matters.
• Coverage probability now 86% (c.f. 65%).
• FRE still only 50%.
• Initial estimate of 32 Erlangs per cell
unachievable in first instance.
• Reduce traffic to more “realistic” levels.
Coverage Probability
Planning a UMTS Network



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Optimisation Procedures. Optimisation Procedures.
• Reduced traffic from 2000 to 1600
terminals.
• Coverage probability increased to 96%.
• Majority of failures due to one apparent
“high site” that could probably benefit
from further attention.
• 25 Erlangs per cell would appear to be
the limit in this situation (average load
84%).
Coverage Probability
Planning a UMTS Network


Conclusions. Conclusions.
• Spreadsheet dimensioning is an appropriate initial step.
• Planning Tool needed to form strategy; analyse coverage; spread traffic;
conduct detailed analysis; perform quantitative sensitivity analyses;
predict the effectiveness of optimisation techniques.
• Control of cell antenna radiation is crucial to achieving designed capacity.
In particular “high sites” can dramatically reduce the capacity of a
network.
• It becomes more difficult to achieve high Frequency Re-use Efficiency as
cells are packed closer together.
• Problems only become apparent as system becomes heavily loaded.
Planning a UMTS Network


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3.7 Evaluating Simulator Results

When examining the prediction made by a simulator it is important to be
clear regarding exactly what you are simulating. Essentially, a Monte
Carlo style of static simulator will provide a prediction of the outcome of
attempts to establish a connection to the network. Noise Rise failures
generally indicate a failure to connect because of over demand. It is very
useful to gain an estimate of the likelihood of a call being dropped once a
connection has been established.

If the network becomes “under stress” from overloading, or capacity
being reduced due to external interference, there are various load control
measures that can be introduced. These include tolerating a lower Eb/ No
value and also reducing the bit rate provided on a particular service.
Simulations of network performance with these lower quality targets
should be made and evaluated.

In these circumstances the lower values of Eb/ No and bit rate should
result in Noise Rise failures being eradicated. The location of areas where
the likelihood of failure is high should then be identified. These will
generally be areas where the path loss to the best server is too high to
allow the required Ec/ Io and Eb/ No conditions to be met. Their
seriousness can be evaluated and remedial action taken.


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Evaluating Simulation Results Evaluating Simulation Results
• The simulator provides a
prediction of the outcome of
attempts to establish a
connection to a network.
• Of special interest is the
probability of a call being
dropped.
• Load control in times of stress will involve reducing Eb/No and reducing
bit rates. The performance of the network under such circumstances
should be evaluated.
Planning a UMTS Network


Evaluating Simulation Results Evaluating Simulation Results
• With reduced Eb/No and bit rates
(e.g. Eb/No 2 dB below target and
voice bit rate reduced to 7.95
kbps), Noise Rise failures should
be extremely rare (ideally zero).
• Eb/No and Ec/Io failures will
probably be confined to small
“problem areas” which will usually
be related to high path loss.
Location of Failures
Planning a UMTS Network

3.8 Pilot Pollution

The term “pilot pollution” is used in various texts to describe a number of
related yet distinct problems. Essentially, they all relate to the situation
where a similar path loss exists from a mobile to many (four or more)
cells. It is possible under such circumstances for the total received power
to be so high that Ec/ Io failures are recorded due to the high level of Io.


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Pilot Pollution Pilot Pollution
• If a mobile experiences comparable path loss to a number of cells,
problems can arise through no single cell dominating.
• Problems include: low Ec/Io; low capacity on downlink; frequent
updates to membership of the active set.
Planning a UMTS Network


The value of Ec/ Io at a point depends on the pilot power of the best
server, P
p
, the other power transmitted by the best serving cell, T1 (that
will benefit from orthogonality α), the link loss to best serving cell, LL1,
the transmit powers of interfering cells (T1, T2, T3 etc..) and the link loss
to these interfering cells (LL2, LL3, LL4 etc.).

( )( )

,
_

¸
¸
+ + + +
− −
·
....
3
3
2
2
1
1 1
1
log 10
0
LL
T
LL
T
P
LL
P T
LL
P
I
E
N
P
P
c
α

dB


UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation 44
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Ec Ec/Io /Io
• In the above situation the pilot power would be received at a level of -
97 dBm.
• Total of interference plus noise would be -89.5 dBm giving a value for
Ec/Io of -7.5 dB.
Pilot Power: 33 dBm
“Interference” Power: 40 dBm
Link Loss 130 dB
Noise Floor: -99dBm
Planning a UMTS Network


• The power from a neighbouring site would add to the total
interference and noise power. In the above situation this total power
would become -86.2 dBm and Ec/Io would be reduced to -10.8 dB
Pilot Power: 33 dBm
“Interference” Power: 40 dBm
Link Loss 130 dB
Interference Power: 42 dBm
Link Loss 131 dB
Ec Ec/Io /Io
Planning a UMTS Network


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More likely is the situation arising where downlink throughput is
severely limited by the interference. A quick analysis of the approximate
expression for the pole capacity in the downlink direction demonstrates
that the value of parameter, i, is crucial. If the cell has a similar path loss
to many cells, then values of i as large as five can be encountered thus
reducing the capacity possible on the downlink at those regions suffering
from the interference.


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4 Further issues:
Neighbours, Scrambling
Codes, GSM co-location
4.1 Introduction
The previous section dealt with planning the “physical” aspects of a
UMTS network. This is necessary but not sufficient to ensure successful
network operation. Configuration of the network will crucially include
defining neighbour lists for each cell in the network. This list should be
optimised. Put simply, the planner should be aware of the following
constraints.
• If the neighbour list is too short, it may omit a significant server. This
omitted cell will suffer UL interference from mobiles and, further,
generate DL interference.
• If the neighbour list is too long the mobile will have to undertake a
large amount of processing. Further, there is a maximum list length of
32 that a mobile can accommodate. This is a maximum even when in
hand over (in which situation the neighbour list is merged). If the
combined neighbour lists of the cells in the active set exceeds 32, the
list will be truncated. This may result in significant potential serving
cells being omitted from the list.
As part of the neighbour list optimisation process, neighbours should be
prioritised. This will then ensure that any neighbours that are deleted
from the list as part of a truncation process are not the most significant
neighbours. Neighbours can be either:

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• Cells sharing the same UMTS carrier frequency (allowing soft or softer
hand over to occur).
• Cells using separate UMTS carrier frequencies (for which hand over
will always be “hard”).
• Other Radio Access Technologies (necessitating an “Inter Radio
Access Technology” (IRAT) hand over).
4.2 Producing and Prioritising the Neighbour
List
4.2.1 Intra-frequency carriers
Getting the intra-frequency neighbour list “right” is critical to network
success as a cell that cannot join the active set could become a significant
interferer. Neighbours will be able to join an active set when a cell for
which it is defined as a neighbour is already a member of the active set. If
the neighbour uses the same UMTS carrier frequency, the neighbour will
be able to form soft or softer hand over with this cell. Softer hand over
refers to the situation when both cells are on the same site. Particularly if
the number of cells is limited to three, co-located sites will almost
invariably be neighbours of each other. The remainder of this section
deals with the problem of identifying appropriate neighbours. For a cell
to be declared as a neighbour it should be possible for a hand over to
occur between it and the serving cell. One criterion is that the path loss
should be small enough from the edge of the serving cell to allow a
connection to be sustained. For soft hand over to be entered into, the pilot
strengths (and, usually therefore, the path losses) must be within a
predefined small window known as the SHO margin (the full SHO
process is more complicated than this but this approximation suits the
purpose of deciding on a neighbour list). The difference between the path
loss will also indicate the degree of mutual interference between cells.
One useful indicator of the suitability of a cell as a neighbour is the
percentage of the coverage area of the best server for which a potential
neighbour has a pilot strength within the SHO margin.
Using this criterion, a planning tool can be used to create a neighbour list.
It must be borne in mind that the propagation model within the planning
tool will predict the pilot strengths at a pixel. Shadow fading should be
considered when assessing the likely percentage of that pixel that would
meet the requirement for SHO. For example, suppose the SHO margin in
3 dB and the predicted difference in pilot strengths for a pixel is 5 dB. The
standard deviation of this difference in path loss will depend upon the
correlation of the path loss to the two cells. It is common to assume a
standard value for this stand ard deviation. Suppose this is taken to be 6
dB. The problem now resolves into one whereby the mean difference is 5

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dB, the s.d. is 6 dB and we need to determine the probability of the path
length difference being less than 3 dB. This in turn becomes a classic
“area of the tail of a normal distribution” question with the key
parameters being the standard deviation of 6 dB and the difference
between the mean and the SHO window (2 dB). Use of appropriate tables
or formulas reveals that the probability is 37%. Thus SHO could be
expected to be established in 37% of the pixels being investigated. A
value of 37% of the area should be logged. The same process should be
undertaken for all pixels for which the cell being investigated is the “best
server” and a list of potential neighbours can be produced in order of
significance. A judgement can then be made as to the best “cut off” line.

4.2.2 Practical Guidelines to Ncell Planning
Any planned neighbour list will have to be tuned through monitoring
network activity. However, it should be possible to arrive at a sensible
initial plan using a combination of planning tool, drive test measurements
and “common sense”. As an initial pointer, the limits of the length of the
neighbour list can be agreed. In view of the fact that the neighbour list is
to be merged with that of others within any active set, it would appear
sensible to limit the length of any one neighbour list to approximately 16.
Conversely, it is possible to obtain a very short neighbour list from a
planning tool. If a required neighbour were missing, this would cause
serious network problems. A lower limit of 10 neighbours is advisable.
The process initially entails producing a neighbour list with the help of a
planning tool. The coverage area of a cell is examined in order to
determine the other cells that would be capable of joining the active set.
This is done on the basis of the predicted levels of CPICH RSCP, Ec/ Io
and shadow fading margin. The length of the neighbour list can be
altered by changing one or more of these parameters. The planning tool
will produce a list of neighbours meeting the criteria set. Further, the list
can be prioritised on the basis of the area for which each potential
neighbour meets the criteria.
Following the generation of the neighbour list, the planner can make a
manual check to ensure that no seemingly obvious neighbours have been
omitted. The original list can be altered as required. This neighbour list
can then be implemented onto the network for pre-launch tests. Drive
test data can be used to optimise the Ncell list, as explained in Section 7.


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Intra-frequency Neighbour Lists Intra-frequency Neighbour Lists
NCELLS
• Defines list of potential additions to the active set.
• Cells on the neighbour list will be examined to see if
they meet criteria to enter soft or softer hand over with
the primary server.
• Issues:
• Maximum of 32
• Neighbour lists of active set merged
• Priority required to avoid “best neighbour” being removed.


Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Planning tools,such as Enterprise 3g, will plan
neighbours automatically using proprietary algorithms.
• Based on mutual interference of cells.
• If a cell with a strong pilot does not join the active set it
will become a strong interferer.
• Neighbours can be inward, outward or mutual.
• Neighbours should be prioritised on the basis of the
amount of interference they could cause and the
probability of them forming the necessary primary server
for an exiting UE.
• Tools are viewed as a way of generating a “first pass”
neighbour list. Manually adjusted.



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Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Planning tool criteria:
• Pilot RSCP: minimum value required
• Pilot Ec/Io: minimum value required
• Soft HO margin: compares pilot strength of potential neighbour
with that of best server.
• Minimum area for which above criteria are met.
• Varying the above parameters will alter the length of the
Ncell list.
• List will be prioritised on the basis of the area for which
each cell meets the criteria.



Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• If manual planning is adopted we need to be
consistent.
• Maximum number? (16?)
• Minimum number? (10?)
• Adjacent cells plus other significant interferers?
• All sites within a given range?
• Eventually the list will be optimised using drive test
data.




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4.2.3 Inter-frequency neighbours
This list is not as critical as the intra-frequency neighbour list as the
interference issue will not be as serious. However the following issues
should be borne in mind:
• If a micro-cell is deployed to serve a hot spot using a separate
frequency, it is possible that it will not have any intra-frequency
neighbours and the inter-frequency neighbour list will then be very
significant.
• Macro-cells that have a micro-cell that uses a separate frequency
embedded must contain that micro-cell as a neighbour. The
percentage of the macro-cell area served by the micro-cell may not be
large. This should be considered when deciding the criterion for
admission to a neighbour list.
The criteria will not be based on the difference between the pilot strengths
of the two cells but, rather, on the ability of the potential neighbour cell to
provide a connection. This is usually assessed u sing Ec/ Io as an
indicator. The effect of cell loading on this parameter must be considered.
For example, if –15 dB is taken as a threshold level, this is a value
appropriate for cases when the network is heavily loaded. Further, the
attenuation afforded by filters (typically 33 dB) must be considered when
computing the effective value of Io. A final point is that, in the initial
stages of UMTS rollout, it is likely that only a single carrier will be
deployed.

4.2.4 Inter-Technology Neighbours.
At the initial rollout stage, IRAT hand over is expected to occur
frequently. Typically, this will be from UMTS to GSM and vice versa. It
should be noted that this would involve modifying the neighbour lists of
existing 2G cells. IRAT hand over is most crucial at the edge of the UMTS
coverage area. Optimising the neighbour list is important. The main
criterion is that the neighbour should be able to sustain a connection
rather than any monitoring of the difference between signal strengths
from the 2G and 3G cells (as is the case with UMTS intra-frequency hand
over).
4.2.4.1 UMTS to GSM Hand Over
Assuming that the GSM network is already established and that
interference within this network is at acceptable levels (i.e. that the GSM
network does not drop calls due to intra-network interference), this
becomes a matter of assessing the signal strength from a potential GSM
neighbour. The threshold level for this would depend on the
environment. For example, in the open a level of –97 dBm may be

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appropriate but, if indoor coverage is required in the area in question, -82
dBm should be required.
If a planning tool is used to perform the initial neighbour planning, an
initial step should be to identify the GSM cells that provide coverage over
a significant percentage of the UMTS cell. Once these GSM cells have
been identified, the decision on the neighbour list will be further
influenced by whether the IRAT hand over will be implemented for
coverage or capacity reasons. Initially, it may be sufficient to hand over to
GSM only when UMTS coverage ceases. Therefore, a further level of the
decision making process is required. This decision can be based on the
pilot level at the edge of the area for which a cell is the best server. If this
level is high, then an alternative UMTS cell will be available for hand over
and no GSM neighbours will be required. If the level is low, then hand
over to a GSM network may be required.
One major issue is that the cell density of the GSM network may be much
greater than that of the UMTS network. Simply looking at GSM carriers
that provide significant signal strength over a certain percentage of the
coverage area of a UMTS cell could lead to a very long neighbour list
being generated. The area of the cell that we need to concentrate on is
that where coverage from the best serving UMTS cell is judged to be poor.
Note that the maximum number of neighbours that can be analysed by
any UE applies to when in soft hand over and, further, includes any inter-
frequency and IRAT neighbours. An IRAT neighbour list utilising a
planning tool should offer the possibility of considering only those areas
where UMTS pilot strength is below a certain level.
Further issues that have to be considered include the type of service for
which hand over is possible. For example, it should be possible to hand
over a voice call to a GSM network but whether a video telephony call
will revert to voice only in a GSM area is another matter. Further, the
data rates offered to a GPRS service in each network should be defined.
4.2.4.2 GSM to UMTS Hand Over
An active call will not hand over from GSM to UMTS. Once it has
conducted a UMTS to GSM hand over, the call will remain on the GSM
network until termination. Handover (or re-selection onto the UMTS
network) will occur only in idle mode. If the GSM network is mature, its
coverage range will exceed that of the embryonic UMTS network and
hand over from GSM to UMTS will not be strictly necessary. However,
the UMTS network is there to provide enhanced services and additional
capacity and hand over in this direction should be possible Therefore,
each GSM cell could have UMTS cells in its neighbour list. Hand over to
a UMTS cell should be a priority for a suitably enabled UE. The planning
of a GSM to UMTS list should be prepared in a similar manner to list for
hand overs in the other direction. This would involve identifying the area

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for which a GSM cell is the best server on the GSM network and assessing
the potential of UMTS cells as neighbours. This would be based on a
criterion such as the percentage of the area for which the UMTS pilot
strength was above, say, -95 dBm.

Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT)
Hand Over Hand Over
IRAT
• Customers transferring to 3g should:
• gain access to video telephony services
• benefit from higher data rates for GPRS and HSCSD
• experience a service “at least as good as GSM” for voice
services
• Satisfying this last requirement will necessitate
successful IRAT hand overs occurring.


Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT)
Hand Over Hand Over
IRAT
• Active UE will hand over to GSM when Ec/No
thresholds are met.
• Ec/No should be logged.
Ec/No
time
Enter compressed mode
Perform Hand Over




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Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT)
Hand Over Hand Over
IRAT
• Active UE will not hand back to UMTS network.
• Idle UE can undergo reselection in both directions.


Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT)
Hand Over Hand Over
IRAT
• The neighbour list of UMTS cells should include GSM
cells.
• The neighbour list
includes:
• The co-located GSM cell
• Neighbours of this cell







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4.3 Scrambling Code Planning
A cell must be allocated 1 of a possible 512 scrambling codes. The
scrambling code is the pilot channel. The mobile uses this to synchronise
to so that it can demodulate traffic channels and common control
channels. It is clear that satisfactory network operation requires that a
mobile receive a particular pilot channel from a clearly identifiable cell. If
it receives the same pilot channel from two or more cells, confusion will
result. The 512 codes are divided into 64 groups with 8 codes in each
group. There are advantages if the number of codes per group is
restricted or if the number of groups used is restricted. These advantages
are in the form of:
• Handover time/ success
• Mobile battery life
Often all cells in a cluster will be allocated the same code number (each
cell would then have a different group). Adjacent clusters would be
allocated a different code number. This provides a straightforward way
of ensuring that identical codes do not interfere with each other. It may
indeed be possible to allocated scrambling codes to the entire network on
the basis of using the same code number throughout. This would then
provide a re-use factor of 64, which should be sufficient while the site
density is not great. An alternative strategy is to allocate cells on a
particular site three codes from the same group (e.g. 0, 1 and 2). Different
sites would then be allocated different code groups (from 0 to 63).
Speed of acquisition depends on the match between the allocations of
codes in the network and the search strategy of the mobile. This is
specific to a manufacturer and it is therefore not possible to generalise
regarding an optimum planning strategy. Code planning for UMTS
networks is not as influential on performance as frequency planning is for
GSM networks.



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5 Assessing a Plan
The nominal plan will exist as a database that can be viewed and
manipulated using a planning tool. It is important to be aware of initial
criteria that should be met regarding
• Coverage
• Capacity
• Interference
Network capacity will be limited by the number of sites and the
sophistication of the technology employed (e.g. is diversity implemented).
For a given configuration, capacity can be thought of as intimately related
to interference and therefore meeting interference criteria will lead to the
capacity being at a near optimum for the infrastructure employed.
5.1 Coverage
Coverage is thought of as uplink limited. For any environment a
maximum link loss can be determined for a given service. The question
“for which service shall we plan coverage?” is important. There is a
general expectation that UMTS should provide more than voice services
as standard and a 64 kbit/ s video-telephone is often selected as a
“benchmark” service. A typical link budget for this is given below. Note
that the strategy is to determine the maximum link loss that can be
tolerated on the uplink and then use downlink parameters to indicate the
coverage area on a planning tool.



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UL Budget for CS 64 kbit/s
kTB -108.1 dBm
Noise Figure of Receiver 3 dB
Required Eb/No 4 dB
Processing Gain 17.8 dB
Noise Rise Margin 4 dB
Minimum Receive Power -114.9 dBm
UE Tx Power 21 dBm
Maximum Link Loss 135.9 dB
Pilot Tx Power 33 dBm
Receive Pilot Strength at UE -102.9 dBm
Margins:
Power Control Margin 1 dB
Shadow Fading Margin (95% at
indoor s.d. of 7 dB) 7 dB
Penetration Loss (Urban bldg) 15 dB
SHO gain at cell edge 4 dB
Target Pilot Strength -83.9 dBm


The conclusion from the above link budget is that the planning tool
should predict a street level pilot strength of better than –84 dBm at the
cell edge in order to give an indoor coverage probability of 95% in an
urban area. In other areas, the target pilot strength would be different
to account for differences in:
• Shadow Fading Margin: if the s.d. is higher then the shadow fade
margin must be increased. Whereas a margin of 7 dB is required if
the s.d. is 7 dB, 13 dB margin is required if the s.d is 11 dB (a typical
figure for some indoor environments).
• Building Penetration Loss: The above budget includes 15 dB as an
allowance for building penetration loss. This may reduce in
suburban areas and increase in dense urban areas. In areas where
coverage is of a highway, then the budget can be modified to allow
for in-car, rather than in-building coverage.
Typical adjustments relative to the target pilot for urban areas are given
below:
Environment Adjustment
Dense Urban +5 dB
Suburban -5 dB
Highway -10 dB
Open -15 dB


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Thus, in assessing a plan table below provides typical coverage criteria.

Environment Requirement
Dense Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-79 d Bm
Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-84 d Bm
Suburban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-89 d Bm
Highway 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-94 d Bm
Open 95% of pixels covered to a pilot s trength of >-99 d Bm
Note that this is a methodology for assessing a plan produced using a
planning tool. It does not refer to levels of pilot strength that should be
measured over a required coverage area. Note also that the predictions
are for street level and that building penetration loss has been accounted
for by allowing an appropriate margin.

5.1.1 The effect of MHAs on the coverage targets
By using downlink field strength as an indicator of uplink coverage we
are making the assumption that the link loss will be the same in both
directions. The use of a MHA renders this assumption incorrect. The
difference between the link loss in the two directions will be mostly
influenced by the feeder loss. The MHA can be thought of as effectively
“cancelling” the feeder loss and the SNR at the top of the mast is the same
as that at the receiver. However, the feeder loss has a direct influence on
the downlink pilot strength. It is a common practice to use high quality
feeder where longer lengths are required in order to make feeder loss
consistent across the network. 3 dB is a typical nominal figure. This
would reduce the target levels for pilot strength by 3 dB whilst
maintaining uplink coverage. In a planning tool there is a choice in using
the tool to assess uplink coverage in cases where a MHA is used:
1. Set feeder loss to 0 dB and use the figures given above
2. Set feeder loss to 3 dB and adjust the figures accordingly
The second choice is probably more prudent as it will lead to a more valid
simulation of the downlink performance in general. It is, of course,
possible to simulate each site “as it is” (that is, enter measured feeder
losses for every cell) but this would entail setting different coverage
targets for each cell, making a “first pass” assessment very tedious.
Examining the above approach makes it clear that planning is made easier
if an “all or nothing” decision is made regarding the adoption of MHAs in
a network. A consistent approach, at least across a particular
environment, will make assessing a plan much easier.

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Summarising, it is recommended that, for uplink coverage assessments, a
standard feeder loss is used when MHAs are implemented. If 3 dB is
selected as a suitable figure then the following criteria would be suitable.

Environment Requirement (MHA implemented; 3 dB feeder loss)
Dense Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-82 dBm
Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-87 dBm
Suburban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-92 dBm
Highway 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-97 dBm
Open 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-102 dBm

A final thought is that the above arguments would not be necessary if a
policy of declaring downlink transmit powers at the masthead rather than
at the “rack output” was adopted. This automatically accounts for feeder
loss. Thus the table above can be considered appropriate if the pilot
power at the masthead is +30 dBm (as opposed to +33 dBm at the rack).

5.1.2 Summarising
The process may be summarised as follows
1. Determine the maximum uplink loss that can be tolerated for the
existing network parameters
2. Calculate the downlink pilot power that would be measured at this
level of loss
3. Add margins to consider
a) Power control
b) Shadow fading (LNF): e.g. 7 dB to provide a 95% area probability if
the s.d. of LNF is 7 dB.
c) Soft Handover Gain in uplink at cell edge.
d) Building Penetration loss
Note:
1. Different clutter categories will require different margins
2. LNF margin is there is restore probability from 50% point location
probability within a pixel to 95% area over the cell coverage area
(approx 82% point location probability at cell edge). Therefore
prediction to the level indicated in the above table should be for the
mean within any pixel.


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5.2 Interference
5.2.1 Pilot SIR and Ec/No
When a plan is being assessed with a view to a pre-launch optimisation
programme being undertaken, the main issue is to ensure that the pilot
SIR (calculated by considering the effect of orthogonality on “own cell”
interference and not including the pilot itself in the total “interference”
level) is sufficient to allow the UE to synchronise to the downlink. The
exact value required varies from UE to UE but a typical value of –15 dB is
used for most planning purposes.
We now have to consider the need for a margin for pilot SIR. A few
issues need to be considered:
If the coverage criteria are met, the network will be “interference limited”
rather than “thermal noise limited”. This means that variations in the
interference level can be expected to be somewhat correlated with
variations in the wanted signal level (almost 100% correlation when the
interference is “own cell”). It is therefore not necessary to adopt a LNF
margin as high as 7 dB. Allowing a 5 dB margin is expected to prove a
cautious approach.
Pilot SIR is expected to be lowest near the cell edge. At these points the
UE would be likely to enter SHO. This has the effect that an interferer
becomes “wanted”. Nevertheless, all pilots involved need to be received
with sufficient strength to allow the UE to synchronise.
5.2.2 Predicting levels on a heavily loaded network
The level of pilot SIR will reduce as the total downlink power increases.
There is no purpose in configuring RBSs with a power capability of 43
dBm if this is not going to be used. It is therefore important that pilot SIR
is predicted when the network is heavily loaded.
When assessing pilot SIR, it is necessary to artificially load the downlink
of the network (by, for example, allocating a lot of power to a common
channel). Then, 95% of the area should be provisioned such that the pilot
SIR is better than –10 dB. An alternative measure is Ec/ No where “No”
includes the pilot itself and ignores any orthogonality effect. If an
orthogonality value of 0.6 is assumed, then the value of own cell
interference is reduced by 10 log (1-0.6) = 4 dB. Thus 42 dBm of
“interference” has an effective value of 38 dBm. If 33 dBm of this is the

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pilot itself then the true interference value is reduced further to 36.3 dBm,
a total reduction of 4.7 dB. However, the most serious situations are those
where the downlink receive power is made up of almost equal
contributions from three cells. In this case the reduction in total
interference power is only 1.2 dB. Thus a predicted Ec/ No value of better
than –11 dB in a heavily loaded network would be an appropriate target
to achieve with a planning tool.

Summarising requirements for assessing interference levels. Where
coverage is achieved to the levels described in the previous section:
1. Simulate a heavy load on the network (e.g. +42 dBm total Tx power
from each cell)
2. Pilot SIR should be >-10 dB
3. Pilot Ec/No should be >-11 dB
5.2.3 Expected predictions on a lightly loaded network
If the prediction is made without artificially loading the network this will
lead to a higher level of Ec/ No being predicted. The difference this
makes depends on the relative levels of the sources of “No”, namely
thermal noise and intra-network interference. This, in turn, is very
location dependent. If “No” is mainly thermal noise then the difference
will be small. In most situations in a practical network, “No” is expected
to be dominated by own-network interference. In this case the difference
made when the level of loading is changed depends upon the levels of the
common channels, in particular:
• The Pilot (P-CPICH);
• The Synchronisation Channels (P-SCH and S-SCH);
• The Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH and S-CCPCH);
• The Paging and Acquisition Indicator Channels (PICH and AICH).

As a first approximation, the power allocated to the pilot is approximately
half of the total power allocated to common channels. If Ec/ No is
predicted on a quiet network then the level of “No” in an area of high
interference should drop by approximately 6 dB compared with when the
network was heavily loaded (if cell power reduces from 42 dBm to 36
dBm).

Thus, in a quiet network, values for Ec/No of greater than –5 dB should
be predicted throughout the portion of the coverage area where the
network is “interference limited”.


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An appropriate definition of “interference limited” areas is “those areas
where No is 10 dB above thermal noise level when the network is heavily
loaded”. If thermal noise is assumed to be –100 dBm and a heavily
loaded network is transmitting a total power 10 dB above that of pilot,
then a pilot level of >-100 dBm will represent the extent of the
“interference limited” area. As the lowest level of coverage is a planned
pilot level of –102 dBm, the entire area for which coverage is planned can
fairly be regard ed as interference limited on the downlink.

5.3 High Data Rate services
The above guidelines have been derived by making the 64 kbit/ s CS
service our “benchmark”. This is assumed to be a symmetrical service
and the downlink pilot strength has been used to indicate where there
should be uplink coverage. It is possible that operators will wish to offer
higher data rate services (e.g. 384 kbit/ s), possibly in the downlink only.
Ec/ Io values provide a valuable indicator of the power required to
deliver a service (defined by bit rate and Eb/ No). The amount of power
required to deliver a particular service is affected by external
interference. Ec/ Io levels, knowing the pilot and common channel
powers on a cell, provide an estimate of the levels of interference. If a
limit on the amount of power available to a single connection were
imposed, that would restrict the area for which this data rate was
achievable.

The following equations lead to a method of identifying areas where a
particular service can be delivered.

SIR = Eb/ No – Processing Gain (dB)

For the remainder of the analysis values such as power are in milliwatts
(rather than dBm) and ratios are not expressed in dB.

( )
( )

,
_

¸
¸
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹

+ − −
·
bearer total
total
bearer total
bearer
P P
P
i P P
P
SIR
α 1
(1)

,
_

¸
¸
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+ −
·
other
total
other
bearer
P
P
i P
P
SIR
α 1
(2)
where
bearer total other
P P P − · It is clear that the parameter, i , affects the
power requirement. Ec/ Io is used as a method of estimating the value
of i .


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( )
1
1
0
0

×
·
+
·
I
E
P
P
i
i P
P
I
E
c
TOT
PILOT
TOT
PILOT c
(3)
where
PILOT
P is the transmitted pilot power;
TOT
P is the total power
transmitted for the Ec/ Io tests (e.g. if the network was quiet, 36 dBm
would be a suitable estimate).

Substituting for i in (2) gives:

( )
( )
pilot
total
pilot
bearer
pilot
other
other
total
pilot
bearer
c
c other
pilot
other
total
other
bearer
P
xP
xP
P
SIR P
P
P
P
P
P
SIR P
P
I E
I E P
P
P
P
P
P
SIR
max
max
0
0
1
1
1
1

,
_

¸
¸
− + + ·

,
_

¸
¸
− + + ·

,
_

¸
¸
+ − −
·
α
α
α
(4)
where
max
P P x
other
·
This allows the level of Ec/ Io to be determined if the other parameters
are known, or assumed. In particular it allows the variation in required
Ec/ Io as a function of x to be predicted if the other parameters are fixed.

The graph below shows this variation for the following parameters:

dBm 33
dB 5 -
0.6
dBm 43
dBm 39
max
·
·
·
·
·
pilot
bearer
P
SIR
P
P
α

Note that, as the bearer is 39 dBm and the maximum power is 43 dBm,
the highest value of x (representing full load) is 0.6. In other words, the
39 dBm pilot power alone represents a load of 40%.


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Ec/Io for 384 kbps 5 dB Eb/No bearer
-13.2
-13
-12.8
-12.6
-12.4
-12.2
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Loading Factor
E
c
/
I
o

(
d
B
)
Ec/Io required vs
loading

If the above chart is examined, it is seen that it suggests 39 dBm is sufficient to
support a 384 kbps bearer with an Eb/ No of 5 dB in an area where Ec/ Io on a
heavily loaded (loading factor = 1) network is recorded as –13 dB and cells are
transmitting a total power of 43 dBm. The logic of this particular instance is
now explained.

The value of Ec/ Io refers to the situation where all cells are transmitting 33
dBm pilot powers and approximately 42.5 dBm of other common channel
powers. A value of Ec/ Io of –13 dB indicates that the pilot represents only 5%
of the power received. A further 45% will come from the own cell
interference. The remaining 50% is external interference. Hence “other cell”
power equals “own cell” power and i equals 1.0.

If the bearer is at a level of 39 dBm and the cell is transmitting a total of 43
dBm then “own cell interference” is represented by an equivalent transmit
power of 40.8 dBm. Orthogonality will reduce this to 36.8 dBm. As i equals
1.0, an effective interference power of 43.0 dBm will be received. 43.0 dBm
added to 36.8 dBm gives a total of 44.0 dBm. Hence the SIR will be –5 dB
which, when the processing gain of 10 dB is considered, agrees with the
Eb/ No value of +5 dB.


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Assessing a Plan Assessing a Plan
Assessing a Plan
• As an optimisation engineer, you may well be presented with someone
else’s plan as a starting point.
• It is important that you understand the thinking behind the plan and that we
optimise “to the plan”.
• Otherwise time could be spent inefficiently, perhaps “attempting the
impossible” or at least attempting to do something that has previously been
regarded as unnecessary.
• Plans are assessed on the basis of
• Coverage
• Capacity
• Interference
• Capacity will be influenced by the number of sites and, for a given
infrastructure, optimising capacity can be related directly to optimising
interference levels.


Pilot SIR, Ec/ Pilot SIR, Ec/Io Io, Ec/No , Ec/No
Assessing a Plan
• Ec/Io is used interchangeably with Ec/No.
• No consideration is given to the effect of orthogonality
• The pilot itself is included with Io (or No).
• Pilot SIR considers orthogonality and pilot power is not included as
interference power.
•Pilot 33 dBm
•Total Power 43 dBm
•Orthogonality = 0.6
•Ec/Io = Ec/No = 33 - 43 = -10 dB
•Non pilot power = 42.5 dBm
•Orthogonality effect = 10log(1-0.6)= -4 dB
•Pilot SIR = 33 - 38.5 = -5.5 dB



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Coverage Coverage
Assessing a Plan
• In the first instance, coverage is assumed to be uplink limited.
• We need a benchmark service: e.g. 64 kbit/s CS (videotelephony).
• In the plan, pilot strength (a downlink parameter) is used to assess uplink
coverage.
•Pilot strength indicates path loss.
•Uplink coverage is limited by path loss.


Coverage Coverage
Assessing a Plan
Uplink
Transmitter Power 250.00 mW
21.00 dBm
Tx Antenna Gain 0.00 dBi
Body Loss 2.00 dB
EIRP including losses 19.00 dBm
Thermal Noise
Density -174.00 dBm
Receiver Noise
Figure 3.00 dB
Receiver Noise
Density -171.00 dBm/Hz
Receiver Noise
Power -105.16 dBm
Loading factor 60%
Interference
Margin (NR) 3.98 dB
• Esc and Double-click on spreadsheet to activate



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General Conclusions General Conclusions
Assessing a Plan
• Benchmark service 64 kbit/s, 4 dB Eb/No
• Urban Environment: 15 dB penetration loss
• MHA as standard
• 30 dBm pilot power at masthead (33 dBm at rack output).
• LNF margin 7 dB
• SHO gain at cell edge, 4 dB
• Power Control Margin 1 dB
• UE Tx Power +21 dBm
• UL coverage is expected where DL pilot is better than -87 dBm.
•Note: -87 dBm is “local mean” level (the “planned” level) at street level.
•This is to ensure that 95% of points in the coverage area have pilot better than -94 dBm


The effect of The effect of MHAs MHAs
Assessing a Plan
• MHA helps the uplink but not the downlink.
• If the DL is used as an indicator, the MHA must be considered.
• Effectively, MHA allows feeder loss to be ignored.
• Feeder loss cannot be ignored on the UL.
• If an estimate of 3 dB feeder loss is adopted then pilot requirements are 3
dB less with an MHA than they would be if the MHA was removed.
• Presence of MHA means that the masthead becomes the point of
consideration, rather than the rack output: once the UL signal arrives at the
masthead, the MHA will “look after it” from there.



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Requirements for different Requirements for different
environments environments
Assessing a Plan
• Different environments will require different offsets in the link budget. The
following table represents a typical variety of pilot strength requirements as
output by a planning tool .
Environment Requirement (MHA implemented; 3 dB feeder loss)
Dense Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-82 dBm
Urban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-87 dBm
Suburban 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-92 dBm
Highway 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-97 dBm
Open 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-102 dBm
•Note: 95% of pixel requirement simply acknowledges that nothing is perfect
•It is not a “coverage probability” simply a requirement for the planning tool output.

The effect of UL The effect of UL Tx Tx Power Power
Assessing a Plan
• UL budget is directly affected by the UL transmit power.
• +21 dBm is assumed in this instance.
• Network can “decide” whether to set this to +24 dBm.
• This would have implications for UE battery life.
• +21 dBm assumption is considered appropriate.



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Pilot SIR and Ec/No Pilot SIR and Ec/No
Assessing a Plan
• Pilot SIR is a pass/fail requirement.
• UE dependent parameter but pilot SIR > -15 dB is generally accepted.
• Issues
• Using Ec/No as an indicator (pilot SIR is not measured)
• Planning margins for Ec/No


Pilot SIR and Ec/No: margins Pilot SIR and Ec/No: margins
Assessing a Plan
• Most networks will be “interference limited” (90%+ of UE Receive power will
be signal plus interference, not thermal noise).
• Therefore, if wanted signal reduces, interference is expected to reduce as
well.
• Correlation will be very high, especially if majority of interference is “own cell”
interference.
• Additionally, the network will automatically identify the strongest server as
“best”.
• A margin of 2 dB is expected to be sufficient.
• “95% of area should have pilot SIR better than -13 dB.”



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Pilot SIR and Ec/No: SHO Pilot SIR and Ec/No: SHO
Assessing a Plan
• SHO will allow processing gains to be made on the message.
• However, synchronisation of message channels is crucial to achieving
this gain.
• ALL pilots must be received to a SIR better than -15 dB.


Pilot SIR and Ec/No Pilot SIR and Ec/No
Assessing a Plan
• “95% of area should have pilot SIR better than -13 dB.”
• How does this relate to pilot Ec/No?
• Requirement is under situations of heavy loading: interference powers of 42
dBm from all cells would be appropriate.
• Own cell interference will be reduced by orthogonality and by not considering the
pilot itself as an interferer.
• Orthogonality factor, α, interference factor 10 log [1- α] (= - 4 dB if α=0.6).
• If all power was “own cell”, then 33 dBm pilot power plus 42 dBm other channels
would result in:
• Ec/No = -9.5 dB
• Pilot SIR = -5 dB [33 dBm -38 dBm] assuming α = 0.6.



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Pilot SIR and Ec/No Pilot SIR and Ec/No
Assessing a Plan
• The most serious situation is where the UE receives interference from many
cells.
• Then the reduction is less.
• Suppose receive power is:
• wanted pilot 33 dBm
• own cell interference 42 dBm (reduced to effectively 38 dBm by orthogonality)
• other cell power 46 dBm (two heavily loaded interferers at similar path loss to
wanted cell.
• Total power received equivalent to 47.6 dBm transmit power (42 dBm + 33
dBm + 46 dBm)
• Ec/No -14.6 dB
• Total effective interference power equivalent to (46 dBm + 38 dBm =) 46.1
dBm.
• Pilot SIR = -13.1 dB (a difference of only 1.5 dB)


Pilot SIR and Ec/No Pilot SIR and Ec/No
Assessing a Plan
• If a pilot SIR of better than -13 dB is required, a pilot Ec/No (in
conditions of heavy loading) of better than -15 dB would be an
appropriate target.
Summary:
•perform a prediction with cells
heavily loaded (e.g. +43 dBm Tx
power per cell)
•pilot Ec/No should be >-15 dB.



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Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded
networks networks
Assessing a Plan
• The level of loading will have a great effect on Ec/No levels.
•Pilot
•synchronisation
•Common control
•Paging and AICH
•Traffic
• In a cell with a maximum power
capability of +43 dBm, typically 33
dBm would be pilot and 33 dBm
would be other common channel
powers.
• Variation in transmitted power is from
36 dBm to 43 dBm a variation of 7
dB. Ec/No will vary likewise, by 7
dB.


Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded
networks networks
Assessing a Plan
• If simulation is done for a lightly loaded network (total transmit
power 3 dB above pilot):
• 95% of area for which coverage is provided should have a
predicted Ec/No greater than -8 dB.
Summary:
• perform a prediction with cells
lightly loaded (common channels
only)
• pilot Ec/No should be >-8 dB.



