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**Dynamics of Floating bodies and Marine Vehicles
**

Day 8 Lecture Date 10 Aug 2007 Dr. R.Panneer Selvam Dept of Ocean Engineering

**Wave forces on structures
**

Small Body Large Body Depends on the characteristic dimension of the structure to the wavelength D/L < 0.2 ; small body D/L > 0.2 ; large body

**Wave forces on offshore structures
**

Three different ways Morison Equation Froude-Krylov theory Diffraction theory

**Wave forces on offshore structures - Morison equation
**

Force = Inertia force + Drag force Involves an inertia and drag coefficient Coefficients are determined from experiments Morison equation is applicable when drag forces are significant Morison equation is applied when the structure is small compared to wavelength Morison equation D/L < 0.2

**Wave forces on offshore structures - Froude Krylov theory
**

When drag forces small and inertia forces predominates, but the structure is still relatively small Apply Froude – Krylov theory Closed form solution can be obtained for certain objects Uses the incident wave pressure on the surface of structure to arrive at the force

**Wave forces on offshore structures -Diffraction theory
**

When the size of the structure is comparable to the wavelength the presence of structure alters the incoming wave field. (NO FLOW SEPARATION) Diffraction of waves from the surface of the structure to be taken into account for calculating wave forces Closed form solution can be obtained for certain objects Generally involves numerical technique to solve Laplace equation and its associated boundary condition

**Where these methods are applicable
**

Dimensional Analysis

f = ψ (t , T , D, L, u 0 , ρ ,ν )

8 parameters

f t u 0T u 0 D πD =ψ ( , , , ) 2 T D ν L ρu 0 D

Keulegan – Carpenter no. (KC) Reynolds no. (Re) Diffraction Parameter

Buckingham Pi theorem 5 nondimensional parameters

**Where these methods are applicable
**

⇔

πD

L

small

KC large

KC large => Morison πD/L large => Diffraction

**KC number and Diffraction parameter
**

KC number (ratio of particle diameter to structure diameter) is measure of the drag force effect Diffraction parameter (ratio of structure diameter to wave length) determines the importance of diffraction effect KC number is large, Diffraction parameter is small and vice versa Large diffraction effects small drag effect Large drag effect diffraction is negligible

**Floating structure dynamics
**

The motions of a large floating structure are obtained using linear potential flow theory Computes the Froude-Krylov force and diffraction forces on the structure at its equilibrium position Radiation force due to structure motion at its equilibrium position The last component yields the added mass and damping coefficient

Hydrodynamic forces on a vessel

**Floating structure dynamics
**

Scattered Wave

Incident Wave

Structure

Radiated Wave

**Floating structure dynamics
**

Radiation forces can be obtained from potential theory. These forces have 2 components. The first component is due to the change in momentum of the fluid, and are proportional to the vessel accelerations. Because of these the coefficients are called added mass. The second component are damping forces due to the energy carried away by the waves generated because of the motion of the vessel—potential damping.

**Floating structure dynamics
**

Viscous forces that depend on the velocity. These forces appear due to non conservative phenomena by which kinetic energy of the hull is transferred to the fluid: flow separation, vortex shedding and skin friction

**Floating structure dynamics
**

Wave excitation forces result from the variation of pressure on the hull surface. Restoring forces result from the change in displacement (buoyancy). The only degrees of freedom that have restoring are heave, roll and pitch.

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

The motion of the structure in the fluid will generate a reaction force on the structure, which comes from the resistance of the fluid against this motion. Such resistance is virtually absent in the air so that the added mass and damping of a structure moving in air is negligible. This is why these coefficients are called hydrodynamic coefficient

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

Let us consider the motion of the rectangular box in the longitudinal direction. Assume that the box is undergoing a simple harmonic motion with a unit velocity amplitude

F11

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

F11

the resistance from the fluid on the box will introduce a pressure field on the submerged surface. Due to symmetry the net force from this pressure distribution will be in the longitudinal x direction. This force in general will be out of phase with the imposed structure velocity.

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

& F11 = a1 && + b1 x x

Generally the component in phase with the structure acceleration is much larger than the one in phase with the structure velocity.

