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Compare myelomeningocele with cerebral palsy in terms of etiology and effects on motor functioning and communication.

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Answer the following about Parkinsons disease. Describe the etiology of Parkinsons. Primary or idiopathic Parkinsons decease usually develops after age 60 and occurs in both men and women. Several genes have been identified in cases of familial Parkinsons disease, but a common focus of Symptoms of Parkinson's disease include muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait. Parkinsons causes are unknown but genetics, aging, and toxins are being researched. After a Parkinsons diagnosis, Parkinsons disease treatments are given to help relieve symptoms. There is no cure for Parkinson's and herbal remedies are unproven. Studies on using stem cells to treat Parkinson's disease are under way. The prognosis depends on the patient's age and symptoms. Describe 3 common manifestations that can be observed in a person with Parkinsons. Tremors in the hands at rest and repetitive; stooped posture; hips and knees slightly flexed.

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Describe the changes that occur in the brain with Alzheimer's disease, and briefly describe its progression (early symptoms vs. late symptoms). As brain cells shrink or disappear, abnormal material builds up as tangles in the centre of the brain cells. Dense spots or plaques also build up outside the brain cells. These changes affect the vital connections between cells, disrupting messages within the brain. As areas of the brain become affected in this way, the functions or abilities controlled by that area, such as information recall, become limited or are lost. In people with AD the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small portion of them, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception, or execution of movements are more prominent than memory problems. AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life, facts learned, and implicit memory (the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a fork to eat) are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories. Language problems are mainly characterized by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, which lead to a general impoverishment of oral and written language. In this stage, the person with Alzheimer's is usually capable of adequately communicating basic ideas. While performing fine motor tasks such as writing, drawing or dressing, certain movement coordination and planning difficulties may be present but they are commonly unnoticed. As the disease progresses, people with AD can often continue to perform many tasks independently, but may need assistance or supervision with the most cognitively demanding activities. During the final stage of AD, the person is completely dependent upon caregivers. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of

speech. Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, people can often understand and return emotional signals. Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common results. People with AD will ultimately not be able to perform even the simplest tasks without assistance. Muscle mass and mobility deteriorates to the point where they are bedridden, and they lose the ability to feed themselves. AD is a terminal illness, with the cause of death typically being an external factor, such as infection of pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not the disease itself. 4. Look at Case Study A, "Multiple Sclerosis," at the end of Chapter 23 and respond to questions 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 after the case study. 1) There is no definitive test for multiple sclerosis and a long delay may precede the diagnosis. 2) Loss of myelin interferes with the conduction of impulse in the affected fibers. It affects all types of nerve fivers; motor; sensory and automatic and occurs in diffuse patches through the nervous system. 4) What to expect in the future later in the course of the decease, depression or euphoria may develop. Complications related to mobility, such as respiratory infection, decubitus ulcers, and contractures, are common as the disease progresses. 5) Ways to minimize exacerbations by avoiding excessive fatigue, stress, injury, or infections. 6) patients with lower fluid levels may have a higher risk of bladder dysfunction and disability than patients who are better hydrated. An appropriate nutrition plan for people with multiple sclerosis is to eat a healthy, balanced diet to stimulate your immune system, including drinking plenty of water, fruit juices and other nutritious fluids. Read more What is the difference between a panic disorder and a panic attack? The different between a panic and panic attack is that a panic a attack is sudden brief episode of discomfort and anxiety, and a panic disorder or anxiety disorders develops when panic attacks are frequent or prolonged also this attacks occur in situations that most individuals would not find threatening. What type of disorder is depression; how do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work? Depression is classified as mood disorder or disorder on the basic of characteristics disorganized emotions. SRIs ease depression by affecting chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) used to communicate between brain cells. Most antidepressants work by changing the levels of one or more of these naturally occurring brain chemicals. SSRIs block the reassertion (reuptake) of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Changing the balance of serotonin seems to help brain cells send and receive chemical messages, which in turn boosts mood. SSRIs are called selective because they seem to primarily affect serotonin, not other neurotransmitters.

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Chapter 14, Gould 1. What is the difference between an addiction and a habit? Identify five general indications of substance abuse? Addiction has a violent reaction to the person when he stops doing the act, unlike the habit. A habit turns automatic in the long run for repeatedly doing it, while addiction is more of a psychological exposure to the act. The habit turns accurate in the long run, addiction does not. Habits has positive and balance effects, while addiction has negative and imbalance effects. One of the biggest signs is a decline either their work and/or school performance. When this is because of a drug problem, their main focus is suddenly sucked away from what they should be focusing on. Grades suddenly dropping or poor quality work is a social sign that something is not right. Another huge sign is a sudden onslaught of relationship problems. This includes family, friends, and even business relationships. This is usually for a couple of reasons. One may be because they dont want anybody to find out, so they stay distant. Another reason could be that they have become so preoccupied with their addiction that interacting with other people comes after their need for drugs. A sudden change in personality is another sign to watch out for. Often this is when they are actually under the influence, but less drastic versions of attitude and personality do occur as an overall effect of drug abuse. A few keys to watch out for are: lying, moodiness, oversensitivity, forgetfulness, and a sudden lack of motivation. Secretive behavior or a sudden and excessive need for privacy points towards drug abuse because they need people to keep out of their business or else someone will find out what is really going on. They spend long periods of time by themselves or at least without telling anybody where they are. This can also be accompanied by a sudden change in clothing, and also in personal grooming habits. The most obvious sign to watch out for is intoxication, incoherency, bloodshot eyes or dilated pupils, smell of substances, and other physical indications that the person is under the influence, and noticing these symptoms often will indicate a frequent use of drugs.