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High Data Rate Services High Data Rate Services
Assessing a Plan
• So far coverage predictions have been related to:
• Using DL pilot as an indicator of UL coverage
• 64 kbps, 6 dB Eb/No CS is benchmark service
• Service is symmetrical
• One additional service to be offered is likely to be 384 kbps PS
in downlink only.
• Eb/No required is predicted to be 6 dB (BLER?)
• Processing Gain of 10 dB leads to a wideband SIR of -4 dB as a
requirement.


High Data Rate Services High Data Rate Services
Assessing a Plan
( )
( )

,
_

¸
¸
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹

+ − −
·
bearer total
total
bearer total
bearer
P P
P
i P P
P
SIR
α 1
• An iterative process is required for solution
• Setting P
bearer
to the maximum on RHS is a sensible
approximation.
( )
1
1
0
0

×
·
+
·
I
E
P
P
i
i P
P
I
E
c
TOT
PILOT
TOT
PILOT c



UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation 75
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High Data Rate Services High Data Rate Services
Assessing a Plan
• Graph assumes max bearer power of 39 dBm
• Ec/Io requirements for different loading factors are given.
• If simulation at full loading is undertaken, Ec/Io of -12.4 dB is required.
Ec/Io for 384 kbps 6 dB Eb/No bearer
-12.6
-12.4
-12.2
-12
-11.8
-11.6
-11.4
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Loading Factor
E
c
/
I
o

(
d
B
)
Ec/Io required vs
loading








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6 Drive Test Analysis
6.1 Introduction
When the network was planned and assessed, certain guidelines were
adopted regarding the levels of pilot strength, pilot SIR and pilot Ec/ No
that should be regarded as key parameters for planning purposes. The
previous section gives details of recommended planning levels including
appropriate margins. These have been designed so that the resulting
radio coverage and interference levels following the network build phase
will be acceptable. It must be remembered, however, that the drive test
will be carried out at street level with an external antenna and that the
requirement in many areas is that the coverage should extend to indoors.
Measured results should correspond to the plan. For an urban
environment, the planned levels were for a pilot level of –87 dBm. This is
the mean level at the edge of the cell. This level was arrived at by
building in a margin that should lead to the p ilot being greater than –94
dBm in 95% of locations. The reasoning was that, if the pilot is at a
strength of –94 dBm at street level, 21 dBm of transmit power on the
uplink will deliver the required SNR at the mast head allowing for a
building penetration loss of 15 dB.

However, the statistics for cells serving urban areas as a whole should be
that the pilot strength is measured as better than –94 dBm for 95% of
locations.


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The table gives the corresponding results for cells serving other areas.

Environment Planned Mean at Cell Edge Drive Test 95% threshold
Dense Urban -82 dBm -89 dBm
Urban -87 dBm -94 dBm
Suburban -92 dBm -99 dBm
Highway -97 dBm -104 dBm
Open -102 dBm -109 dBm


6.2 Dividing a Network into Clusters
In order to divide the necessary work in a way that allows optimisation to be
carried out in a manageable manner, the network is divided into cell clusters
(or “groups” or “bubbles”). An engineer will have responsibility for a
particular cluster and design drive test routes for that cluster.

Drive Testing: Optimisation of Site Clusters Drive Testing: Optimisation of Site Clusters
• Procedure
• Identify size and location of clusters
• Define Cluster characteristics
– Coverage, Interference, Handover region size and
location
– Neighbour list assessment
– Access, handover and call failures
• Take Measurements
– Drive tests
– Ec/Io, pilot power, UE TX Power, Neighbours, call
success drops and Handover stats.
– Service allocation, FER/BLER, Throughput, Max
and Av. BER, Delay
• An engineer will have responsibility for a particular
cluster.
Drive Testing



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Cluster Defining Cluster Defining
• Identify Clusters of sites
• Based on
• Terrain
• Traffic distribution
• Network is to be optimised in clusters
• This method provides for
• Work delegation
• Progress tracking
• Minimises tool processing time
Drive Testing


Cluster Defining Cluster Defining
Network of clusters Cluster of sites
Site
Site Approval
Cluster Approval
Network
Acceptance Datafill
Eg Scrambling
Codes; Node B
Parameters
Drive Testing



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Drive Test Routes Drive Test Routes
Drive Testing
• Drive testing should be performed
on radial and circumferential routes
• Radial routes show variation
in signal quality with distance
from base station
• Circumferential routes provide
predictions for signal quality in
different directions from the base
station
• Typically, three routes should be
defined per cluster: consistency is
vital.

6.3 Choosing the drive test route.
The drive test route must be representative for the cell. A circular route at a
constant distance from the site is not appropriate. Similarly, driving along a
straight line at a constant bearing from the site will not reveal sufficient
information. The route should allow a rich variety of distance and bearing
variations to be included in the measurements.

6.4 Cells covering more than one environment
It will often be the case that a cell’s coverage area includes more than one
clutter category. This can distort the relationship between the planned mean
level at the cell edge and the measured statistics. Suppose for example, a
cell’s coverage area consists of mainly open areas plus a small urban area at
its edge. If the urban area is almost all at the –87 dBm mean level then it can
be expected that the probability of a measurement made at any point is above
–94 dBm is only 83% rather than 95%. This is an inevitable result of the urban
area, in this instance, being concentrated in locations where the path loss is
high. This fact should be borne in mind when assessing measurement results.
Of course, placing sites so that areas of high subscriber density are far away is
not good planning practice.

6.5 Measured values of Ec/No.

As well as measuring pilot power, Ec/ No (or Ec/ Io as it is sometimes referred
to) is also measured. The requirement is that pilot SIR is above –15 dB in 95%

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of locations for which coverage is provided when the network is heavily
loaded. This corresponds to a requirement for Ec/ No that it should be better
than approximately –16 dB for 95% of the area in conditions of heavy loading.

If the network is lightly loaded then the level of No can be expected to fall by
approximately 6 dB. Therefore drive tests should reveal that 95% of locations
for which coverage is provided should experience an Ec/ Io better than –10
dB.

It should be noted that this is a minimum value to ensure successful network
operation. It does not include and capacity optimisation features. In areas of
high demand for downlink traffic, the better Ec/ Io the higher the capacity.
Thus it may be expected to find a higher requirement for Ec/ Io in areas of
high subscriber density.

6.6 The effect of network loading levels.

The downlink of the network will, in all but the most exceptional
circumstances, be interference limited. Variations in network load will impact
directly on Ec/ No levels. Thus, if the cell transmit power varies from 36 dBm
to 43 dBm the value of Ec/ Io at a particular location will vary by 9 dB. This
does not mean that the network quality has reduced, just that the situation
will vary with loading levels. Care must be taken to ensure that loading
levels are known and targets adjusted accordingly.

Drive Test Results Drive Test Results
Assessing a Plan
• We plan for a mean (50%) level at the cell edge.
• This is done to achieve a 95% probability of a different level over the coverage
area as a whole.
• E.g. urban area will be planned to have a pilot power of -87 dBm at cell edge.
This should translate to 95% of measurements over the cell area as a whole
being >-94 dBm.
Environment Planned Mean at Cell Edge Drive Test 95% threshold
Dense Urban -82 dBm -89 dBm
Urban -87 dBm -94 dBm
Suburban -92 dBm -99 dBm
Highway -97 dBm -104 dBm
Open -102 dBm -109 dBm



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Drive Test Routes: cells covering Drive Test Routes: cells covering
multiple environments multiple environments
Assessing a Plan
• Suppose the pink area in this
diagram is the urban area with the
other categories being open or
suburban.
• Planning would seek to ensure that
pilot at cell edge would be >-87
dBm.
• However location probability at cell
edge is a 83% probability of being
>-94 dBm.
• Urban area will not produce results
of 95% >-94 dBm in this instance
• This must be borne in mind
when assessing drive test
results.
• “Good Planning” entails placing
sites close to areas of high
subscriber density.


Drive Tests: measuring Ec/ Drive Tests: measuring Ec/Io Io
Assessing a Plan
• Requirement is for pilot SIR to be
greater than -15 dB in 95% of
locations where coverage is
acceptable, under conditions of
heavy loading.
• Ec/Io should be greater than -16 dB
when network is heavily loaded.
• For quiet network Ec/Io should be
greater than -10 dB for 95% of the
area.
• Higher values of Ec/Io will be
needed where high data rates on
DL are required.



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Drive Tests: effect of loading on Ec/ Drive Tests: effect of loading on Ec/Io Io
Assessing a Plan
• Ec/Io can vary by 7 dB with loading
conditions.
• It is vital that conditions at the time
of measuring are known (you will
not get Ec/Io>-10 dB on a heavily
loaded network).
• For pre-launch optimisation it is
common to assume the network is
quiet.
• But, if someone else is doing a load
test while the drive test is taking
place…….
•Drive test
•Load test











6.7 Measurement Samples, Scanner Settings
and Drive Test Speeds

It is generally regarded that the objective of a drive test measurement
campaign is to obtain information regarding the “local mean” in a
particular area. It should ignore fast fading but respond to changes due
to “slow” or “shadow” fading. The diagram below show fast fading
produced by more than one reflection imposed on top of a mean level
that is nearly constant.

The reason that we are more interested in the local mean is that:

• It is this level that the path loss model attempts to predict
• Mobile (UE) terminals are designed to accommodate multipath
environments.

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Fast fading

We can now discuss how the optimum results can be obtained using, as
an example, the Anritsu scanner.

6.7.1 The Lee Sampling Criteria


Obtaining the most appropriate results depends on making the correct
number of measurements at the correct intervals and averaging over an
appropriate window. This topic has been studied in depth by William
Lee and the results are known as the “Lee criteria”. These can be
summarised as:

• Measurements must be made at intervals of at least 0.8 λ.
• The averaging window should be 40 λ in length
• 36 samples should contribute to each “average” reading.

Following on from these recommendations it is possible to describe the
ideal measuring campaign as one that obtains a measurement every 1.1 λ
and processes them so as to provide an average over 36 samples. At a
frequency of 2142.4 MHz, that corresponds to:

Measurements must be made at intervals of at least 11 cm.
The averaging window should be 5.6 m in length

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36 samples should contribute to each “average” reading.

The ideal measurement campaign would take measurements every 15
cm.

6.7.2 The Anritsu Scanner

The Anritsu Scanner will report on individual pilot signals within a live
network. This involves synchronising to a particular cell in the presence
of external interference and assessing the level of the pilot channel of
that cell. Thus it performs a much more sophisticated task than a simple
spectrum analyser would. This functionality is vital if it is to be able to
report on signals from more than one cell within a network.

Typical default settings would be:

• Sampling period: 10 ms per channel (fixed)
• Number of channels: 6 (user defined)
• Averaging period: 1 second (user defined)

At a speed of 50 kph this would translate to:

• One sample every 83 centimetres
• 16 samples per averaging period
• Averaging window corresponds to a distance of 13.8 metres.

The table below gives the figures for other speeds.

Speed (kph) inter-sample distance (cm) Samples per period Averaging distance (m)
20 33 16.7 5.6
40 67 16.7 11.1
60 100 16.7 16.7
80 133 16.7 22.2
100 167 16.7 27.8
120 200 16.7 33.3


Already, something of a dilemma is emerging. If the ideal measurement
campaign is taken as one that would take measurements every 15 cm
and 36 samples are taken for every data point then the measurement
period should be set to 500 ms and the speed of the test vehicle reduced
to 10 kph.

It is important that the implications of these variances are established.


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Inter –sample distance too large: not in itself a problem; the Lee criteria
specify a minimum distance to ensure independence of samples.

Samples per period. The smaller the number of samples, the larger the
potential error in the average. Lee aimed for a standard deviation of 1
dB. This is appropriate for (highly accurate) carrier wave (CW)
measurements. However it must be borne in mind that the accuracy
with which pilot channels can be measured does not rival that of CW
measurements. For example, an accuracy of t2 dB is quoted for the
CPICH measurements and t3 dB for CPICH SIR. If only 17 samples are
taken then the standard deviation will rise to 45 . 1 17 36 · dB. This
may well be seen as acceptable in the light of the unavoidable
inaccuracies mentioned.

Averaging Distance too large. The Lee Criteria specifies an averaging
window of 40 wavelengths. That corresponds to 6 metres. The most
appropriate value depends on the environment. It should be small
enough to capture variations due to obstacles such as buildings and
trees. Additionally, it must be small enough to allow detection of a
reduction in signal strength due to increasing distance from the base
station. If the UE is in the middle of a flat field, for example, then an
averaging distance of several tens of metres may be appropriate with the
value of 6 metres only being necessary when the environments becomes
more complicated to describe.

Judging by the above comments, the major problem comes from the
averaging distance being too large to permit users to be confident that all
coverage holes will have been detected. The fact that the original criteria
were derived for CW measurements makes it necessary to consider two
further facts:

The measurements have been made over a wide (4 MHz) bandwidth
The receiver can use a Rake receiver with up to 6 fingers.
6.7.3 The Effect of Varying Averaging Distance

The next requirement is to establish a required averaging window. A 45
metre route was used with measurements being made:

Every 0.8λ with an averaging window of 5.6 metres (Lee criteria)
Every 0.8λ with an averaging window of 11.2 metres.

The minimum level measured with the 5.6 metre window was –94.2
dBm whereas the minimum level measured with the 11.2 metre window
was –93.1 dBm. Clearly the size of the window has the effect of

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smoothing out dips in the signal level. A more detailed experiment was
conducted in 3 different environments.

Environment Vehicle speed (kph)
Sample Rate
(s)
Averaging
Period (s)
Averaging
Distance (m)
Samples
per
reading
Distance
between
samples (m)
Motorway 100 0.01 1 27.78 100.00 0.28
100 0.01 0.5 13.89 50.00 0.28
100 0.01 0.2 5.56 20.00 0.28
100 0.06 1 27.78 16.67 1.67
Suburban 40 0.02 1 11.11 50.00 0.22
40 0.02 0.5 5.56 25.00 0.22
40 0.02 0.2 2.22 10.00 0.22
40 0.06 1 11.11 16.67 0.67
commercial 20 0.03 1 5.56 33.33 0.17
20 0.03 2 11.11 66.67 0.17
20 0.03 4 22.22 133.33 0.17
six fingers
(commercial) 20 0.03 1 5.56 33.33 0.17
20 0.06 1 5.56 16.67 0.33

6.7.4 Summary of Results

The size of the window made a measurable difference to the
measurements. As an example, consider the results for the measurement
in a motorway environment. Graphs are shown below for the same
route, one with a 28 m averaging distance (1 s at 100 kph) and the other
with a 5.6 m averaging distance (0.2 s at 100 kph) which equals the
averaging distance recommended by Lee.

28 m averaging
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
0 10 20 30 40
distance (m*28)
p
i
l
o
t

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

d
B
m
pilot strength


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Whilst the similarity of the two curves is apparent, it is clear that the
data employing 5.6 m averaging detects events that are missed when 28
m averaging is used. In particular the series of measurements with pilot
strength below –90 dBm are presented much more clearly with the 5.6 m
averaging data. The cumulative distributions are also different as shown
below.

Cumulative distributions
-100
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
-70
0 20 40 60 80 100
percentile
l
e
v
e
l
5.6 m averaging
28 m averaging

We would be particularly interested in measurments that are exceeded
90% or 95% of the time. This corresponds to the 5% and 10% points on
the distribution graph. There is approximately a 5 dB separation
between the two curves at this point. Clearly, it is desirable to make the
averaging distance 6 metres where possible.

6.7.5 Implications

The Anritsu scanner makes measurements at a rate of 100 per second but
this reduces if more than one channel is being measured such that if, for
example, 5 channels are used, then the measurement rate would be 20
per second. An averaged value must contain a large number of points if
large random variations are to be avoided. Lee recommends 36 samples
5.6 m averaging
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
0 50 100 150 200
distance (m*5.6)
l
e
v
e
l

i
n

d
B
m
Pilot strength

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but 20 can be taken as a sensible minimum. Thus, for different speeds it
is possible to determine the maximum number of channels to allow a 5.6
m averaging distance to be maintained.



Speed of Vehicle (kph) Max No. of Channels (5.6 m) Max No. of Channels (11.2 m)
20 5 10
30 3 6
40 2 5
50 2 4
60 1 3
70 1 2
80 1 2
90 1 2
100 1 2


6.7.6 Anritsu Selection Procedure and Recommended Settings

If the Anritsu is set to record one channel only, it does not always display
the best server at any location. Experimentation suggests that the
procedure adopted is to lock onto a strong pilot and stay locked on until it
drops to a level so low that it can no longer decode it satisfactorily. Thus
it does not display the best pilot at all locations. The only way of being
confident that we accurately record the best pilot signal is to examine
sufficient pilot signals so that some are “null” recordings” and then record
the best pilot at each location. Then, each location can be measured with
the appropriate cell specified at each location. This would be a tedious
process and would therefore only be appropriate for detailed coverage
examinations.

At the moment, best intelligence suggests that five channels should be
monitored with the result that the averaging distance increases with
speed.

However, it is possible to recommend the following settings for general
measurements:

Speed Number of
Chans
Averaging Period Averaging
distance
20 kph 5 1 second 5.6 m
40 kph 5 1 second 11.2 m
80 kph 5 1 second 22.4 m

Speeds should be limited to 80 kph. If there is reason to suspect that the
best pilot may have been missed (by there being five nearly equally strong

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pilots) then the number of channels can be increased in that area. This
results in the number of samples per data point reducing. This, in turn,
affects the accuracy of the measurement.

As a further recommendation, it is best to keep the speed as constant as
possible whilst making the measurements. If the vehicle becomes
immobile for periods it is recommended that measurements are
suspended (by using the F3[Break] button on pages 2/ 3 or 3/ 3 of the soft
key menu) for the duration. Failing this, post processing can be used to
remove data points when it is clear, from examining the GPS data, that the
UE was stationary.

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6.7.7 Wide-Band Measurements with a Rake Receiver

Deep fading is a frequency-dependent phenomenon. Two signals of a different
path length will be in anti-phase only at one frequency. If the path length
difference is very small the fading is present over a wider frequency range than if
the path length difference is large. If the fading is approximately equal across the
bandwidth being investigated, the fading is referred to as “flat”. If the degree of
fading is noticeably different across the spectrum then the fading is referred to as
“selective” or “notch”.

A Rake receiver is capable of compensating for multipath fading where it is
selective rather than flat. A selective fade will occur when the path length
difference is in excess of approximately 70 metres. It is likely therefore that
multipath fading is going to cause both flat and selective fading in the different
environments that will be encountered.

A key issue is the effect of the number of fingers used on the receiver.
Intuitively, one would expect the multi-path to be less but its effect on a sampled
set of data points is difficult to predict. The number of Rake fingers will have an
effect that is dependent on the radio environment. The scanner demodulates the
individual pilots and measures the amplitude at baseband. If the wideband signal
suffers selective fading, then the relationship between the reported pilot level and
the wideband power level is hard to predict. If there are no multipath components
with sufficient path length difference to cause a selective fade, then no
improvement can be expected. If there is a large amount of such multipath then
the improvement may be substantial.

The Anritsu scanner can be set to use a variable number of fingers from 1
(effectively not a Rake receiver) to 6. It would be expected that, by using 6
fingers, multipath fading for long path length differences would be considerably
reduced. However, flat fading will still be encountered where the path length
difference is small. It is nevertheless reasonable to assume that the amount of fast
fading will be less if the Rake receiver is used. Experiments reveal that the effect
of changing the number of fingers depends on the environment. The results
certainly did not suggest that, as multipath variation may be less, it is possible to
reduce the number of samples per measurement. As 3 is the minimum number of
fingers that a UE must be equipped with, it is thought appropriate to recommend
this as a setting for measurements..

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6.7.8 Reference Table


Speed (kph) Number of Channels Averaging Time (s) Averaging Distance (m)
20 1 0.2 1.1
20 2 0.4 2.2
20 3 0.6 3.3
20 4 0.8 4.4
20 5 1 5.6
20 6 1.2 6.7
20 7 1.4 7.8
20 8 1.6 8.9
20 9 1.8 10.0
20 10 2 11.1
40 1 0.2 2.2
40 2 0.4 4.4
40 3 0.6 6.7
40 4 0.8 8.9
40 5 1 11.1
40 6 1.2 13.3
40 7 1.4 15.6
40 8 1.6 17.8
40 9 1.8 20.0
40 10 2 22.2
60 1 0.2 3.3
60 2 0.4 6.7
60 3 0.6 10.0
60 4 0.8 13.3
60 5 1 16.7
60 6 1.2 20.0
60 7 1.4 23.3
60 8 1.6 26.7
60 9 1.8 30.0
60 10 2 33.3
80 1 0.2 4.4
80 2 0.4 8.9
80 3 0.6 13.3
80 4 0.8 17.8
80 5 1 22.2
80 6 1.2 26.7
80 7 1.4 31.1
80 8 1.6 35.6
80 9 1.8 40.0
80 10 2 44.4
100 1 0.2 5.6
100 2 0.4 11.1
100 3 0.6 16.7
100 4 0.8 22.2
100 5 1 27.8
100 6 1.2 33.3
100 7 1.4 38.9
100 8 1.6 44.4
100 9 1.8 50.0
100 10 2 55.6


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6.7.9 The need for averaging
Some scanners do not offer the possibility of specifying an “averaging
window” (they simply export every measurement point). It is important
that post-processing is conducted in ord er to avoid misleading results.
For example, the intention is to smooth fast fading caused by multipath
reflections. Averaging a number of samples achieves this. Again, the
ideal situation is that the averaging window is approximately 6 metres,
with over 20 samples made at equal intervals along this distance. As an
example of the effect of this, two graphs are presented: one with every
data point recorded; the other with smoothing applied so that one point is
recorded every 6 metres. A table of the c.d.f is also presented.
best server
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
0 5000 10000
best server
Unsmoothed Data
best svr moving average (20)
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
0 5000 10000
best svr
moving
average (20)
Smoothed Data



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Comparison of CDFs

It can be seen that the difference between the cdfs (the parameter most
used) is greatest at the extremes. Of particular interest is the level not
reached only 5% of the time. This is shown in bold. The difference in this
case is only 0.5 dB, well within the margin of error of such measurements.

Sampling and Vehicle Speeds Sampling and Vehicle Speeds
Drive Testing
• Drive testing should measure the “local mean”. That is:
• Multi -path variation should be ignored.
• Shadow fading should be included.
Signal variation due to more than one
multi-path reflection with near-
constant mean level.



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Sampling and Vehicle Speeds: Lee Sampling and Vehicle Speeds: Lee
Criteria Criteria
Drive Testing
• William Lee identified “ideal” measurement process:
• Average 36 samples over a distance of 40 λ to get a data
point.
• Samples to be taken at least 0.8 λ apart
• This corresponds to:
• An averaging window of 5.6 metres.
• 36 samples taken at least 11 cm apart.


Using the Scanner Using the Scanner
Drive Testing
• Scanners have a fixed sampling rate.
• However, it is “per reading”: if you are sampling 6
channels the rate is one sixth.
• You either define an averaging period or post-process.
• E.g. Anritsu scanner:
• Sampling period 10 ms per channel
• Typical number of channels: 6 (each channel now 60 ms)
• Averaging period can be set. 1 s typical.



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Using the Scanner Using the Scanner
Drive Testing
• E.g. Anritsu scanner:
• In order to get the averaging distance down to 5.6 metres, the
speed would have to be 20 kph.
Speed (kph)
inter-sample distance
( cm)
Sampl es per
period
Averagi ng di stance
( m)
20 33 16.7 5. 6
40 67 16.7 11. 1
60 100 16.7 16. 7
80 133 16.7 22. 2
100 167 16.7 27. 8
120 200 16.7 33. 3


Consequences of violating Lee Criteria Consequences of violating Lee Criteria
Drive Testing
• Inter-sample distance too large:
• Not in itself a problem (Lee specifies minimum distance), but
you have to fit in a large number of samples into the averaging
distance.
• Too few samples:
• 36 samples predicted to give s.d. of 1 dB.
• 17 samples would give s.d of √(36/17) = 1.45 dB
• Note pilot power measurement accuracy quoted as ±2 dB.
• Averaging window too large:
• Miss sharp peaks and troughs
• Most appropriate value depends on environment.



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Consequences of violating Lee Criteria Consequences of violating Lee Criteria
Drive Testing
• Varying the averaging window:
28 m averaging
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
0 10 20 30 40
distance (m*28)
p
i
l
o
t

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

d
B
m
pilot strength
5.6 m averaging
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
0 50 100 150 200
distance (m*5.6)
l
e
v
e
l

i
n

d
B
m
Pilot strength
28 metre averaging
5.6 metre averaging


Consequences of violating Lee Criteria Consequences of violating Lee Criteria
Drive Testing
• Effect is to miss the extremes
• Affects the cumulative distribution:
Cumulative distributions
-100
-95
-90
-85
-80
-75
-70
0 20 40 60 80 100
percentile
l
e
v
e
l
5.6 m averaging
28 m averaging



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Lee Criteria: Conclusions Lee Criteria: Conclusions
Drive Testing
• Do not issue a global recommendation for 20 kph drive
test speeds. However:
• If the coverage in certain areas causes concern, and requires a
detailed investigation, there are ways of maximising accuracy
and confidence in measurements.
• There is no point in correcting a measured value of -68 dBm
pilot (very good) to, say, -72 dBm (still very good).


Drive Test measurements: the need for Drive Test measurements: the need for
averaging averaging
Drive Testing
• If you simply take “spot” measurements, you will include
multipath variations.
best server
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
0 5000 10000
best server
best svr moving average (20)
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
0 5000 10000
best svr
moving
average (20)
Unsmoothed data
Smoothed data



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The need for averaging The need for averaging
Drive Testing
• C.d.f. reveals differences.
Only 0.5 dB difference at
crucial 5% (95% better
than) level.
Averaging can make file
sizes more manageable
(they can be enormous)
and speed analysis as a
result.


6.8 Interpretation of Measurements

It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made. The
optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements to
identify problems, choose the most appropriate measure to rectify the
problem, and identify the best method for enhancing network
performance. This will often entail taking a number of KPI’s in
conjunction. For example, it is often necessary to know the condition of
the uplink and of the downlink when choosing between alternative
proposed methods of network optimisation.

For example, a drive test in undertaken during the busy hour in a live
network. The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the
distance to the nearest cell remains approximately constant. The
following KPIs are extracted from the measured data.

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Ec/ No Serving Cell -11 dB
Ec/ No Neighbour 1 -20 dB
Ec/ No Neighbour 2 -22 dB
Average Uplink Channel Power +21.4 dBm
Average Downlink Total Traffic Channel Power +39.6 dBm

Note the maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm and the maximum
total downlink channel power is 42 dBm.
What can an intelligent look at such results reveal? Firstly, the cell is
under stress (which is probably why the drive test was performed). We
can see from the pilot measurements that there is only one dominant
serving cell. We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage
viewpoint (dangerously near judging by the uplink power levels
recorded). Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test
was because coverage levels were reported as poor in this particular road.
What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage?
We should consider the cost-benefit implications of any possible
solutions:

Additional Site Very expensive – last resort
Mast Head Amplifier Cheapest Solution – probably
Uplink Diversity More expensive than MHA but
capacity benefits

If we narrow down the possibility to either installing an MHA or
implementing uplink diversity we need to establish the benefits that each
would bring. When considering UL diversity, the possibility of increasing
capacity must be assessed. In this circumstance a load will be transferred
to the downlink. However, the data received shows that the downlink
traffic power is near its limit and that the downlink would become the
limiting factor if UL diversity was implemented. The MHA appears to be
an attractive, rapid, relatively cheap solution – but – would it work? It is
possible for the MHA to offer no improvement at all. Remember that a
MHA only offers improvement if there is a noise problem to start with,
probably caused by high feeder loss. If such circumstances exist, then an
improvement of about 2 dB can be expected (an exact calculation is
possible). This level of improvement should reveal itself through a

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subsequent drive test with the UE transmit power being lower than
before the MHA was installed.

Alternative solutions: a still-cheaper solution would be to simply reduce
the Noise Rise limit of the cell by 2 dB or so. It is significant that the test
was done at the busy time of day when the cell Noise Rise level would be
at or near its limit. Reducing the limit will have a coverage benefit but
will reduce the capacity. It is important to realise that the amount by
which it reduces the capacity depends on the original setting. If the
original setting was 3 dB then reducing it by 2 dB would reduce the
maximum loading factor from 50% to 21%. If however the original setting
was 10 dB then the loading factor reduction would be from 90% to 84%, a
much less severe reduction. If coverage is crucial to the area under test
and is being judged as unsatisfactory, this might well be the short term
solution to adopt whilst an MHA is ordered and installed.

Drive Test Equipment Drive Test Equipment
• Some equipment suppliers
• Anritsu
• http:// www.eu.anritsu.com
Drive Test Measurement
•Portability and ease of setup prove to be the
strongest points of the Anritsu scanner.
•The Anritsu scanner was very simple to set up
•The information collected, although limited to
RSCP, Ec/Io and SIR measurements for up to 32
received scrambling codes.
•The receiver sensitivity was found to be better
than that of the Agilent scanner- measuring RSCP
signal levels as low as -122dBm.



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Drive Test Equipment Drive Test Equipment
• Some equipment suppliers
• Agilent
• http:// we.home.agilent.com/
Drive Test Measurement
•The extensive amount of output information
•Although more complicated in terms of setup
•Agilent scanner provides the user with more
measured information and additional graphical
functionality.
•A strong solution but has limited sensitivity and
is not hand portable.


Drive Test Planning Drive Test Planning
• Pre-planning of drive test routes
• Knowledge of network
•Site location
•Site configuration
• Knowledge of location
•Towns
•Terrain
• Operator known issues
•GSM problem areas
Drive Test Measurement



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Test-mobile Measurements Test-mobile Measurements
• A known CPICH transmit power in
conjunction with the CPICH RSCP and
UTRA carrier RSSI would allow the
calculation of pathloss to the cell and
allow an estimation of cell dominance in
idle mode.
• Estimate of the orthogonality of the
downlink is still problematic
• Drive test data is essential to validate
propagation models.
Drive Test Measurement


Drive Test Measurements Drive Test Measurements
• Prediction Assessment
• Test Site Comparison
• Comparison of model against drive test measurements of
site not used in the calibration process
• Drives vs. Predicted Best Server
• Comparison between predicted and measured best
servers
• Drives vs. Predicted Pilot Pollution
• Comparison between predicted and measured pilot
pollution
Drive Test Measurement



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• Test Site Comparison
• Drive Test data compared with 3g calibration tool
• Analysis should provide both mean and standard deviation agreement
• For example
– Mean error of 1.8dB
– S.D of 7.9
– Is a good practical fit
• Drives vs. Predicted Best Server
• Exposes discrepancies with map data and local features
• Mud banks, rocks,
• Exposes limitations in antenna models and propagation model
• Drives vs. Predicted Pilot Pollution
• Will highlight regions of multipath interference, difficult to calculate
Drive Test Measurement
Drive Test Measurements Analysis Drive Test Measurements Analysis


Test-mobile Measurements Test-mobile Measurements
• The commonly identified KPIs are not in themselves appropriate for
pre-launch optimisation and acceptance
• Test-mobile measurements, depending on the availability of
engineering mobiles, should allow measurement of:
• CPICH and P-CCPCH availability
• DCH - Dedicated channel DL performance
• Cell dominance
• Active set size
• Required UL Tx Power
• These measurements would be possible under both loaded and
unloaded conditions
Drive Test Measurement



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Interpretation of Measurements Interpretation of Measurements
• It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made.
• The optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements
• This will often entail taking a number of KPI’s in conjunction.
• For example, lets imagine a drive test
• The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the distance to the
nearest cell remains approximately constant.
• The following KPIs are extracted from the measured data.
Drive Test Measurement
+39.6 dBm Average Downlink Total Traffic
Channel Power
+21.4 dBm Average Uplink Channel Power
-22 dB Ec/ No Neighbour 2
-20 dB Ec/ No Neighbour 1
-11 dB Ec/ No Serving Cell
• maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm
• maximum total downlink channel power is 42 dBm.


Interpretation of Measurements Interpretation of Measurements
• The cell is under stress
• Uplink power is close to maximum
• There is only one dominant serving cell.
• Pilot levels of other cells are much lower than main cell
• We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage viewpoint
• Uplink power is close to maximum
• Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test was because
coverage levels were reported as poor on this particular road.
• What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage?
Drive Test Measurement



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Possible Actions Possible Actions
• Mast head Amplifier
• Only reduces feeder loss and can introduce DL
problems due to insertion loss - may already be fitted
as standard.
• Transmit Diversity
• Will increase load on DL and with fast moving traffic
has little effect.
• Additional Site
• Very expensive option and should be last on list
• Reduce Noise Rise Limit
• Reduction of noise rise limit will increase coverage but
will reduce total capacity.
Drive Test Measurement






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7 The Pre-launch
Optimisation Procedure
7.1 Introduction
Following the planning and building of the network, it is essential that
methodical steps are taken to ensure that the network performance is
rapidly brought to a level deemed acceptable for launching. This
involves:
• Hardware checks
• Configuration checks
• Coverage and Interference Optimisation

7.2 Hardware Checks
It is essential that any hardware faults are eliminated. This is usually
done on a cluster by cluster basis. Further, this can be said to be the
responsibility of the equipment vendor. However, it is vital that the
operator is confident in the procedure and in its ability to certify the
equipment.
7.3 Configuration Checks
Any attempt to optimise to a particular plan will be futile if the network
has not been built to the plan. Care should be taken to ensure that the
network is built “as intended”. This includes verifying the:

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The site is in the correct location
Antenna is of the correct type
Antenna height, azimuth and tilt are all as planned
The feeder is of the correct type and length
Cell parameters (common channel powers etc.) are in accordance with the
plan.

7.4 Optimisation Team Structure
In order to ensure that the optimisation runs smoothly and efficiently, it is
essential that the staffing levels are appropriate to sustain the workflow.
A typical RNC area serving 100 sites would require the following analysis
team:
Systems Analysis Engineers: x3
Driver Test Radio Engineers: x2
Drivers: x2
Configuration Engineer: x1

Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation
• Following planning and building of network:
• Perform Hardware Check
• Check cell configuration for conformity with plan
• Bring coverage and interference levels up to
agreed thresholds
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation
• Perform Hardware Check:
• It is essential that any hardware faults
are eliminated.
• This is usually done on a cluster by
cluster basis.
• Can be said to be the responsibility of the
equipment vendor.
• However, it is vital that the operator is
confident in the procedure and in its
ability to certify the equipment.
Pre-launch Optimisation


Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation
• Perform Cell Configuration Check:
• The site is in the correct location
• Antenna is of the correct type
• Antenna height, azimuth and tilt are all as
planned
• The feeder is of the correct type and length
• Cell parameters (common channel powers etc.)
are in accordance with the plan.
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Optimisation Team Structure Optimisation Team Structure
• Each RNC area has:
• Drive Test Team
• Systems Analysis Team (SAT)
• Configuration Engineer
Pre-launch Optimisation


The Structure - Drive Test Team The Structure - Drive Test Team
• Drive representative routes gathering:
• Scanner data (rooftop mounted calibrated antenna)
• Mobile (UE) data (test mobile on rear seat connected to
laptop)
• Scanner provides accurate measurements of pilot strength
etc.
• UE data provides evidence of call success and uplink Tx
power.
• Drive test data is passed to the SAT team.
Pre-launch Optimisation



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The Structure - The SAT team The Structure - The SAT team
• In addition to defining the drive test routes:
• The SAT team process the data to provide
• summative results (CCSR, c.d.f of pilot strength
etc.)
• diagnoses of problems.
• Problems are resolved through close liaison
with the configuration engineer.
Pre-launch Optimisation


The Structure - The configuration engineer The Structure - The configuration engineer
• The Configuration engineer
• monitors the state of the network
• requests changes to network configuration
(antenna orientation etc.)
• tracks changes through the system
Pre-launch Optimisation



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The Structure The Structure - - example example
• Drive test reveals calls dropped in an area where best
pilot is very low.
• SAT team checks with configuration engineer
regarding cell status
• Check made with planning tool to see whether
problem is “predictable”
• If no obvious reason, SAT directs drive test team to
investigate.
Pre-launch Optimisation


The Structure The Structure - - example (continued) example (continued)
• Drive test team report that an obstacle/terrain feature
exists that is not on map data.
• SAT team recommend solution (antenna
height/orientation)
• Effect checked on planning tool
• Configuration Engineer actions change and reports
when implemented.
• SAT instructs drive test team to re-examine
Pre-launch Optimisation



7.5 Using Drive Test Data


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Drive Testing has been described in the previous chapter. Typical goals
(“key parameters”) for a suburban area are:
• 95% of the area should be measured so that the pilot is
better than –99 dBm (-89 dBm for a dense urban area).
• 95% of the coverage area should have a measured
Ec/ Io of better than –10 dB (quiet network)

In reaching these goals, the Systems Analysis engineer will need to adopt
other, intermediate, parameters to assist in identifying the cause of any
problems. Coverage and interference can, to a certain extent, be treated
separately but effects on interference must be considered when
addressing coverage problems and vice versa.
7.5.1 Coverage problems
Suppose that the coverage measurements do not meet the necessary
criterion. The procedure can be summarised as follows:
• Identify coverage holes
• Assess the most serious of those and rank in order of priority
• Rectify problems in priority order until criterion is met.
The issue as to which coverage hole is most serious is usually a matter of
identifying the percentage of the total “low signal strength area” that can
be attributed to one particular hole. It is important that this percentage is
on the basis of area or route length rather than number of readings. If the
number of data points is taken then the statistics are distorted in favour of
the regions where the drive-test vehicle was travelling slowly (or
stopped). A map view is vital in assessing this. Once the areas to be
rectified have been identified the question “does the planning tool predict
that this hole will exist?” should be asked:
If the answer to this is “yes” then the thinking behind this must be
questioned. Pre-launch optimisation cannot achieve the impossible. It
can only optimise to a planned performance. The outcome of
discussion should be either a decision to either remove the area in
question from the coverage requirements, or to re-visit the plan.
If the answer is that the hole was unexpected then further investigation
is required. The first thing to ascertain is which cell would be expected
to provide coverage in the area. A check should be made to ensure that
this cell was active at the time of the drive-test measurement. This can
be done either by examining the drive test data to see that the cell in
question was transmitting (i.e. the pilot was “low” rather than non-
existent) or, if necessary, confirming with the configuration team that
the site and cell were active. It is possible that a fault has occurred in

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the feeder and antenna arrangement causing an increase in path loss.
Using a feeder and antenna calibration tool such as Anritsu Site Master
can check this. The hole in coverage could well be due to a local
anomaly in the site configuration or environment. A first step is to
identify which cell should be providing coverage at the location. A
combination of use of the planning tool and measurement of the
strongest pilot can identify this (the less you have to change the better).
Perhaps there is an obstacle that is not considered by the propagation
model. It is possible that the configuration of the site itself causes the
problem. If antennas are set back from the edge of a large roof, for
example, the building can cause shadows near to the base of the site.
Assessment of the problem should result in a plan of action that could
include:
• Change site configuration
Antenna height (almost certainly restricted)
Antenna location
Antenna azimuth/ downtilt (the most common change
made in the initial stages)
Substitute antenna for one of higher gain
• Introduce new site
A “last resort” (expensive) but not unheard of.