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

1.0

F11 Added Mass Force Damping Force

Amplitude

0.0

-1.0 0 90 180 Angle, deg. 270 360

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

The coefficient of the acceleration term is the added mass, since it adds to the structure inertia term. The coefficient of the velocity term is termed the hydrodynamic damping since it acts like the structure damping term. Note that these two terms are absent for a body moving in air

**Added mass and Damping Coefficients
**

Now consider a structure that is not symmetric, e.g., a barge Motion in the surge direction produces a force in the surge direction F11, but due to unsymmetry in the pressure distribution it produces a force in the heave direction as well F31

F11 F31

Motions of Ship

Translatory Displacements and Angular Displacements (Rotations) Displacements -- Surge, Sway and Yaw Rotations --- Roll, Yaw and Pitch Anticlockwise +ve

**Ship – Equation of motion
**

6 DOF system -- Coupled Equations of motion Surge, Heave and Pitch – Longitudinal Motions or Vertical Plane Motions Sway, Roll and Yaw – Transverse Motions or Horizontal Plane Motions

Horizontal plane motions Sway, Roll and Yaw

Vertical plane motions Surge, Heave, Pitch

**Ship – Equation of motion
**

Usually for most cases of ship The Longitudinal Motions are(1,3,5) DECOUPLED from Transverse Motions (2,4,6) i.e. the Vertical Plane motions are DECOUPLED from the Horizontal plane motions You should know which terms in the matrix are zero by this condition Coefficients with subscripts 12, 14, 16 are zero etc.

**Ship – Equation of motion
**

Imposing certain conditions we still reduce the 3 DOF system to 2 DOF system too! For long and slender ships, it has been found surge has minor effect and can be neglected i.e. we say Surge is decoupled from the other two longitudinal motions (Heave and Pitch) and problem reduced to 2 DOF coupled system Coupled Heave and Pitch or we may have Coupling of any other 2 DOF

Sign Convention : Translatory and Angular Displacements Oh…I see

All are positive

**A SIMPLIFIED HEAD SEA CASE
**

Surge is neglected means – Forward speed U is constant A ship traveling in steady forward speed does not induce accelerations dU/dt =0; Consider only Head sea case ie μ=180 deg μ is the angle between the velocity vector of ship and wave Both wave excitation forces and resultant oscillatory motions are LINEAR and HARMONIC Forces and motions acting at FREQUENCY OF ENCOUNTER ωU ω =ω+ Cos μ = Cos 180 deg = -1 g Warning P41 Eqn 90 PNA in the given edition is WRONG ω2g

2 e

ωe = ω +

U

**A SIMPLIFIED HEAD SEA CASE
**

EOM are based on Newtons second law Translatory modes Forces acting on a body = Mass × Acceleration Rotational mode Moments acting on a body = Moment of inertia × Angular Acceleration With origin located at CG and at Waterline for the simple case, the EOM for heave and pitch are

Heave

& Δ × η&3 = F3 Force as a function of time F(t) Pitch & I 55 × η&5 = F5 Moment as a function of time

where Δ is the mass (displacement) I 55 is the mass moment of inertia about the y- axis

**FORCES and MOMENTS
**

For the simplified case the total force and moment consists of Fluid forces Hydrostatic force and Hydrodynamic Force Heave gravitational force is balanced by the static buoyancy force in calm water.

**FORCES and MOMENTS
**

In Linear Theory , Forces and Moments acting on a LARGE BODY is divided into Forces due to waves acting on a restrained ship – Forces that excite the motions ( Excitation forces and moment) Forces acting due to motion of the ship in an assumed calm sea – Radiation Forces

**FORCES and MOMENTS
**

Exciting forces Radiation forces

F3 (t ) = FEX 3 (t ) + FH 3 (t )

F5 (t ) = FEX 5 (t ) + FH 5 (t )

**Excitation Forces / Moments
**

For sinusoidal waves these are expressed as

FEX 3 (t ) = FEX 3

Amplitude of Heave Force

cos(ω e t + ε 3 )

