You are on page 1of 6

NTFS & FAT 32 ?

Stands for "New Technology File System." NTFS is a file system introduced by Microsoft with Windows NT and is supported by subsequent versions of Windows, such as Windows 2000 and Windows XP. NTFS has a number of advantages over the previous file system, named FAT32 (File Allocation Table). One major advantage of NTFS is that it includes features to improve reliablity. For exmaple, the new technology file system includes fault tolerance, which automatically repairs hard drive errors without displaying error messages. It also keeps detailed transaction logs, which tracks hard drive errors. This can help prevent hard disk failures and makes it possible to recover files if the hard drive does fail. NTFS also allows permissions (such as read, write, and execute) to be set for individual directories and files. It even supports spanning volumes, which allows directories of files to be spread across multiple hard drives. The only reason why you would not want to select NTFS when formatting your hard drive is if you like slow, outdated technology or you need to run an older operating system such as Windows 95 or MS-DOS. Of course, if you are running DOS, there is a good chance you really do like outdated technology.

Booting ?
Restarting a computer or its operating system software. It is of two types (1) Cold booting: when the computer is started after having been switched off. (2) Warm booting: when the operating system alone is restarted (without being switched off) after a system crash or 'freeze.' Both types of booting clear out (for the time being) the bugs, bombs, memory conflicts, and other idiosyncrasies of the operating system.

What is a PDF file?

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. PDF is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system.

What Is The Difference Between 32-bit & 64-bit Windows ?

People ask me on a daily basis, What is the difference between a 32-bit and 64-bit Windows operating system? Most of you are running Windows XP or

Vista in its 32-bit iteration. But as hardware gets cheaper, people are curious as to what the 64-bit operating system has to offer. First lets see if we can grasp the difference between 32- and 64-bit. Think of your computer as a series of tubes that can either be 32 or 64 bits wide. When you have the smaller 32-bit size, there is more potential for bottlenecks to occur. Bottlenecks slow down your system because one process has to wait for another to finish before it can begin. But if you want to have 64-bit wide tubes, your computer needs to be thinking in 64-bit so your software and hardware all need to support 64-bit. If you do not know the difference between 32-bit and 64-bit, I would have told you in the past that you are running a 32-bit version of Windows. But now with Windows 7 I am seeing more and more 64-bit operating systems shipped by default without the end users knowledge. Dont get me wrong, a 64-bit system is better but you also need to be running 64-bit programs and have a 64-bit processor or else all the trouble of setting up the 64-bit operating system would be worthless. On a 32-bit operating system, you are restricted to a maximum of 4 gigabytes of RAM. On a 64-bit operating system, you really do not have a limit. Lets look at Wikipedia and find out the maximum amount of RAM for a 64-bit operating system: That is a huge amount of RAM! Normally when you exhaust your physical RAM on a 32-bit system, it has to use virtual memory or hard disk space to pick up the slack. On a 64-bit system, you can install as much RAM as you can to cover your overhead. From here on, 32-bit operating systems will be referred to as x86 and 64 bit operating systems as x64. You can tell what you are running by right clicking on My Computer and choosing Properties. Below is a shot of a 64-bit machine using 12GB of memory.

And in this shot, we see a 32-bit machine trying to use 7GB of RAM.. Not going to happen!

If you are running 3D modeling systems or AutoCAD systems, you can benefit from a x64 bit architecture but remember, you need to be running ALL x64 applications, print drivers and anything else you are setting up on your system to realize its full potential. Not all programs have been created for x64 yet and you will find yourself installing applications to your Program Files x86 directory. On a x64 machine, you will have two Program File directories one for 32-bit and one for 64-bit applications. So after reading through that and you still want to run a x64 operating system, you will need to make sure your processor supports x64. Most new servers and new computers bought this year or beyond will support x64 but you will still need to check. Here are some facts you should know (taken from ZDNet):

Almost all new servers sold within the last two years from AMD or Intel will have x64 capability. Most mid- to high-end desktop processors from AMD or Intel within the last year have x64 capability. Some higher-end Semprons have x64; lower-end Semprons do not. No AMD Durons have x64. All AMD Opteron processors have x64. All AMD X2, FX, and Athlon64 chips have x64. All Intel Pentium D and Celeron D chips have x64. All AMD Turion notebook processors have x64. All Intel Core 2 processors (mobile, desktop, and server) have x64. No Intel Core Duo notebook processors have x64 No Intel Pentium M notebook processors have x64.

If you are still not sure if your processor can support x64 check out GRCs SecurAble and let them help you figure it out! You might also want to check out Mahendras post How To Choose Between 32-bit & 64-bit Windows 7 Operating Systems. If you are running a server that has all its hardware and software certified for x64, then you should install the 64-bit version but beware of device drivers and any 32-bit environments because if I used the word difficult, it would be an understatement!

Who is the father of Facebook?

Answer: Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook.

Who invented first computer virus?
Answer: THE first virus was invented by two brothers name basit ali and amjad ali from lahore pakistan in 1986 the virus name was brain and it attacked ...

Who invented anti virus software at first ?

Answer: Vipul Prajapati

What is the name of the first anti-virus ?


What is the full name of virus ?

Answer: Full Name : Vital Information Resources under Seize.

Some Virus name:


Some anti Virus name:

1.Kaspersky 2.Avira 3.Norton 5.Mcafee 6.Avast

3 Hybris 4 Aliz 5 Nimda 6 Magistr 7 GIP 8 Happytime 9 Klez 10 Seeker 11 Klez 12 Badtrans 13 SirCam 14 Hybris 15 Aliz 16 Magistr 17 CodeRed 18 Thus 19 Petik 20 Death

WiFi ?
Answer: Full name : Wireless Fidelity

Back in 1991 Wi-Fi was invented by NCR Corporation/AT&T (later on Lucent & Agere Systems) in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. Initially meant for cashier systems the first wireless products were brought on the market under the name WaveLAN with speeds of 1Mbps/2Mbps. Vic Hayes who is the inventor of Wi-Fi has been named 'father of Wi-Fi' and was with his team involved in designing standards such as IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g. In 2003, Vic retired from Agere Systems. Agere Systems suffered from strong competition in the market even though their products were cutting edge, as many opted for cheaper Wi-Fi solutions. Agere's 802.11abg all-inone chipset (code named: WARP) never hit the market, Agere Systems decided to quit the Wi-Fi market in late 2004.

Full name : Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Who invented WiMAX technology?

Dr. Hatim Zaghloul

What is Wimax Technology?

Wimax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Wimax technology is a telecommunications technology that offers transmission of wireless data via a number of transmission methods; such as portable or fully mobile internet access via point to multipoints links. The Wimax technology offers around 72 Mega Bits per second without any need for the cable infrastructure. Wimax technology is based on Standard that is IEEE 802.16, it usually also called as Broadband Wireless Access. WiMAX Forum created the name for Wimax technology that was formed in Mid June 2001 to encourage compliance and interoperability of the Wimax IEEE 802.16 standard. Wimax technology is actually based on the standards that making the possibility to delivery last mile broadband access as a substitute to conventional cable and DSL lines.