7.5.2 Interference issues
Once coverage has been addressed, the area covered should be
investigated to ascertain that interference is at acceptable levels. The
expectation is that the network will be very lightly loaded when the
testing is undertaken and, in those circumstances, it is expected that
Ec/ No should be better than approximately –10 dB. If we consider a
location where the pilot is –95 dBm, “No” could be as high as –85 dBm. If
the level of thermal noise is around the –102 dBm level, then the only way
that Ec/ No can fail to meet the required level is if the levels of
interference from within the network are too high. Poor Ec/ Io is almost
always a result of “over propagation”. That is, cells that are not required
to provide coverage in a particular area are delivering high signal
strength (that, because it is not necessary for coverage, can be regarded as
co-channel interference). The procedure to rectify this can be described as
follows:
Identify the worst affected areas: note that, if Ec/ No is worse than about –
14 dB it could result in call drops even with the network lightly loaded.
The level of –10 dB with the network lightly loaded indicates that
problems could occur if the network became heavily loaded.

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Investigate to identify the strength of measurable pilots in that area. An
Ec/ Io of worse than –10 dB indicates that there are more than three
significant pilots. Given the structure of a cellular network, it is inevitable
that there will be areas where three near equal pilots exist. If the network
is lightly loaded, this would cause Ec/ No to drop to about – 7 dB. Any
additional pilots can be considered as “polluters” that should be reduced
in strength at the location in question. In order to identify potential
problem areas, it is probably good practice to investigate areas that have
Ec/ Io worse than, say, -8 dB when the network is quiet. A further check
is to highlight and investigate areas where there are more than two other
pilots within, say, 8 dB of the best server. Even if these areas do not
threaten a call drop, the out of cell interference will reduce the network
capacity.

Coverage and Interference Goals Coverage and Interference Goals
• Typical Criteria:
• 95% of area delivers pilot strength of >-89
dBm (dense urban) or -94 dBm (urban).
• 95% of area covered should register Ec/No
better than -10 dB.
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Improving Coverage: Procedure Improving Coverage: Procedure
• From drive-test data:
• Identify coverage holes
• Assess the most serious of those and rank
in order of priority
• Rectify problems in priority order until
criterion is met.
Pre-launch Optimisation


Improving Interference Improving Interference
• Within covered area (i.e. pilot better than
required threshold) attaining a Ec/No better
than -10 dB is “easy” (perhaps -9 or -8 would
be a better target) if the network is lightly
loaded.
• If pilot strength is -95 dBm, noise plus
interference must be -85 dBm (thermal noise)
• Even in an area where there are three equal
pilots and common channel power equals pilot
power, pilot Ec/No should be 1/6 or -8 dB.
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Improving Interference Improving Interference
• Scanner Data.
• Area where
there are three
equal low-level
pilots reveals
Ec/Io of -8 dB.
Pre-launch Optimisation


Improving Interference Improving Interference
• Scanner Data.
• Area where there
are seven low-
level pilots (not
equal strength).
• Best Ec/Io =-10 dB
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Improving Interference Improving Interference
• Typical drive test result from well-optimised
cluster.
Pre-launch Optimisation
Ec/Io >-12 dB 99.91%
Ec/Io >-11 dB 99.44%
Ec/Io >-10 dB 98.14%
Ec/Io >-9 dB 94.97%
Ec/Io >-8 dB 89.44%
Ec/Io >-7 dB 81.22%
Ec/Io >-6 dB 68.83%
Ec/Io >-5 dB 53.66%
Ec/Io >-4 dB 34.94%
Ec/Io >-3 dB 13.46%
• -9 dB seems to be more appropriate threshold.


Improving Interference: Procedure Improving Interference: Procedure
• Identify areas of low Ec/Io
• Examine pilot levels (there will probably
be more than three).
• Identify any unwanted pilots (from cells
that are not intended to provide coverage
in that area).
• Reduce level of these pilots (usually by
down-tilting)
•be aware of the effect on coverage in
service area of cell: use planning tool.
Pre-launch Optimisation


7.6 The need for consistency
Drive test measurements are at the heart of the optimisation process. It is
vital that they can be relied upon. Measuring the pilot level is
considerably more complicated than measuring a carrier wave (CW)

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signal. As a result it is not spectacularly accurate, t 2 dB being quoted by
manufacturers. The process physical optimisation of the network can be
simplified and summarised as:
• Measure the performance
• Change cell configurations
• Measure again to confirm improvement
The need for consistency between procedures for the two measurement
activities is clear. Possible inconsistencies are:
• Different (uncalibrated) antenna/ feeder
• Different drive test route
• Different UE speed over drive test route (hold ups at traffic lights etc.)
• Different measurement equipment.
Striving to maintain a consistent approach will result in the most reliable
measured data.

Drive Test Data: the need for consistency Drive Test Data: the need for consistency
• Optimisation of physical aspects, in summary:
• Measure the performance
• Implement configuration changes
• Measure again to show improvement.
• Clearly there is a need for consistency
Pre-launch Optimisation



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Drive Test Data: the need for consistency Drive Test Data: the need for consistency
• Potential for inconsistency:
• Different (uncalibrated) antenna/feeder
• Different drive test route
• Different UE speed over the route (hold ups at
traffic lights etc.)
• Different analyser being used.
• Different level of network loading (affects Ec/Io).
Pre-launch Optimisation


Drive Test Data: the need for consistency Drive Test Data: the need for consistency
• Ideally:
• Use the same analyser, feeder and antenna for the
“before” and “after” measurements.
• Ensure that you keep to the same route.
• Be consistent regarding UE speed. Sample data
on a distance, rather than time, basis. If this is not
realistic, try and pause sampling when held up in
heavy traffic.
• Check to see if load testing is going on in this area.
Make measurements at the same time of day to get
near-equal loading conditions.
Pre-launch Optimisation


7.7 Using drive test data to tune Neighbour list


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Identifying Suitable Neighbours - using Identifying Suitable Neighbours - using
drive tests drive tests
NCELLS
• It is clear that drive test results will be a valuable
resource when planning neighbour (Ncell) lists.
• These should give details regarding the experience
within the coverage area of a cell.
• Potential Ncells can then be assessed.
• Fine resolution required - just a “drive through” of a
cell is not sufficient.


Identifying Suitable Neighbours - using Identifying Suitable Neighbours - using
drive tests: an example drive tests: an example
NCELLS
• A cell was identified as suitable for testing the
usefulness of drive tests.



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Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Scrambling codes of these Ncells were noted.
• Serving cell has SC 8.
Cell Scrambling Code Overlap
1895011 0 Co-site
1895031 16 Co-site
2215031 88 17%
0089011 24 1.5%
1164011 48 1.3%
6985031 112 0.5%
• Planning tool was used to plan neighbours.
• 2 co-sited cells plus four “interfering” cells are registered.


Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Scrambling codes of these Ncells were noted.
• Serving cell has SC 8.
Cell Scrambling Code Overlap
1895011 0 Co-site
1895031 16 Co-site
2215031 88 17%
0089011 24 1.5%
1164011 48 1.3%
6985031 112 0.5%



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Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Drive Test undertaken: scanner results recorded on
TEMS and Anritsu.
Question 1.
How often did was each pilot received at a level within 10 dB of SC 8?
Number of hits (Anritsu scanner):
Scrambling Code Number of hits
0 264
48 80
24 46
112 42
16 37
88 9

Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
Question 2
How often was each pilot the second best server?
Number of hits (TEMS scanner)
Scrambling Code Number of hits
0 3823
48 107
24 99
112 28
16 612
88 7



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Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
Question 3
How often was each pilot third best server?
Number of hits (TEMS scanner)
Scrambling Code Number of hits
0 4083
48 350
24 142
112 83
16 5
88 7


Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
Question 4
How often did each pilot replace SC 8 as the strongest pilot, and vice versa?
Number of hits (TEMS scanner)
Scrambling Code Number of hits
0 1146
48 159
24 128
112 37
16 145
88 2



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Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
Notes on processing the data
The TEMS data was much faster to process than the ANRITSU. This was due mainly to two
reasons:
1. TEMS outputs SCs as a simple number rather than a code
2. TEMS always lists the pilot strengths in descending order of measured power level. Anritsu is
more random.
The TEMS logfile was exported using the tex template TEMS_2.1_ExportFile_UE.tex


Identifying Suitable Neighbours Identifying Suitable Neighbours
NCELLS
• Conclusions.
• A simple treatment of TEMS scanner data resulted in what appears to be a
good neighbour list. It is also a short list. Further, the prioritisation order of
the neighbours if necessary is clear.
• Note that approximately 1 hour of driving is required for
a single cell.

7.8 Load Testing of a Network
The network will be required to service a certain level of demand. The cell
configuration selected will impose a limit on the capacity of that cell. This is known
as a hard blocking limit. It can be thought of as a limit in the total user throughput
that the cell can accommodate. An extra limitation is imposed by interference within
the air interface (soft blocking). If the network is quiet, the air interface capacity

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should be high and a load test on a single cell should allow the hard blocking limit to
be reached. Testing to confirm this involves ensuring many UEs are simultaneously
active on the cell. As voice (employing discontinuous transmission) and packet
services transmit intermittently, video telephony (VT) calls are usually used to assess
the ability of the network to accommodate a high throughput. A typical VT call is
active 100% of the time and transmits at 64 kbit/ s. Thus if a cell was capable of
sustaining 800 kbit/ s should allow 12 VT calls to be simultaneously active on a
single cell. In order to conduct a straightforward assessment of the cell capacity, the
tests can be done with the UEs stationary. (A “routiner” is a piece of equipment that
controls UEs and performs prescribed tasks from a fixed location). However, some
mobility of the UEs can be tested for in order to assess the impact. Similarly, tests
should be conducted in different Ec/ Io environments. Low Ec/ Io may result in air
interface imposing “soft” blocking on the network. Mobility tests the power control
system which again has implications for the loading on the air interface.
Any discrepancy between the predicted and achieved cell capacity should be
investigated. Such an investigation will include examining the reasons for failure.
These reasons could include air interface problems such as interference levels higher
than expected and/ or hardware issues.

Drive Tests: load testing a cell Drive Tests: load testing a cell
Pre-launch Optimisation
• The cell capacity can usually be
defined as a total possible user data
rate (hard blocking)
• Air interface capacity is interference
limited (soft blocking)
• In a lightly loaded network, it should
be possible to achieve the hard
blocking limit.
• Video telephony (VT) is probably
best way of testing as it is:
• always on (100% activity factor)
• High unit resource (64 kbps)
•Drive test
•Load test



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Drive Tests: load testing a cell Drive Tests: load testing a cell
• E.g. if hard limit is user data rate of
800 kbps, 12 simultaneous VT calls
should be possible.
• Varying degrees of mobility can be
assessed.
• A “routiner” controls UEs and
performs prescribed tasks from a
static location.
• Discrepancies between predictions
and results must be analysed.
• Possible reasons for discrepancies
include interference and hardware
issues.
•Drive test
•Load test
Pre-launch Optimisation

Drive Tests: load testing a cell Drive Tests: load testing a cell
• Tests can be done in different
“environments: most importantly at
different levels of Ec/Io within the
coverage area.
• Areas of low Ec/Io may lead to the
air interface capacity being
reduced with resulting “soft
blocking”.
• Mobility will affect the power control
system, again with implications for
the soft capacity of a cell.
•Drive test
•Load test
Pre-launch Optimisation



7.9 Testing of a network for IRAT success

When testing a UMTS network, it is common for mobiles to be locked
onto UMTS. Thus Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) hand over is not
tested. Successful IRAT is seen as crucial for a successful UMTS launch.

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It is therefore vital that tests are conducted in order to assess IRAT
operation. It is proposed that tests be conducted in three distinct areas:

• At coverage edge
• In an urban environment
• Traffic Hotspots

Tests need to be conducted both in active and idle modes. In the initial
phase of testing, it is proposed that active mode tests are voice calls only.
Of particular importance is the occurrence of a call drop due to IRAT
failure. Thus, calls will be continuous and monitored for either successful
hand over or call drop. The procedure will need to be modified
depending on the environment and each environment category will now
be addressed in turn.

7.9.1 IRAT at coverage edge

As a mobile moves to the edge of a UMTS coverage area it will need to
perform a hand over to the GSM network. The initial stage is for the
mobile to enter “compressed mode” at which point it can measure signal
strengths on the GSM network. Then, if the measured Ec/ No drops
further, a hand over to GSM will be instigated. Thus, the drive test
should involve driving from an area of good UMTS coverage to a point
beyond the coverage area. The RF engineer should make a call at the
beginning of the test and attempt to maintain this call. Call progress
should be monitored for a successful GSM hand over (or call drop).
Additionally, it is of value to know that the hand over was to an
appropriate GSM cell. The existence of rapid hand overs within the GSM
network immediately following IRAT hand over indicates that the initial
GSM cell was not the most appropriate. Further, the GSM network
should hold the call for an acceptable time. It is therefore proposed that
the following data is logged:

7.9.2 Success of hand over
Hand overs within the GSM network for the next 10 seconds should be
monitored and the success of call holding within GSM network for the
next 30 seconds should be checked.

A successful IRAT hand over would be declared only if the call survives
on the GSM network for a period of greater than 30 seconds after leaving
the UMTS network.


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7.9.3 Designing the test route

The test routes should be designed so that they involve the mobile leaving
the UMTS coverage area. Such routes will be uni-directional when the
voice call is active and bi-directional in active mode. As an indicator of
the edge of coverage, areas where the predicted pilot strength is below –
100 dBm should be used as an indicator. Initially only Motorways, Class
“A” and Class “B” roads should be used for routes.

7.9.4 IRAT in an urban environment.

IRAT will also occur in areas where the UMTS network is interference limited.
This could be due to excessive interference or the existence of coverage “holes”
(especially indoors). Defining an appropriate neighbour list is again important.
However, it is likely to be a somewhat frustrating area to test as it is not inevitable
that an IRAT hand over attempt will be made. A UE can be “encouraged” to
make an attempt by deliberately increasing the path loss by, perhaps, placing the
mobile on the floor of the vehicle. An increase of about 6dB to 10dB would be
appropriate. Experience will allow this to be assessed. A successful IRAT hand
over will be judged on the same criteria as for the coverage edge areas. This test
will require a high degree of alertness on the part of the RF engineer, as he will
need to assess whether a hand over has occurred or the call has been dropped.
Once either of these has happened it will be necessary to start a new call having
camped in idle mode to UMTS. . Again, the test will need to involve both active
and idle UEs. In the case of idle UEs however, the testing can be automated as
IRAT reselection should occur in both directions.

7.9.5 Designing the test route.

It is envisaged that test routes already devised for assessing coverage for a site
“cluster” (see section 6) will be appropriate for IRAT testing.

7.9.6 IRAT at hotspots.

The experience in traffic hotspot areas is of high significance as such areas
generate disproportionately large revenue. The set up procedure is similar to that
for the urban area. However, testing will be undertaken at a slower mobile speed.
Again, the path loss to the mobile may well need to be increased artificially by
roughly 6dB to 10dB in order to encourage IRAT hand over to occur. Testing
should be undertaken both in active and idle mode with a procedure similar to
that used for the urban area being adopted.


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7.9.7 Designing the test route

Relevant hotspots need to be defined. Obvious examples include major railway
stations and airports. Routes for such areas need to be carefully defined with due
regard being paid to the particular environment.

7.10 IRAT: Conclusions.

A method has been proposed whereby the success of IRAT hand over can be
assessed. This involves a different approach being adopted when compared with
drive testing with mobile locked onto UMTS. In particular, routes need to be
selected so that an IRAT hand over attempt will be made and the potential for
automation is restricted. The RF engineer will need to monitor the call status to
ascertain whether an IRAT hand over has occurred.

Testing IRAT in a network Testing IRAT in a network
IRAT
• Different testing
strategies need to be
adopted depending on
whether the UE is:
• at the edge of UMTS
coverage
• at the centre of the
network
• at a hotspot



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Testing at a cell edge Testing at a cell edge
IRAT
• In active mode: drive will be
uni-directional
• In idle mode: drive should be
bi-directional
• Active mode: make a
continuous call
• monitor for IRAT hand over (or
call drop)
• monitor rapid GSM hand overs
after IRAT (10 seconds)
• check GSM network sustains
connection (30 seconds)
• Route should initially be
restricted to Motorways, ‘A’
roads and ‘B’ roads.


Testing at a network centre Testing at a network centre
IRAT
• IRAT can be required due to
coverage holes (especially
indoors) or excessive
interference.
• Not inevitable that IRAT will
occur.
• Mobile can be “encouraged”
to enter IRAT mode (placed
on floor of vehicle?)



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Testing at a network centre Testing at a network centre
IRAT
• RF engineer must monitor
events closely
• Calls will be continuous but
must be re-started manually
when IRAT has occurred.
• Test route similar to that
adopted for “bubble
optimisation” process is
probably suitable.


Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT)
Consideration of Ec/No values Consideration of Ec/No values
IRAT
• A UE should perform a hand over to GSM when Ec/No
drops below a particular value.
• Any records of Ec/No below this threshold may indicate
a problem.
Number of Records
Ec/No
Threshold
-6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13



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Conclusions Conclusions
IRAT
• Urgent requirement exists for
the IRAT success rate to be
assessed.
• Drive tests must be
undertaken accordingly.
• Initial selection of routes
influenced by
characterisation feedback.


Inter-technology Neighbour Lists: Inter-technology Neighbour Lists:
Planning Planning
IRAT PLANNING
• Likely strategy:
• Make co-sited GSM cell a neighbour
• Make neighbours of this cell a neighbour
• Manually adjust “as appropriate”.



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Potential Problems Potential Problems
IRAT PLANNING
•UMST Cell
•GSM Cell
• Particular problem at edge of coverage where UMTS
cell can be much larger than GSM cells.


Potential Problems Potential Problems
IRAT PLANNING
•GSM Cell
• Appropriate neighbour list is dependent on “exit route”.



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A Suggestion A Suggestion
IRAT PLANNING
•GSM Cell
• Cells at the edge of coverage are severely down-tilted
and/or pilot power adjusted to control coverage area


A Suggestion A Suggestion
IRAT PLANNING
•GSM Cell
• This would have further advantage of offering “immunity
to cell breathing”.
• Testing and optimising of this should be made a priority.



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8 Functional Testing
8.1 Introduction

If coverage and interference levels meet the targets and the neighbour list
for each cell is correctly set, then it could be said that there is “no excuse”
for calls to drop (or fail to set up) within a network when a drive-test
making live calls is made, particularly if the network is lightly loaded and
the UE is in a car rather than within a building. However, getting 100%
success with voice, video telephone and packet services is highly unlikely.
Failures should be analysed to identify the cause. The causes can be
divided into different categories:
• Coverage or interference problem
• Hand over failure
• Network problem
• Handset issue
8.1.1 Coverage/Interference Problem
The measurements we make attempt to ensure a low probability of the
path loss or interference levels becoming too high to sustain a call.
However, it is not impossible that such a situation will occur. If such
problems occur, the plan and drive test criteria for the areas in question
require re-investigation. Further, it should be noted that all
measurements have been performed on the downlink. The targets have
been derived making suitable assumptions regarding the link budget in
both directions. If there are problems with the receiver (such as the mast
head amplifier being out of specification) it would invalidate these
assumptions. Such problems can be indicated by monitoring the uplink

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UE transmit power. This will vary over a possible range of, typically, –49
dBm to +21 dBm. Any areas where records show that it is near its upper
limit (e.g. >+11 dBm) should be investigated in connection with call drop
problems.
8.1.2 Hand over failure
The neighbour list may be optimised yet hand over can still fail. The
successful update of the active set requires a sophisticated sequence of
operations to take place. Further, it is a time-dynamic process. The
conditions on the air interface must be acceptable for a given amount of
time to enable the hand over to take place. In particular, in situations
where there is only one cell in the active set, the signal from this cell must
remain sufficiently strong during a hand over event until a second cell
can join the active set. A sudden decrease in the strength of the primary
server can cause a call to drop. This can be influenced by the speed and
direction of the UE as it travels through the hand over region. The area of
the hand over region is a compromise: it has to be large enough to allow
hand over to occur at reasonable speeds but, if it is too large, it can result
in high interference within the network. That would reduce the network
capacity. Clearly, measuring the exact area of the hand over regions
throughout the network would be extremely time consuming. The
recommendation is that problem areas are investigated when they come
to notice. Rather than making a physical change, it is possible to adjust
the hand over window such that a new potential server attempts to join
the active set earlier.
8.1.3 Network problems
Occasionally, a call will drop or fail to establish for no apparent reason. It
may be that the network suddenly issues an instruction to clear the call.
These should be recorded and followed up with the network
configuration team.
8.1.4 Handset issues
UMTS technology is still somewhat in its infancy. It may be that a call
drop problem is specific to a particular UE. That is different UEs produce
noticeably different drive test results. The rapid identification of such
situations is crucial to ensure that time is not wasted investigating the
cause of these problems.


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8.2 UE and UTRAN Measurements
The UE is capable of making and reporting measurements regarding
power levels on the air interface in addition to control messages. These
help us to identify the cause of any network failure.

UE Measurements UE Measurements
• The UTRAN may control a measurement in the UE either
• By broadcast of SYSTEM INFORMATION
• And/or by transmitting a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.
• The following information is used to control the UE measurements
• Measurement identity: A reference number that should be used by
the UTRAN when setting up, modifying or releasing the measurement
and by the UE in the measurement report.
• Measurement command: 1 of 3 different measurement commands.
• Setup: Setup a new measurement.
• Modify: Modify a previously defined measurement, e.g. to
change the reporting criteria.
• Release: Stop a measurement and clear all information in the
UE that are related to that measurement.
• Measurement type
UE Measurements


Measurement Type Measurement Type
• Intra-frequency measurements
• downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set.
• Inter-frequency measurements
• downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active
set and on downlink physical channels in the active set.
• Inter-RAT measurements
• downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology e.g. GSM.
• Traffic volume measurements
• uplink traffic volume.
• Quality measurements
• downlink quality parameters, e.g. downlink transport block error rate.
• A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in the case of BLER.
• UE-internal measurements
• UE transmission power and UE received signal level.
• UE positioning measurements
• A measurement object corresponds to one cell.
UE Measurements



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The UTRAN itself makes measurements regarding the situation on the air
interface. Many of these, such as the uplink load fall into the category of
“key performance indicators” (KPIs).

UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• Received total wide band power
• If receive diversity is being used then take the average of the power
• Measurement period 100ms
• Range is -112dBm to -50dBm
• Signal to Interference Ratio SIR
• Measured on a DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control Channel
• (RSCP / ISCP) x SF
• RSCP - Received Signal Code Power (of one code)
• ISCP - Interference Signal Code Power
• SF – Spreading Factor 256
• Measurement period 80ms
• Range -11 to 20 dB
Source TS 25.133
UTRAN Measurements


UTRAN Measurements – UTRAN Measurements – KPI’s KPI’s
• KPI’s are calculated from active
measurements
• 3GPP standards define the UE
and UTRAN measurements taken
• KPI’s will gather these
measurements and calculate an
average value
• Average Uplink Load


·
RSSI
P
Load Uplink Average
tx

UTRAN Measurements
RSSI Receiving Signal Strength Indicator
o
T
T N
T
T N
N
o
N
I
P
P P
P
load
P P
P
I
P
load
NR
load
·
+
·
+
− · − ·
− ·
1 1
1
1
Note: RBS cannot distinguish between in cell and out of
cell power when reporting RSSI



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UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• Signal to Interference Ratio SIR
• Measured on a DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control
Channel
• (RSCP / ISCP) x SF
• RSCP - Received Signal Code Power (of one code)
• ISCP - Interference Signal Code Power
• SF – Spreading Factor 256
• Measurement period 80ms
• Range -11 to 20 dB
Measured
quantity value
Reported value
20.0 = SIR dB UTRAN_SIR_63
19.5 = SIR < 20.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_62
19.0 =SIR < 19.5 dB UTRAN_SIR_61
…….
-10.5=SIR < -10.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_02
-11.0 = SIR < -10.5 dB UTRAN_SIR_01
SIR < -11.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_00
UTRAN Measurements


UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• SIR
error
= SIR – SIR
target
• Measurement period 80ms
• Accuracy ±3dB
• Range -31 to 31 dB
31.0 = SIRerror dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_125
30.5 = SIRerror < 31.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_124
30.0 = SIRerror < 30.5 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_123
… … …
0.0 = SIRerror < 0.5 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_063
-0.5 = SIRerror < 0.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_062
… … …
-30.5 = SIRerror < -30.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_002
-31.0 = SIRerror < -30.5 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_001
SIRerror < -31.0 dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_000
Measured quantity value Reported value
UTRAN Measurements



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UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• Transmitted carrier power
• Ratio of total transmitted power on one DL carrier to the maximum possible
power of this DL carrier, range 0 to 100%
• Measurement period 100ms
• Transmitted code power
• Measurement of the DPCCH field of any dedicated radio link
• Measurement period 100ms
• Range -10 to 46 dBm
• Reflects the power on the pilot bits of the DPCCH field
• Transmitted channel BER – range 0 to 1
• Physical channel BER – range 0 to 1
UTRAN Measurements


UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• SFN-SFN observed time difference – Synchronisation
• Measurement period 100 ms
• Range -19200 to 19200 chip
• Round trip time
• RTT = T
rx
– T
tx
• T
rx
– time of reception of DPCCH/DPDCH from UE
• T
tx
– time of transmission of DL DPCH to a UE
• Measurement period 100ms
• Range 876.0000 to 2923.8750 chip
UTRAN Measurements



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UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• PRACH/PCPCH Propagation delay
• One-way propagation delay of either PRACH or PCPCH
• Prop Delay = (T
rx
- T
tx
– 2560)/2
• T
rx
– time when PRACH message from UE arrives, after AICH arrives
• T
tx
– time when AICH is transmitted
• 2560 length of AICH
• Divide by 2 gives one-way propagation
• Only RACH messages with correct CRC will be considered
• Range 0 to 765 chip
UTRAN Measurements


UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements
• Traffic Calculations all with measurement period 20ms
• Acknowledged PRACH preambles
• Equivalent to the number of positive AICH sent
• Range 0 to 240 acknowledgements
• Detected PCPCH access preambles
• Total number of access preambles
• Range 0 to 240
• Acknowledged PCPCH access preambles
• Total number of positive AP_AICH sent
• Range 0 to 15
UTRAN Measurements



8.3 3G Specifications and Event Reporting
One of the biggest 3GPP documents is TS25.331 v4.10 Release 4, Radio
Resource Control RRC protocol specification. At 942 pages this isn’t a

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document that you print out and have sitting on your desk. It is possible
to use this document as a reference and investigate drive test message
flow data. In particular, it refers to specific events that have a definite
effect on the UE-network relationship. These events are listed below:

8.3.1.1 Intra-frequency measurement reporting criteria
The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an intra-frequency measurement. All events
concerning intra-frequency measurements are labelled 1x where x is a, b, c….
Event 1a: A Primary CPICH enters the Reporting Range (FDD only).
Event 1b: A Primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range (FDD only).
Event 1c: A Non-active Primary CPICH becomes better than an active Primary CPICH (FDD only).
Event 1d: Change of best cell (FDD only).
Event 1e: A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold (FDD only).
Event 1f: A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold (FDD only).
Event 1g: Change of best cell in TDD.
Event 1h: Timeslot ISCP below a certain threshold (TDD only).
Event 1i: Timeslot ISCP above a certain threshold (TDD only).
8.3.1.2 Inter-frequency measurement reporting criteria
The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an inter-frequency measurements. All events
concerning inter-frequency measurements are labelled 2x where x is a,b,c, ...
Event 2a: Change of best frequency.
Event 2b: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold and the
estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold.
Event 2c: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold.
Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold.
Event 2e: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold.
Event 2f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold.
8.3.1.3 Inter-RAT measurement reporting criteria
The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an inter-RAT measurement. All events
concerning inter-RAT measurements are labelled 3x where x is a,b,c, ...
Event 3a: The estimated quality of the currently used UTRAN frequency is below a certain
threshold and the estimated quality of the other system is above a certain threshold.
Event 3b: The estimated quality of other system is below a certain threshold.
Event 3c: The estimated quality of other system is above a certain threshold.
Event 3d: Change of best cell in other system.


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Each of these have defined triggering parameters that are defined in the
specifications. “Event 1a” is used as an example. Notice that the relevant
trigger equations contain network parameters that can be changed by the
optimisation team. An understanding of the purpose of any of these
parameters is clearly necessary before any alterations are undertaken.

Measurement Control Messages Measurement Control Messages
• Within the measurement reporting criteria field, in the
Measurement Control message, the UTRAN notifies the UE
which events should trigger a measurement report.
• The listed events are the toolbox from which the UTRAN creates
• the reporting events needed for handover evaluation functions,
• or other radio network functions.
• The measurement quantities are measured on the monitored
primary common pilot channels (CPICH) of the cell defined in the
measurement object.
UE Measurements


Reporting event 1A: Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range
• When an intra-frequency measurement configuring event 1a is
set up, the UE shall:
• create a variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT related to that
measurement, which shall initially be empty;
• delete this variable when the measurement is released.
KPI



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Reporting event 1A: Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range
• When event 1A is configured in the UE, the UE shall:
• if "Measurement quantity" is "pathloss" and Equation 1 is fulfilled for one or
more primary CPICHs, or if "Measurement quantity" is "CPICH Ec/No" or
"CPICH RSCP", and Equation 2 is fulfilled for one or more primary CPICHs, for
each of these primary CPICHs:
• if all required reporting quantities are available for that cell; and
• if the equations have been fulfilled for a time period indicated by "Time to
trigger", and if that primary CPICH is part of cells allowed to trigger the
event according to "Triggering condition 2", and if that primary CPICH is not
included in the "cells triggered" in the variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT:
– include that primary CPICH in the "cells recently triggered" in the variable
TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT.
KPI


Reporting event 1A: Reporting event 1A: Equation 1 Equation 1
KPI
• M
New
is the measurement result of the cell entering the reporting range.
• CIO
New
is the individual cell offset for the cell entering the reporting range if an individual cell
offset is stored for that cell. Otherwise it is equal to 0.
• M
i
is a measurement result of a cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set.
• N
A
is the number of cells not forbidden to affect reporting range in the current active set.
3GPP TS 25.331 version 4.10.0 Release 4 page 838



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Reporting event 1A: Reporting event 1A: Equation 1 Equation 1
KPI
• For pathloss
• M
Best
is the measurement result of the cell
• For other measurements quantities.
• W is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE.
• R
1a
is the reporting range constant.
• H
1a
is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1a.
• If the measurement results are pathloss or CPICH Ec/No then M
New
, M
i
and
M
Best
are expressed as ratios.
• If the measurement result is CPICH-RSCP then M
New
, M
i
and M
Best
are
expressed in mW.



8.4 Identifying the cause
It is easy to say that the causes of calls being dropped should be
categorised but the only symptom that the drive test team will notice is
that the call has been dropped or failed to connect. In order to gain an
insight into the cause of failure, it is necessary to examine the
communication between the UE and the network. These mostly fall
under the name of “layer 3 messages”. Examples of the uses of such
messages will be considered using examples of call drop events. It is
useful to have some familiarity with the message flows and structures.
Messages are passed to the UE in the form of “System Information
Blocks” which fall into different categories. A list is included here. Of
particular significance is System Information Block (SIB) 18 that provides
information regarding the neighbour list. It would be expected that SIB
18 is sent to the UE following an update of the active set.


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System Information Structure System Information Structure
• Measurement data which can be recorded are in the form of message flows.
• These message flows indicate which blocks of information have been
transmitted and from which channel.
• Broadcast Information is organised into a structure
• Master Information Block MIB
•Scheduling Block SB
• System Information Block SIB
System Info and Message Flows
SCHEDULING_BLOCK_1 BCCH 10:44:24.554 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:24.504 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 BCCH 10:44:24.454 RRCD
MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK BCCH 10:44:24.414 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:24.384 RRCD


System Information Blocks System Information Blocks SIB’s SIB’s
• 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4
• Type 1
• NAS system information as well as UE Timers and counters
• Type 2
• URA identity
• Type 3
• Parameters for cell selection and re-selection
• Type 4
• Same as Type 3 but in connected mode
• Type 5
• Parameters for configuration of common physical channels
• Type 6
• Same as Type 5 but in connected mode
System Info and Message Flows



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System Information Blocks System Information Blocks SIB’s SIB’s
• 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4
• Type 7
• Fast changing parameters for UL interference
• Type 8
• Only for FDD – static CPCH information to be used in the cell
• Type 9
• Only for FDD -- CPCH information to be used in the cell
• Type 10
• Only FDD – Used by UE’s having their DCH controlled by a
DRAC.
• DRAC
• Type 11
• Contains measurement control information to be used in the cell
• Type 12
• Same as Type 11 but in connected mode
System Info and Message Flows


System Information Blocks System Information Blocks SIB’s SIB’s
• 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4
• Type 13
• Used for ANSI-41
• Type 14
• Only TDD
• Type 15
• UE positioning method for example GPS
• Type 16
• Radio bearer, transport channel and physical channel
parameters to be stored by UE for use during Handover HO
• Type 17
• Only TDD
• Type 18
• Contains PLMN identities of neighbouring cells
System Info and Message Flows



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Example 3g Message Flow Example 3g Message Flow
• Exercise
• Check the SIB’s with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.331 document
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:25.035 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:24.985 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:24.935 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_18 BCCH 10:44:24.885 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_7 BCCH 10:44:24.855 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_3 BCCH 10:44:24.825 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_2 BCCH 10:44:24.795 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH BCCH_BCH 10:44:24.775 RRCD
SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 BCCH 10:44:24.725 RRCD
MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK BCCH 10:44:24.675 RRCD
System Info and Message Flows


Example 3g Message Flow Example 3g Message Flow
• In this segment a call is established
• Check the SIB’s with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.331 document
RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE DCCH 10:36:31.444 RRCU
RADIO_BEARER_SETUP DCCH 10:36:30.733 RRCD
DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER DCCH 10:36:30.162 RRCD
CALL_PROCEEDING DCCH 10:36:30.162 L3D
UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER DCCH 10:36:29.862 RRCU
SETUP DCCH 10:36:29.862 L3U
DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER DCCH 10:36:29.842 RRCD
CM_SERVICE_ACCEPT DCCH 10:36:29.842 L3D
INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER DCCH 10:36:29.531 RRCU
CM_SERVICE_REQUEST DCCH 10:36:29.531 L3U
DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE DCCH 10:36:29.461 RRCU
RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP CCCH 10:36:28.660 RRCD
RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST CCCH 10:36:28.320 RRCU
System Info and Message Flows



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Example 3g Message Flow Example 3g Message Flow
• During Call is message flow is repeated over and over
MEASUREMENT_CONTROL DCCH 10:38:49.403 RRCD
ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE DCCH 10:38:48.932 RRCU
ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE DCCH 10:38:48.922 RRCD
MEASUREMENT_REPORT DCCH 10:38:48.651 RRCU
RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE DCCH 10:44:24.034 RRCU
RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE DCCH 10:44:23.884 RRCU
RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE DCCH 10:44:23.753 RRCU
RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE DCCH 10:44:23.713 RRCD
UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER DCCH 10:44:23.433 RRCU
IMSI_DETACH_INDICATION DCCH 10:44:23.433 L3U
• Call detach sequence
System Info and Message Flows




8.4.1 Example 1: Examining measurement reports
In this scenario a call is dropped whilst moving along a road.
Measurement reports can be displayed so that the experience of the
mobile can be monitored is viewed. In this case the measurement reports
revealed:
• Pilot dropping to –115 dBm
• Ec/ Io dropping to –20 dB
• BLER rising to very high percentages

The call dropped due to a “poor RF environment”. It can be argued that
this “should not happen” if the physical aspects have been optimised.
However, we only work to a 95% probability in the hope that this will
lead to an acceptable experience on the ground. The hope is that the 5%
not covered will not be too important. Drive testing can be regarded as a
method of highlighting areas where this is not the case. However, the UE
measurements should be compared with scanner data for the same
location. A discrepancy should be expected because:
• The UE antenna may be inside the vehicle whereas the scanner
antenna is roof-mounted.

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• The UE is not a calibrated measurement device.
One other question that must be asked is whether the UE and the scanner
agree on the “best pilot”. In other words was the scanner measuring a
pilot signal that was not recorded at all by the UE? This could reveal a
neighbour list problem whereby the best server never became a member
of the active set. One further possibility is that the UE itself is not of a
good specification. Perhaps a different UE would not drop the call under
the same circumstances. If all these possible reasons have been
eliminated, then it is necessary to examine ways of improving the
network coverage in order to prevent calls being dropped at this
particular location.

8.4.2 Example 2: Examining active set update reports
In this example a call is dropped in an area where coverage is very good
but Ec/ Io drops to very low levels. It was found to be due to a
combination of unusual propagation mechanisms and a less than ideal
neighbour lists. It involves three cells (cell 1, cell 2 and cell 3). The
location of the area concerned was expected to have cell 1 as the best
server. Cell 2 would have been a significant neighbour and was on the
neighbour list. Cell 3 also had a low path loss to that area and was a
listed neighbour. However, due to some local shadowing effects, Cell 2
became primary server and, in fact, Cell 1 was dropped from the active
set because the pilot strength dropped below the soft hand over margin.
Now, Cell 3 was not on the neighbour list of Cell 2 but, due to near line of
sight existing to Cell 3 from a small part of this area, it was received at a
high level. Because it is not on the neighbour list, this represented
interference and was at a strong enough level to cause a call drop.
Solutions to this happened in two stages:
• The quick fix was to add Cell 3 to the neighbour list of Cell 2. This
resulted in Cell 3 being on the monitored list and hence could join the
active set when appropriate.
• The long-term solution was to control the radiation from Cell 3 in
order that it only provided coverage where required and did not cause
undue interference in other locations.
8.4.3 Example 3: Sudden increase in interference
When drive test measurements report levels of Ec/ Io, the default is that
this refers to the best server. There are circumstances when this is not a
good representation of the experience of the UE. Calls can drop where
there is a sudden change in the signal strengths from cells. Consider the
situation where a UE travels at significant speed around a corner in an
urban environment. Suppose it moves rapidly from a location where “cell

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1” is 15 dB stronger than “cell 2” to a location where the reverse is true. If
this transition occurs before cell 2 can be added to the active set and
become the primary server, then it is possible for the call to drop. UEs
must spend sufficient time in the transition region for hand over to occur.
At road junctions, radiation from cells should not simply “shoot across”
the junction. The situation is potentially worse when the cell is at street
level. If the cell is above roof top level then the signal will tend to
penetrate further and reduce in strength less rapidly.
The Analysis Engineer will be alerted to the existence of such problems by
call drops being reported at these locations. The UE reports will show the
Ec/ Io at a very bad level immediately before drop. After dropping the
call the UE will re-connect with the network. In this example the re-
connection will be on the new cell and the Ec/ Io reported now will be
remarkably good. Scanner data monitoring the strengths of different
pilots can be used to support the reasoning.

Functional Testing Functional Testing
Functional Testing
• Whilst drive testing and measuring pilot strengths, it is
usual to monitor call success.
• Calls are usually one of three types;
• voice (“AMR”)
• video telephony (“VT”)
• packet traffic (“http” or “ftp”)
• AMR or VT testing can be one of two types
• “drive till drop”
• cyclic call attempts (e.g. 2 minute cycle)
• packet traffic involves downloading data of varying sizes.



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Functional Testing - measurements Functional Testing - measurements
Functional Testing
• When carrying out cyclic testing with AMR or VT the Call
Completion Success Rate (CCSR) is the most significant
parameter.
• When testing packet traffic, the Context Activation
Success Rate (CASR) and the throughput/time to
download are of great interest.
• Agreement must be made on suitable timeouts: e.g. how
long should the UE attempt to establish a call (20
seconds?) before a failure is registered. Likewise for
context activation.
• Driving till drop checks for continuous coverage
requirements, neighbour planning and hand over
procedures.


Functional Testing - using results Functional Testing - using results
Functional Testing
• In the period before the physical environment has be
satisfactorily optimised, functional tests are of interest to
indicate that the network is functioning properly and will
indicate events such as “sleeping cells”.
• However, not every call drop will be investigated as it is
known that there are gaps in coverage and/or areas of
high interference.
• Once the physical environment has been optimised, the
functional test results become very significant and
provide the final verdict on the whole optimisation
process.