Phase angle between the excitation and the waves

FEX 5 (t ) = FEX 5

cos(ω e t + ε 5 )

**HYDRODYNAMIC RADIATION FORCES
**

In Linear Theory the hydrodynamic radiation forces due to the coupled motions of the vessel in otherwise calm water are directly proportional to the displacements, velocities and acceleration of the UNKNOWN body motions. For sinusoidal motions the radiation forces and moment are

& & & & FH 3 = −[ A33 (ω )η&3 + B33 (ω )η 3 + C 33η 3 + A35 (ω )η&5 + B35 (ω )η 5 + C 35η 5 ]

&& & && & FH 5 = −[ A53 (ω)η3 + B53 (ω)η3 + C53η3 + A55 (ω)η5 + B55 (ω)η5 + C55η5 ]

**HYDRODYNAMIC RADIATION FORCES
**

& & & & FH 3 = −[ A33 (ω )η&3 + B33 (ω )η 3 + C 33η 3 + A35 (ω )η&5 + B35 (ω )η 5 + C 35η 5 ]

**&& & && & FH 5 = −[ A53 (ω)η3 + B53 (ω)η3 + C53η3 + A55 (ω)η5 + B55 (ω)η5 + C55η5 ]
**

A jk (ω )

B jk (ω )

-- Coefficients as a function of frequency – Added Mass/ Added moment of inertia coefficients Coefficients as a function of frequency – Damping coefficients Note our C coefficient does not depend on Frequency

**UNDERSTANDING THE DOUBLE SUBSCRIPT NOTATION
**

A jk , B jk , C jk

Subscripts are same – A33 B33 A33 B33 Uncoupled coefficient in the heave (3) or pitch (5) mode Subscripts are different – Ajk Bjk (A35 B35 A53 B53 ) k-mode is coupled into the j-mode represents the force in the heave mode due to pitch acceleration

& & & & FH 3 = −[ A33 (ω )η&3 + B33 (ω )η 3 + C 33η 3 + A35 (ω )η&5 + B35 (ω )η 5 + C 35η 5 ]

& A35η&5

FINAL EQUATIONS

By combining the equations discussed before we obtain the final equations Heave:

& Δ × η&3 = F3 F3 (t ) = FEX 3 (t ) + FH 3 (t ) FEX 3 (t ) = FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 ) & & & & FH 3 = −[ A33 (ω )η&3 + B33 (ω )η 3 + C 33η 3 + A35 (ω )η&5 + B35 (ω )η 5 + C 35η 5 ] Note: C does not depend on ω (1) (2) (3) (4)

FINAL EQUATIONS

Using (2), (3) and (4) in (1) and moving the RADIATION forces to the LHS since they are functions of motions which are UNKNOWN one arrives at

& & & & (Δ + A33 )η&3 + B33η 3 + C33η 3 + A35η&5 + B35η 5 + C35η 5 = FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 )

Final equations

Similarly for Pitch

& & & & ( I 55 + A55 )η&5 + B55η 5 + C55η 5 + A53η&3 + B53η 3 + C53η 3 = FEX 5 cos(ω e t + ε 5 )

MATRIX FORM

⎡Δ + A33 ⎢ A ⎣ 53 & A35 ⎤ ⎧η&3 ⎫ ⎡ B33 ⎥ ⎨η& ⎬ + ⎢ B I 55 + A55 ⎦ ⎩ & 5 ⎭ ⎣ 53 & B35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎡C 33 ⎥ ⎨η ⎬ + ⎢C B55 ⎦ ⎩ &5 ⎭ ⎣ 53 C 35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎧ FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 ) ⎫ ⎬ ⎥ ⎨η ⎬ = ⎨ F C 55 ⎦ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎩ EX 5 cos(ω e t + ε 5 )⎭

Ajk Added mass in phase with accelerations Bjk Hydrodynamic damping in phase with velocity Cjk Restoring forces and moments (Net hydrostatic buoyancy effect on ship) Unknown motions can be solved using Cramer’s Rule