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Functional Testing - approach Functional Testing - approach
Functional Testing
• It must be accepted and anticipated that the functional
testing will not reveal perfect results. Calls will still drop
or fail to set up.
• Failures can fall into one of several categories
• Coverage or interference problems
• Hand over failure
• Network problem
• Handset issue


Coverage/Interference Problems Coverage/Interference Problems
Functional Testing
• Remember we would to thresholds at 95% probability -
not 100%.
• Hope is that the 5% of problem areas will not be critical.
• A call drop due to coverage and/or interference problem
indicates that air interface is of poor quality in an
important area. This should be addressed.
• Note that all RF measurements have been performed on
the downlink. An uplink problem should be investigated
if the downlink looks OK. E.g. is the cell receiver and
mast head amplifier functioning satisfactorily. It is
possible to monitor the UE Tx power (e.g. >11 dBm
indicates potential problem).



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Hand over problems Hand over problems
Functional Testing
• Perhaps neighbour list is not properly optimised.
• Remember that hand over requires a number of
sophisticated operations to be successfully carried out.
• Hand over is time dynamic. Not only do conditions have
to be right for HO, they have to be right for a sufficient
time for active set updates to occur.
• E.g. if there is only one cell in the active set, if this level
suddenly drops before update can occur, the call might
drop. UE speed may affect success rate.
• Truly optimising HO region extremely time-consuming:
pre-launch best to concentrate on problem areas.
• Corrections can include parameters such as HO margin
in addition to physical changes.


Network Problems Network Problems
Functional Testing
• Call can drop due to spurious messages going between
the UE and the Network.
• Additionally, some cells may be inactive (“sleeping”).
• Instances must be recorded and reported.



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Handset issues Handset issues
Functional Testing
• On some occasions failure may be specific to a handset.
• Perhaps the handset does not respond to a paging
command or other message.
• Perhaps the handset drops a call in an environment
where other handsets do not drop calls.
• UMTS technology is still improving.


Identifying the Cause Identifying the Cause
Functional Testing
• In order to gain an insight into the likely cause of call
drop, it is important to examine the communication
between the UE and the network.
• These are generally known as “layer 3 messages”.
• Two call drop examples are explained.



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Example 1: measurement reports Example 1: measurement reports
Functional Testing
• Measurements reported by the UE show:
• Pilot dropping to -115 dBm
• Ec/Io dropping to -20 dB
• BLER rising to very high levels
• Diagnosis is a straightforward “poor coverage” situation.
• Detailed investigation reveals that an additional site is
likely to be required.
• Further questions:
• does scanner agree with poor coverage diagnosis?
• What differences should be expected between scanner and UE
measurements?


Example 1: measurement reports Example 1: measurement reports
Functional Testing
• Difference between scanner and UE measurements can
be as large as 20 dB for certain vehicle configurations.
• UE antenna is in the vehicle, scanner antenna is roof-
mounted.
• You must be “comfortable” that the difference is
appropriate for the test you are making:
• Should interior of vehicle simulate significant (comparable to in-
building) penetration losses?
• Is the UE measurement reliable - e.g. is it measuring the same
pilot as the scanner?



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Example 2: AS update reports Example 2: AS update reports
Functional Testing
• Another call drop occurred where the coverage in the
form of pilot strength was good.
• AS update reports reveal an interesting sequence of
events.
•Cell 1: expected primary server
•Cell 2: Ncell to cell 1
•Cell 3: Ncell to cell 1
•Location of call drop


Example 2: AS update reports Example 2: AS update reports
Functional Testing
• Due to shadowing effects, the following sequence took
place.
•Cell 1: expected primary server
•Cell 2:
•Cell 3: Ncell to cell 1
•Location of call drop
• Cell 2 became best
server.
• Cell 1 drops from
active set.
• Signal from Cell 3
rises (not on Ncell
list for cell 2)
causing poor Ec/Io.
• Call drops due to
low Ec/Io.



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Example 2: AS update reports Example 2: AS update reports
Functional Testing
• Solutions:
• Quick fix:
• add Cell 3 to Ncell list for Cell 2.
• Longer term:
• investigate radiation from Cell 3. It is a distant cell and is
not expected to become a member of the active set in the
area in question.
• Radiation from Cell 3 should be controlled, probably by
down-tilting but giving due regard to its required coverage
area.


Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• Drive test reports
Ec/Io for “best
server”.
• Transition regions
between coverage
areas can be small,
particularly in urban
environments.
• If UE moves rapidly
through such an
area, call can drop.
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cell 1 is 15
dB stronger
than Cell 2
Cell 2 is 15
dB stronger
than Cell 1



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Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• For a successful
hand over, the
signals received by
the UE should rise
and fall at a rate so
that the UE can
execute the
necessary active set
updates.
time
time
Signal
strength
transition
transition
•Successful HO
•Call drop


Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• Transition region
must be large
enough to allow
active set update to
occur before UE is
overwhelmed by
interference.
Cell 1
Cell 2
Transition
Region



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Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• This can be
alleviated by:
• providing a separate
cell at the
intersection
Cell 1
Cell 2


Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• This can be
alleviated by:
• providing a separate
cell at the
intersection
• placing cells above
street level to
achieve greater
penetration
Cell 2



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Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal
Strength Strength
Functional Testing
• Detecting the problem:
• The Analysis Engineer will notice call drops
• Investigation reveals that the UE reports very poor Ec/Io
immediately before it drops
• Once in idle mode the UE re-connects onto the new cell.
• The Ec/Io reported will be very good.
• This large difference in Ec/Io indicates that the problem falls into
this category
• Scanner data showing pilot levels from the two cells will support
the reasoning.





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add an appropriate margin, knowing the propagation exponent and the standard
deviation of shadow fading. This will then allow a target path loss to be determined
whereby the probability of the actual path loss being sufficiently low to allow a
connection to be made is equal to the required probability. However, in UMTS
systems the phenomenon of Noise Rise will affect the link budget. It is normal to add
a Noise Rise (or “interference”) margin into the link budget. It is also usual to set this
to the limit for a particular cell. This means that the calculations mad e will result in a
path loss being output that will give a 90% connection (uplink Eb/ No) probability
even if the cell is fully loaded. At lower loading levels the probability will be greater.
Thus, if an average probability is required, a lower value of Noise Rise should be
used. This value of Noise Rise could be equal to that produced under “average”
rather than “peak” loading conditions. The difference that this will produce will
again depend on the desired capacity of the cell. The table shows the difference
between peak and average Noise Rise and, further, provides an estimate in the
difference this would make in the estimate of coverage area.

Peak Noise Rise Average Noise Rise % coverage area difference
2 dB 1.3 dB 9%
5 dB 3.4 dB 19%
10 dB 5.8 dB 43%

Assumptions: NR caused by voice traffic on cell with pole capacity of 65 connections.
Cell provisioned for average traffic on a 2% blocking probability. Propagation
exponent assumed to be 3.5.







Cl

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9 Summarising Case Study

9.1 Introduction

Now that we have assembled a useful “toolkit of knowledge” and discussed various
techniques involved in advanced planning methods and optimisation procedures, it is
possible to put ourselves in a “real world” situation and demonstrate our capabilities.
The advanced network planner and optimiser should be able to demonstrate
analytical and problem solving capabilities for a UMTS network. Problem areas can
be identified and remedies recommended. As a starting point we will consider the
situation where a UMTS network has been constructed and is active. Further we shall
assume that it is not optimised. Problems with the network may fall into a number of
categories

• Calls dropped
• No coverage
• Poor capacity
• Slow download times

Any problems reported by customers or by network monitoring procedures should
be analysed to see whether optimisation procedures can help the situation as opposed
to simply investing heavily in more infrastructure.

Rather than wait for complaints about network performance to arrive, the
optimisation engineer should be able to identify problem areas, explain why they are
likely to be problem areas and identify possible solutions. Drive test measurements
are going to be valuable in this activity and should be used in conjunction with a
planning tool.

9.2 The initial situation

We shall assume that:


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• We have a network
• It has not been optimised
• We need to assess the quality of the network in an efficient manner and
report back.
• The report should be able to predict areas where coverage and congestion
problems are going to occur.

9.3 Making the measurements

Drive test measurements are going to be made using a proprietary scanner or test
mobile. These will be able to provide a great deal of data. Initially, it is important to
focus on a few, highly relevant parameters. A scanner will report on pilot strength
(Ec) and also pilot Ec/ No (although the value of No depend partly on the quality of
the receiver itself). A test mobile will additionally be able to access the network and
report on uplink transmit power. These measurements alone are sufficient to be able
to comment on:

1. Coverage
2. Interference
3. DL capacity


9.4 Analysing Measurements

9.4.1 Coverage

Pilot strength alone is a good indicator of basic coverage. As well as indicating
whether the pilot is strong enough for a typical mobile to synchronise with, pilot
strength indicates the path loss. This in turn can be used to predict uplink coverage.
As an example consider a service for which the required Eb/ No value is 5 dB. If it
assumed that:

Cell pilot strength = 33 dBm
Noise Figure of Cell Receiver = 4 dB

then the pilot strength can be used to indicate the throughput possible for a given
noise rise limit (NR dB).

Maximum link loss (UL) = 108 – 4 -5 + 10log(3840/ bitrate) – NR.

Thus at bit rate of 12.2 kbit/ s and a noise rise limit of 3 dB, the maximum link loss is
121 dB. If the pilot strength is 33 dBm, this area is indicated by a pilot strength of -108
dBm. In practice a margin for fading would be expected and a minimum level of
approximately -102 dBm would be sought. This policy of applying margins is very
necessary if the drive testing is carried out exclusively out of doors and indoor
coverage is required. Further, higher resource bearers cannot sustain as high a path
loss as voice and a stronger pilot would be required to indicate uplink coverage. A
typical set of thresholds would be

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Service Required Pilot Strength
Outdoor Voice -102 dBm
In Car Voice -88 dBm
Indoor Voice -80 dBm
Indoor HSD -76 dBm


Things to check: are the assumptions made correct?

• Noise Rise Limit
• Noise Figure of Cell Receiver (MHA can affect this)
• Pilot Strength

9.4.1.1 Using uplink measurements

Although, if the cell parameters are known accurately, reliable predictions of uplink
coverage can be obtained from downlink measurements, it is desirable to have
measurements of uplink transmit power for a particular service so that a check can be
made on the coverage provided on the uplink. This is because using only downlink
measurements relies on assumptions for the uplink Eb/ No and interference levels to
be assessed. Using a test mobile and monitoring the uplink transmit power will
automatically take into account the effect of a rise in the target Eb/ No due to adverse
propagation conditions or extra power being required because of the presence of
uplink interferfence. However, it must be borne in mind that the uplink might not be
experiencing uplink noise rise at the designed level thus giving mobile power levels
that are “kind”. If the network is quiet, the uplink noise rise will be very low. More
realistic values of required uplink transmit power will be obtained if the noise level at
the cell is raised artificially. This can be achieved by raising the effective noise figure
of the cell (TRX) receiver. This can be done by inserting an attenuator before the
receiver. Care must be taken if a MHA is used to place the attenuator before the
MHA rather than between the MHA and the TRX receiver.

It is likely that the measurements will be made as a result of drive tests undertaken
outdoors. As with the downlink measurements, appropriate margins must be added
for penetration loss and increased levels of shadow fading.

9.4.2 Interference


Pilot Strength alone is not a sufficient indicator of pilot coverage. The pilot channel is
vital for cell selection, channel sounding and synchronisation purposes. The “pilot
SIR” ratio must be above -15 dB. Unfortunately pilot SIR is not measured directly.
Further it is very dependent on the loading levels on the downlink, and also on the
quality of the UE receiver (its noise figure). However, the measurements made can be
used to estimate whether the pilot SIR will be sufficiently high for detection purposes.
The scanner will not report only on the best (or strongest) pilot but will report on all
detectable pilots. This information, combined with some assumptions, can be used to
estimate the pilot SIR at different locations. As an example, let us consider the
situation where four pilots have been detected.

Pilot 1 -80 d Bm

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Pilot 2 -84 dBm
Pilot 3 -87 dBm
Pilot 4 -90 dBm

In order to estimate the quality of the pilot, it is necessary to estimate the total
effective level of noise plus interference. This must be done by considering conditions
of heavy loading. It is possible to artificially load the downlink but this is not
absolutely necessary. If we regard the -80 dBm pilot as the serving pilot, we need to
make an assumption regarding the maximum downlink power and the pilot levels. If
the maximum total transmit power is 10 dB more than the pilot then the three
measured interfering pilots can be regarded as carrying potential interference levels
of -74 dBm, -77 dBm and -80 dBm respectively. Indeed, it can be expected that there
will be -71 dBm of interfering power emanating from the serving cell, although
orthogonality would be expected to reduce this to an effective level of -75 dBm. The
thermal noise level, even for a poor quality receiver would not be expected to exceed -
100 dBm (negligible in this case). If the effecti ve levels of interference are added the
result is a total effective interference power of -70 dBm. Thus a pilot SIR of -10 dB
would be a reasonable estimate. Anything less than -12 dB should be regarded as a
cause for concern.

The pilot Ec/ Io (which is measured) does not include orthogonality and, in fact,
includes the wanted, “best”, pilot power within the overall level of Io. In the above
case, the value of Ec/ Io under fully loaded conditions would be -12 dB. The
measured value is recorded as -5.7 dB suggesting that the downlink was not heavily
loaded when the measurements were made. This fact must be considered when
assessing the quality of the downlink.

The above analysis, although not too onerous, is somewhat time-consuming. It is
possible, with experience, to adopt an appropriate threshold level of Ec/ Io with
which to highlight problem areas on the downlink.

It is clear that a low level of Ec/ Io will be due to a combination of “low Ec” and/ or
“high Io”. “low Ec” problems are due to high path loss. “High Io” problems are due
to a high number of pilot signals that are of nearly equal strength. It may be that a
high number of detectable pilots (>4) is alone a sufficient indicator of potential
problems with downlink interference. If it is seen to be a reliable indicator, this will
speed up analysis considerably.

9.4.3 Downlink Capacity

The interference levels experienced on the downlink are very dependent on the
location of the mobile that is suffering from the interference. By measuring th e levels
of the pilot and considering the cell parameters, it is possible to estimate important
parameters:

• The capacity available if all cell power is devoted downloading data
to users in that location.
• The throughput possible by devoting 1 watt of power to a user at that
location.
• The power required for a particular throughput and Eb/ No.

It is reasonable to assume that the above details should relate to the situation where
the network is fully loaded. We have already seen that pilot strengths can be used to

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predict the value of pilot SIR for the best server. Considering the situation described
above where the pilot SIR was estimated to be -12 dB under heavily loaded
conditions, we know that this will also be the SIR experienced by a traffic channel of
the same power. Suppose this is 2 W. If the service to be sent over this bearer
requires an Eb/ No value of 4 dB, a processing gain of 16 dB will be needed and the
throughput will be limited to 96 kbit/ s. This bearer represents one eighth of the
capacity of the cell (as there is a total maximum of 16 W available for downlink
traffic). Thus the total capacity on the downlink would be estimated to be 772 kbit/ s.
A bearer with a power of 1 W could sustain a data rate of 48 kbit/ s and if a particular
service (for example, a 128 kbit/ s videophone at an Eb/ No of 3 dB) is known to be
required, this can be calculated to be the equivalent of 2.1 times a 48 kbit/ s 4 dB
Eb/ No service and therefore each require traffic channel power of 2.1 watts.

These predictions serve to give a useful indication of the capacity of the downlink if
all users were at the same location (the “hotspot” scenario). It will often be required
to estimate the capacity of the downlink if the users are spread throughout the
coverage area of a cell. In order to estimate this, measurements need to be taken for
representative locations within the cell. Suppose for example, it was felt that radio
conditions on the cell could be described by six representative measurements from
which pilot SIR could be predicted. The cell’s capacity could then be predicted on the
assumption that traffic was going to be loaded evenly in those representative
locations.

Suppose the representative locations have pilot SIR estimates as follows.

Location Pilot SIR
A -12 dB
B -8 dB
C -6 dB
D -10 dB
E -2 dB
F -9 dB


The method described previously can be used to calculate the amount of power
required to download a bearer with a nominal 1 kbit/ s at an Eb/ No of 4 dB,
assuming the pilot power to be 2 W.

Location Pilot SIR Power for
1kbit/ s @4 dB
A -12 dB 20.7 mW
B -8 dB 8.2 mW
C -6 dB 5.2 mW
D -10 dB 13.1 mW
E -2 dB 2.07 mW
F -9 dB 10.4 mW
Total power required for 6 kbit/ s 59.6 mW

The total power required of 59.6 mW for 6 kbit/ s at an Eb/ No of 4 dB suggests that
the total cell power of 16 W could sustain 1.6 Mbit/ s. Notice that this is significantly
larger than the capacity of 772 kbit/ s that was estimated to be the limit of throughput
if all users were at location A.


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This analysis can be extended to variable weightings of traffic across the cell coverage
area as the following example shows for the various relative weightings indicated.

Location Pilot SIR Power for
1kbit/ s @
4 dB
Weighting Throughput Power
Required
A -12 dB 20.7 mW 4 4 kbit/ s 82.8 mW
B -8 dB 8.2 mW 2 2 kbit/ s 16.4 mW
C -6 dB 5.2 mW 3 3 kbit/ s 15.6 mW
D -10 dB 13.1 mW 1 1 kbit/ s 13.1 mW
E -2 dB 2.07 mW 1 1 kbit/ s 2.07 mW
F -9 dB 10.4 mW 3 3 kbit/ s 31.2 mW
Totals 14 kbit/ s 161.2 mW

This suggests that the cell capacity when 16 W of traffic power is used would be 1.39
Mbit/ s. Notice that the above weightings show the traffic to be concentrated where
the interference is worst, hence the lower capacity prediction compared with the
evenly loaded case. The next example shows the situation where the weighting is in
favour of those cells that have the lowest interference.

Location Pilot SIR Power for
1kbit/ s @
4 dB
Weighting Throughput Power
Required
A -12 dB 20.7 mW 1 1 kbit/ s 20.7 mW
B -8 dB 8.2 mW 3 3 kbit/ s 24.6 mW
C -6 dB 5.2 mW 3 3 kbit/ s 15.6 mW
D -10 dB 13.1 mW 1 1 kbit/ s 13.1 mW
E -2 dB 2.07 mW 4 4 kbit/ s 8.3 mW
F -9 dB 10.4 mW 2 2 kbit/ s 20.8 mW
Totals 14 kbit/ s 103.1 mW

This suggests a total capacity of 2.18 Mbit/ s. Notice how the capacity is much
greater. The benefit of ensuring that your areas of highest demand experience the
lowest interference is clear.

9.5 Taking corrective action

Improving the interference situation is clearly a good thing. In areas where a cell
does not make a positive contribution to the performance of the network (by
potentially being the best server) it is important that the link loss is maximised. It
should be noted that this will benefit the uplink and downlink performance. In a
network, it is inevitable that there are locations where near-equal signals from three
cells on the macro-cell layer are received.

• Network performance can be improved by ensuring that these locations are
away from predicted hotspots.
• Particular attention should be paid to locations where near-equal signals from
more than three cells are required. One of the cells concerned is probably
detrimental to network performance.



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Summarising Summarising Case Study Case Study
• We have put together a useful “tool kit” of knowledge
• Further, we have examined examples of drive test data
• We should be able to analyse such drive test data and
•Predict network performance
•Identify problem areas
•Suggest corrective action
• When analysing such data we should think terms of
•Coverage
•Interference
•Capacity
Summarising Case Study


Summarising Summarising Case Study Case Study
• Our Starting Point
•We have an active network.
•The network has not been
optimised.
•Problems experienced
include:
– Calls dropped
– No coverage
– Low capacity
– Slow download rates.
• We need to rectify these
problems efficiently.
Summarising Case Study



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Summarising Summarising Case Study Case Study
• Rather than wait for complaints to
arrive from the public, a rigorous
analysis of drive test data should be
used to identify problem areas and
recommend corrective action.
• A planning tool can be used to predict
the effect of alternative corrective
actions.
Summarising Case Study


Vital Measurements Vital Measurements
• A scanner can report on downlink
measurements; in particular Ec and
Ec/Io for the pilot channel.
• A test mobile can additionally report on
call success and uplink transmit power
requirements.
• These measurements can be
interpreted to give useful predictions of
•Coverage
•Interference
•Downlink Capacity
Summarising Case Study



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Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage
• Measurements of pilot strength can be a very useful predictor of uplink
coverage.
• Other parameters need to be known:
•Tx Pilot Power
•NR limit and Noise Floor of cell.
•Bit rate and Eb/No of service for which coverage is being predicted.
Summarising Case Study


Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage
• For example;
•NR limit set to 3 dB; Noise Floor of Cell = -104 dBm
•Eb/No required = 5 dB; bitrate = 12200 bits per second
•Pilot Power = 33 dBm
•Maximum mobile power = 21 dBm
Summarising Case Study
• Calculations;
•Processing Gain = 25 dB; Required SNR = -20 dB
•Maximum Noise Floor = -101 dBm
• Required Signal Strength = -121 dBm
•Maximum link loss = 142 dB
•Pilot Strength = -109 dBm



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Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage - Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage -
margins margins
• If =-109 dBm was actually measured, coverage could not be confidently
assumed.
• Margins would be required.
• This is especially true if measurements were made out of doors to
indicate indoor coverage.
• The margins required depend on the characteristics of the buildings in
question.
•Typical required minimum values:
– Outdoor: -105 dBm
– In Car: -96 dBm
– In Building: -86 dBm
– HSD In Building: -80 dBm
• Note that these are measured values: not predicted.
• Predicted values must additionally consider errors in the path loss
model.
Summarising Case Study


Predicting Coverage (continued) – the value of Predicting Coverage (continued) – the value of
uplink (test mobile) measurements. uplink (test mobile) measurements.
• The prediction of coverage using pilot strength as an indicator made
some assumptions:
•Eb/No required.
•Uplink interference experienced.
• A record of the uplink power needed for a particular service will
automatically account for these factors.
• If a mobile has a maximum transmit power of +21 dBm then the
following conclusions can be drawn:
•Required Tx Power > 17 dBm: Coverage unreliable outdoors
•Required Tx Power > 8 dBm: Outdoor coverage only
•Required Tx Power > -2 dBm: In Car coverage
•Required Tx Power < -2 dBm: Indoor coverage
Summarising Case Study



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Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise
• If the network is
“quiet” when the
tests are conducted,
the results will be
optimistic.
• A noise rise can be
simulated by
increasing the Noise
Figure of the cell
receiver. This can
be achieved simply
by adding an
attenuator in the
feeder.
Summarising Case Study
•TRx •TRx
I 3 dB
NF = 5 dB NF = 8 dB


Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise
• If the cell has a MHA
fitted, the attenuator
must be fitted above
the MHA.
• Otherwise, the MHA
will reduce the effect of
the attenuator.
Summarising Case Study
TRx TRx
I
3 dB
I



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Interference Interference
• Pilot Strength alone is
not a sufficient
indicator of pilot
coverage.
• The “Pilot SIR” must
be better than
approximately -15 dB
for the pilot to be
usable.
Summarising Case Study


Interference – Pilot SIR Interference – Pilot SIR
• The Interference + noise
experienced comes from:
•Other cells
•Thermal noise
•Other channels on
own cell
– Note other channels
on own cell will
benefit from
orthogonality.
• Measurements of
strengths of all pilots can
be used.
Summarising Case Study



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Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR
• Suppose 4 pilots
are detected:
•-80 dBm (best
server)
•-84 dBm
•-87 dBm
•-90 dBm
• Assume thermal noise
is at -100 dBm.
Summarising Case Study


Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR
Summarising Case Study
• When network is heavily
loaded interference from
own cell (assuming 43
dBm max power and 33
dBm pilot power) is at
-71 dBm. Effect of
orthogonality is to reduce
this to -75 dBm [10log(1-
0.6) = 4 dB].
• Other interferers are -74
dBm; -77 dBm; -80 dBm.
• Total noise plus
interference = -70 dBm.
•Pilot Power = 33 dBm
•Maximum Power = 43 dBm



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Interference – Pilot SIR Interference – Pilot SIR
• Pilot strength (best
server) = -80 dBm.
• Predicted “noise plus
interference” under
conditions of heavy load
= -70 dBm.
• Pilot SIR = -10 dB.
• Anything less than -12
dB would cause concern.
• Note: it is important that
predictions are made for
a fully loaded downlink.
Summarising Case Study
Wanted Pilot = -80 dBm
Noise + Interference = -70 dBm
Pilot SIR = -10 dB


Interference – Pilot Ec/Io Interference – Pilot Ec/Io
• Pilot SIR is not measured
– it must be deduced
from pilot strength
measurements.
• Pilot Ec/Io can be
measured.
• Note that no benefit from
orthogonality is
measured and, also, the
“wanted” pilot power is
included in “Io”.
• Pilot SIR will be better
than Ec/Io
Summarising Case Study
• High level of pilot Ec/Io
indicates lightly loaded
network – values would
be much worse under
heavy loading conditions.



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Interference – Pilot Ec/Io Interference – Pilot Ec/Io
• Although an allowance
must be made for
additional downlink
interference when a
network is heavily
loaded, Ec/Io is a useful
indicator of the quality of
the radio channel.
• A poor Ec/Io could be
due to “low Ec” or “high
Io”.
Summarising Case Study


Interference – Predicting Downlink Capacity Interference – Predicting Downlink Capacity
• Further calculations are possible:
•If 1 watt of power was
available for a downlink
bearer, this bearer would be
able to sustain 76 kbit/s at 4
dB Eb/No.
•A service with a 128 kbit/s
throughput at an Eb/No value
of 3 dB has a relative
amplitude of 1.33 compared
to the 76 kbit/s, 4 dB Eb/No
service and would therefore
require 1.33 watts of DL
power.
Summarising Case Study
Wanted Pilot = -80 dBm
Noise + Interference = -70 dBm
Pilot SIR = -10 dB



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Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic
• These calculations are only valid
at one location. Suppose
measurements were made at
different locations within a cell.
These allowed the following
estimates to be made for pilot
SIR:
Summarising Case Study
-9 dB F
-2 dB E
-10 dB D
-6 dB C
-8 dB B
-12 dB A
Pilot SIR Location


Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic
• The same method can be used to deduce the power
required for a nominal 1 kbit/s, 4 dB Eb/No bearer at
each location. The total power required for the total
throughput can be used to estimate the DL capacity.
Summarising Case Study
59.6 mW Total power required for 6 kbit/s
10.4 mW -9 dB F
2.07 mW -2 dB E
13.1 mW -10 dB D
5.2 mW -6 dB C
8.2 mW -8 dB B
20.7 mW -12 dB A
Power for 1kbit/s @
4 dB
Pilot SIR Location



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Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic
• 59.6 mW required for 6 kbit/s.
• 16 W would support 1611 kbit/s
• This is significantly larger than 1224 kbit/s if all
experienced a -10 dB pilot SIR.
Summarising Case Study


Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread
traffic traffic
• The method can be extended to include relative
weightings of traffic density at particular points.
Summarising Case Study
161.2 mW 14 kbit/s Totals
31.2 mW 3 kbit/s 3 10.4 mW -9 dB F
2.07 mW 1 kbit/s 1 2.07 mW -2 dB E
13.1 mW 1 kbit/s 1 13.1 mW -10 dB D
15.6 mW 3 kbit/s 3 5.2 mW -6 dB C
16.4 mW 2 kbit/s 2 8.2 mW -8 dB B
82.8 mW 4 kbit/s 4 20.7 mW -12 dB A
Power
Required
Throughp
ut
Weight-
ing
Power for 1kbit/ s
@4 dB
Pilot SIR Location



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Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread
traffic traffic
• 161.1 mW for 14 kbit/s: 16 W would support 1390 kbit/s
with these weightings.
Summarising Case Study
161.2 mW 14 kbit/s Totals
31.2 mW 3 kbit/s 3 10.4 mW -9 dB F
2.07 mW 1 kbit/s 1 2.07 mW -2 dB E
13.1 mW 1 kbit/s 1 13.1 mW -10 dB D
15.6 mW 3 kbit/s 3 5.2 mW -6 dB C
16.4 mW 2 kbit/s 2 8.2 mW -8 dB B
82.8 mW 4 kbit/s 4 20.7 mW -12 dB A
Power
Required
Throughp
ut
Weight-
ing
Power for 1kbit/ s
@4 dB
Pilot SIR Location


Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread
traffic: exercise traffic: exercise
• Estimate the downlink capacity with these weightings.
Summarising Case Study
Totals
2 10.4 mW -9 dB F
4 2.07 mW -2 dB E
1 13.1 mW -10 dB D
3 5.2 mW -6 dB C
3 8.2 mW -8 dB B
1 20.7 mW -12 dB A
Power
Required
Throughp
ut
Weight-
ing
Power for 1kbit/ s
@4 dB
Pilot SIR Location



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Taking Corrective Action Taking Corrective Action
• Receiving “too many” pilots
with near-equal strength is
an indicator of potential
interference problems.
• A possible way how this
could arise is described.
• Areas where there are 3
near-equal pilots will
inevitably occur.
• Suppose that the antennas
are re-orientated to
alleviate a coverage
problem.
Summarising Case Study
Coverage Gap


Taking Corrective Action Taking Corrective Action
• Re-orientating the
antennas will help to fill in a
coverage gap.
• However a region has
emerged where five server
would have near-equal
path loss.
• This would cause problems
with pilot detection and
poor achievable downlink
bitrates.
Summarising Case Study
DL Interference Problem



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Taking Corrective Action Taking Corrective Action
• Corrective action would
have to involve providing a
dominant server in the
area.
• This would entail
downtilting antennas and
perhaps having to
compromise on the
coverage in certain areas.
• A MHA or UL diversity
system will help with
coverage.
Summarising Case Study
Re-orientate to provide
dominant server
Down-tilt here


Concluding Remarks Concluding Remarks
• Why are we bothering?
•To make or save money.
• How do operators make money?
•By transferring data from one point to
another
Network Implementation and Evolution



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• Revenue Gains
•Suppose revenue of $ 0.1 is received for every megabit of
data transferred.
•A cell whose capacity is increased by 500 kbit/s (per
carrier) can be expected to earn approximately $ 200000
per carrier per year extra (depending on occupancy rates).
Concluding Remarks Concluding Remarks
Network Implementation and Evolution


• Revenue Gains
•If an engineer takes responsibility for 60 cells, each with a
single carrier, the potential gains add up to $ 12 million per
engineer.
•Go and make an extra $ 12 million per year.
Concluding Remarks Concluding Remarks
Network Implementation and Evolution







Contents
1 1.1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3
3.3.1 3.4.1 3.4.2

Introduction 5 Course Overview 5 Optimisation Overview 7 What is Optimisation? 7 Pre-launch Optimisation 8 Post-launch Optimisation 11 Network Dimensioning and Planning 13 Introduction 13 Dimensioning for Indoor Coverage 21 Dimensioning for a fixed loading level 23
The impact of mixed services Imperfect Location of Sites High Sites 24 26 27

3.4Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site Location and High Sites 26 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models Serving Very High Traffic Densities Evaluating Simulator Results Pilot Pollution 32 38 41 42

4 Further issues: Neighbours, Scrambling Codes, GSM co-location 47 4.1 4.2
4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4

Introduction 47 Producing and Prioritising the Neighbour List 48
Intra-frequency carriers Practical Guidelines to Ncell Planning Inter-frequency neighbours Inter-Technology Neighbours. 48 49 52 52

4.3 5 5.1
5.1.1 5.1.2

Scrambling Code Planning 56 Assessing a Plan 57 Coverage 57
The effect of MHAs on the coverage targets 59 Summarising 60

5.2
5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3

Interference 61
Pilot SIR and Ec/No Predicting levels on a heavily loaded network Expected predictions on a lightly loaded network 61 61 62

5.3 6
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High Data Rate services 63 Drive Test Analysis 77
2

6.1 Introduction 77 6.2 Dividing a Network into Clusters 78 6.3 Choosing the drive test route. 80 6.4 Cells covering more than one environment 80 6.5 Measured values of Ec/No. 80 6.6 The effect of network loading levels. 81 6.7Measurement Samples, Scanner Settings and Drive Test Speeds
6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 6.7.4 6.7.5 6.7.6 6.7.7 6.7.8 6.7.9 The Lee Sampling Criteria The Anritsu Scanner The Effect of Varying Averaging Distance Summary of Results Implications Anritsu Selection Procedure and Recommended Settings Wide-Band Measurements with a Rake Receiver Reference Table The need for averaging 84 85 86 87 88 89 91 92 93

83

6.8 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5
7.5.1 7.5.2

Interpretation of Measurements 99 The Pre-launch Optimisation Procedure 107 Introduction Hardware Checks Configuration Checks Optimisation Team Structure Using Drive Test Data The need for consistency Using drive test data to tune Neighbour list Load Testing of a Network Testing of a network for IRAT success
IRAT at coverage edge Success of hand over Designing the test route IRAT in an urban environment. Designing the test route. IRAT at hotspots. Designing the test route

107 107 107 108 112 118 120 125 127
128 128 129 129 129 129 130

Coverage problems 113 Interference issues 114

7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9
7.9.1 7.9.2 7.9.3 7.9.4 7.9.5 7.9.6 7.9.7

7.10 8 8.1
8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4

IRAT: Conclusions. 130 Functional Testing 137
Coverage/Interference Problem Hand over failure Network problems Handset issues

Introduction 137
137 138 138 138

8.2 8.3 8.4

UE and UTRAN Measurements 139 3G Specifications and Event Reporting 143 Identifying the cause 147
Example 1: Examining measurement reports 151 Example 2: Examining active set update reports 152

8.4.1 8.4.2

9
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Summarising Case Study 167
3

3 9.5 Taking corrective action 172 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 4 .4.3 Introduction The initial situation Making the measurements Analysing Measurements 167 167 168 168 Coverage 168 Interference 169 Downlink Capacity 170 9.4 9.4.4.2 9.2 9.9.1 9.1 9.

The use of simulation and planning tools to aid in optimisation. To understand how to maximise the benefit of making drivetest measurements. • • • • UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 5 . Introductory Session Aims of Course • To deepen the understanding of UMTS networks so as to plan a network with greater confidence and allow specific required improvements to be targeted. To attain an understanding of the optimisation procedures available within UMTS.1 Course Overview The objective of this three day course is to provide delegates with knowledge of optimisation methods and techniques which will enable them to plan and optimise UMTS 3g networks. The function and purpose of optimisation. Exercises and examples via software and a state-of-the-art 3g simulator will be provided to aid in the understanding of concepts and theories used in optimisation.1 Introduction 1.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 6 .

2 Optimisation Overview 2.1 What is Optimisation? Depending upon your position within your organisation this question will mean quite different things. different. Whilst business is about making money. Business will benefit if the quality of service experienced by customers improves. and very often are. the engineer’s goal is usually focused on network efficiency. The engineer should be focused on obtaining the maximum performance and hence delivering the optimum customer experience from a given resource. These two issues are linked but the strategy for change and time scales can be. Optimisation Overview What is Optimisation ? • Different approach at different stages in network evolution • Pre-launch • Get the network working • Key issues • Coverage • • Functionality Interference • Post-launch • Improving quality • Increasing capacity • Increasing range of services • Maximise the return on investment UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 7 .

For example. • Need to optimise clusters of sites rather than single cells. so does interference. • Interpretation of measurements required. This higher level of interference reduces the maximum path loss over which a connection can be satisfactorily made. As use of the network increases. both to planning and to infrastructure investment.2 Pre-launch Optimisation UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 8 . it is vital that any improvements can be confirmed by means of measurements made on the network. Feedback from drive-test measurements and OMC reports must be incorporated into a continuous cycle of optimisation and monitoring. there is no fixed capacity of a TRX in a UMTS network. • Mixed Services 2. • Flexible structure sensitive to small changes in performance • Air interface performance directly affects capacity and coverage.Optimising a UMTS network is distinctly different from the optimisation of a GSM network. The fact that we have a single frequency on a cell layer poses challenges for the network planner. Optimisation Overview Why is Optimising different for UMTS ? • Single Frequency • Cannot frequency plan around problems caused by “rogue” sites. Optimising for coverage and optimising for capacity will entail a different approach. • Level of loading affects performance • Cell activity affects coverage and throughput. When optimising any network. it is no longer possible to use a frequency plan to help reduce the impact of poorly position sites. Further. The high level of mutual interference between users and cells leads to a trade-off between capacity and coverage. The throughput possible depends on the services being utilised and the radio environment.

capacity implications (and network loading implications in general) are not afforded priority at this stage. Assess and Improve the plan (using a planning tool) c. Build the network d. Optimisation Overview Pre-launch Optimisation • Plan (using a planning tool) • Assess and Improve (“optimise the plan”) • Build • Test • Diagnose Problems • Rectify •Pre-launch optimisation phase UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 9 . Once the network is launched and activity/loading increases it will be necessary to address capacity-related issues and the “post-launch optimisation” phase is entered. In the interests of launching an acceptable network at the earliest possible date.The starting point of the development of a UMTS network is the formation of a plan using a planning tool together with site acquisition resource. e and f can be thought of as “pre-launch optimisation”. They are essential steps to ensure that the launch is as successful as possible. Plan the network(using a planning tool) b. Diagnose problems f. Test the network e. The process by which this is done can be summarised as: a. The focus of attention is then to build and launch the network as planned. The priority is to get the network into an acceptable situation by an agreed date. Rectify the problems Steps d. It is likely that the initial priorities are very much along the lines of those employed in a 2G network: namely ensuring that coverage and interference are acceptable throughout the area of interest.

Optimisation Overview Network Quality Cycle Quality Quality Targets Targets Quality Quality Definition Definition Monitor Monitor Quality Quality Quality Quality Reporting Reporting Corrective Corrective Actions Actions Specific Specific Corrections Corrections Configuration Configuration Analysis Analysis Improvement Improvement Plan Plan Specific Specific Quality Quality issues issues UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 10 .

six cells per site) optimising parameters. increasing network capacity. d.2. maximising the return on investment. increasing coverage for high data rate services. reducing interference. attention can be paid to truly optimising the network.3 Post-launch Optimisation Once the network is operating satisfactorily at the level required for launch. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 11 . c. This will involve: • • • • • • • adding more sites. providing indoor solutions. utilising more than one carrier. b. Activities will be directed at: a. implementing hierarchical cell structures. serving hot spots. adding more cells to existing sites (e.g.

Optimisation Overview Post-launch Optimisation “Proper optimisation” • Increasing network capacity • Serving hotspots • Increasing coverage for higher data rate services • maximising return on investment Optimisation Overview Post-launch Optimisation This will involve • Adding more sites • Further sectorisation of existing sites • Optimising parameters • Reducing intereference • Utilising more than one carrier • Implementing a hierarchical cell structure • Providing indoor solutions UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 12 .

it is imagined that a network is to be planned providing a certain capacity over a certain area. • We have mapping data. certain parameters will be over-simplified when compared with what can be expected to be encountered in practice. the effects of problems such as “high sites” and being unable to position base stations exactly where required will be demonstrated. dimensioning and link budget calculations in a practical situation.) UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 13 . Initially. For example. the first assumption is that the terrain is flat. Planning a UMTS Network Planning a UMTS Network • We will assume that a coverage area is defined. the traffic distribution is uniform and that the network will be offering only a single service. Accordingly.1 Introduction It is necessary to be able to apply all the understanding of the technology and capacity. • We have a traffic forecast (in this case a single voice service with uniform distribution. more realistic terrain data is introduced together with the need to be able to accommodate varying traffic density.3 Network Dimensioning and Planning 3. After that. After dimensioning and examining the predicted performance of such a network.

• For this environment. Combined with Path Loss model to determine cell range.35 km UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 14 . Derived assuming a particular Noise Rise.Planning a UMTS Network The Philosophy • A strategy needs to be defined. Voice Service Eb/No Power Control Shadow Fade Rise Noise Antenna Gain Proc Gain Mobile Tx Pwr Cell Noise Floor Max Path Loss Range 5 dB 2 dB 4 dB 3 dB 18 dBi 25 dB 21 dBm -100 dBm 150 dB 2. • Other issues: Path Loss. Cell Range Planning a UMTS Network Link Budget • • • Crucial to the planning process. “continuous coverage for voice services” could define the high level approach.

Range/PathLoss Intersection gives the operating point Number of active users UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 15 .Planning a UMTS Network Iterative Spreadsheet Dimensioning •• Keep Calculating Range and Re-calculate range using Carry out link budget to re-assessing Noise Rise. Planning a UMTS Network Graphical Explanation • Gathering More traffic increases Noise Rise and reduces Range. the iterations should •• Re-assess the loading of the Assess loading the assumed converge so thatof cell and cell and Noise Rise. determine range (remember link budget assumes a NR) • Finally. • Increasing Range causes more traffic to be gathered. Rise. predicted Noise Rise. from assumed Noise differ Rise agree. This will predict re-predict the Noise and predicted values of Noise Rise.

) known. calculate density.Planning a UMTS Network A complication • Noise Rise predicted from estimated peak use of cell. Number of active users Planning a UMTS Network Spreadsheet Method • All relevant parameters (Eb/No. Estimate Noise Rise and hence “Cell Range 1” Using Erlang B and considering soft capacity estimate Erlangs served. Estimate area and hence “Cell Range 2” Adjust number of trunks until “Range 1” = “Range 2” UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 16 . • Range calculated from average number of users. soft capacity must be considered. Tx Power etc. • From traffic forecast and coverage area. Range/PathLoss Intersection gives the operating point • Additionally. • • • • • Make initial estimate of the number of “trunks” required per cell.

) known. Tx Power etc.6 4 dB 1000 km2 4000 Erlangs 21 dBm -102 dBm Loss = 137 + 35log(R) dB 12200 bps 5 dB The result is that 82 sites would be required. The Noise Rise limit should be set to 3. calculate density. From traffic forecast and coverage area. Path Losses Equal? The method outlined above was used to dimension a network given the following input parameters: Voice Service Data Rate: Eb/No Power Control Margin Antenna Gains “other to own” interference ratio Shadow Fade Margin Coverage Area Traffic to be Served Mobile Transmit Power Cell Noise Floor Path Loss Model: 2 dB 18 dBi 0. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 17 . Estimate Number of Estimate Noise Rise Simultaneous Connections per Cell Estimate Number of Erlangs Served per Cell From Traffic Density forecast.9 dB in order to maintain continuous coverage. estimate No cell range Estimate Maximum Path Loss (Uplink) Estimate Maximum Path Loss (using Propagation model).Planning a UMTS Network Spreadsheet Method • • All relevant parameters (Eb/No.

• • • Sites not placed perfectly terrain/environment factors Uneven traffic distribution • Some parameters (for example interference ratio. Planning a UMTS Network The need for a tool • If this can be done using a simple calculator. For these reasons. • Mixed services will have different coverage areas. i) have been assumed. However.9 dB was required to maintain continuous coverage . It is possible at this stage to place sites on a map such that continuous coverage can be maintained. why do we need a planning tool? • We need to be able to simulate the effect of imperfections. • Noise Rise Limit of 3. assumptions made when creating the spreadsheet may not be accurate in practice.Planning a UMTS Network Example Output • For voice service over an area of 1000 km2 offering 4000 Erlangs of Traffic: • 82 sites with 246 cells were required. and for other including those listed below. Further. it is highly likely that the actual location of sites will not be as required. it is necessary to utilise a planning tool that will consider practical variations from the initial broad assumptions made. • Planning tool can validate the strategy. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 18 .

0% • Almost all failures due to Noise Rise UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 19 . • Coverage was checked to be in accordance with requirements.9 dB • Results: • Coverage Probability 98.D. Planning a UMTS Network Summary of Initial Results • Parameters: • Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) • S. = 7 dB • 4000 Terminals • NR limit 3.Planning a UMTS Network Using the 3G Planning Tool • The coverage area was filled with the correct number of sites and traffic was spread across the region.

f.0 dB • Results: • Coverage Probability 99.D.9 dB NR limit provides continuous coverage even when all cells are simultaneously at their maximum load. Noise Rise limit can be raised.0%) • Even split of failures between NR and UL Eb/No UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 20 .Planning a UMTS Network Action taken • 3. Noise Rise was raised to 5 dB.7% (c. • In reality not all cells would be simultaneously at their maximum loading. • • Planning a UMTS Network Summary of Results • Parameters: • Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) • S. 98. The neighbour can often “assist” an overloaded cell. = 7 dB • 4000 Terminals • NR limit 5.

• Results: • Coverage Probability 98. As the subscriber density UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 21 .54 15 1. because there would be more sites. allow for penetration loss.7 0. The result is that more sites would be required in order to provide coverage.7%) • 83% NR and 17% UL Eb/No.8 8.23 10. Note that each site is assumed to comprise of 3 cells and that a margin of 20 dB was added to the link budget when indoor coverage was considered.4 15 4. then the link budget would have to be changed to accommodate changes in standard deviation of shadow fading and.4 4. If the requirement was for indoor coverage.4 0.f. with the cells operating at near full load.7% (c.5 2. if outdoor coverage only is required then the site density quickly becomes directly proportional to the subscriber density.1 1. further.6 1 1. the level of loading on each site would be less and the noise rise limit would be lower. • Traffic spread raised to 4600 terminals.3 0. Subscriber Density (E/km2) 5 10 20 50 100 200 400 Outdoor Parameters Indoor Parameters Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) 0. the site density is greater but the cells operate at a lower level of loading. 99. However. 3.6 3.09 4.9 0.1 5.8 0. it can be seen that.1 15 1.4 0.8 14 Examining the table.13 7.Planning a UMTS Network Next Step • As Noise Rise limit was raised without any apparent gaps in coverage appearing. when indoor coverage is required. it should be possible to raise the amount of traffic served. The difference is most pronounced at lower levels of site density as the table below shows.2 Dimensioning for Indoor Coverage The above process has been based on a link budget for outdoor coverage.8 0. By contrast.2 15 2.

it is seen that the network is capacity limited and there is no noticeable increase in the number of sites when predictions for indoor coverage are considered. Sub Density 5 Site Densit (/km2) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Subscriber Density (E/km2) Outdoor Coverage Indoor Coverage Planning a UMTS Network Dimensioning if indoor coverage is required • The link budget was appropriate for outdoor coverage.becomes very large. • If indoor coverage is required. Site Density vs. margins have to be added to accommodate: • higher shadow fading standard deviation • penetration loss • Total margins of 20 dB are typical. • Results: • More sites needed • Sites loaded less heavily UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 22 .

perhaps for initial rollout purposes. • At low subscriber densities. network is capacity-limited and the extra 20 dB loss does not have a significant effect on site density.23 10.09 4.1 3.6 0.13 7.4 0.8 0.7 0.2 15 2. 4 dB being a typical value.4 15 4.1 15 1. Subscriber Density (E/km2) 5 10 20 50 100 200 400 Outdoor Parameters Indoor Parameters Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) Site Density (/km2) NR limit (dB) 0.9 1.3 Dimensioning for a fixed loading level It may be decided that.3 0.1 1.6 0. Adopting this approach simplifies the rollout process by making every site configuration nearly identical.4 8.8 4.54 15 1.8 2. This would be defined by a noise rise limit. each cell will have a fixed maximum uplink loading.5 5. the network is coverage limited and the extra 20 dB loss can reduce the range by a factor of 4 (and increase site density by a factor of 16). In UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 23 .8 1 0.Planning a UMTS Network Dimensioning if indoor coverage is required • Effect is dependent on subscriber density • At very high densities.4 14 Planning a UMTS Network Dimensioning if indoor coverage is required Site Density vs. Sub Density 5 Site Densit (/km2) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Subscriber Density (E/km2) Outdoor Coverage Indoor Coverage 3.

coverage dimensioning is very simple.4 4 dB. cell could serve 63 simultaneous voice connections. compared with 32 Erlangs for the voice only network. External interference would reduce this by. the maximum range is calculated to be 820 metres and the area covered by a site (3 sectors) would be 1.7 = 2.9) to get 43. The “capacity factor” is 1 + 2. then the new number to be used in the Erlang B calculation is 63 ÷ 2.9 .37 km2 . 9 = 22 . for a particular configuration. This translates to 63 full rate voice calls. Suppose that there is a second service: video telephony at a bit rate of 64 kbit/s and an Eb/No of 0 . If voice is taken as the standard “benchmark” service. then the loading level (4 dB noise rise is equivalent to a loading factor of 60%) can be converted to a certain number of Erlangs. For a path loss model in which L = 137 + 35 log(R). This has to be divided by 3. This would have a relative amplitude of (64 × 10 ) Suppose that a network is expected to serve an equal number of Erlangs 2 of the two different services. typically. The Erlang B tables would predict that 15 “Erlangs” of traffic can be served by this. the maximum loss to be planned for reduces to 134 dB. If the combination of the required Eb/No and a 2 dB power control margin require that the target Eb/No is 7 dB. a clear boundary is drawn between the coverage limited and capacity limited situation. a factor of 1. If a building penetration loss of 15 dB is added in. A previous link budget suggests that a voice service can tolerate a path loss of 149 dB if a noise rise of 4 dB exists on the uplink. The reduction indicates the lower trunking efficiency that is achieved when higher resource services are offered.7/km2 . each site (3 sectors) would be expected to serve approximately 100 Erlangs of traffic.6 .6 . UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 24 1 + 2. Thus.1 The impact of mixed services The above capacity based calculation would be affected if the network is expected to serve subscribers of different services. This number of simultaneous connections would support 52 Erlangs of traffic. 3. whereas previously we have been dimensioning our network by considering both capacity and coverage requirements.2 × 10 0.this situation. Thus.6 to get the number of Erlangs of voice and video telephony. In areas of high subscriber density. If each 12 . then the pole capacity is { 3840 100. Interference from other cells would reduce this in practice to 8 Erlangs of voice plus 8 Erlangs of video telephony This is an average loading equivalent to 29 Erlangs of voice. This would decrease in areas of high inter-cell interference (such as areas where the site density is very high).3. Thus.7 } = 766 kbit/s. The procedure is then to multiply this value by the capacity factor (2.6 = 2. each cell could be regarded as serving 12 Erlangs of voice plus 12 Erlangs of video telephony. coverage in areas of low subscriber density would lead to a site density of 0. Thus the maximum capacity of a cell would be approximately 32 Erlangs.6.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 25 .

Planning a UMTS Network Summary of Results • Parameters: • • • • Eb/No = 7 dB (Incorporating Eb/No and Power Control) S.1 Imperfect Location of Sites Planning a UMTS Network Simulating the Effect of Problems • Imperfect location of sites. • • • Coverage Probability 97.0 dB • Results: • Results: • “Problem area” gives 95% coverage probability (c.D. = 7 dB 4600 Terminals NR limit 5. 98. 97.f.4 Simulating the Effect of Imperfect Site Location and High Sites 3.5% (c.f.3.4. • 50% of sites moved randomly by up to 1 km from ideal position. • Gaps appear in coverage.7%) 78% NR and 22% UL Eb/No Uneven distribution of failures UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 26 .5% for whole area).

95. In a GSM system the frequency plan would ensure that network-wide interference levels were acceptably low. Those sites with largest area suffered Noise Rise failures. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 27 .f. and generate downlink interference.2 High Sites High sites occur frequently in networks where there is extensive re -use of GSM sites.8%) • Problem is uneven distribution of load due to improper placement of sites. Average is 19 terminals. From a radio propagation viewpoint they can be characterised by their low path loss to a point at a particular distance. Improvement was marginal (96. interference problems represent a price that has to be paid in return for the benefit of good coverage. UMTS networks cannot use frequency planning to avoid interference problems such as this. • 3. Inevitably. drastically reducing capacity and perhaps causing pilot detection problems. In a GSM network it is common to employ “umbrella” cells that give wide area coverage in order to ensure that there are no gaps in the coverage provided. NR failure occurs if more than approx. They are typically located on a high building or on a hillside overlooking a city.4.0% c. Action to combat the effect of high sites includes down-tilting of the antennas as well as varying parameters such as noise rise limit (which should be increased) and downlink pilot and common channel powers (which should be decreased). 29 terminals attempt to access a cell.Planning a UMTS Network Action taken • • Antennas were re-pointed in an attempt to restore coverage. rapidly reaching its noise rise limit. The high site will gather uplink interference.

• Coverage probability reduced from 98. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 28 .6%. Planning a UMTS Network Problems caused by High Sites • Uneven loading causes disastrous results.7% to 78.Planning a UMTS Network Problems caused by High Sites • 15% of sites made “high sites” with a path loss 10 dB less than that of “normal” sites at a given range.

78% before down-tilting and 98. • FRE for high site ~ 48% (63% average) • Throughput for high site ~ 26 E (18 E average) Planning a UMTS Network Action taken • Excess coverage area reduced by down-tilting the antennas of the high-sites. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 29 . • • Result: Coverage probability increased to 95.Planning a UMTS Network Problems caused by High Sites • Probability of NR failure very high in high site area.f.7% with “perfect” sites).1% (c.

Detecting the existence of High Sites is crucial. • • • • Result: A dramatic improvement. Common Chan power and Pilot power by 10 dB. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 30 . Result: Problem made worse! This is because terminals still caused Noise Rise even though they were not connected.Tx Power increased Mobile Connects to High Site Planning a UMTS Network Alternative Action • Increased NR Limit of High Site by 10 dB • Decreased Max Tx power. High NR experienced by High Site but continued to perform satisfactorily.Planning a UMTS Network Alternative Action • • • Instead of down -tilting. Pilot Power scaled to equalise service areas. reduce pilot power of high sites by 10 dB to equalise service areas. Performance of network indistinguishable from ideal case. Pilot Power Equal Mobile Connects to Low Site . Reduction of High Site service area causes an increase in Mobile Tx power hence aggravating the problem.

4915 18. • High sites tend to gather uplink interference generated by other users.9719 14. • Do not think that it is “wrong” to place UMTS base stations on hilltops.0946 18.9417 10. • Spreading a traffic terminal and examining traffic captured is possibly more informative as it considers traffic distribution.1203 • Examining the Best Server by Pilot array is informative. coverage is excellent even with “untreated” high sites).2414 37.a final word • There is no single definition of a high site.2301 19. • Problems occur as area becomes more heavily loaded (if the traffic is reduced from 4000 terminals to 2000 terminals. • If coverage area is very lightly loaded . – High Site Planning a UMTS Network High Sites . UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 31 .Planning a UMTS Network Spotting a High Site • • • • • • • • • • • • • Site35C: Site36A: Site36B: Site36C: Site37A: Site37B: Site37C: Site38A: Site38B: Site38C: Site39A: Site39B: Site39C: 18.5065 18.0476 38.no problem.6173 18.72 10.7644 36.4447 13.

8 + 30. also.8 log(d) 135.Hata” Loss = k1 + k 2 log (d) + k 3hms + k 4 log(hms ) + k 5 log( heff ) + k 6 log(heff ) log( d ) = (k1 + k 3hms + k 4 log(hms ) + k 5 log( heff ) )+ (k 2 + k 6 log(heff ) )log(d ) • If h ms is fixed then variations are only dependent on heff. A typical “Okumura-Hata” style of equation was used to predict the path loss over a terrain that included substantial variations in height. It was found that some of the base stations fell into the category of “high site” and caused excessive blocking.0 + 32.5 log(d) 136.3 log(d) UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 32 .3 log(d) 138. The level of blocking could be reduced by careful re-pointing of the antennas. incorporation of the more sophisticated models is essential if terrain height variations are to be considered. Using typical default parameters: Antenna Ht 15 20 25 30 Model 140.2 + 31. However. These were filled by the provisioning of additional base stations such that almost 95% of the areas covered to the required level of 146 dB path loss. Planning a UMTS Network Incorporating more sophisticated Path Loss Models • “Cost 231 . the terrain is flat.3. More widely used models reduce to similar equations if the height of the mobile is fixed and.9 + 30.5 Using More Appropriate Path Loss Models The path loss model used so far is too simple to be realistic. The variation in height caused coverage gaps to appear in the shadows of the hills.

l. Peak Noise Rise will be 8. initial calculation suggests 25 sites.Planning a UMTS Network A More Challenging Terrain 154 km2 . 13 E/km 2 With 20 m antenna heights. Even spread of traffic across the whole area. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 33 . Planning a UMTS Network The Challenge • • • • • • Challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs of demand for voice service.7 dB.s. range 1. Max path loss should be 146 dB.8 km. Heights vary from zero to 135 m a.

Planning a UMTS Network

Placing the Sites

• Due to irregular outline, 31 sites were required to provide
continuous coverage at a range of 1800 metres.

Planning a UMTS Network

Coverage Analysis
• Initial site placing leads to 80% of
area being covered to required level.

• UMTS simulation suggests
coverage probability of 87% with failures split between uplink Eb/No and Noise Rise.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004

34

Planning a UMTS Network

Increasing Percentage Coverage
• Adding four more sites (35 in
total) resulted in 94.3% coverage based on pathloss and 92% coverage probability from UMTS simulator.

• Again failures split between
Eb/No and Noise Rise.

Planning a UMTS Network

Analysing Reason for Eb/No Failures Eb/No
Coverage Eb/No Failures

• Eb/No failures follow high path loss areas. If the path loss is too great the
required Eb/No cannot be achieved.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004

35

Planning a UMTS Network

Analysing Reason for NR Failures
Coverage Strongest Pilot

• Noise Rise failures concentrated on High Sites. An example is shown.

Planning a UMTS Network

Action taken to decrease NR failures.
For the cell being investigated:
Coverage

• Starting statistics: Throughput 382 kbps
(approx 31 connections); 20 blocked connections due to NR.

• Action: Height reduced to 10 m; antenna
down-tilted by 3 degrees.

• Result: Throughput 294 kbps; 0.65
blocked connections due to NR; no noticeable increase in failures on neighbouring cells.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004

36

l.36 km 2. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 37 . • New challenge is to serve 2000 Erlangs of voice service generated by users within an area of 2. posing significant challenges.Planning a UMTS Network Covering an Urban Area.s.) or regularly shaped. • 2000 Erlangs over 154 km2 is not a very big density. • This Urban area is not flat (zero to 50 m a.

Planning a UMTS Network Spreadsheet Dimensioning.4 km2 ) urban area was investigated with a view to servicing 2000 Erlangs of voice traffic: a density of approximately 800 Erlangs per km2 . UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 38 . Increasing this level to 2000 would entail restarting the dimensioning exercise assuming a more realistic value for the interference ratio (unity being a suggested value for such situations). it is possible to encounter traffic densities far in excess of the 13 Erlangs per km2 examined in the last simulation.6 Serving Very High Traffic Densities In practice. Accordingly.3. Lowering the antenna heights and down-tilting helped improve the situation but not to the extent where the assumed value of 0. values of 1. This reduces the capacity per cell. • Low path loss means that very high (20 dB+) Noise Rise can be tolerated.6 was realised. This is another example of a simulation tool being required to validate spreadsheet calculations. The main finding was that the “other to own” interference ratio tends to be much higher when the cells are packed closely together.5 were encountered. The network provided good coverage for 1600 terminals as opposed to the required 2000 terminals. a small (2. Rather than the assumed value of 0. • Initial dimensioning exercise predicts that coverage can be achieved by 22 sites each of range 240 metres. • Coverage prediction suggests that path loss will not be a problem. • Cell capacity effectively become Pole Capacity. Thus it seemed impossible in the first instance to service the level of traffic with the number of cells first calculated.6.

• FRE still only 50%. 65%). Coverage Probability UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 39 . • Lowering antenna heights and making the downtilt as high as 10 degrees improved matters.f. of 1. • Initial estimate of 32 Erlangs per cell unachievable in first instance.6 assumed). • All failures due to Noise Rise.Planning a UMTS Network UMTS Simulation. • Estimation of Pole Capacity of a cell is erroneous. • Only 65% Coverage Probability achieved. • Cell Reports indicate very low FRE (~40%) suggesting a value for the interference ratio. • Reduce traffic to more “realistic” levels. • Increasing FRE is crucial to increasing Coverage Probability capacity. i.5 (c.f. 0. • Coverage probability now 86% (c. Planning a UMTS Network Optimisation Procedures.

• Spreadsheet dimensioning is an appropriate initial step. • 25 Erlangs per cell would appear to be the limit in this situation (average load 84%). • Majority of failures due to one apparent “high site” that could probably benefit from further attention. • Planning Tool needed to form strategy. • Coverage probability increased to 96%. conduct detailed analysis. spread traffic. In particular “high sites” can dramatically reduce the capacity of a network. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 40 . • Problems only become apparent as system becomes heavily loaded. Coverage Probability Planning a UMTS Network Conclusions.Planning a UMTS Network Optimisation Procedures. predict the effectiveness of optimisation techniques. • Reduced traffic from 2000 to 1600 terminals. perform quantitative sensitivity analyses. • It becomes more difficult to achieve high Frequency Re-use Efficiency as cells are packed closer together. analyse coverage. • Control of cell antenna radiation is crucial to achieving designed capacity.

Simulations of network performance with these lower quality targets should be made and evaluated. These will generally be areas where the path loss to the best server is too high to allow the required Ec/Io and Eb/No conditions to be met.3. If the network becomes “under stress” from overloading. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 41 . there are various load control measures that can be introduced. Noise Rise failures generally indicate a failure to connect because of over demand. In these circumstances the lower values of Eb/No and bit rate should result in Noise Rise failures being eradicated. or capacity being reduced due to external interference. The location of areas where the likelihood of failure is high should then be identified. It is very useful to gain an estimate of the likelihood of a call being dropped once a connection has been established. Essentially. Their seriousness can be evaluated and remedial action taken.7 Evaluating Simulator Results When examining the prediction made by a simulator it is important to be clear regarding exactly what you are simulating. a Monte Carlo style of static simulator will provide a prediction of the outcome of attempts to establish a connection to the network. These include tolerating a lower Eb/No value and also reducing the bit rate provided on a particular service.

It is possible under such circumstances for the total received power to be so high that Ec/Io failures are recorded due to the high level of Io. • Load control in times of stress will involve reducing Eb/No and reducing bit rates.8 Pilot Pollution The term “pilot pollution” is used in various texts to describe a number of related yet distinct problems.95 kbps). UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 42 . Location of Failures 3.Planning a UMTS Network Evaluating Simulation Results • The simulator provides a prediction of the outcome of attempts to establish a connection to a network. • Of special interest is the probability of a call being dropped. • Eb/No and Ec/Io failures will probably be confined to small “problem areas” which will usually be related to high path loss. they all relate to the situation where a similar path loss exists from a mobile to many (four or more) cells. Planning a UMTS Network Evaluating Simulation Results • With reduced Eb/No and bit rates (e. Noise Rise failures should be extremely rare (ideally zero).g. The performance of the network under such circumstances should be evaluated. Essentially. Eb/No 2 dB below target and voice bit rate reduced to 7.

T2.Planning a UMTS Network Pilot Pollution • If a mobile experiences comparable path loss to a number of cells. the link loss to best serving cell. LL4 etc. • Problems include: low Ec/Io. low capacity on downlink.)... T3 etc. Pp. problems can arise through no single cell dominating. the other power transmitted by the best serving cell.) and the link loss to these interfering cells (LL2... updates to membership of the active set. LL1. dB   PP   Ec LL1  = 10 log  (T1 − PP )(1 − α ) T2 T3 I0  + PN + + + .     LL1 LL2 LL3  UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 43 . frequent The value of Ec/Io at a point depends on the pilot power of the best server. T1 (that will benefit from orthogonality α). LL3. the transmit powers of interfering cells (T1.

In the above situation this total power would become -86. • Total of interference plus noise would be -89.Planning a UMTS Network Ec/Io Ec/Io Pilot Power: 33 dBm “Interference” Power: 40 dBm Noise Floor: -99dBm Link Loss 130 dB • In the above situation the pilot power would be received at a level of 97 dBm. Planning a UMTS Network Ec/Io Ec/Io Pilot Power: 33 dBm “Interference” Power: 40 dBm Link Loss 130 dB Link Loss 131 dB Interference Power: 42 dBm • The power from a neighbouring site would add to the total interference and noise power.2 dBm and Ec/Io would be reduced to -10.5 dBm giving a value for Ec/Io of -7.8 dB UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 44 .5 dB.

then values of i as large as five can be encountered thus reducing the capacity possible on the downlink at those regions suffering from the interference. A quick analysis of the approximate expression for the pole capacity in the downlink direction demonstrates that the value of parameter. If the cell has a similar path loss to many cells. is crucial.More likely is the situation arising where downlink throughput is severely limited by the interference. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 45 . i.

.

This is a maximum even when in hand over (in which situation the neighbour list is merged). the list will be truncated. Scrambling Codes. This list should be optimised. it may omit a significant server. This omitted cell will suffer UL interference from mobiles and.1 Introduction The previous section dealt with planning the “physical” aspects of a UMTS network. This may result in significant potential serving cells being omitted from the list. Put simply. generate DL interference. Neighbours can be either: UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 47 . This is necessary but not sufficient to ensure successful network operation. there is a maximum list length of 32 that a mobile can accommodate. the planner should be aware of the following constraints. Further. neighbours should be prioritised. GSM co-location 4. • If the neighbour list is too short. This will then ensure that any neighbours that are deleted from the list as part of a truncation process are not the most significant neighbours. If the neighbour list is too long the mobile will have to undertake a large amount of processing. further.4 Further issues: Neighbours. Configuration of the network will crucially include defining neighbour lists for each cell in the network. If the combined neighbour lists of the cells in the active set exceeds 32. • As part of the neighbour list optimisation process.

For soft hand over to be entered into. Particularly if the number of cells is limited to three. If the neighbour uses the same UMTS carrier frequency. The standard deviation of this difference in path loss will depend upon the correlation of the path loss to the two cells. One useful indicator of the suitability of a cell as a neighbour is the percentage of the coverage area of the best server for which a potential neighbour has a pilot strength within the SHO margin. Suppose this is taken to be 6 dB.• • • Cells sharing the same UMTS carrier frequency (allowing soft or softer hand over to occur). a planning tool can be used to create a neighbour list. 4. It must be borne in mind that the propagation model within the planning tool will predict the pilot strengths at a pixel. For a cell to be declared as a neighbour it should be possible for a hand over to occur between it and the serving cell. the neighbour will be able to form soft or softer hand over with this cell. It is common to assume a standard value for this standard deviation. suppose the SHO margin in 3 dB and the predicted difference in pilot strengths for a pixel is 5 dB. One criterion is that the path loss should be small enough from the edge of the serving cell to allow a connection to be sustained. Using this criterion.1 Intra-frequency carriers Getting the intra-frequency neighbour list “right” is critical to network success as a cell that cannot join the active set could become a significant interferer. The problem now resolves into one whereby the mean difference is 5 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 48 . the pilot strengths (and. Other Radio Access Technologies (necessitating an “Inter Radio Access Technology” (IRAT) hand over). the path losses) must be within a predefined small window known as the SHO margin (the full SHO process is more complicated than this but this approximation suits the purpose of deciding on a neighbour list). Neighbours will be able to join an active set when a cell for which it is defined as a neighbour is already a member of the active set. The difference between the path loss will also indicate the degree of mutual interference between cells. usually therefore. Softer hand over refers to the situation when both cells are on the same site. Shadow fading should be considered when assessing the likely percentage of that pixel that would meet the requirement for SHO.2. Cells using separate UMTS carrier frequencies (for which hand over will always be “hard”). The remainder of this section deals with the problem of identifying appropriate neighbours. For example.2 Producing and Prioritising the Neighbour List 4. co-located sites will almost invariably be neighbours of each other.

the s. If a required neighbour were missing. 4. Drive test data can be used to optimise the Ncell list. Ec/Io and shadow fading margin. However. This in turn becomes a classic “area of the tail of a normal distribution” question with the key parameters being the standard deviation of 6 dB and the difference between the mean and the SHO window (2 dB). A lower limit of 10 neighbours is advisable. As an initial pointer. Following the generation of the neighbour list. it would appear sensible to limit the length of any one neighbour list to approximately 16.2 Practical Guidelines to Ncell Planning Any planned neighbour list will have to be tuned through monitoring network activity. Further. this would cause serious network problems. The planning tool will produce a list of neighbours meeting the criteria set. In view of the fact that the neighbour list is to be merged with that of others within any active set.d. it should be possible to arrive at a sensible initial plan using a combination of planning tool. The process initially entails producing a neighbour list with the help of a planning tool. The length of the neighbour list can be altered by changing one or more of these parameters. A value of 37% of the area should be logged. Conversely. A judgement can then be made as to the best “cut off” line. The original list can be altered as required. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 49 . Thus SHO could be expected to be established in 37% of the pixels being investigated. This neighbour list can then be implemented onto the network for pre-launch tests. the planner can make a manual check to ensure that no seemingly obvious neighbours have been omitted. The coverage area of a cell is examined in order to determine the other cells that would be capable of joining the active set. the limits of the length of the neighbour list can be agreed. Use of appropriate tables or formulas reveals that the probability is 37%. the list can be prioritised on the basis of the area for which each potential neighbour meets the criteria. drive test measurements and “common sense”. as explained in Section 7. This is done on the basis of the predicted levels of CPICH RSCP.2. it is possible to obtain a very short neighbour list from a planning tool. The same process should be undertaken for all pixels for which the cell being investigated is the “best server” and a list of potential neighbours can be produced in order of significance.dB. is 6 dB and we need to determine the probability of the path length difference being less than 3 dB.

• Tools are viewed as a way of generating a “first pass” neighbour list. • Based on mutual interference of cells. • Cells on the neighbour list will be examined to see if they meet criteria to enter soft or softer hand over with the primary server. outward or mutual. Manually adjusted. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 50 . NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Planning tools. will plan neighbours automatically using proprietary algorithms. • Neighbours can be inward.such as Enterprise 3g. • If a cell with a strong pilot does not join the active set it will become a strong interferer. • Neighbours should be prioritised on the basis of the amount of interference they could cause and the probability of them forming the necessary primary server for an exiting UE.NCELLS Intra-frequency Neighbour Lists • Defines list of potential additions to the active set. • Issues: • Maximum of 32 • Neighbour lists of active set merged • Priority required to avoid “best neighbour” being removed.

• Maximum number? (16?) • Minimum number? (10?) • Adjacent cells plus other significant interferers? • All sites within a given range? • Eventually the list will be optimised using drive test data. • Varying the above parameters will alter the length of the Ncell list.NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Planning tool criteria: • Pilot RSCP: minimum value required • Pilot Ec/Io: minimum value required • Soft HO margin: compares pilot strength of potential neighbour with that of best server. NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • If manual planning is adopted we need to be consistent. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 51 . • Minimum area for which above criteria are met. • List will be prioritised on the basis of the area for which each cell meets the criteria.

The percentage of the macro-cell area served by the micro-cell may not be large.2. if –15 dB is taken as a threshold level. For example. Macro-cells that have a micro-cell that uses a separate frequency embedded must contain that micro-cell as a neighbour.4.2. The main criterion is that the neighbour should be able to sustain a connection rather than any monitoring of the difference between signal strengths from the 2G and 3G cells (as is the case with UMTS intra-frequency hand over). At the initial rollout stage. in the open a level of –97 dBm may be UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 52 .e. this is a value appropriate for cases when the network is heavily loaded. Optimising the neighbour list is important. 4. This should be considered when deciding the criterion for admission to a neighbour list. it is possible that it will not have any intra-frequency neighbours and the inter-frequency neighbour list will then be very significant. IRAT hand over is most crucial at the edge of the UMTS coverage area. Typically. 4. it is likely that only a single carrier will be deployed. this becomes a matter of assessing the signal strength from a potential GSM neighbour.3 Inter-frequency neighbours This list is not as critical as the intra-frequency neighbour list as the interference issue will not be as serious. rather. The threshold level for this would depend on the environment. The effect of cell loading on this parameter must be considered. Further.2.4 Inter-Technology Neighbours. this will be from UMTS to GSM and vice versa.4.1 UMTS to GSM Hand Over Assuming that the GSM network is already established and that interference within this network is at acceptable levels (i. For example. • The criteria will not be based on the difference between the pilot strengths of the two cells but. the attenuation afforded by filters (typically 33 dB) must be considered when computing the effective value of Io. A final point is that. This is usually assessed using Ec/Io as an indicator. that the GSM network does not drop calls due to intra-network interference). IRAT hand over is expected to occur frequently. It should be noted that this would involve modifying the neighbour lists of existing 2G cells. in the initial stages of UMTS rollout. on the ability of the potential neighbour cell to provide a connection. However the following issues should be borne in mind: • If a micro-cell is deployed to serve a hot spot using a separate frequency.

Further. One major issue is that the cell density of the GSM network may be much greater than that of the UMTS network. Further issues that have to be considered include the type of service for which hand over is possible. However. 4. Simply looking at GSM carriers that provide significant signal strength over a certain percentage of the coverage area of a UMTS cell could lead to a very long neighbour list being generated. If the GSM network is mature. the decision on the neighbour list will be further influenced by whether the IRAT hand over will be implemented for coverage or capacity reasons. Handover (or re-selection onto the UMTS network) will occur only in idle mode. For example.2 GSM to UMTS Hand Over An active call will not hand over from GSM to UMTS.2. If a planning tool is used to perform the initial neighbour planning. further. then an alternative UMTS cell will be available for hand over and no GSM neighbours will be required. The planning of a GSM to UMTS list should be prepared in a similar manner to list for hand overs in the other direction. This would involve identifying the area UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 53 . a further level of the decision making process is required. -82 dBm should be required. Note that the maximum number of neighbours that can be analysed by any UE applies to when in soft hand over and. an initial step should be to identify the GSM cells that provide coverage over a significant percentage of the UMTS cell. Hand over to a UMTS cell should be a priority for a suitably enabled UE. the UMTS network is there to provide enhanced services and additional capacity and hand over in this direction should be possible Therefore. if indoor coverage is required in the area in question. includes any interfrequency and IRAT neighbours. The area of the cell that we need to concentrate on is that where coverage from the best serving UMTS cell is judged to be poor. its coverage range will exceed that of the embryonic UMTS network and hand over from GSM to UMTS will not be strictly necessary. then hand over to a GSM network may be required.4. it may be sufficient to hand over to GSM only when UMTS coverage ceases.appropriate but. the data rates offered to a GPRS service in each network should be defined. If this level is high. An IRAT neighbour list utilising a planning tool should offer the possibility of considering only those areas where UMTS pilot strength is below a certain level. Therefore. it should be possible to hand over a voice call to a GSM network but whether a video telephony call will revert to voice only in a GSM area is another matter. each GSM cell could have UMTS cells in its neighbour list. If the level is low. Once it has conducted a UMTS to GSM hand over. This decision can be based on the pilot level at the edge of the area for which a cell is the best server. Once these GSM cells have been identified. the call will remain on the GSM network until termination. Initially.

for which a GSM cell is the best server on the GSM network and assessing the potential of UMTS cells as neighbours. Ec/No Enter compressed mode Perform Hand Over time UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 54 . say. -95 dBm. IRAT Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Hand Over • Active UE will hand over to GSM when Ec/No thresholds are met. IRAT Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Hand Over • Customers transferring to 3g should: • gain access to video telephony services • benefit from higher data rates for GPRS and HSCSD • experience a service “at least as good as GSM” for voice services • Satisfying this last requirement will necessitate successful IRAT hand overs occurring. This would be based on a criterion such as the percentage of the area for which the UMTS pilot strength was above. • Ec/No should be logged.

• Idle UE can undergo reselection in both directions. • The neighbour list includes: • The co-located GSM cell • Neighbours of this cell UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 55 . IRAT Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Hand Over • The neighbour list of UMTS cells should include GSM cells.IRAT Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Hand Over • Active UE will not hand back to UMTS network.

4. It may indeed be possible to allocated scrambling codes to the entire network on the basis of using the same code number throughout. There are advantages if the number of codes per group is restricted or if the number of groups used is restricted. Code planning for UMTS networks is not as influential on performance as frequency planning is for GSM networks.3 Scrambling Code Planning A cell must be allocated 1 of a possible 512 scrambling codes. 1 and 2).g. These advantages are in the form of: • • Handover time/success Mobile battery life Often all cells in a cluster will be allocated the same code number (each cell would then have a different group). confusion will result. The 512 codes are divided into 64 groups with 8 codes in each group. This provides a straightforward way of ensuring that identical codes do not interfere with each other. An alternative strategy is to allocate cells on a particular site three codes from the same group (e. This is specific to a manufacturer and it is therefore not possible to generalise regarding an optimum planning strategy. The scrambling code is the pilot channel. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 56 . This would then provide a re-use factor of 64. The mobile uses this to synchronise to so that it can demodulate traffic channels and common control channels. Speed of acquisition depends on the match between the allocations of codes in the network and the search strategy of the mobile. If it receives the same pilot channel from two or more cells. Adjacent clusters would be allocated a different code number. 0. Different sites would then be allocated different code groups (from 0 to 63). which should be sufficient while the site density is not great. It is clear that satisfactory network operation requires that a mobile receive a particular pilot channel from a clearly identifiable cell.

It is important to be aware of initial criteria that should be met regarding • • • Coverage Capacity Interference Network capacity will be limited by the number of sites and the sophistication of the technology employed (e. A typical link budget for this is given below. is diversity implemented).g. For a given configuration. For any environment a maximum link loss can be determined for a given service. There is a general expectation that UMTS should provide more than voice services as standard and a 64 kbit/s video-telephone is often selected as a “benchmark” service. The question “for which service shall we plan coverage?” is important. 5. Note that the strategy is to determine the maximum link loss that can be tolerated on the uplink and then use downlink parameters to indicate the coverage area on a planning tool.1 Coverage Coverage is thought of as uplink limited.5 Assessing a Plan The nominal plan will exist as a database that can be viewed and manipulated using a planning tool. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 57 . capacity can be thought of as intimately related to interference and therefore meeting interference criteria will lead to the capacity being at a near optimum for the infrastructure employed.

is 7 dB. In other areas.d.d is 11 dB (a typical figure for some indoor environments).1 3 4 17.9 dBm The conclusion from the above link budget is that the planning tool should predict a street level pilot strength of better than –84 dBm at the cell edge in order to give an indoor coverage probability of 95% in an urban area. • Building Penetration Loss: The above budget includes 15 dB as an allowance for building penetration loss. then the budget can be modified to allow for in-car. Typical adjustments relative to the target pilot for urban areas are given below: Environment Dense Urban Suburban Highway Open Adjustment +5 dB -5 dB -10 dB -15 dB UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 58 .d.UL Budget for CS 64 kbit/s kTB Noise Figure of Receiver Required Eb/No Processing Gain Noise Rise Margin Minimum Receive Power UE Tx Power Maximum Link Loss Pilot Tx Power Receive Pilot Strength at UE Margins: Power Control Margin Shadow Fading Margin (95% at indoor s. Whereas a margin of 7 dB is required if the s.d. the target pilot strength would be different to account for differences in: • Shadow Fading Margin: if the s. of 7 dB) Penetration Loss (Urban bldg) SHO gain at cell edge Target Pilot Strength -108.9 dBm 21 dBm 135. is higher then the shadow fade margin must be increased.8 4 dBm dB dB dB dB -114.9 dBm 1 dB 7 dB 15 dB 4 dB -83.9 dB 33 dBm -102. rather than in-building coverage. In areas where coverage is of a highway. 13 dB margin is required if the s. This may reduce in suburban areas and increase in dense urban areas.