MATRIX FORM

⎡Δ + A33 ⎢ A ⎣ 53 & A35 ⎤ ⎧η&3 ⎫ ⎡ B33 ⎥ ⎨η& ⎬ + ⎢ B I 55 + A55 ⎦ ⎩ & 5 ⎭ ⎣ 53 & B35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎡C 33 ⎥ ⎨η ⎬ + ⎢C B55 ⎦ ⎩ &5 ⎭ ⎣ 53 C 35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎧ FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 ) ⎫ ⎬ ⎥ ⎨η ⎬ = ⎨ F C 55 ⎦ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎩ EX 5 cos(ω e t + ε 5 )⎭

These are similar to 2-DOF coupled m-c-k system subjected to external excitations. One important difference is : THE COEFFICIENTS AND EXCITATION ARE ALL FUNCTIONS OF FREQUENCY For a given frequency these coeff are constant and are similar to 2-dof m-c-k system and the system has a solution. For another frequency the values of the coefficients vary

**TIME DOMAIN SOLUTION:
**

Crude Way or Approximate Way: Consider one frequency at a time and obtain solution; Correct Way: Use complicated CONVOLUTION integrals ( I will teach this later, Please somebody remind me) To overcome the difficulty of using CONVOLUTION integrals one solves the equations in the FREQUENCY DOMAIN.

**SOLUTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
**

& & & & (Δ + A33 )η&3 + B33η 3 + C33η 3 + A35η&5 + B35η 5 + C35η 5 = FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 )

& & & & ( I 55 + A55 )η&5 + B55η 5 + C55η 5 + A53η&3 + B53η 3 + C53η 3 = FEX 5 cos(ω e t + ε 5 )

We are looking for the solution of the response In linear theory, the harmonic response will be proportional to the amplitude of the exciting forces with the same frequency but with a phase shift.

**SOLUTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
**

η j (t ) = η j cos(ωet + σ j ) = η j e

iω e t

j =3,5

( REAL PART TO BE TAKEN)

& η j (t ) = i ωeη j eiω t

e

&&j (t ) = −i ωe2η j η

e

iω e t

**SOLUTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
**

ηj

complex response amplitude = η jR + i η jI = Real part and Imaginary part

η

σ

j

=

= tan

η

−1

2 jR

+η

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2 jI

j

⎛ η jI ⎜ ⎜η ⎝ jR

**SOLUTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
**

FEX 3 (t ) = FEX 3

FEX 5 (t ) = FEX 5

cos(ω e t + ε 3 )

cos(ω e t + ε 5 )

= =

FEX 3 e iωet

FEX 5 e iωet

**SOLUTION IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
**

Substituting in the EOM results in

(−ω e2 (Δ + A33 ) + iωB33 + C 33 )η 3 + ( −ω e2 A35 + iωB35 + C 35 )η 5 = FEX 3

( −ω e2 ( I 55 + A55 ) + iωB55 + C 55 )η 5 + (−ω e2 A53 + iωB53 + C 53 )η 3 = FEX 5

The unknown motions can now be solved

**Coupled heave-pitch
**

⎡Δ + A33 ⎢ A ⎣ 53 A35 I 55 & ⎤ ⎧η&3 ⎫ ⎡ B33 ⎨ ⎬+ + A55 ⎥ ⎩η&5 ⎭ ⎢ B53 ⎣ ⎦ & & B35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎡C 33 ⎨ ⎬+ B55 ⎥ ⎩η 5 ⎭ ⎢C 53 ⎣ ⎦ & C 35 ⎤ ⎧η 3 ⎫ ⎧ FEX 3 cos(ω e t + ε 3 ) ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ C 55 ⎥ ⎩η 5 ⎭ ⎩ FEX 5 cos(ω e t + ε 5 )⎭ ⎦

Cross coupling terms are with subscripts 35 or 53 For fore and aft symmetric ship at ZERO FORWARD SPEED the cross coupling is zero Many typical ships are fore and aft symmetric and cross coupling term must be included to predict the motions in HEAD SEAS at FORWARD SPEED. (Ship is traveling)

**Coupled heave-pitch
**

The terms on the RHS represent Forces and moments on a restrained ship (i.e. ship is fixed – does not oscillate ..but encounter waves at a forward speed of Uo) These forces are calculated using HYDRODYNAMIC THEORY