It does not refer to levels of pilot strength that should be measured over a required coverage area. at least across a particular environment.Thus. Note also that the predictions are for street level and that building penetration loss has been accounted for by allowing an appropriate margin.1 The effect of MHAs on the coverage targets By using downlink field strength as an indicator of uplink coverage we are making the assumption that the link loss will be the same in both directions. The difference between the link loss in the two directions will be mostly influenced by the feeder loss. However. making a “first pass” assessment very tedious. of course. will make assessing a plan much easier. A consistent approach. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 59 . in assessing a plan table below provides typical coverage criteria. This would reduce the target levels for pilot strength by 3 dB whilst maintaining uplink coverage. It is a common practice to use high quality feeder where longer lengths are required in order to make feeder loss consistent across the network. Examining the above approach makes it clear that planning is made easier if an “all or nothing” decision is made regarding the adoption of MHAs in a network. enter measured feeder losses for every cell) but this would entail setting different coverage targets for each cell. Set feeder loss to 0 dB and use the figures given above 2.1. The MHA can be thought of as effectively “cancelling” the feeder loss and the SNR at the top of the mast is the same as that at the receiver. 5. possible to simulate each site “as it is” (that is. the feeder loss has a direct influence on the downlink pilot strength. Environment Dense Urban Urban Suburban Highway Open Requirement 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-79 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-84 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-89 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-94 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-99 dBm Note that this is a methodology for assessing a plan produced using a planning tool. It is. Set feeder loss to 3 dB and adjust the figures accordingly The second choice is probably more prudent as it will lead to a more valid simulation of the downlink performance in general. The use of a MHA renders this assumption incorrect. In a planning tool there is a choice in using the tool to assess uplink coverage in cases where a MHA is used: 1. 3 dB is a typical nominal figure.

Environment Dense Urban Urban Suburban Highway Open Requirement (MHA implemented. Thus the table above can be considered appropriate if the pilot power at the masthead is +30 dBm (as opposed to +33 dBm at the rack). This automatically accounts for feeder loss. d) Building Penetration loss Note: 1. LNF margin is there is restore probability from 50% point location probability within a pixel to 95% area over the cell coverage area (approx 82% point location probability at cell edge). UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 60 . Calculate the downlink pilot power that would be measured at this level of loss 3. 3 dB feeder loss) 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-82 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-87 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-92 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-97 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-102 dBm A final thought is that the above arguments would not be necessary if a policy of declaring downlink transmit powers at the masthead rather than at the “rack output” was adopted. Therefore prediction to the level indicated in the above table should be for the mean within any pixel.2 Summarising The process may be summarised as follows 1. c) Soft Handover Gain in uplink at cell edge. of LNF is 7 dB. If 3 dB is selected as a suitable figure then the following criteria would be suitable.d. Add margins to consider a) Power control b) Shadow fading (LNF): e. 5. for uplink coverage assessments.1. Different clutter categories will require different margins 2.g. it is recommended that.Summarising. Determine the maximum uplink loss that can be tolerated for the existing network parameters 2. 7 dB to provide a 95% area probability if the s. a standard feeder loss is used when MHAs are implemented.

2. A few issues need to be considered: If the coverage criteria are met. At these points the UE would be likely to enter SHO.6) = 4 dB. We now have to consider the need for a margin for pilot SIR.2. then the value of own cell interference is reduced by 10 log (1-0. it is necessary to artificially load the downlink of the network (by. Nevertheless. allocating a lot of power to a common channel). Allowing a 5 dB margin is expected to prove a cautious approach.2 Predicting levels on a heavily loaded network The level of pilot SIR will reduce as the total downlink power increases. There is no purpose in configuring RBSs with a power capability of 43 dBm if this is not going to be used. This means that variations in the interference level can be expected to be somewhat correlated with variations in the wanted signal level (almost 100% correlation when the interference is “own cell”). for example. If an orthogonality value of 0. It is therefore important that pilot SIR is predicted when the network is heavily loaded. An alternative measure is Ec/No where “No” includes the pilot itself and ignores any orthogonality effect. 5. 95% of the area should be provisioned such that the pilot SIR is better than –10 dB. all pilots involved need to be received with sufficient strength to allow the UE to synchronise. This has the effect that an interferer becomes “wanted”. If 33 dBm of this is the UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 61 . When assessing pilot SIR. Thus 42 dBm of “interference” has an effective value of 38 dBm.1 Pilot SIR and Ec/No When a plan is being assessed with a view to a pre-launch optimisation programme being undertaken. Pilot SIR is expected to be lowest near the cell edge. the network will be “interference limited” rather than “thermal noise limited”. It is therefore not necessary to adopt a LNF margin as high as 7 dB.6 is assumed.2 Interference 5. Then. the main issue is to ensure that the pilot SIR (calculated by considering the effect of orthogonality on “own cell” interference and not including the pilot itself in the total “interference” level) is sufficient to allow the UE to synchronise to the downlink. The exact value required varies from UE to UE but a typical value of –15 dB is used for most planning purposes.5.

namely thermal noise and intra-network interference. The Paging and Acquisition Indicator Channels (PICH and AICH). values for Ec/No of greater than –5 dB should be predicted throughout the portion of the coverage area where the network is “interference limited”.pilot itself then the true interference value is reduced further to 36.3 Expected predictions on a lightly loaded network If the prediction is made without artificially loading the network this will lead to a higher level of Ec/No being predicted. Summarising requirements for assessing interference levels. Pilot Ec/No should be >-11 dB 5. The Synchronisation Channels (P-SCH and S-SCH). is very location dependent. “No” is expected to be dominated by own-network interference. a total reduction of 4. In this case the reduction in total interference power is only 1. In most situations in a practical network. However. Where coverage is achieved to the levels described in the previous section: 1. in particular: • • • • The Pilot (P-CPICH). the power allocated to the pilot is approximately half of the total power allocated to common channels. If Ec/No is predicted on a quiet network then the level of “No” in an area of high interference should drop by approximately 6 dB compared with when the network was heavily loaded (if cell power reduces from 42 dBm to 36 dBm). As a first approximation. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 62 . The difference this makes depends on the relative levels of the sources of “No”.g.2. +42 dBm total Tx power from each cell) 2. the most serious situations are those where the downlink receive power is made up of almost equal contributions from three cells. Pilot SIR should be >-10 dB 3.2 dB. Thus a predicted Ec/No value of better than –11 dB in a heavily loaded network would be an appropriate target to achieve with a planning tool. in turn. in a quiet network.7 dB.3 dBm. Thus. The Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH and S-CCPCH). If “No” is mainly thermal noise then the difference will be small. In this case the difference made when the level of loading is changed depends upon the levels of the common channels. This. Simulate a heavy load on the network (e.

384 kbit/s). that would restrict the area for which this data rate was achievable. SIR = UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 63 . the entire area for which coverage is planned can fairly be regarded as interference limited on the downlink. As the lowest level of coverage is a planned pilot level of –102 dBm. If thermal noise is assumed to be –100 dBm and a heavily loaded network is transmitting a total power 10 dB above that of pilot. Ec/Io is used as a method of estimating the value of i . If a limit on the amount of power available to a single connection were imposed. SIR = Eb/No – Processing Gain (dB) For the remainder of the analysis values such as power are in milliwatts (rather than dBm) and ratios are not expressed in dB. Ec/Io values provide a valuable indicator of the power required to deliver a service (defined by bit rate and Eb/No).An appropriate definition of “interference limited” areas is “those areas where No is 10 dB above thermal noise level when the network is heavily loaded”.g. Ec/Io levels. i . The amount of power required to deliver a particular service is affected by external interference. SIR = Pbearer ( Ptotal − Pbearer )1 − α + i Ptotal (P − P )      total bearer    (1) Pbearer (2) 1 − α + i  Ptotal  Pother   Pother     where Pother = Ptotal − Pbearer It is clear that the parameter. 5. possibly in the downlink only. provide an estimate of the levels of interference.3 High Data Rate services The above guidelines have been derived by making the 64 kbit/s CS service our “benchmark”. It is possible that operators will wish to offer higher data rate services (e. then a pilot level of >-100 dBm will represent the extent of the “interference limited” area. The following equations lead to a method of identifying areas where a particular service can be delivered. knowing the pilot and common channel powers on a cell. affects the power requirement. This is assumed to be a symmetrical service and the downlink pilot strength has been used to indicate where there should be uplink coverage.

or assumed.5 dB Ppilot = 33 dBm Note that. the highest value of x (representing full load) is 0.Ec PPILOT = I 0 PTOT (1 + i ) i= PPILOT E PTOT × c −1 I0 (3) where PPILOT is the transmitted pilot power. In particular it allows the variation in required Ec/Io as a function of x to be predicted if the other parameters are fixed. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 64 . PTOT is the total power transmitted for the Ec/Io tests (e.6 SIR = . In other words. the 39 dBm pilot power alone represents a load of 40%. Substituting for i in (2) gives: SIR = Pbearer Ppilot   P  Pother 1 − α − total +  Pother Pother (Ec I 0 )     P Pbearer P +  α + total − 1 other P Ppilot SIR  Pother   pilot ( Ec 1 I0 ) = = (4) Pbearer  P  xP +  α + total − 1 max  P Ppilot SIR  xPmax  pilot where x = Pother Pmax This allows the level of Ec/Io to be determined if the other parameters are known.6. as the bearer is 39 dBm and the maximum power is 43 dBm. The graph below shows this variation for the following parameters: Pbearer = 39 dBm Pmax = 43 dBm α = 0.g. 36 dBm would be a suitable estimate). if the network was quiet.

8 dBm.8 dBm gives a total of 44. an effective interference power of 43. The remaining 50% is external interference.6 0.0.8 dBm. it is seen that it suggests 39 dBm is sufficient to support a 384 kbps bearer with an Eb/No of 5 dB in an area where Ec/Io on a heavily loaded (loading factor = 1) network is recorded as –13 dB and cells are transmitting a total power of 43 dBm. when the processing gain of 10 dB is considered.2 Loading Factor 0. The logic of this particular instance is now explained.7 0. Orthogonality will reduce this to 36. Hence the SIR will be –5 dB which.9 1 Ec/Io required vs loading If the above chart is examined.4 Ec/Io (dB) -12.Ec/Io for 384 kbps 5 dB Eb/No bearer -12.0 dBm will be received.6 -12. The value of Ec/Io refers to the situation where all cells are transmitting 33 dBm pilot powers and approximately 42. If the bearer is at a level of 39 dBm and the cell is transmitting a total of 43 dBm then “own cell interference” is represented by an equivalent transmit power of 40. agrees with the Eb/No value of +5 dB.2 -12.5 dBm of other common channel powers.8 -13 -13. 43. Hence “other cell” power equals “own cell” power and i equals 1. As i equals 1. A further 45% will come from the own cell interference.0.8 0. A value of Ec/Io of –13 dB indicates that the pilot represents only 5% of the power received.5 0. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 65 .0 dBm.0 dBm added to 36.

perhaps “attempting the impossible” or at least attempting to do something that has previously been regarded as unnecessary. Ec/No • Ec/Io is used interchangeably with Ec/No. • No consideration is given to the effect of orthogonality • The pilot itself is included with Io (or No).6 •Ec/Io = Ec/No = 33 . Ec/Io. • Otherwise time could be spent inefficiently.38.6)= -4 dB •Pilot SIR = 33 .Assessing a Plan Assessing a Plan • As an optimisation engineer. Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR.5 dBm •Orthogonality effect = 10log(1-0.43 = -10 dB •Non pilot power = 42.5 dB UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 66 . optimising capacity can be related directly to optimising interference levels. you may well be presented with someone else’s plan as a starting point. • Plans are assessed on the basis of • Coverage • Capacity • Interference • Capacity will be influenced by the number of sites and. • Pilot SIR considers orthogonality and pilot power is not included as interference power.5 = -5. for a given infrastructure. • It is important that you understand the thinking behind the plan and that we optimise “to the plan”. •Pilot 33 dBm •Total Power 43 dBm •Orthogonality = 0.

• We need a benchmark service: e.Assessing a Plan Coverage • In the first instance.g. •Uplink coverage is limited by path loss.00 dBm/Hz -105.00 0.98 dB • Esc and Double-click on spreadsheet to activate UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 67 .00 19.16 dBm 60% 3.00 mW dBm dBi dB dBm -174.00 2. •Pilot strength indicates path loss.00 dB -171. coverage is assumed to be uplink limited. 64 kbit/s CS (videotelephony). pilot strength (a downlink parameter) is used to assess uplink coverage. Assessing a Plan Coverage Uplink Transmitter Power Tx Antenna Gain Body Loss EIRP including losses Thermal Noise Density Receiver Noise Figure Receiver Noise Density Receiver Noise Power Loading factor Interference Margin (NR) 250.00 dBm 3.00 21. • In the plan.

• Presence of MHA means that the masthead becomes the point of consideration. the MHA will “look after it” from there. • Effectively. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 68 . MHA allows feeder loss to be ignored. • If the DL is used as an indicator. • Feeder loss cannot be ignored on the UL.Assessing a Plan General Conclusions • Benchmark service 64 kbit/s. • LNF margin 7 dB • SHO gain at cell edge. rather than the rack output: once the UL signal arrives at the masthead. •Note: -87 dBm is “local mean” level (the “planned” level) at street level. 4 dB Eb/No • Urban Environment: 15 dB penetration loss • MHA as standard • 30 dBm pilot power at masthead (33 dBm at rack output). the MHA must be considered. •This is to ensure that 95% of points in the coverage area have pilot better than -94 dBm Assessing a Plan The effect of MHAs • MHA helps the uplink but not the downlink. • If an estimate of 3 dB feeder loss is adopted then pilot requirements are 3 dB less with an MHA than they would be if the MHA was removed. 4 dB • Power Control Margin 1 dB • UE Tx Power +21 dBm • UL coverage is expected where DL pilot is better than -87 dBm.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 69 . Environment Dense Urban Urban Suburban Highway Open Requirement (MHA implemented.Assessing a Plan Requirements for different environments • Different environments will require different offsets in the link budget. • +21 dBm assumption is considered appropriate. • Network can “decide” whether to set this to +24 dBm. Assessing a Plan The effect of UL Tx Power • UL budget is directly affected by the UL transmit power. • +21 dBm is assumed in this instance. 3 dB feeder loss) 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-82 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-87 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-92 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-97 dBm 95% of pixels covered to a pilot strength of >-102 dBm •Note: 95% of pixel requirement simply acknowledges that nothing is perfect •It is not a “coverage probability” simply a requirement for the planning tool output. The following table represents a typical variety of pilot strength requirements as output by a planning tool. • This would have implications for UE battery life.

if wanted signal reduces. especially if majority of interference is “own cell” interference. not thermal noise). interference is expected to reduce as well. • Correlation will be very high. • Additionally.Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No • Pilot SIR is a pass/fail requirement. the network will automatically identify the strongest server as “best”. • A margin of 2 dB is expected to be sufficient.” UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 70 . • Issues • Using Ec/No as an indicator (pilot SIR is not measured) • Planning margins for Ec/No Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No: margins • Most networks will be “interference limited” (90%+ of UE Receive power will be signal plus interference. • “95% of area should have pilot SIR better than -13 dB. • Therefore. • UE dependent parameter but pilot SIR > -15 dB is generally accepted.

Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No: SHO • SHO will allow processing gains to be made on the message. α. • However. interference factor 10 log [1. Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No • “95% of area should have pilot SIR better than -13 dB. • Own cell interference will be reduced by orthogonality and by not considering the pilot itself as an interferer. • Orthogonality factor.5 dB Pilot SIR = -5 dB [33 dBm -38 dBm] assuming α = 0. • If all power was “own cell”.α] (= . then 33 dBm pilot power plus 42 dBm other channels would result in: • • Ec/No = -9.” • How does this relate to pilot Ec/No? • Requirement is under situations of heavy loading: interference powers of 42 dBm from all cells would be appropriate. synchronisation of message channels is crucial to achieving this gain.4 dB if α=0. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 71 . • ALL pilots must be received to a SIR better than -15 dB.6.6).

1 dB (a difference of only 1.6 dB Total effective interference power equivalent to (46 dBm + 38 dBm =) 46. • Suppose receive power is: • wanted pilot 33 dBm • own cell interference 42 dBm (reduced to effectively 38 dBm by orthogonality) • other cell power 46 dBm (two heavily loaded interferers at similar path loss to wanted cell. • Then the reduction is less. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 72 .5 dB) Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No • If a pilot SIR of better than -13 dB is required. • • • • Total power received equivalent to 47.1 dBm.Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No • The most serious situation is where the UE receives interference from many cells. Pilot SIR = -13.g. Summary: •perform a prediction with cells heavily loaded (e. +43 dBm Tx power per cell) •pilot Ec/No should be >-15 dB.6 dBm transmit power (42 dBm + 33 dBm + 46 dBm) Ec/No -14. a pilot Ec/No (in conditions of heavy loading) of better than -15 dB would be an appropriate target.

Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded networks • If simulation is done for a lightly loaded network (total transmit power 3 dB above pilot): • 95% of area for which coverage is provided should have a predicted Ec/No greater than -8 dB. Summary: • perform a prediction with cells lightly loaded (common channels only) • pilot Ec/No should be >-8 dB. Ec/No will vary likewise. •Traffic •Paging and AICH •Common control •synchronisation •Pilot • In a cell with a maximum power capability of +43 dBm.Assessing a Plan Pilot SIR and Ec/No: lightly loaded networks • The level of loading will have a great effect on Ec/No levels. by 7 dB. • Variation in transmitted power is from 36 dBm to 43 dBm a variation of 7 dB. typically 33 dBm would be pilot and 33 dBm would be other common channel powers. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 73 .

Assessing a Plan High Data Rate Services • So far coverage predictions have been related to: • Using DL pilot as an indicator of UL coverage • 64 kbps. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 74 . 6 dB Eb/No CS is benchmark service • Service is symmetrical • One additional service to be offered is likely to be 384 kbps PS in downlink only. Assessing a Plan High Data Rate Services SIR = Pbearer (Ptotal − Pbearer )1 − α + i Ptotal ( P − P )     total bearer    Ec PPILOT = I 0 PTOT (1 + i ) i= PPILOT −1 Ec PTOT × I 0 • An iterative process is required for solution • Setting Pbearer to the maximum on RHS is a sensible approximation. • Eb/No required is predicted to be 6 dB (BLER?) • Processing Gain of 10 dB leads to a wideband SIR of -4 dB as a requirement.

• If simulation at full loading is undertaken.Assessing a Plan High Data Rate Services Ec/Io for 384 kbps 6 dB Eb/No bearer -11.6 Loading Factor Ec/Io required vs loading 0.4 -12.6 0.5 Ec/Io (dB) -11.8 -12 -12.4 -11.8 0.9 1 • Graph assumes max bearer power of 39 dBm • Ec/Io requirements for different loading factors are given. Ec/Io of -12. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 75 .2 -12.6 0.7 0.4 dB is required.

.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 77 .6 Drive Test Analysis 6. Measured results should correspond to the plan. the planned levels were for a pilot level of –87 dBm. However. This is the mean level at the edge of the cell. It must be remembered. certain guidelines were adopted regarding the levels of pilot strength. 21 dBm of transmit power on the uplink will deliver the required SNR at the mast head allowing for a building penetration loss of 15 dB. The previous section gives details of recommended planning levels including appropriate margins. The reasoning was that. This level was arrived at by building in a margin that should lead to the pilot being greater than –94 dBm in 95% of locations. pilot SIR and pilot Ec/No that should be regarded as key parameters for planning purposes.1 Introduction When the network was planned and assessed. For an urban environment. These have been designed so that the resulting radio coverage and interference levels following the network build phase will be acceptable. that the drive test will be carried out at street level with an external antenna and that the requirement in many areas is that the coverage should extend to indoors. if the pilot is at a strength of –94 dBm at street level. however. the statistics for cells serving urban areas as a whole should be that the pilot strength is measured as better than –94 dBm for 95% of locations.

Interference. – Service allocation. Handover region size and location – Neighbour list assessment – Access. Environment Dense Urban Urban Suburban Highway Open Planned Mean at Cell Edge -82 dBm -87 dBm -92 dBm -97 dBm -102 dBm Drive Test 95% threshold -89 dBm -94 dBm -99 dBm -104 dBm -109 dBm 6. call success drops and Handover stats. An engineer will have responsibility for a particular cluster and design drive test routes for that cluster. Delay • An engineer will have responsibility for a particular cluster. Neighbours. Drive Testing Drive Testing: Optimisation of Site Clusters • Procedure • Identify size and location of clusters • Define Cluster characteristics – Coverage. FER/BLER. the network is divided into cell clusters (or “groups” or “bubbles”).The table gives the corresponding results for cells serving other areas. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 78 . BER. pilot power. Max and Av.2 Dividing a Network into Clusters In order to divide the necessary work in a way that allows optimisation to be carried out in a manageable manner. handover and call failures • Take Measurements – Drive tests – Ec/Io. UE TX Power. Throughput.

Drive Testing Cluster Defining • Identify Clusters of sites • Based on • • Terrain Traffic distribution • Network is to be optimised in clusters • This method provides for • Work delegation • Progress tracking • Minimises tool processing time Drive Testing Cluster Defining Eg Scrambling Codes. Node B Parameters Network Acceptance Cluster Approval Datafill Site Approval Network of clusters Cluster of sites Site UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 79 .

5 Measured values of Ec/No.Drive Testing Drive Test Routes • Drive testing should be performed on radial and circumferential routes • Radial routes show variation in signal quality with distance from base station • Circumferential routes provide predictions for signal quality in different directions from the base station • Typically. A circular route at a constant distance from the site is not appropriate. Similarly.4 Cells covering more than one environment It will often be the case that a cell’s coverage area includes more than one clutter category. 6. 6. If the urban area is almost all at the –87 dBm mean level then it can be expected that the probability of a measurement made at any point is above –94 dBm is only 83% rather than 95%. As well as measuring pilot power. The drive test route must be representative for the cell. This fact should be borne in mind when assessing measurement results. three routes should be defined per cluster: consistency is vital.3 Choosing the drive test route. being concentrated in locations where the path loss is high. 6. Ec/No (or Ec/Io as it is sometimes referred to) is also measured. The route should allow a rich variety of distance and bearing variations to be included in the measurements. This is an inevitable result of the urban area. Of course. in this instance. driving along a straight line at a constant bearing from the site will not reveal sufficient information. a cell’s coverage area consists of mainly open areas plus a small urban area at its edge. Suppose for example. placing sites so that areas of high subscriber density are far away is not good planning practice. This can distort the relationship between the planned mean level at the cell edge and the measured statistics. The requirement is that pilot SIR is above –15 dB in 95% UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 80 .

urban area will be planned to have a pilot power of -87 dBm at cell edge. Care must be taken to ensure that loading levels are known and targets adjusted accordingly. • E. • This is done to achieve a 95% probability of a different level over the coverage area as a whole. the better Ec/Io the higher the capacity. If the network is lightly loaded then the level of No can be expected to fall by approximately 6 dB. Variations in network load will impact directly on Ec/No levels. just that the situation will vary with loading levels. Therefore drive tests should reveal that 95% of locations for which coverage is provided should experience an Ec/Io better than –10 dB. This does not mean that the network quality has reduced. Assessing a Plan Drive Test Results Environment Dense Urban Urban Suburban Highway Open Planned Mean at Cell Edge -82 dBm -87 dBm -92 dBm -97 dBm -102 dBm Drive Test 95% threshold -89 dBm -94 dBm -99 dBm -104 dBm -109 dBm • We plan for a mean (50%) level at the cell edge. This corresponds to a requirement for Ec/No that it should be better than approximately –16 dB for 95% of the area in conditions of heavy loading.of locations for which coverage is provided when the network is heavily loaded. in all but the most exceptional circumstances. 6.g. The downlink of the network will. In areas of high demand for downlink traffic. Thus it may be expected to find a higher requirement for Ec/Io in areas of high subscriber density. if the cell transmit power varies from 36 dBm to 43 dBm the value of Ec/Io at a particular location will vary by 9 dB. Thus.6 The effect of network loading levels. It should be noted that this is a minimum value to ensure successful network operation. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 81 . It does not include and capacity optimisation features. This should translate to 95% of measurements over the cell area as a whole being >-94 dBm. be interference limited.

under conditions of heavy loading. • “Good Planning” entails placing sites close to areas of high subscriber density. • Ec/Io should be greater than -16 dB when network is heavily loaded. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 82 . • Higher values of Ec/Io will be needed where high data rates on DL are required.Assessing a Plan Drive Test Routes: cells covering multiple environments • Suppose the pink area in this diagram is the urban area with the other categories being open or suburban. • Planning would seek to ensure that pilot at cell edge would be >-87 dBm. • For quiet network Ec/Io should be greater than -10 dB for 95% of the area. • Urban area will not produce results of 95% >-94 dBm in this instance • This must be borne in mind when assessing drive test results. Assessing a Plan Drive Tests: measuring Ec/Io • Requirement is for pilot SIR to be greater than -15 dB in 95% of locations where coverage is acceptable. • However location probability at cell edge is a 83% probability of being >-94 dBm.

Assessing a Plan

Drive Tests: effect of loading on Ec/Io
• Ec/Io can vary by 7 dB with loading conditions. • It is vital that conditions at the time of measuring are known (you will not get Ec/Io>-10 dB on a heavily loaded network). • For pre-launch optimisation it is common to assume the network is quiet. • But, if someone else is doing a load test while the drive test is taking place……. •Drive test

•Load test

6.7 Measurement Samples, Scanner Settings and Drive Test Speeds
It is generally regarded that the objective of a drive test measurement campaign is to obtain information regarding the “local mean” in a particular area. It should ignore fast fading but respond to changes due to “slow” or “shadow” fading. The diagram below show fast fading produced by more than one reflection imposed on top of a mean level that is nearly constant. The reason that we are more interested in the local mean is that: • • It is this level that the path loss model attempts to predict Mobile (UE) terminals are designed to accommodate multipath environments.
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Fast fading We can now discuss how the optimum results can be obtained using, as an example, the Anritsu scanner.

6.7.1

The Lee Sampling Criteria

Obtaining the most appropriate results depends on making the correct number of measurements at the correct intervals and averaging over an appropriate window. This topic has been studied in depth by William Lee and the results are known as the “Lee criteria”. These can be summarised as: • • • Measurements must be made at intervals of at least 0.8 λ. The averaging window should be 40 λ in length 36 samples should contribute to each “average” reading.

Following on from these recommendations it is possible to describe the ideal measuring campaign as one that obtains a measurement every 1.1 λ and processes them so as to provide an average over 36 samples. At a frequency of 2142.4 MHz, that corresponds to: Measurements must be made at intervals of at least 11 cm. The averaging window should be 5.6 m in length
UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 84

36 samples should contribute to each “average” reading. The ideal measurement campaign would take measurements every 15 cm.

6.7.2

The Anritsu Scanner The Anritsu Scanner will report on individual pilot signals within a live network. This involves synchronising to a particular cell in the presence of external interference and assessing the level of the pilot channel of that cell. Thus it performs a much more sophisticated task than a simple spectrum analyser would. This functionality is vital if it is to be able to report on signals from more than one cell within a network. Typical default settings would be: • • • Sampling period: 10 ms per channel (fixed) Number of channels: 6 (user defined) Averaging period: 1 second (user defined)

At a speed of 50 kph this would translate to: • • • One sample every 83 centimetres 16 samples per averaging period Averaging window corresponds to a distance of 13.8 metres.

The table below gives the figures for other speeds.
Speed (kph) inter-sample distance (cm) Samples per period Averaging distance (m) 20 33 16.7 5.6 40 67 16.7 11.1 60 100 16.7 16.7 80 133 16.7 22.2 100 167 16.7 27.8 120 200 16.7 33.3

Already, something of a dilemma is emerging. If the ideal measurement campaign is taken as one that would take measurements every 15 cm and 36 samples are taken for every data point then the measurement period should be set to 500 ms and the speed of the test vehicle reduced to 10 kph. It is important that the implications of these variances are established.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004

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2 dBm whereas the minimum level measured with the 11.8λ with an averaging window of 11. For example. This may well be seen as acceptable in the light of the unavoidable inaccuracies mentioned. The minimum level measured with the 5. the larger the potential error in the average.6 metres (Lee criteria) Every 0. If only 17 samples are taken then the standard deviation will rise to 36 17 = 1. The fact that the original criteria were derived for CW measurements makes it necessary to consider two further facts: The measurements have been made over a wide (4 MHz) bandwidth The receiver can use a Rake receiver with up to 6 fingers.8λ with an averaging window of 5.Inter –sample distance too large: not in itself a problem.6 metre window was –94. A 45 metre route was used with measurements being made: Every 0. Additionally. Lee aimed for a standard deviation of 1 dB. That corresponds to 6 metres. This is appropriate for (highly accurate) carrier wave (CW) measurements. The most appropriate value depends on the environment. the Lee criteria specify a minimum distance to ensure independence of samples.2 metres. If the UE is in the middle of a flat field. The Lee Criteria specifies an averaging window of 40 wavelengths. It should be small enough to capture variations due to obstacles such as buildings and trees. an accuracy of ±2 dB is quoted for the CPICH measurements and ±3 dB for CPICH SIR. Judging by the above comments. for example.3 The Effect of Varying Averaging Distance The next requirement is to establish a required averaging window. then an averaging distance of several tens of metres may be appropriate with the value of 6 metres only being necessary when the environments becomes more complicated to describe. it must be small enough to allow detection of a reduction in signal strength due to increasing distance from the base station. However it must be borne in mind that the accuracy with which pilot channels can be measured does not rival that of CW measurements.45 dB. the major problem comes from the averaging distance being too large to permit users to be confident that all coverage holes will have been detected.1 dBm. Clearly the size of the window has the effect of UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 86 .7. The smaller the number of samples. 6. Averaging Distance too large. Samples per period.2 metre window was –93.

78 16.17 0.02 0.00 0.56 5. 28 m averaging -75 0 -80 -85 -90 -95 distance (m*28) pilot strength 10 20 30 40 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 pilot strength dBm 87 .22 133.28 100 0.02 0.01 0. As an example.00 0.22 40 0. A more detailed experiment was conducted in 3 different environments.7.06 1 11.28 100 0.56 20.17 20 0.2 5.11 50.03 4 22.01 0.2 2.2 s at 100 kph) which equals the averaging distance recommended by Lee.56 25.67 40 0.5 5.33 0.28 100 0.22 10. Graphs are shown below for the same route.67 0.00 0. consider the results for the measurement in a motorway environment.67 1.89 50.00 0.03 0.67 0.33 0.22 40 0.03 2 11.78 100.06 1 1 5.67 0.11 66. Samples Distance Sample Rate Averaging Averaging per between Vehicle speed (kph) (s) Period (s) Distance (m) reading samples (m) 100 0.03 1 5.11 16.4 Summary of Results The size of the window made a measurable difference to the measurements.6 m averaging distance (0.56 33.56 33.22 40 0.67 20 0.17 20 0.00 0.17 20 20 0.33 Environment Motorway Suburban commercial six fingers (commercial) 6.01 1 27. one with a 28 m averaging distance (1 s at 100 kph) and the other with a 5.06 1 27.5 13.33 16.smoothing out dips in the signal level.00 0.02 1 11.

This corresponds to the 5% and 10% points on the distribution graph. In particular the series of measurements with pilot strength below –90 dBm are presented much more clearly with the 5.7. Cumulative distributions -70 -75 0 level -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 percentile 20 40 60 80 100 5.6 m averaging detects events that are missed when 28 m averaging is used. There is approximately a 5 dB separation between the two curves at this point. for example. Clearly. An averaged value must contain a large number of points if large random variations are to be avoided. The cumulative distributions are also different as shown below. 5 channels are used.6 m averaging 28 m averaging We would be particularly interested in measurments that are exceeded 90% or 95% of the time.5. Lee recommends 36 samples UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 88 . 6. it is desirable to make the averaging distance 6 metres where possible.5 Implications The Anritsu scanner makes measurements at a rate of 100 per second but this reduces if more than one channel is being measured such that if.6) Pilot strength 50 100 150 200 Whilst the similarity of the two curves is apparent. then the measurement rate would be 20 per second.6 m averaging -75 level in dBm 0 -80 -85 -90 -95 distance (m*5. it is clear that the data employing 5.6 m averaging data.

of Channels (11. Experimentation suggests that the procedure adopted is to lock onto a strong pilot and stay locked on until it drops to a level so low that it can no longer decode it satisfactorily. of Channels (5.6 m 1 second 11. each location can be measured with the appropriate cell specified at each location. Speed of Vehicle (kph) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Max No.2 m 1 second 22. best intelligence suggests that five channels should be monitored with the result that the averaging distance increases with speed. it is possible to recommend the following settings for general measurements: Speed 20 kph 40 kph 80 kph Number of Chans 5 5 5 Averaging Period Averaging distance 1 second 5. However.but 20 can be taken as a sensible minimum.6 Anritsu Selection Procedure and Recommended Settings If the Anritsu is set to record one channel only.4 m Speeds should be limited to 80 kph. for different speeds it is possible to determine the maximum number of channels to allow a 5. it does not always display the best server at any location.2 m) 10 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 6. If there is reason to suspect that the best pilot may have been missed (by there being five nearly equally strong UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 89 . This would be a tedious process and would therefore only be appropriate for detailed coverage examinations. Thus it does not display the best pilot at all locations.7. Thus. The only way of being confident that we accurately record the best pilot signal is to examine sufficient pilot signals so that some are “null” recordings” and then record the best pilot at each location.6 m averaging distance to be maintained. Then. At the moment.6 m) 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Max No.

affects the accuracy of the measurement.pilots) then the number of channels can be increased in that area. from examining the GPS data. post processing can be used to remove data points when it is clear. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 90 . This results in the number of samples per data point reducing. If the vehicle becomes immobile for periods it is recommended that measurements are suspended (by using the F3[Break] button on pages 2/3 or 3/3 of the soft key menu) for the duration. that the UE was stationary. Failing this. This. in turn. it is best to keep the speed as constant as possible whilst making the measurements. As a further recommendation.

Experiments reveal that the effect of changing the number of fingers depends on the environment. The results certainly did not suggest that. The scanner demodulates the individual pilots and measures the amplitude at baseband. the fading is referred to as “flat”. If the fading is approximately equal across the bandwidth being investigated. as multipath variation may be less. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 91 . If the wideband signal suffers selective fading. However. If there is a large amount of such multipath then the improvement may be substantial. It is likely therefore that multipath fading is going to cause both flat and selective fading in the different environments that will be encountered. Two signals of a different path length will be in anti-phase only at one frequency.7. it is thought appropriate to recommend this as a setting for measurements. one would expect the multi-path to be less but its effect on a sampled set of data points is difficult to predict. by using 6 fingers. As 3 is the minimum number of fingers that a UE must be equipped with. If there are no multipath components with sufficient path length difference to cause a selective fade. multipath fading for long path length differences would be considerably reduced. If the degree of fading is noticeably different across the spectrum then the fading is referred to as “selective” or “notch”. Intuitively. It is nevertheless reasonable to assume that the amount of fast fading will be less if the Rake receiver is used. A key issue is the effect of the number of fingers used on the receiver. then the relationship between the reported pilot level and the wideband power level is hard to predict. The number of Rake fingers will have an effect that is dependent on the radio environment. A selective fade will occur when the path length difference is in excess of approximately 70 metres. It would be expected that. flat fading will still be encountered where the path length difference is small. A Rake receiver is capable of compensating for multipath fading where it is selective rather than flat. The Anritsu scanner can be set to use a variable number of fingers from 1 (effectively not a Rake receiver) to 6. If the path length difference is very small the fading is present over a wider frequency range than if the path length difference is large.7 Wide-Band Measurements with a Rake Receiver Deep fading is a frequency-dependent phenomenon..6. it is possible to reduce the number of samples per measurement. then no improvement can be expected.

8 2 0.6 0.8 33.6 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 92 .8 1 1.8 1 1.4 0.6 11.7 7.3 6.2 0.2 0.2 3.6 6.7 30.2 1.6 1.3 38.7 20.4 1.0 44.2 1.8 2 0.4 0.7.0 55.6 0.8 22.0 22.7 22.4 5.8 1 1.1 2.8 1 1.2 0.4 1.2 0.4 5.2 0.1 16.0 13.6 0.3 16.8 2 Averaging Distance (m) 1.3 4.9 11.2 1.9 44.4 1.6.1 35.4 1.2 27.7 31.8 2 0.1 2.7 8.9 10.2 26.3 15.6 1.4 0.7 10.8 Reference Table Speed (kph) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Number of Channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Averaging Time (s) 0.8 2 0.6 0.4 50.4 6.6 17.6 0.0 11.6 1.4 8.8 20.3 4.4 1.6 40.2 1.2 4.3 26.8 8.6 1.2 1.6 1.9 13.0 33.4 0.4 0.1 13.0 23.3 17.8 1 1.2 3.

two graphs are presented: one with every data point recorded. the ideal situation is that the averaging window is approximately 6 metres. It is important that post-processing is conducted in order to avoid misleading results.d.9 The need for averaging Some scanners do not offer the possibility of specifying an “averaging window” (they simply export every measurement point). A table of the c. the intention is to smooth fast fading caused by multipath reflections. Averaging a number of samples achieves this. Again. best server 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 best server 0 5000 10000 Unsmoothed Data best svr moving average (20) 0 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 best svr moving average (20) 5000 10000 Smoothed Data UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 93 . with over 20 samples made at equal intervals along this distance.6. the other with smoothing applied so that one point is recorded every 6 metres. As an example of the effect of this. For example.7.f is also presented.

Drive Testing Sampling and Vehicle Speeds • Drive testing should measure the “local mean”.5 dB. Signal variation due to more than one multi-path reflection with nearconstant mean level. Of particular interest is the level not reached only 5% of the time. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 94 . This is shown in bold. • Shadow fading should be included. That is: • Multi-path variation should be ignored. well within the margin of error of such measurements. The difference in this case is only 0.Comparison of CDFs It can be seen that the difference between the cdfs (the parameter most used) is greatest at the extremes.

• Samples to be taken at least 0.8 λ apart • This corresponds to: • An averaging window of 5. Drive Testing Using the Scanner • Scanners have a fixed sampling rate. • E. Anritsu scanner: • Sampling period 10 ms per channel • Typical number of channels: 6 (each channel now 60 ms) • Averaging period can be set.6 metres. it is “per reading”: if you are sampling 6 channels the rate is one sixth.g. • You either define an averaging period or post-process. • However.Drive Testing Sampling and Vehicle Speeds: Lee Criteria • William Lee identified “ideal” measurement process: • Average 36 samples over a distance of 40 λ to get a data point. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 95 . 1 s typical. • 36 samples taken at least 11 cm apart.

2 27.7 Averaging distance (m) 5. the speed would have to be 20 kph.7 16.45 dB • Note pilot power measurement accuracy quoted as ±2 dB.3 Drive Testing Consequences of violating Lee Criteria • Inter-sample distance too large: • Not in itself a problem (Lee specifies minimum distance). Anritsu scanner: • In order to get the averaging distance down to 5. of 1 dB. but you have to fit in a large number of samples into the averaging distance.6 11. • Too few samples: • 36 samples predicted to give s.7 22.7 16.1 16.d. • Averaging window too large: • Miss sharp peaks and troughs • Most appropriate value depends on environment. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 96 .8 33.7 16.7 16. inter-sample distance Samples per Speed (kph) ( c m ) period 20 33 40 67 60 100 80 133 100 167 120 200 16. • 17 samples would give s.6 metres.g.7 16.d of √(36/17) = 1.Drive Testing Using the Scanner • E.

Drive Testing Consequences of violating Lee Criteria • Varying the averaging window: 28 m averaging -75 pilot strength dBm 0 -80 -85 -90 -95 distance (m*28) pilot strength 10 20 30 40 28 metre averaging 5.6 m averaging -75 0 level in dBm -80 -85 -90 -95 distance (m*5.6 m averaging 28 m averaging 20 40 60 80 100 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 97 .6 metre averaging Drive Testing Consequences of violating Lee Criteria • Effect is to miss the extremes • Affects the cumulative distribution: Cumulative distributions -70 -75 0 -80 level -85 -90 -95 -100 percentile 5.6) Pilot strength 50 100 150 200 5.

However: • If the coverage in certain areas causes concern. Drive Testing Drive Test measurements: the need for averaging • If you simply take “spot” measurements. and requires a detailed investigation. -72 dBm (still very good). • There is no point in correcting a measured value of -68 dBm pilot (very good) to.Drive Testing Lee Criteria: Conclusions • Do not issue a global recommendation for 20 kph drive test speeds. best server 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -80 0 best svr moving average (20) 0 5000 10000 -20 -40 0 5000 10000 best server -60 best svr moving average (20) -100 -120 -100 Unsmoothed data Smoothed data UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 98 . say. there are ways of maximising accuracy and confidence in measurements. you will include multipath variations.

For example. it is often necessary to know the condition of the uplink and of the downlink when choosing between alternative proposed methods of network optimisation.f. The optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements to identify problems. The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the distance to the nearest cell remains approximately constant. This will often entail taking a number of KPI’s in conjunction.d. reveals differences.5 dB difference at crucial 5% (95% better than) level. and identify the best method for enhancing network performance. Only 0.Drive Testing The need for averaging • C. choose the most appropriate measure to rectify the problem. a drive test in undertaken during the busy hour in a live network. The following KPIs are extracted from the measured data. Averaging can make file sizes more manageable (they can be enormous) and speed analysis as a result.8 Interpretation of Measurements It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made. 6. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 99 . For example.

In this circumstance a load will be transferred to the downlink. then an improvement of about 2 dB can be expected (an exact calculation is possible).Ec/No Serving Cell Ec/No Neighbour 1 Ec/No Neighbour 2 Average Uplink Channel Power Average Downlink Total Traffic Channel Power -11 dB -20 dB -22 dB +21. The MHA appears to be an attractive. rapid. We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage viewpoint (dangerously near judging by the uplink power levels recorded). the data received shows that the downlink traffic power is near its limit and that the downlink would become the limiting factor if UL diversity was implemented.6 dBm Note the maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm and the maximum total downlink channel power is 42 dBm. probably caused by high feeder loss. However. relatively cheap solution – but – would it work? It is possible for the MHA to offer no improvement at all. We can see from the pilot measurements that there is only one dominant serving cell. the cell is under stress (which is probably why the drive test was performed). What can an intelligent look at such results reveal? Firstly. the possibility of increasing capacity must be assessed.4 dBm +39. Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test was because coverage levels were reported as poor in this particular road. This level of improvement should reveal itself through a UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 100 . Remember that a MHA only offers improvement if there is a noise problem to start with. What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage? We should consider the cost-benefit implications of any possible solutions: Additional Site Mast Head Amplifier Uplink Diversity Very expensive – last resort Cheapest Solution – probably More expensive than MHA but capacity benefits If we narrow down the possibility to either installing an MHA or implementing uplink diversity we need to establish the benefits that each would bring. When considering UL diversity. If such circumstances exist.

If however the original setting was 10 dB then the loading factor reduction would be from 90% to 84%. •The Anritsu scanner was very simple to set up •The information collected.com •Portability and ease of setup prove to be the strongest points of the Anritsu scanner. Alternative solutions: a still-cheaper solution would be to simply reduce the Noise Rise limit of the cell by 2 dB or so. a much less severe reduction. this might well be the short term solution to adopt whilst an MHA is ordered and installed.anritsu. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 101 . It is important to realise that the amount by which it reduces the capacity depends on the original setting.measuring RSCP signal levels as low as -122dBm.subsequent drive test with the UE transmit power being lower than before the MHA was installed. It is significant that the test was done at the busy time of day when the cell Noise Rise level would be at or near its limit. although limited to RSCP. Ec/Io and SIR measurements for up to 32 received scrambling codes.eu. If the original setting was 3 dB then reducing it by 2 dB would reduce the maximum loading factor from 50% to 21%. If coverage is crucial to the area under test and is being judged as unsatisfactory. Reducing the limit will have a coverage benefit but will reduce the capacity. •The receiver sensitivity was found to be better than that of the Agilent scanner. Drive Test Measurement Drive Test Equipment • Some equipment suppliers • Anritsu • http:// www.

•A strong solution but has limited sensitivity and is not hand portable.home.agilent.com/ •The extensive amount of output information •Although more complicated in terms of setup •Agilent scanner provides the user with more measured information and additional graphical functionality. Drive Test Measurement Drive Test Planning • Pre-planning of drive test routes • Knowledge of network •Site location •Site configuration • Knowledge of location •Towns •Terrain • Operator known issues •GSM problem areas UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 102 .Drive Test Measurement Drive Test Equipment • Some equipment suppliers • Agilent • http://we.

• • Drive Test Measurement Drive Test Measurements • Prediction Assessment • Test Site Comparison • Comparison of model against drive test measurements of site not used in the calibration process • Drives vs. Predicted Best Server • Comparison between predicted and measured best servers • Drives vs. Estimate of the orthogonality of the downlink is still problematic Drive test data is essential to validate propagation models.Drive Test Measurement Test-mobile Measurements • A known CPICH transmit power in conjunction with the CPICH RSCP and UTRA carrier RSSI would allow the calculation of pathloss to the cell and allow an estimation of cell dominance in idle mode. Predicted Pilot Pollution • Comparison between predicted and measured pilot pollution UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 103 .

9 – Is a good practical fit • Drives vs.Dedicated channel DL performance • Cell dominance • Active set size • Required UL Tx Power • These measurements would be possible under both loaded and unloaded conditions UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 104 . difficult to calculate Drive Test Measurement Test-mobile Measurements • The commonly identified KPIs are not in themselves appropriate for pre-launch optimisation and acceptance • Test-mobile measurements.D of 7. should allow measurement of: • CPICH and P-CCPCH availability • DCH . Predicted Pilot Pollution • Will highlight regions of multipath interference. Predicted Best Server • Exposes discrepancies with map data and local features • Mud banks. rocks. depending on the availability of engineering mobiles.8dB – S. • Exposes limitations in antenna models and propagation model • Drives vs.Drive Test Measurement Drive Test Measurements Analysis • Test Site Comparison • Drive Test data compared with 3g calibration tool • Analysis should provide both mean and standard deviation agreement • For example – Mean error of 1.

4 dBm +39. • Pilot levels of other cells are much lower than main cell • We are near the edge of the cell from the uplink coverage viewpoint • Uplink power is close to maximum • Let us assume that the reason for carrying out the drive test was because coverage levels were reported as poor on this particular road.6 dBm • maximum uplink channel power is 23 dBm • maximum total downlink channel power is 42 dBm. Drive Test Measurement Interpretation of Measurements • The cell is under stress • Uplink power is close to maximum • There is only one dominant serving cell. • What methods would you recommend for improving this coverage? UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 105 . Ec/No Serving Cell Ec/No Neighbour 1 Ec/No Neighbour 2 Average Uplink Channel Power Average Downlink Total Traffic Channel Power -11 dB -20 dB -22 dB +21. • The following KPIs are extracted from the measured data. The optimisation engineer needs to be able to interpret measurements This will often entail taking a number of KPI’s in conjunction.Drive Test Measurement Interpretation of Measurements • • • • It is not sufficient to know what measurements can be made. lets imagine a drive test • The test route is 100 metres in length along a route such that the distance to the nearest cell remains approximately constant. For example.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 106 .may already be fitted as standard. • Additional Site • Very expensive option and should be last on list • Reduce Noise Rise Limit • Reduction of noise rise limit will increase coverage but will reduce total capacity.Drive Test Measurement Possible Actions • Mast head Amplifier • Only reduces feeder loss and can introduce DL problems due to insertion loss . • Transmit Diversity • Will increase load on DL and with fast moving traffic has little effect.

However. it is vital that the operator is confident in the procedure and in its ability to certify the equipment. Care should be taken to ensure that the network is built “as intended”. This is usually done on a cluster by cluster basis.7 The Pre-launch Optimisation Procedure 7. Further.1 Introduction Following the planning and building of the network. 7. this can be said to be the responsibility of the equipment vendor. This includes verifying the: UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 107 . This involves: • • • Hardware checks Configuration checks Coverage and Interference Optimisation 7.3 Configuration Checks Any attempt to optimise to a particular plan will be futile if the network has not been built to the plan. it is essential that methodical steps are taken to ensure that the network performance is rapidly brought to a level deemed acceptable for launching.2 Hardware Checks It is essential that any hardware faults are eliminated.

A typical RNC area serving 100 sites would require the following analysis team: Systems Analysis Engineers: Driver Test Radio Engineers: Drivers: Configuration Engineer: x3 x2 x2 x1 Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation • Following planning and building of network: • Perform Hardware Check • Check cell configuration for conformity with plan • Bring coverage and interference levels up to agreed thresholds UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 108 .) are in accordance with the plan.The site is in the correct location Antenna is of the correct type Antenna height. 7.4 Optimisation Team Structure In order to ensure that the optimisation runs smoothly and efficiently. it is essential that the staffing levels are appropriate to sustain the workflow. azimuth and tilt are all as planned The feeder is of the correct type and length Cell parameters (common channel powers etc.

• However. it is vital that the operator is confident in the procedure and in its ability to certify the equipment.) are in accordance with the plan. azimuth and tilt are all as planned • The feeder is of the correct type and length • Cell parameters (common channel powers etc. • This is usually done on a cluster by cluster basis. • Can be said to be the responsibility of the equipment vendor.Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation • Perform Hardware Check: • It is essential that any hardware faults are eliminated. Pre-launch Optimisation Pre-launch Optimisation • Perform Cell Configuration Check: • The site is in the correct location • Antenna is of the correct type • Antenna height. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 109 .

Pre-launch Optimisation Optimisation Team Structure • Each RNC area has: • Drive Test Team • Systems Analysis Team (SAT) • Configuration Engineer Pre-launch Optimisation The Structure . UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 110 . • Drive test data is passed to the SAT team.Drive Test Team • Drive representative routes gathering: • Scanner data (rooftop mounted calibrated antenna) • Mobile (UE) data (test mobile on rear seat connected to laptop) • Scanner provides accurate measurements of pilot strength etc. • UE data provides evidence of call success and uplink Tx power.

Pre-launch Optimisation

The Structure - The SAT team
• In addition to defining the drive test routes: • The SAT team process the data to provide
• summative results (CCSR, c.d.f of pilot strength etc.) • diagnoses of problems.

• Problems are resolved through close liaison with the configuration engineer.

Pre-launch Optimisation

The Structure - The configuration engineer

• The Configuration engineer
• monitors the state of the network • requests changes to network configuration (antenna orientation etc.) • tracks changes through the system

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Pre-launch Optimisation

The Structure - example

• Drive test reveals calls dropped in an area where best pilot is very low. • SAT team checks with configuration engineer regarding cell status • Check made with planning tool to see whether problem is “predictable” • If no obvious reason, SAT directs drive test team to investigate.

Pre-launch Optimisation

The Structure - example (continued)

• Drive test team report that an obstacle/terrain feature exists that is not on map data. • SAT team recommend solution (antenna height/orientation) • Effect checked on planning tool • Configuration Engineer actions change and reports when implemented. • SAT instructs drive test team to re-examine

7.5 Using Drive Test Data

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Drive Testing has been described in the previous chapter. Typical goals (“key parameters”) for a suburban area are: • • 95% of the area should be measured so that the pilot is better than –99 dBm (-89 dBm for a dense urban area). 95% of the coverage area should have a measured Ec/Io of better than –10 dB (quiet network)

In reaching these goals, the Systems Analysis engineer will need to adopt other, intermediate, parameters to assist in identifying the cause of any problems. Coverage and interference can, to a certain extent, be treated separately but effects on interference must be considered when addressing coverage problems and vice versa.

7.5.1 Coverage problems
Suppose that the coverage measurements do not meet the necessary criterion. The procedure can be summarised as follows: • • • Identify coverage holes Assess the most serious of those and rank in order of priority Rectify problems in priority order until criterion is met.

The issue as to which coverage hole is most serious is usually a matter of identifying the percentage of the total “low signal strength area” that can be attributed to one particular hole. It is important that this percentage is on the basis of area or route length rather than number of readings. If the number of data points is taken then the statistics are distorted in favour of the regions where the drive-test vehicle was travelling slowly (or stopped). A map view is vital in assessing this. Once the areas to be rectified have been identified the question “does the planning tool predict that this hole will exist?” should be asked: If the answer to this is “yes” then the thinking behind this must be questioned. Pre-launch optimisation cannot achieve the impossible. It can only optimise to a planned performance. The outcome of discussion should be either a decision to either remove the area in question from the coverage requirements, or to re-visit the plan. If the answer is that the hole was unexpected then further investigation is required. The first thing to ascertain is which cell would be expected to provide coverage in the area. A check should be made to ensure that this cell was active at the time of the drive-test measurement. This can be done either by examining the drive test data to see that the cell in question was transmitting (i.e. the pilot was “low” rather than nonexistent) or, if necessary, confirming with the configuration team that the site and cell were active. It is possible that a fault has occurred in
UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 113

A first step is to identify which cell should be providing coverage at the location. The expectation is that the network will be very lightly loaded when the testing is undertaken and. can be regarded as co-channel interference).2 Interference issues Once coverage has been addressed. It is possible that the configuration of the site itself causes the problem. If we consider a location where the pilot is –95 dBm. for example. “No” could be as high as –85 dBm. Perhaps there is an obstacle that is not considered by the propagation model. if Ec/No is worse than about – 14 dB it could result in call drops even with the network lightly loaded. The hole in coverage could well be due to a local anomaly in the site configuration or environment. then the only way that Ec/No can fail to meet the required level is if the levels of interference from within the network are too high. That is. 7. in those circumstances. Poor Ec/Io is almost always a result of “over propagation”. cells that are not required to provide coverage in a particular area are delivering high signal strength (that. If antennas are set back from the edge of a large roof. The procedure to rectify this can be described as follows: Identify the worst affected areas: note that. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 114 .5. If the level of thermal noise is around the –102 dBm level. Using a feeder and antenna calibration tool such as Anritsu Site Master can check this. the area covered should be investigated to ascertain that interference is at acceptable levels. because it is not necessary for coverage. The level of –10 dB with the network lightly loaded indicates that problems could occur if the network became heavily loaded.the feeder and antenna arrangement causing an increase in path loss. it is expected that Ec/No should be better than approximately –10 dB. the building can cause shadows near to the base of the site. A combination of use of the planning tool and measurement of the strongest pilot can identify this (the less you have to change the better). Assessment of the problem should result in a plan of action that could include: • Change site configuration Antenna height (almost certainly restricted) Antenna location Antenna azimuth/downtilt (the most common change made in the initial stages) Substitute antenna for one of higher gain • Introduce new site A “last resort” (expensive) but not unheard of.

say. this would cause Ec/No to drop to about – 7 dB. Pre-launch Optimisation Coverage and Interference Goals • Typical Criteria: • 95% of area delivers pilot strength of >-89 dBm (dense urban) or -94 dBm (urban). -8 dB when the network is quiet. it is probably good practice to investigate areas that have Ec/Io worse than. An Ec/Io of worse than –10 dB indicates that there are more than three significant pilots. Even if these areas do not threaten a call drop. the out of cell interference will reduce the network capacity. Any additional pilots can be considered as “polluters” that should be reduced in strength at the location in question. A further check is to highlight and investigate areas where there are more than two other pilots within.Investigate to identify the strength of measurable pilots in that area. • 95% of area covered should register Ec/No better than -10 dB. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 115 . Given the structure of a cellular network. it is inevitable that there will be areas where three near equal pilots exist. 8 dB of the best server. In order to identify potential problem areas. say. If the network is lightly loaded.

e. pilot Ec/No should be 1/6 or -8 dB. • If pilot strength is -95 dBm. Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Interference • Within covered area (i. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 116 . pilot better than required threshold) attaining a Ec/No better than -10 dB is “easy” (perhaps -9 or -8 would be a better target) if the network is lightly loaded. noise plus interference must be -85 dBm (thermal noise) • Even in an area where there are three equal pilots and common channel power equals pilot power.Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Coverage: Procedure • From drive-test data: • Identify coverage holes • Assess the most serious of those and rank in order of priority • Rectify problems in priority order until criterion is met.

Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Interference • Scanner Data. • Area where there are three equal low-level pilots reveals Ec/Io of -8 dB.Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Interference • Scanner Data. • Area where there are seven lowlevel pilots (not equal strength). • Best Ec/Io =-10 dB UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 117 .

Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Interference • Typical drive test result from well-optimised cluster.44% 98.46% • -9 dB seems to be more appropriate threshold.94% 13. Pre-launch Optimisation Improving Interference: Procedure • Identify areas of low Ec/Io • Examine pilot levels (there will probably be more than three).66% 34. Ec/Io >-12 dB Ec/Io >-11 dB Ec/Io >-10 dB Ec/Io >-9 dB Ec/Io >-8 dB Ec/Io >-7 dB Ec/Io >-6 dB Ec/Io >-5 dB Ec/Io >-4 dB Ec/Io >-3 dB 99.97% 89.83% 53.6 The need for consistency Drive test measurements are at the heart of the optimisation process. • Reduce level of these pilots (usually by down-tilting) •be aware of the effect on coverage in service area of cell: use planning tool.14% 94. 7. It is vital that they can be relied upon.91% 99.44% 81. • Identify any unwanted pilots (from cells that are not intended to provide coverage in that area). Measuring the pilot level is considerably more complicated than measuring a carrier wave (CW) UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 118 .22% 68.

) Different measurement equipment. • Clearly there is a need for consistency UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 119 . Striving to maintain a consistent approach will result in the most reliable measured data. in summary: • Measure the performance • Implement configuration changes • Measure again to show improvement. ± 2 dB being quoted by manufacturers. As a result it is not spectacularly accurate. Pre-launch Optimisation Drive Test Data: the need for consistency • Optimisation of physical aspects. The process physical optimisation of the network can be simplified and summarised as: • • • Measure the performance Change cell configurations Measure again to confirm improvement The need for consistency between procedures for the two measurement activities is clear. Possible inconsistencies are: • • • • Different (uncalibrated) antenna/feeder Different drive test route Different UE speed over drive test route (hold ups at traffic lights etc.signal.

) • Different analyser being used.Pre-launch Optimisation Drive Test Data: the need for consistency • Potential for inconsistency: • Different (uncalibrated) antenna/feeder • Different drive test route • Different UE speed over the route (hold ups at traffic lights etc. 7. try and pause sampling when held up in heavy traffic. • Different level of network loading (affects Ec/Io). Make measurements at the same time of day to get near-equal loading conditions. • Ensure that you keep to the same route. feeder and antenna for the “before” and “after” measurements. Sample data on a distance. rather than time. Pre-launch Optimisation Drive Test Data: the need for consistency • Ideally: • Use the same analyser.7 Using drive test data to tune Neighbour list UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 120 . If this is not realistic. basis. • Check to see if load testing is going on in this area. • Be consistent regarding UE speed.

UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 121 . • These should give details regarding the experience within the coverage area of a cell. NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours .using drive tests: an example • A cell was identified as suitable for testing the usefulness of drive tests.just a “drive through” of a cell is not sufficient. • Fine resolution required . • Potential Ncells can then be assessed.using drive tests • It is clear that drive test results will be a valuable resource when planning neighbour (Ncell) lists.NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours .

Cell 1895011 1895031 2215031 0089011 1164011 6985031 Scrambling Code 0 16 88 24 48 112 Overlap Co-site Co-site 17% 1.3% 0. • 2 co-sited cells plus four “interfering” cells are registered. • Serving cell has SC 8.5% UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 122 . • Scrambling codes of these Ncells were noted. • Serving cell has SC 8.5% 1. Cell 1895011 1895031 2215031 0089011 1164011 6985031 Scrambling Code 0 16 88 24 48 112 Overlap Co-site Co-site 17% 1.NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Planning tool was used to plan neighbours.3% 0.5% NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Scrambling codes of these Ncells were noted.5% 1.

Question 1. How often did was each pilot received at a level within 10 dB of SC 8? Number of hits (Anritsu scanner): Scrambling Code 0 48 24 112 16 88 Number of hits 264 80 46 42 37 9 NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours Question 2 How often was each pilot the second best server? Number of hits (TEMS scanner) Scrambling Code 0 48 24 112 16 88 Number of hits 3823 107 99 28 612 7 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 123 .NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Drive Test undertaken: scanner results recorded on TEMS and Anritsu.

and vice versa? Number of hits (TEMS scanner) Scrambling Code 0 48 24 112 16 88 Number of hits 1146 159 128 37 145 2 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 124 .NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours Question 3 How often was each pilot third best server? Number of hits (TEMS scanner) Scrambling Code 0 48 24 112 16 88 Number of hits 4083 350 142 83 5 7 NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours Question 4 How often did each pilot replace SC 8 as the strongest pilot.

Further. An extra limitation is imposed by interference within the air interface (soft blocking). 2.tex NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours • Conclusions. It is also a short list. • Note that approximately 1 hour of driving is required for a single cell.NCELLS Identifying Suitable Neighbours Notes on processing the data The TEMS data was much faster to process than the ANRITSU.1_ExportFile_UE.8 Load Testing of a Network The network will be required to service a certain level of demand. This is known as a hard blocking limit. the prioritisation order of the neighbours if necessary is clear. the air interface capacity UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 125 . The cell configuration selected will impose a limit on the capacity of that cell. If the network is quiet. It can be thought of as a limit in the total user throughput that the cell can accommodate. The TEMS logfile was exported using the tex template TEMS_2. • A simple treatment of TEMS scanner data resulted in what appears to be a good neighbour list. This was due mainly to two reasons: 1. Anritsu is more random. 7. TEMS outputs SCs as a simple number rather than a code TEMS always lists the pilot strengths in descending order of measured power level.

A typical VT call is active 100% of the time and transmits at 64 kbit/s.should be high and a load test on a single cell should allow the hard blocking limit to be reached. However. tests should be conducted in different Ec/Io environments. some mobility of the UEs can be tested for in order to assess the impact. (A “routiner” is a piece of equipment that controls UEs and performs prescribed tasks from a fixed location). Testing to confirm this involves ensuring many UEs are simultaneously active on the cell. Mobility tests the power control system which again has implications for the loading on the air interface. As voice (employing discontinuous transmission) and packet services transmit intermittently. Thus if a cell was capable of sustaining 800 kbit/s should allow 12 VT calls to be simultaneously active on a single cell. These reasons could include air interface problems such as interference levels higher than expected and/or hardware issues. video telephony (VT) calls are usually used to assess the ability of the network to accommodate a high throughput. Such an investigation will include examining the reasons for failure. the tests can be done with the UEs stationary. In order to conduct a straightforward assessment of the cell capacity. Similarly. Low Ec/Io may result in air interface imposing “soft” blocking on the network. Pre-launch Optimisation Drive Tests: load testing a cell • The cell capacity can usually be defined as a total possible user data rate (hard blocking) • Air interface capacity is interference limited (soft blocking) • In a lightly loaded network. Any discrepancy between the predicted and achieved cell capacity should be investigated. it should be possible to achieve the hard blocking limit. • Video telephony (VT) is probably best way of testing as it is: • always on (100% activity factor) • High unit resource (64 kbps) •Drive test •Load test UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 126 .

• Varying degrees of mobility can be assessed. • A “routiner” controls UEs and performs prescribed tasks from a static location. it is common for mobiles to be locked onto UMTS. Successful IRAT is seen as crucial for a successful UMTS launch.g. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 127 . Thus Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) hand over is not tested. Pre-launch Optimisation •Drive test •Load test Drive Tests: load testing a cell • Tests can be done in different “environments: most importantly at different levels of Ec/Io within the coverage area.9 Testing of a network for IRAT success When testing a UMTS network.Pre-launch Optimisation Drive Tests: load testing a cell • E. 12 simultaneous VT calls should be possible. again with implications for the soft capacity of a cell. •Load test •Drive test 7. if hard limit is user data rate of 800 kbps. • Possible reasons for discrepancies include interference and hardware issues. • Discrepancies between predictions and results must be analysed. • Areas of low Ec/Io may lead to the air interface capacity being reduced with resulting “soft blocking”. • Mobility will affect the power control system.

It is therefore proposed that the following data is logged: 7. a hand over to GSM will be instigated. A successful IRAT hand over would be declared only if the call survives on the GSM network for a period of greater than 30 seconds after leaving the UMTS network. it is of value to know that the hand over was to an appropriate GSM cell. Of particular importance is the occurrence of a call drop due to IRAT failure.9. Thus. The procedure will need to be modified depending on the environment and each environment category will now be addressed in turn. the drive test should involve driving from an area of good UMTS coverage to a point beyond the coverage area. In the initial phase of testing.2 Success of hand over Hand overs within the GSM network for the next 10 seconds should be monitored and the success of call holding within GSM network for the next 30 seconds should be checked.9. Additionally. Call progress should be monitored for a successful GSM hand over (or call drop). calls will be continuous and monitored for either successful hand over or call drop.1 IRAT at coverage edge As a mobile moves to the edge of a UMTS coverage area it will need to perform a hand over to the GSM network. Then. if the measured Ec/No drops further. It is proposed that tests be conducted in three distinct areas: • • • At coverage edge In an urban environment Traffic Hotspots Tests need to be conducted both in active and idle modes. The initial stage is for the mobile to enter “compressed mode” at which point it can measure signal strengths on the GSM network. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 128 . The RF engineer should make a call at the beginning of the test and attempt to maintain this call. 7. it is proposed that active mode tests are voice calls only. the GSM network should hold the call for an acceptable time.It is therefore vital that tests are conducted in order to assess IRAT operation. Further. The existence of rapid hand overs within the GSM network immediately following IRAT hand over indicates that the initial GSM cell was not the most appropriate. Thus.

areas where the predicted pilot strength is below – 100 dBm should be used as an indicator. Class “A” and Class “B” roads should be used for routes. In the case of idle UEs however. As an indicator of the edge of coverage.9. Testing should be undertaken both in active and idle mode with a procedure similar to that used for the urban area being adopted. as he will need to assess whether a hand over has occurred or the call has been dropped. Again. Initially only Motorways. perhaps.9. The set up procedure is similar to that for the urban area.3 Designing the test route The test routes should be designed so that they involve the mobile leaving the UMTS coverage area. Again. However. 7. This could be due to excessive interference or the existence of coverage “holes” (especially indoors).5 Designing the test route. A successful IRAT hand over will be judged on the same criteria as for the coverage edge areas. the testing can be automated as IRAT reselection should occur in both directions. It is envisaged that test routes already devised for assessing coverage for a site “cluster” (see section 6) will be appropriate for IRAT testing. The experience in traffic hotspot areas is of high significance as such areas generate disproportionately large revenue. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 129 . A UE can be “encouraged” to make an attempt by deliberately increasing the path loss by. . Such routes will be uni-directional when the voice call is active and bi-directional in active mode.4 IRAT in an urban environment.9. An increase of about 6dB to 10dB would be appropriate. Defining an appropriate neighbour list is again important.9. This test will require a high degree of alertness on the part of the RF engineer. it is likely to be a somewhat frustrating area to test as it is not inevitable that an IRAT hand over attempt will be made.6 IRAT at hotspots. testing will be undertaken at a slower mobile speed. the path loss to the mobile may well need to be increased artificially by roughly 6dB to 10dB in order to encourage IRAT hand over to occur. 7. 7.7. placing the mobile on the floor of the vehicle. Experience will allow this to be assessed. the test will need to involve both active and idle UEs. Once either of these has happened it will be necessary to start a new call having camped in idle mode to UMTS. IRAT will also occur in areas where the UMTS network is interference limited. However.

A method has been proposed whereby the success of IRAT hand over can be assessed. Obvious examples include major railway stations and airports.7.7 Designing the test route Relevant hotspots need to be defined. Routes for such areas need to be carefully defined with due regard being paid to the particular environment.9. IRAT Testing IRAT in a network • Different testing strategies need to be adopted depending on whether the UE is: • at the edge of UMTS coverage • at the centre of the network • at a hotspot UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 130 .10 IRAT: Conclusions. 7. routes need to be selected so that an IRAT hand over attempt will be made and the potential for automation is restricted. In particular. This involves a different approach being adopted when compared with drive testing with mobile locked onto UMTS. The RF engineer will need to monitor the call status to ascertain whether an IRAT hand over has occurred.

IRAT Testing at a cell edge • In active mode: drive will be uni-directional • In idle mode: drive should be bi-directional • Active mode: make a continuous call • monitor for IRAT hand over (or call drop) • Route should initially be restricted to Motorways. • Mobile can be “encouraged” to enter IRAT mode (placed on floor of vehicle?) UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 131 . ‘A’ roads and ‘B’ roads. • Not inevitable that IRAT will occur. • monitor rapid GSM hand overs after IRAT (10 seconds) • check GSM network sustains connection (30 seconds) IRAT Testing at a network centre • IRAT can be required due to coverage holes (especially indoors) or excessive interference.

Number of Records Threshold -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 Ec/No UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 132 . IRAT Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) Consideration of Ec/No values • A UE should perform a hand over to GSM when Ec/No drops below a particular value. • Any records of Ec/No below this threshold may indicate a problem. • Test route similar to that adopted for “bubble optimisation” process is probably suitable.IRAT Testing at a network centre • RF engineer must monitor events closely • Calls will be continuous but must be re-started manually when IRAT has occurred.

• Drive tests must be undertaken accordingly.IRAT Conclusions • Urgent requirement exists for the IRAT success rate to be assessed. IRAT PLANNING Inter-technology Neighbour Lists: Planning • Likely strategy: • Make co-sited GSM cell a neighbour • Make neighbours of this cell a neighbour • Manually adjust “as appropriate”. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 133 . • Initial selection of routes influenced by characterisation feedback.

•UMST Cell •GSM Cell IRAT PLANNING Potential Problems • Appropriate neighbour list is dependent on “exit route”. •GSM Cell UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 134 .IRAT PLANNING Potential Problems • Particular problem at edge of coverage where UMTS cell can be much larger than GSM cells.

•GSM Cell UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 135 .IRAT PLANNING A Suggestion • Cells at the edge of coverage are severely down-tilted and/or pilot power adjusted to control coverage area •GSM Cell IRAT PLANNING A Suggestion • This would have further advantage of offering “immunity to cell breathing”. • Testing and optimising of this should be made a priority.

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Such problems can be indicated by monitoring the uplink UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 137 . getting 100% success with voice. video telephone and packet services is highly unlikely. If such problems occur.8 Functional Testing 8. If there are problems with the receiver (such as the mast head amplifier being out of specification) it would invalidate these assumptions. The targets have been derived making suitable assumptions regarding the link budget in both directions. Further. The causes can be divided into different categories: • • • • 8.1 Coverage or interference problem Hand over failure Network problem Handset issue Coverage/Interference Problem The measurements we make attempt to ensure a low probability of the path loss or interference levels becoming too high to sustain a call. Failures should be analysed to identify the cause. it should be noted that all measurements have been performed on the downlink.1 Introduction If coverage and interference levels meet the targets and the neighbour list for each cell is correctly set. However. it is not impossible that such a situation will occur. then it could be said that there is “no excuse” for calls to drop (or fail to set up) within a network when a drive-test making live calls is made. particularly if the network is lightly loaded and the UE is in a car rather than within a building.1. However. the plan and drive test criteria for the areas in question require re-investigation.

a call will drop or fail to establish for no apparent reason. This can be influenced by the speed and direction of the UE as it travels through the hand over region. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 138 . It may be that a call drop problem is specific to a particular UE. The area of the hand over region is a compromise: it has to be large enough to allow hand over to occur at reasonable speeds but. The successful update of the active set requires a sophisticated sequence of operations to take place. in situations where there is only one cell in the active set. it can result in high interference within the network. In particular. 8. it is a time-dynamic process. the signal from this cell must remain sufficiently strong during a hand over event until a second cell can join the active set. Further. it is possible to adjust the hand over window such that a new potential server attempts to join the active set earlier.1. >+11 dBm) should be investigated in connection with call drop problems. measuring the exact area of the hand over regions throughout the network would be extremely time consuming. Rather than making a physical change.1. 8. That is different UEs produce noticeably different drive test results. 8.UE transmit power. –49 dBm to +21 dBm. if it is too large. That would reduce the network capacity.g. It may be that the network suddenly issues an instruction to clear the call. These should be recorded and followed up with the network configuration team.1. Clearly.3 Network problems Occasionally. Any areas where records show that it is near its upper limit (e. The conditions on the air interface must be acceptable for a given amount of time to enable the hand over to take place.4 Handset issues UMTS technology is still somewhat in its infancy. The recommendation is that problem areas are investigated when they come to notice. This will vary over a possible range of. typically. A sudden decrease in the strength of the primary server can cause a call to drop. The rapid identification of such situations is crucial to ensure that time is not wasted investigating the cause of these problems.2 Hand over failure The neighbour list may be optimised yet hand over can still fail.

These help us to identify the cause of any network failure. • Measurement type UE Measurements Measurement Type • • Intra-frequency measurements • downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set. • Measurement command: 1 of 3 different measurement commands. GSM. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 139 . Modify: Modify a previously defined measurement. Quality measurements • downlink quality parameters. Traffic volume measurements • uplink traffic volume.2 UE and UTRAN Measurements The UE is capable of making and reporting measurements regarding power levels on the air interface in addition to control messages. • • • UE-internal measurements • UE transmission power and UE received signal level. e.g. modifying or releasing the measurement and by the UE in the measurement report. downlink transport block error rate.g.g. • The following information is used to control the UE measurements • Measurement identity: A reference number that should be used by the UTRAN when setting up. e. • A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in the case of BLER. UE Measurements UE Measurements • The UTRAN may control a measurement in the UE either • By broadcast of SYSTEM INFORMATION • And/or by transmitting a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message. • • • Inter-RAT measurements • downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology e. • • • Setup: Setup a new measurement.8. Inter-frequency measurements • downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set and on downlink physical channels in the active set. UE positioning measurements A measurement object corresponds to one cell. Release: Stop a measurement and clear all information in the UE that are related to that measurement. to change the reporting criteria.

Received Signal Code Power (of one code) • ISCP . Many of these.Interference Signal Code Power • SF – Spreading Factor 256 • Measurement period 80ms • Range -11 to 20 dB Source TS 25.The UTRAN itself makes measurements regarding the situation on the air interface.133 UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements – KPI’s • KPI’s are calculated from active measurements • 3GPP standards define the UE and UTRAN measurements taken • KPI’s will gather these measurements and calculate an average value • Average Uplink Load load = 1 − 1 NR PN PN = 1− Io PN + P T load = 1 − ∑ Ptx Average Uplink Load = ∑ RSSI RSSI Receiving Signal Strength Indicator load = P P T = T PN + P Io T Note: RBS cannot distinguish between in cell and out of cell power when reporting RSSI UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 140 . such as the uplink load fall into the category of “key performance indicators” (KPIs). UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements • Received total wide band power • If receive diversity is being used then take the average of the power • Measurement period 100ms • Range is -112dBm to -50dBm • Signal to Interference Ratio SIR • Measured on a DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control Channel • (RSCP / ISCP) x SF • RSCP .

0 dB 20.Received Signal Code Power (of one code) • ISCP .0 = SIRerror < -30.5 dB -10.0 dB -31.5 = SIRerror < 31.5 dB 30. 19.0 dB 31.5 = SIRerror < 0.0 dB … …… -0.Interference Signal Code Power • SF – Spreading Factor 256 • Measurement period 80ms • Range -11 to 20 dB Reported value UTRAN_SIR_00 UTRAN_SIR_01 UTRAN_SIR_02 Measured quantity value SIR < -11.5 dB -30.0 = SIR dB UTRAN_SIR_61 UTRAN_SIR_62 UTRAN_SIR_63 UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements • SIRerror = SIR – SIRtarget • Measurement period 80ms • Accuracy ±3dB • Range -31 to 31 dB Reported value UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_000 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_001 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_002 Measured quantity value SIRerror < -31.0 = SIRerror < 30.0 dB …….0 = SIRerror < 0.0 dB -11.0 =SIR < 19.5 dB 19.5 = SIR < 20.5 = SIRerror < -30.UTRAN Measurements UTRAN Measurements • Signal to Interference Ratio SIR • Measured on a DPCCH – Dedicated Physical Control Channel • (RSCP / ISCP) x SF • RSCP .5=SIR < -10.0 = SIR < -10.0 dB 0.5 dB … …… 30.0 = SIRerror dB UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_062 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_063 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_123 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_124 UTRAN_SIR_ERROR_125 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 141 .

UTRAN Measurements

UTRAN Measurements
• Transmitted carrier power • Ratio of total transmitted power on one DL carrier to the maximum possible power of this DL carrier, range 0 to 100% • Measurement period 100ms

Transmitted code power • Measurement of the DPCCH field of any dedicated radio link • Measurement period 100ms • Range -10 to 46 dBm • Reflects the power on the pilot bits of the DPCCH field

• •

Transmitted channel BER – range 0 to 1 Physical channel BER – range 0 to 1

UTRAN Measurements

UTRAN Measurements
• SFN-SFN observed time difference – Synchronisation
• Measurement period 100 ms • Range -19200 to 19200 chip

Round trip time
• RTT = Trx – Ttx • T rx – time of reception of DPCCH/DPDCH from UE • T tx – time of transmission of DL DPCH to a UE • Measurement period 100ms • Range 876.0000 to 2923.8750 chip

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UTRAN Measurements

UTRAN Measurements
• PRACH/PCPCH Propagation delay
• One-way propagation delay of either PRACH or PCPCH • Prop Delay = (T rx- Ttx – 2560)/2 • T rx – time when PRACH message from UE arrives, after AICH arrives • T tx – time when AICH is transmitted • 2560 length of AICH • Divide by 2 gives one-way propagation • Only RACH messages with correct CRC will be considered • Range 0 to 765 chip

UTRAN Measurements

UTRAN Measurements
• Traffic Calculations all with measurement period 20ms
• Acknowledged PRACH preambles
• Equivalent to the number of positive AICH sent • Range 0 to 240 acknowledgements

Detected PCPCH access preambles
• Total number of access preambles • Range 0 to 240

Acknowledged PCPCH access preambles
• Total number of positive AP_AICH sent • Range 0 to 15

8.3

3G Specifications and Event Reporting One of the biggest 3GPP documents is TS25.331 v4.10 Release 4, Radio Resource Control RRC protocol specification. At 942 pages this isn’t a

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document that you print out and have sitting on your desk. It is possible to use this document as a reference and investigate drive test message flow data. In particular, it refers to specific events that have a definite effect on the UE-network relationship. These events are listed below: 8.3.1.1 Intra-frequency measurement reporting criteria

The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an intra-frequency measurement. All events concerning intra-frequency measurements are labelled 1x where x is a, b, c…. Event 1a: A Primary CPICH enters the Reporting Range (FDD only). Event 1b: A Primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range (FDD only). Event 1c: A Non-active Primary CPICH becomes better than an active Primary CPICH (FDD only). Event 1d: Change of best cell (FDD only). Event 1e: A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold (FDD only). Event 1f: A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold (FDD only). Event 1g: Change of best cell in TDD. Event 1h: Timeslot ISCP below a certain threshold (TDD only). Event 1i: Timeslot ISCP above a certain threshold (TDD only).

8.3.1.2

Inter-frequency measurement reporting criteria

The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an inter-frequency measurements. All events concerning inter-frequency measurements are labelled 2x where x is a,b,c, ... Event 2a: Change of best frequency. Event 2b: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold and the estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold. Event 2c: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold. Event 2d: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain threshold. Event 2e: The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is below a certain threshold. Event 2f: The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold.