**Exciting Forces/Moments
**

Force / Moment only due to the incident wave on the body -- FROUDE KRYLOV FORCES and MOMENTS Found by integrating the pressure over the body surface that would exist in the incident wave system if the body were not present Force/Moment due to the diffracted waves – presence of body modifies the incoming wave ---DIFFRACTION FORCES and MOMENTS

**Exciting Forces/Moments
**

Sometimes the FROUDE-KRYLOV forces and moments are used to approximate total exciting forces. THIS IS A GOOD APPROXIMATION when Lw is >> vessel length (wave length much greater than vessel length) For short wave lengths this approximation fails as Diffraction forces becomes significant. For short waves the Diffraction force may become approximately one half of the total exciting force.

**How to determine the coefficients in the EOM of motion for a ship?
**

Solution is by applying STRIP THEORY. SHIP is divided into transverse strips and segments The added mass and damping for each strip is calculated using 2-Dimensional hydrodynamic theory or by 2-dimensional experiments (Standard graphs for typical ship sections are available) The sectional values are then appropriately combined to yield values for Ajk, Bjk, Cjk and Fj

STRIP THEORY

Coefficients – Coupled pitch heave- Head sea

**STRIP THEORY - Features, Assumptions
**

The vessel is a slender body – i.e. its beam and draft < < length (d/l is much small = max lateral dimension /length) L/B > 7 Length is much greater than the beam or the draught Beam is much less than the wave length Strip theory valid only for low to moderate sea states. Ship speed is relatively slow and predictions deteriorate at higher Froude Numbers Fr > 3.0

STRIP THEORY

Changes in cross section vary gradually along the length The hull is rigid, i.e. no flexure of the hull arises The speed is moderate so that there is no appreciable planning lift The motions are small The ship hull sections are wall-sided - Each strip is constant section and sides of the ship are vertical above and below the still waterline.

STRIP THEORY

Hull is continuous and symmetric about the fore and aft axis;(Strip theory not valid for multihulls) The water depth is much greater than the wavelength, so that deep water approximations can be applied The presence of hull has no effect on the waves (Froude-Kriloff hypothesis)

For zero forward speed and high frequencies the we can see that the fluid velocities are greater in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction. Therefore the flow can be considered two dimensional in that strip To obtain the total effect on the ship, the effects of all individual strips are integrated along the length.

STRIP THEORY

STRIP THEORY approximation for the heave added mass is

A33 = ∫ a33 ( x)dx

L

a33 (x) is the 2-dimensional added mass L Integration along the ship length.

STRIP THEORY

The essence of strip theory is to reduce a 3-D hydrodynamic problem to a series of 2-D problems which are easier to solve For low frequencies and high forward speed the strip theory approximation is no longer straight forward Different initial assumptions lead to different formulations

SIMPSON’S RULE

In numerical analysis, Simpson's rule is a method for numerical integration, the numerical approximation of definite integrals

SIMPSON’S RULE

Consider the function f(x) only P(x) is just a polynomial approximation for f(x)

SIMPSON’S RULE

SIMPSON’S RULE

Suppose that the interval [a,b] is split up in n subintervals, with n an even number.

**Assignment Due - 14/Aug/07
**

SUBMIT YOUR ASSIGNMENT ON TUESDAY (Hard copy or soft copy) NO LATE SUBMISSIONS PLEASE DO A FORCED VIBRATION PROBLEM IN MATLAB EACH ASSIGNMENT CARRIES MARKS

Reading Assignment

Chapter 1, 2, 3, Dynamics of Marine vehicles SCAN THROUGH,Rameshwar Bhattacharyya Chapter 4 --- Bhattacharyya, Starting on Mon Chapter 8 in Vol III Lewis (Principles of Naval Architechture) -- We already covered important 2-dof coupled theory in this class 6 dof theory – will be dealt later (Lewis) Kindly understand what is in Lewis Chapter 8, which gives a good description of the theory of the EOM governing ship motions

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING PLEASE DO STUDY IN THE WEEK END , CHAPTER 8, LEWIS

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