8.3.1.3

Inter-RAT measurement reporting criteria

The triggering of the event-triggered reporting for an inter-RAT measurement. All events concerning inter-RAT measurements are labelled 3x where x is a,b,c, ... Event 3a: The estimated quality of the currently used UTRAN frequency is below a certain threshold and the estimated quality of the other system is above a certain threshold. Event 3b: The estimated quality of other system is below a certain threshold. Event 3c: The estimated quality of other system is above a certain threshold. Event 3d: Change of best cell in other system.

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Notice that the relevant trigger equations contain network parameters that can be changed by the optimisation team. An understanding of the purpose of any of these parameters is clearly necessary before any alterations are undertaken. UE Measurements Measurement Control Messages • Within the measurement reporting criteria field. the UTRAN notifies the UE which events should trigger a measurement report. in the Measurement Control message. which shall initially be empty. • The listed events are the toolbox from which the UTRAN creates • the reporting events needed for handover evaluation functions. • The measurement quantities are measured on the monitored primary common pilot channels (CPICH) of the cell defined in the measurement object. KPI Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range Reporting event 1A: • When an intra-frequency measurement configuring event 1a is set up. “Event 1a” is used as an example. • delete this variable when the measurement is released. • or other radio network functions.Each of these have defined triggering parameters that are defined in the specifications. the UE shall: • create a variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT related to that measurement. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 145 .

10. • Mi is a measurement result of a cell not forbidden to affect reporting range in the active set. and if that primary CPICH is not included in the "cells triggered" in the variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT: – include that primary CPICH in the "cells recently triggered" in the variable TRIGGERED_1A_EVENT. and if that primary CPICH is part of cells allowed to trigger the event according to "Triggering condition 2". for each of these primary CPICHs: • if all required reporting quantities are available for that cell.331 version 4. the UE shall: • if "Measurement quantity" is "pathloss" and Equation 1 is fulfilled for one or more primary CPICHs.0 Release 4 page 838 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 146 . • NA is the number of cells not forbidden to affect reporting range in the current active set. • CIONew is the individual cell offset for the cell entering the reporting range if an individual cell offset is stored for that cell. 3GPP TS 25. or if "Measurement quantity" is "CPICH Ec/No" or "CPICH RSCP".KPI Reporting event 1A: A Primary CPICH enters the reporting range Reporting event 1A: • When event 1A is configured in the UE. and • if the equations have been fulfilled for a time period indicated by "Time to trigger". Otherwise it is equal to 0. KPI Reporting event 1A: Equation 1 1 • MNew is the measurement result of the cell entering the reporting range. and Equation 2 is fulfilled for one or more primary CPICHs.

it is necessary to examine the communication between the UE and the network. Of particular significance is System Information Block (SIB) 18 that provides information regarding the neighbour list. • If the measurement result is CPICH-RSCP then MNew. A list is included here. These mostly fall under the name of “layer 3 messages”. Messages are passed to the UE in the form of “System Information Blocks” which fall into different categories. In order to gain an insight into the cause of failure. • If the measurement results are pathloss or CPICH Ec/No then MNew.KPI Reporting event 1A: Equation 1 1 • For pathloss • MBest is the measurement result of the cell • For other measurements quantities.4 Identifying the cause It is easy to say that the causes of calls being dropped should be categorised but the only symptom that the drive test team will notice is that the call has been dropped or failed to connect. It would be expected that SIB 18 is sent to the UE following an update of the active set. 8. Mi and MBest are expressed as ratios. • R1a is the reporting range constant. It is useful to have some familiarity with the message flows and structures. • H1a is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1a. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 147 . • W is a parameter sent from UTRAN to UE. Mi and MBest are expressed in mW. Examples of the uses of such messages will be considered using examples of call drop events.

These message flows indicate which blocks of information have been transmitted and from which channel.System Info and Message Flows System Information Structure • • Measurement data which can be recorded are in the form of message flows.504 10:44:24. Broadcast Information is organised into a structure • • Master Information Block MIB •Scheduling Block SB • System Information Block SIB RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD 10:44:24.554 BCCH_BCH BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SCHEDULING_BLOCK_1 System Info and Message Flows System Information Blocks SIB’s • 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25.331 Release 4 • Type 1 • • Type 2 • URA identity • Type 3 • • Type 4 • Same as Type 3 but in connected mode • Type 5 • • Type 6 • Same as Type 5 but in connected mode Parameters for configuration of common physical channels Parameters for cell selection and re-selection NAS system information as well as UE Timers and counters UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 148 .454 10:44:24.414 10:44:24.384 10:44:24.

331 Release 4 • Type 7 • • Type 8 • Only for FDD – static CPCH information to be used in the cell • Type 9 • • • Only for FDD -.331 Release 4 • Type 13 • Used for ANSI-41 • Type 14 • Only TDD • Type 15 • • UE positioning method for example GPS Radio bearer.CPCH information to be used in the cell Only FDD – Used by UE’s having their DCH controlled by a DRAC.System Info and Message Flows System Information Blocks SIB’s • 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25. transport channel and physical channel parameters to be stored by UE for use during Handover HO • Type 16 • Type 17 • Only TDD • Type 18 • Contains PLMN identities of neighbouring cells UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 149 . DRAC • Type 10 Fast changing parameters for UL interference • Type 11 • Contains measurement control information to be used in the cell • Type 12 • Same as Type 11 but in connected mode System Info and Message Flows System Information Blocks SIB’s • 18 SIB’s defined by ETSI TS 25.

461 10:36:29.531 10:36:29.733 10:36:31.675 10:44:24.725 10:44:24.935 10:44:24.660 10:36:29.System Info and Message Flows Example 3g Message Flow RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD RRCD 10:44:24.842 10:36:29.775 10:44:24.842 10:36:29.885 10:44:24.825 10:44:24.331 document System Info and Message Flows Example 3g Message Flow RRCU RRCD RRCU L3U RRCU L3D RRCD L3U RRCU L3D RRCD RRCD RRCU 10:36:28.035 BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH BCCH BCCH BCCH BCCH_BCH BCCH_BCH BCCH_BCH MASTER_INFORMATION_BLOCK SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_1 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_2 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_3 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_7 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BLOCK_TYPE_18 SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH SYSTEM_INFORMATION_BCH • Exercise • Check the SIB’s with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.331 document UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 150 .795 10:44:24.162 10:36:30.162 10:36:30.444 CCCH CCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH RRC_CONNECTION_REQUEST RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP DCCH_RRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETE CM_SERVICE_REQUEST INITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER CM_SERVICE_ACCEPT DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER SETUP UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER CALL_PROCEEDING DOWNLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER RADIO_BEARER_SETUP RADIO_BEARER_SETUP_COMPLETE • In this segment a call is established • Check the SIB’s with the descriptions in the ETSI TS 25.985 10:44:25.855 10:44:24.320 10:36:28.531 10:36:29.862 10:36:29.862 10:36:30.

922 10:38:48.932 10:38:49.1 Example 1: Examining measurement reports In this scenario a call is dropped whilst moving along a road.433 10:44:23. the UE measurements should be compared with scanner data for the same location. In this case the measurement reports revealed: • • • Pilot dropping to –115 dBm Ec/Io dropping to –20 dB BLER rising to very high percentages The call dropped due to a “poor RF environment”.System Info and Message Flows Example 3g Message Flow RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCD 10:38:48. However.651 10:38:48. The hope is that the 5% not covered will not be too important.433 10:44:23. Drive testing can be regarded as a method of highlighting areas where this is not the case. It can be argued that this “should not happen” if the physical aspects have been optimised. we only work to a 95% probability in the hope that this will lead to an acceptable experience on the ground. 151 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 .403 DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH MEASUREMENT_REPORT ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE ACTIVE_SET_UPDATE_COMPLETE MEASUREMENT_CONTROL • During Call is message flow is repeated over and over L3U RRCU RRCD RRCU RRCU RRCU 10:44:23. A discrepancy should be expected because: • The UE antenna may be inside the vehicle whereas the scanner antenna is roof-mounted.4. However.034 DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH IMSI_DETACH_INDICATION UPLINK_DIRECT_TRANSFER RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE RRC_CONNECTION_RELEASE_COMPLETE • Call detach sequence 8.884 10:44:24.713 10:44:23. Measurement reports can be displayed so that the experience of the mobile can be monitored is viewed.753 10:44:23.

Cell 3 was not on the neighbour list of Cell 2 but. If all these possible reasons have been eliminated. It was found to be due to a combination of unusual propagation mechanisms and a less than ideal neighbour lists. the default is that this refers to the best server. then it is necessary to examine ways of improving the network coverage in order to prevent calls being dropped at this particular location.4. cell 2 and cell 3). it was received at a high level. Now. There are circumstances when this is not a good representation of the experience of the UE. One further possibility is that the UE itself is not of a good specification. However. this represented interference and was at a strong enough level to cause a call drop. The location of the area concerned was expected to have cell 1 as the best server. This resulted in Cell 3 being on the monitored list and hence could join the active set when appropriate. Suppose it moves rapidly from a location where “cell UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 152 . Because it is not on the neighbour list. Cell 2 would have been a significant neighbour and was on the neighbour list. It involves three cells (cell 1. due to near line of sight existing to Cell 3 from a small part of this area. Cell 2 became primary server and.3 Example 3: Sudden increase in interference When drive test measurements report levels of Ec/Io. • 8. due to some local shadowing effects. 8. Cell 1 was dropped from the active set because the pilot strength dropped below the soft hand over margin.2 Example 2: Examining active set update reports In this example a call is dropped in an area where coverage is very good but Ec/Io drops to very low levels. One other question that must be asked is whether the UE and the scanner agree on the “best pilot”. Perhaps a different UE would not drop the call under the same circumstances.4. In other words was the scanner measuring a pilot signal that was not recorded at all by the UE? This could reveal a neighbour list problem whereby the best server never became a member of the active set. Consider the situation where a UE travels at significant speed around a corner in an urban environment.• The UE is not a calibrated measurement device. The long-term solution was to control the radiation from Cell 3 in order that it only provided coverage where required and did not cause undue interference in other locations. in fact. Cell 3 also had a low path loss to that area and was a listed neighbour. Calls can drop where there is a sudden change in the signal strengths from cells. Solutions to this happened in two stages: • The quick fix was to add Cell 3 to the neighbour list of Cell 2.

If this transition occurs before cell 2 can be added to the active set and become the primary server.1” is 15 dB stronger than “cell 2” to a location where the reverse is true. If the cell is above roof top level then the signal will tend to penetrate further and reduce in strength less rapidly. UEs must spend sufficient time in the transition region for hand over to occur. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 153 . it is usual to monitor call success. At road junctions. The UE reports will show the Ec/Io at a very bad level immediately before drop. Functional Testing Functional Testing • Whilst drive testing and measuring pilot strengths. • voice (“AMR”) • video telephony (“VT”) • packet traffic (“http” or “ftp”) • AMR or VT testing can be one of two types • “drive till drop” • cyclic call attempts (e. The situation is potentially worse when the cell is at street level. In this example the reconnection will be on the new cell and the Ec/Io reported now will be remarkably good. Scanner data monitoring the strengths of different pilots can be used to support the reasoning.g. • Calls are usually one of three types. After dropping the call the UE will re-connect with the network. radiation from cells should not simply “shoot across” the junction. The Analysis Engineer will be alerted to the existence of such problems by call drops being reported at these locations. 2 minute cycle) • packet traffic involves downloading data of varying sizes. then it is possible for the call to drop.

g. Functional Testing Functional Testing . functional tests are of interest to indicate that the network is functioning properly and will indicate events such as “sleeping cells”. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 154 . Likewise for context activation. • However. neighbour planning and hand over procedures. how long should the UE attempt to establish a call (20 seconds?) before a failure is registered. • When testing packet traffic. the Context Activation Success Rate (CASR) and the throughput/time to download are of great interest. • Agreement must be made on suitable timeouts: e. • Driving till drop checks for continuous coverage requirements. not every call drop will be investigated as it is known that there are gaps in coverage and/or areas of high interference.using results • In the period before the physical environment has be satisfactorily optimised. • Once the physical environment has been optimised. the functional test results become very significant and provide the final verdict on the whole optimisation process.Functional Testing Functional Testing .measurements • When carrying out cyclic testing with AMR or VT the Call Completion Success Rate (CCSR) is the most significant parameter.

Calls will still drop or fail to set up. It is possible to monitor the UE Tx power (e. • Note that all RF measurements have been performed on the downlink.approach • It must be accepted and anticipated that the functional testing will not reveal perfect results. • A call drop due to coverage and/or interference problem indicates that air interface is of poor quality in an important area.g.Functional Testing Functional Testing . >11 dBm indicates potential problem). An uplink problem should be investigated if the downlink looks OK. E.g. is the cell receiver and mast head amplifier functioning satisfactorily. • Hope is that the 5% of problem areas will not be critical. • Failures can fall into one of several categories • Coverage or interference problems • Hand over failure • Network problem • Handset issue Functional Testing Coverage/Interference Problems • Remember we would to thresholds at 95% probability not 100%. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 155 . This should be addressed.

the call might drop. some cells may be inactive (“sleeping”).Functional Testing Hand over problems • Perhaps neighbour list is not properly optimised. • Remember that hand over requires a number of sophisticated operations to be successfully carried out.g. if this level suddenly drops before update can occur. • Truly optimising HO region extremely time-consuming: pre-launch best to concentrate on problem areas. • Corrections can include parameters such as HO margin in addition to physical changes. they have to be right for a sufficient time for active set updates to occur. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 156 . • Instances must be recorded and reported. • Additionally. if there is only one cell in the active set. • E. Not only do conditions have to be right for HO. Functional Testing Network Problems • Call can drop due to spurious messages going between the UE and the Network. UE speed may affect success rate. • Hand over is time dynamic.

Functional Testing Identifying the Cause • In order to gain an insight into the likely cause of call drop. • UMTS technology is still improving. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 157 . • Perhaps the handset drops a call in an environment where other handsets do not drop calls.Functional Testing Handset issues • On some occasions failure may be specific to a handset. • These are generally known as “layer 3 messages”. • Perhaps the handset does not respond to a paging command or other message. it is important to examine the communication between the UE and the network. • Two call drop examples are explained.

is it measuring the same pilot as the scanner? UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 158 . scanner antenna is roofmounted.e.g. • You must be “comfortable” that the difference is appropriate for the test you are making: • Should interior of vehicle simulate significant (comparable to inbuilding) penetration losses? • Is the UE measurement reliable . • Detailed investigation reveals that an additional site is likely to be required. • Further questions: • does scanner agree with poor coverage diagnosis? • What differences should be expected between scanner and UE measurements? Functional Testing Example 1: measurement reports • Difference between scanner and UE measurements can be as large as 20 dB for certain vehicle configurations. • UE antenna is in the vehicle.Functional Testing Example 1: measurement reports • Measurements reported by the UE show: • Pilot dropping to -115 dBm • Ec/Io dropping to -20 dB • BLER rising to very high levels • Diagnosis is a straightforward “poor coverage” situation.

• Cell 1 drops from active set. •Cell 1: expected primary server •Cell 2: • Signal from Cell 3 rises (not on Ncell list for cell 2) causing poor Ec/Io. • Call drops due to low Ec/Io. • AS update reports reveal an interesting sequence of events. •Cell 3: Ncell to cell 1 •Cell 1: expected primary server •Cell 2: Ncell to cell 1 •Location of call drop Functional Testing Example 2: AS update reports • Due to shadowing effects. •Cell 3: Ncell to cell 1 • Cell 2 became best server. •Location of call drop UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 159 . the following sequence took place.Functional Testing Example 2: AS update reports • Another call drop occurred where the coverage in the form of pilot strength was good.

Cell 2 Cell 2 is 15 dB stronger than Cell 1 Cell 1 is 15 dB stronger than Cell 2 Cell 1 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 160 . particularly in urban environments.Functional Testing Example 2: AS update reports • Solutions: • Quick fix: • • add Cell 3 to Ncell list for Cell 2. It is a distant cell and is not expected to become a member of the active set in the area in question. probably by down-tilting but giving due regard to its required coverage area. • Transition regions between coverage areas can be small. • Longer term: • Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • Drive test reports Ec/Io for “best server”. call can drop. Radiation from Cell 3 should be controlled. investigate radiation from Cell 3. • If UE moves rapidly through such an area.

the signals received by the UE should rise and fall at a rate so that the UE can execute the necessary active set updates.Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • For a successful hand over. Signal strength transition •Successful HO time transition •Call drop time Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • Transition region must be large enough to allow active set update to occur before UE is overwhelmed by interference. Transition Region Cell 2 Cell 1 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 161 .

Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • This can be alleviated by: • providing a separate cell at the intersection Cell 2 Cell 1 Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • This can be alleviated by: • providing a separate cell at the intersection • placing cells above street level to achieve greater penetration Cell 2 UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 162 .

• This large difference in Ec/Io indicates that the problem falls into this category • Scanner data showing pilot levels from the two cells will support the reasoning.Functional Testing Example 3: Sudden Change in Signal Strength • Detecting the problem: • The Analysis Engineer will notice call drops • Investigation reveals that the UE reports very poor Ec/Io immediately before it drops • Once in idle mode the UE re-connects onto the new cell. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 163 . • The Ec/Io reported will be very good.

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The difference that this will produce will again depend on the desired capacity of the cell. Cl UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 165 . At lower loading levels the probability will be greater. Thus.add an appropriate margin.4 dB 5. Propagation exponent assumed to be 3. However. This value of Noise Rise could be equal to that produced under “average” rather than “peak” loading conditions. in UMTS systems the phenomenon of Noise Rise will affect the link budget. Cell provisioned for average traffic on a 2% blocking probability. knowing the propagation exponent and the standard deviation of shadow fading. This means that the calculations made will result in a path loss being output that will give a 90% connection (uplink Eb/No) probability even if the cell is fully loaded. Peak Noise Rise 2 dB 5 dB 10 dB Average Noise Rise 1. It is normal to add a Noise Rise (or “interference”) margin into the link budget. This will then allow a target path loss to be determined whereby the probability of the actual path loss being sufficiently low to allow a connection to be made is equal to the required probability. provides an estimate in the difference this would make in the estimate of coverage area. a lower value of Noise Rise should be used.5. The table shows the difference between peak and average Noise Rise and. further.8 dB % coverage area difference 9% 19% 43% Assumptions: NR caused by voice traffic on cell with pole capacity of 65 connections. It is also usual to set this to the limit for a particular cell.3 dB 3. if an average probability is required.

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explain why they are likely to be problem areas and identify possible solutions. Further we shall assume that it is not optimised.9 Summarising Case Study 9. 9. it is possible to put ourselves in a “real world” situation and demonstrate our capabilities.1 Introduction Now that we have assembled a useful “toolkit of knowledge” and discussed various techniques involved in advanced planning methods and optimisation procedures. Drive test measurements are going to be valuable in this activity and should be used in conjunction with a planning tool. The advanced network planner and optimiser should be able to demonstrate analytical and problem solving capabilities for a UMTS network. the optimisation engineer should be able to identify problem areas. Problem areas can be identified and remedies recommended. Rather than wait for complaints about network performance to arrive. Problems with the network may fall into a number of categories • • • • Calls dropped No coverage Poor capacity Slow download times Any problems reported by customers or by network monitoring procedures should be analysed to see whether optimisation procedures can help the situation as opposed to simply investing heavily in more infrastructure. As a starting point we will consider the situation where a UMTS network has been constructed and is active.2 The initial situation We shall assume that: UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 167 .

Maximum link loss (UL) = 108 – 4 -5 + 10log(3840/bitrate) – NR. This policy of applying margins is very necessary if the drive testing is carried out exclusively out of doors and indoor coverage is required. As an example consider a service for which the required Eb/No value is 5 dB. The report should be able to predict areas where coverage and c ongestion problems are going to occur. Thus at bit rate of 12. Initially.4 Analysing Measurements 9. it is important to focus on a few.• • • • We have a network It has not been optimised We need to assess the quality of the network in an efficient manner and report back. Further. the maximum link loss is 121 dB.4.2 kbit/s and a noise rise limit of 3 dB. In practice a margin for fading would be expected and a minimum level of approximately -102 dBm would be sought. 9.3 Making the measurements Drive test measurements are going to be made using a proprietary scanner or test mobile. This in turn can be used to predict uplink coverage. pilot strength indicates the path loss. As well as indicating whether the pilot is strong enough for a typical mobile to synchronise with. higher resource bearers cannot sustain as high a path loss as voice and a stronger pilot would be required to indicate uplink coverage. A test mobile will additionally be able to access the network and report on uplink transmit power. this area is indicated by a pilot strength of -108 dBm. 2. A scanner will report on pilot strength (Ec) and also pilot Ec/No (although the value of No depend partly on the quality of the receiver itself). Coverage Interference DL capacity 9. These measurements alone are sufficient to be able to comment on: 1. 3. If the pilot strength is 33 dBm. A typical set of thresholds would be UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 168 . These will be able to provide a great deal of data.1 Coverage Pilot strength alone is a good indicator of basic coverage. highly relevant parameters. If it assumed that: Cell pilot strength = 33 dBm Noise Figure of Cell Receiver = 4 dB then the pilot strength can be used to indicate the throughput possible for a given noise rise limit (NR dB).

channel sounding and synchronisation purposes. The scanner will not report only on the best (or strongest) pilot but will report on all detectable pilots. can be used to estimate the pilot SIR at different locations. However. It is likely that the measurements will be made as a result of drive tests undertaken outdoors. The “pilot SIR” ratio must be above -15 dB. Care must be taken if a MHA is used to place the attenuator before the MHA rather than between the MHA and the TRX receiver. More realistic values of required uplink transmit power will be obtained if the noise level at the cell is raised artificially.4. reliable predictions of uplink coverage can be obtained from downlink measurements. Pilot 1 UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 -80 dBm 169 . However.Service Outdoor Voice In Car Voice Indoor Voice Indoor HSD Required Pilot Strength -102 dBm -88 dBm -80 dBm -76 dBm Things to check: are the assumptions made correct? • • • Noise Rise Limit Noise Figure of Cell Receiver (MHA can affect this) Pilot Strength 9. combined with some assumptions. If the network is quiet.1.4. let us consider the situation where four pilots have been detected. if the cell parameters are known accurately. As with the downlink measurements. As an example. Unfortunately pilot SIR is not measured directly. the uplink noise rise will be very low. appropriate margins must be added for penetration loss and increased levels of shadow fading. it must be borne in mind that the uplink might not be experiencing uplink noise rise at the designed level thus giving mobile power levels that are “kind”.2 Interference Pilot Strength alone is not a sufficient indicator of pilot coverage. This information. it is desirable to have measurements of uplink transmit power for a particular service so that a check can be made on the coverage provided on the uplink. This is because using only downlink measurements relies on assumptions for the uplink Eb/No and interference levels to be assessed.1 Using uplink measurements Although. Using a test mobile and monitoring the uplink transmit power will automatically take into account the effect of a rise in the target Eb/No due to adverse propagation conditions or extra power being required because of the presence of uplink interferfence. and also on the quality of the UE receiver (its noise figure). Further it is very dependent on the loading levels on the downlink. the measurements made can be used to estimate whether the pilot SIR will be sufficiently high for detection purposes. The pilot channel is vital for cell selection. This can be done by inserting an attenuator before the receiver. This can be achieved by raising the effective noise figure of the cell (TRX) receiver. 9.

Pilot 2 Pilot 3 Pilot 4 -84 dBm -87 dBm -90 dBm In order to estimate the quality of the pilot. If it is seen to be a reliable indicator. although orthogonality would be expected to reduce this to an effective level of -75 dBm. The pilot Ec/Io (which i measured) does not include orthogonality and. It is possible. The power required for a particular throughput and Eb/No.3 Downlink Capacity The interference levels experienced on the downlink are very dependent on the location of the mobile that is suffering from the interference. it is necessary to estimate the total effective level of noise plus interference. is somewhat time-consuming. If the effective levels of interference are added the result is a total effective interference power of -70 dBm.4. Thus a pilot SIR of -10 dB would be a reasonable estimate. Indeed. we need to make an assumption regarding the maximum downlink power and the pilot levels. By measuring the levels of the pilot and considering the cell parameters. It is clear that a low level of Ec/Io will be due to a combination of “low Ec” and/or “high Io”. pilot power within the overall level of Io. even for a poor quality receiver would not be expected to exceed 100 dBm (negligible in this case). -77 dBm and -80 dBm respectively. The thermal noise level. “low Ec” problems are due to high path loss.7 dB suggesting that the downlink was not heavily loaded when the measurements were made. in fact. This must be done by considering conditions of heavy loading. s includes the wanted. The throughput possible by devoting 1 watt of power to a user at that location. If the maximum total transmit power is 10 dB more than the pilot then the three measured interfering pilots can be regarded as carrying potential interference levels of -74 dBm. It is reasonable to assume that the above details should relate to the situation where the network is fully loaded. this will speed up analysis considerably. it can be expected that there will be -71 dBm of interfering power emanating from the serving cell. “High Io” problems are due to a high number of pilot signals that are of nearly equal strength. although not too onerous. the value of Ec/Io under fully loaded conditions would be -12 dB. It may be that a high number of detectable pilots (>4) is alone a sufficient indicator of potential problems with downlink interference. We have already seen that pilot strengths can be used to UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 170 . with experience. It is possible t artificially load the downlink but this is not o absolutely necessary. The measured value is recorded as -5. 9. “best”. This fact must be considered when assessing the quality of the downlink. In the above case. If we regard the -80 dBm pilot as the serving pilot. Anything less than -12 dB should be regarded as a cause for concern. it is possible to estimate important parameters: • • • The capacity available if all cell power is devoted downloading data to users in that location. The above analysis. to adopt an appropriate threshold level of Ec/Io with which to highlight problem areas on the downlink.

It will often be required to estimate the capacity of the downlink if the users are spread throughout the coverage area of a cell. measurements need to be taken for representative locations within the cell. assuming the pilot power to be 2 W.6 mW for 6 kbit/s at an Eb/No of 4 dB suggests that the total cell power of 16 W could sustain 1.6 Mbit/s. If the service to be sent over this bearer requires an Eb/No value of 4 dB. The cell’s capacity could then be predicted on the assumption that traffic was going to be loaded evenly in those representative locations.1 times a 48 kbit/s 4 dB Eb/No service and therefore each require traffic channel power of 2. Location A B C D E F Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB The method described previously can be used to calculate the amount of power required to download a bearer with a nominal 1 kbit/s at an Eb/No of 4 dB. Location Pilot SIR Power for 1kbit/s @ 4 dB 20.2 mW 5. this can be calculated to be the equivalent of 2.07 mW 10. a 128 kbit/s videophone at an Eb/No of 3 dB) is known to be required. These predictions serve to give a useful indication of the capacity of the downlink if all users were at the same location (the “hotspot” scenario). In order to estimate this. Considering the situation described above where the pilot SIR was estimated to be -12 dB under heavily loaded conditions. a processing gain of 16 dB will be needed and the throughput will be limited to 96 kbit/s. Notice that this is significantly larger than the capacity of 772 kbit/s that was estimated to be the limit of throughput if all users were at location A.1 mW 2.2 mW 13.1 watts.6 mW A -12 dB B -8 dB C -6 dB D -10 dB E -2 dB F -9 dB Total power required for 6 kbit/s The total power required of 59. This bearer represents one eighth of the capacity of the cell (as there is a total maximum of 16 W available for downlink traffic).4 mW 59. UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 171 . it was felt that radio conditions on the cell could be described by six representative measurements from which pilot SIR could be predicted. Suppose the representative locations have pilot SIR estimates as follows. A bearer with a power of 1 W could sustain a data rate of 48 kbit/s and if a particular service (for example. Suppose this is 2 W.7 mW 8. we know that this will also be the SIR experienced by a traffic channel of the same power. Suppose for example.predict the value of pilot SIR for the best server. Thus the total capacity on the downlink would be estimated to be 772 kbit/s.

1 mW 2.4 mW Weighting Throughput Power Required 82.8 mW 16.2 mW A B C D E F Totals -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB 4 2 3 1 1 3 4 kbit/s 2 kbit/s 3 kbit/s 1 kbit/s 1 kbit/s 3 kbit/s 14 kbit/s This suggests that the cell capacity when 16 W of traffic power is used would be 1.2 mW 13.7 mW 8. Particular attention should be paid to locations where near-equal signals from more than three cells are required.4 mW Weighting Throughput Power Required 20.2 mW 13. Notice how the capacity is m uch greater. The benefit of ensuring that your areas of highest demand experience the lowest interference is clear.2 mW 5. hence the lower capacity prediction compared with the evenly loaded case.7 mW 24.1 mW 8.1 mW 2. In areas where a cell does not make a positive contribution to the performance of the network (by potentially being the best server) it is important that the link loss is maximised.4 mW 15. Location Pilot SIR Power for 1kbit/s @ 4 dB 20.07 mW 31.8 mW 103.5 Taking corrective action Improving the interference situation is clearly a good thing.6 mW 15.3 mW 20. One of the cells concerned is probably detrimental to network performance.2 mW 161. 9.07 mW 10.This analysis can be extended to variable weightings of traffic across the cell coverage area as the following example shows for the various relative weightings indicated.6 mW 13.6 mW 13.18 Mbit/s. It should be noted that this will benefit the uplink and downlink performance. it is inevitable that there are locations where near-equal signals from three cells on the macro-cell layer are received.7 mW 8. Location Pilot SIR Power for 1kbit/s @ 4 dB 20. Notice that the above weightings show the traffic to be concentrated where the interference is worst.1 mW A B C D E F Totals -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB 1 3 3 1 4 2 1 kbit/s 3 kbit/s 3 kbit/s 1 kbit/s 4 kbit/s 2 kbit/s 14 kbit/s This suggests a total capacity of 2.39 Mbit/s. The next example shows the situation where the weighting is in favour of those cells that have the lowest interference. • • Network performance can be improved by ensuring that these locations are away from predicted hotspots. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 172 .1 mW 2.2 mW 5. In a network.07 mW 10.

•Problems experienced include: – – – – Calls dropped No coverage Low capacity Slow download rates. •The network has not been optimised. UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 173 . • We need to rectify these problems efficiently.Summarising Case Study Summarising Case Study • We have put together a useful “tool kit” of knowledge • Further. we have examined examples of drive test data • We should be able to analyse such drive test data and •Predict network performance •Identify problem areas •Suggest corrective action • When analysing such data we should think terms of •Coverage •Interference •Capacity Summarising Case Study Summarising Case Study • Our Starting Point •We have an active network.

a rigorous analysis of drive test data should be used to identify problem areas and recommend corrective action.Summarising Case Study Summarising Case Study • Rather than wait for complaints to arrive from the public. • A planning tool can be used to predict the effect of alternative corrective actions. • These measurements can be interpreted to give useful predictions of •Coverage •Interference •Downlink Capacity UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 174 . Summarising Case Study Vital Measurements • A scanner can report on downlink measurements. in particular Ec and Ec/Io for the pilot channel. • A test mobile can additionally report on call success and uplink transmit power requirements.

Noise Floor of Cell = -104 dBm •Eb/No required = 5 dB. •NR limit set to 3 dB.Summarising Case Study Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage • Measurements of pilot strength can be a very useful predictor of uplink coverage. bitrate = 12200 bits per second •Pilot Power = 33 dBm •Maximum mobile power = 21 dBm • Calculations. Summarising Case Study Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage • For example. •Processing Gain = 25 dB. Required SNR = -20 dB •Maximum Noise Floor = -101 dBm • Required Signal Strength = -121 dBm •Maximum link loss = 142 dB •Pilot Strength = -109 dBm UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 175 . • Other parameters need to be known: •Tx Pilot Power •NR limit and Noise Floor of cell. •Bit rate and Eb/No of service for which coverage is being predicted.

• The margins required depend on the characteristics of the buildings in question. coverage could not be confidently assumed. • A record of the uplink power needed for a particular service will automatically account for these factors. •Typical required minimum values: – – – – Outdoor: -105 dBm In Car: -96 dBm In Building: -86 dBm HSD In Building: -80 dBm • Note that these are measured values: not predicted. • The prediction of coverage using pilot strength as an indicator made some assumptions: •Eb/No required. • This is especially true if measurements were made out of doors to indicate indoor coverage.Summarising Case Study Using Pilot Strength to predict Coverage margins • If =-109 dBm was actually measured. • Predicted values must additionally consider errors in the path loss model. • Margins would be required. Summarising Case Study Predicting Coverage (continued) – the value of uplink (test mobile) measurements. •Uplink interference experienced. • If a mobile has a maximum transmit power of +21 dBm then the following conclusions can be drawn: •Required Tx Power > 17 dBm: Coverage unreliable outdoors •Required Tx Power > 8 dBm: Outdoor coverage only •Required Tx Power > -2 dBm: In Car coverage •Required Tx Power < -2 dBm: Indoor coverage UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 176 .

Summarising Case Study Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise • If the network is “quiet” when the tests are conducted. I 3 dB •TRx •TRx NF = 5 dB NF = 8 dB Summarising Case Study Simulating the effect of UL Noise Rise • If the cell has a MHA fitted. the results will be optimistic. • Otherwise. the attenuator must be fitted above the MHA. the MHA will reduce the effect of the attenuator. This can be achieved simply by adding an attenuator in the feeder. I TRx TRx I 3 dB UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 177 . • A noise rise can be simulated by increasing the Noise Figure of the cell receiver.

Summarising Case Study Interference • Pilot Strength alone is not a sufficient indicator of pilot coverage. • Measurements of strengths of all pilots can be used. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 178 . • The “Pilot SIR” must be better than approximately -15 dB for the pilot to be usable. Summarising Case Study Interference – Pilot SIR • The Interference + noise experienced comes from: •Other cells •Thermal noise •Other channels on own cell – Note other channels on own cell will benefit from orthogonality.

6) = 4 dB]. -80 dBm. •Pilot Power = 33 dBm •Maximum Power = 43 dBm • Other interferers are -74 dBm. -77 dBm. • Total noise plus interference = -70 dBm. Summarising Case Study Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR • When network is heavily loaded interference from own cell (assuming 43 dBm max power and 33 dBm pilot power) is at -71 dBm. UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 179 .Summarising Case Study Interference – Deducing Pilot SIR • Suppose 4 pilots are detected: •-80 dBm (best server) •-84 dBm •-87 dBm •-90 dBm • Assume thermal noise is at -100 dBm. Effect of orthogonality is to reduce this to -75 dBm [10log(10.

• Anything less than -12 dB would cause concern. • Note that no benefit from orthogonality is measured and. also. • Pilot Ec/Io can be measured. • Pilot SIR = -10 dB. • Predicted “noise plus interference” under conditions of heavy load = -70 dBm. UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 180 . • Pilot SIR will be better than Ec/Io • High level of pilot Ec/Io indicates lightly loaded network – values would be much worse under heavy loading conditions. Noise + Interference = -70 dBm Pilot SIR = -10 dB Wanted Pilot = -80 dBm Summarising Case Study Interference – Pilot Ec/Io • Pilot SIR is not measured – it must be deduced from pilot strength measurements.Summarising Case Study Interference – Pilot SIR • Pilot strength (best server) = -80 dBm. the “wanted” pilot power is included in “Io”. • Note: it is important that predictions are made for a fully loaded downlink.

Summarising Case Study Interference – Predicting Downlink Capacity • Further calculations are possible: •If 1 watt of power was available for a downlink bearer. 4 dB Eb/No service and would therefore require 1.33 watts of DL power. this bearer would be able to sustain 76 kbit/s at 4 dB Eb/No. Ec/Io is a useful indicator of the quality of the radio channel. • A poor Ec/Io could be due to “low Ec” or “high Io”.Summarising Case Study Interference – Pilot Ec/Io • Although an allowance must be made for additional downlink interference when a network is heavily loaded.33 compared to the 76 kbit/s. Wanted Pilot = -80 dBm Noise + Interference = -70 dBm Pilot SIR = -10 dB UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 181 . •A service with a 128 kbit/s throughput at an Eb/No value of 3 dB has a relative amplitude of 1.

These allowed the following estimates to be made for pilot SIR: Location A B C D E F Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic • The same method can be used to deduce the power required for a nominal 1 kbit/s.2 mW 13.7 mW 8. The total power required for the total throughput can be used to estimate the DL capacity.6 mW UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 182 . Location A B C D E F Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB Power for 1kbit/s @ 4 dB 20.07 mW 10.Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic • These calculations are only valid at one location.1 mW 2.4 mW Total power required for 6 kbit/s 59. Suppose measurements were made at different locations within a cell. 4 dB Eb/No bearer at each location.2 mW 5.

6 mW required for 6 kbit/s.2 mW UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 183 .2 mW 161.Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – spread traffic • 59.4 mW 15. • 16 W would support 1611 kbit/s • This is significantly larger than 1224 kbit/s if all experienced a -10 dB pilot SIR.1 mW 2.7 mW 4 8.6 mW 13.2 mW 13.1 mW 2.07 mW 31.2 mW 5.4 mW 2 3 1 1 3 Throughp Power ut Required 4 kbit/ s 82. Location A B C D E F Totals Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB Power for 1kbit/s Weight@ 4 dB ing 20. Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread spread traffic • The method can be extended to include relative weightings of traffic density at particular points.8 mW 2 kbit/ s 3 kbit/ s 1 kbit/ s 1 kbit/ s 3 kbit/ s 14 kbit/ s 16.07 mW 10.

2 mW 5.4 mW 3 3 1 4 2 Throughp Power ut Required UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 184 .07 mW 10.1 mW 2.2 mW 13.8 mW 2 kbit/ s 3 kbit/ s 1 kbit/ s 1 kbit/ s 3 kbit/ s 14 kbit/ s 16.2 mW 13.7 mW 4 8.1 mW 2.2 mW Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread spread traffic: exercise • Estimate the downlink capacity with these weightings.2 mW 161.07 mW 10.2 mW 5.7 mW 1 8. Location A B C D E F Totals Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB Power for 1kbit/s Weight@ 4 dB ing 20.1 mW for 14 kbit/s: 16 W would support 1390 kbit/s with these weightings.6 mW 13.4 mW 2 3 1 1 3 Throughp Power ut Required 4 kbit/ s 82.07 mW 31.Summarising Case Study Predicting Downlink Capacity – unevenly spread spread traffic • 161.4 mW 15.1 mW 2. Location A B C D E F Totals Pilot SIR -12 dB -8 dB -6 dB -10 dB -2 dB -9 dB Power for 1kbit/s Weight@ 4 dB ing 20.

• This would cause problems with pilot detection and poor achievable downlink bitrates. • Areas where there are 3 near-equal pilots will inevitably occur. Coverage Gap Summarising Case Study Taking Corrective Action Action • Re-orientating the antennas will help to fill in a coverage gap. DL Interference Problem UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 185 . • Suppose that the antennas are re-orientated to alleviate a coverage problem. • However a region has emerged where five server would have near-equal path loss. • A possible way how this could arise is described.Summarising Case Study Taking Corrective Action Action • Receiving “too many” pilots with near-equal strength is an indicator of potential interference problems.

• A MHA or UL diversity system will help with coverage.Summarising Case Study Taking Corrective Action Action • Corrective action would have to involve providing a dominant server in the area. • This would entail downtilting antennas and perhaps having to compromise on the coverage in certain areas. Re-orientate to provide dominant server Down-tilt here Network Implementation and Evolution Concluding Remarks • Why are we bothering? •To make or save money. • How do operators make money? •By transferring data from one point to another UMTS Network Pre-launch Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2004 186 .

Network Implementation and Evolution Concluding Remarks • Revenue Gains •Suppose revenue of $ 0. each with a single carrier. the potential gains add up to $ 12 million per engineer. Network Implementation and Evolution Concluding Remarks • Revenue Gains •If an engineer takes responsibility for 60 cells. •A cell whose capacity is increased by 500 kbit/s (per carrier) can be expected to earn approximately $ 200000 per carrier per year extra (depending on occupancy rates). •Go and make an extra $ 12 million per year. UMTS Advanced Cell Planning and Optimisation ©AIRCOM International Ltd 2003 187 .1 is received for every megabit of data transferred.

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