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1. Consider a Newtonian fluid between two infinite horizontal parallel plates in steady state condition as is shown in the figure below. The above plate is moving with constant velocity U 0 , while the other plate is stationary. a) Determine the velocity profile and the power required (per area of the plate) in order to maintain the fluid motion as is described above. Now, consider the above flow with addition of positive constant pressure gradient along x axis, p x . b) Find the velocity profile and show that it can be considered as sum of two fluid streams: first, a linear velocity profile caused by moving of the above plate with a zero pressure gradient, and second, a velocity profile between two stationary plates driven by pressure gradient. c) Regarding the fact that Navier-Stokes equation is non-linear, explain why it is possible to use superposition principle for finding the above velocity profile? d) Find p x such that the mass flow rate between two plates becomes zero. e) Find p x such that the force exerted on the bottom surface becomes zero.

2. Consider two layers of viscous, incompressible, and immiscible fluid flow in the x-direction under a constant pressure gradient ( p x ) between parallel fixed planes at y a . Each layer has thickness a , both fluids have density and the viscosities are 1 and 2 .

a) What are the boundary conditions at y a and y 0 ? b) Use the Navier-Stokes equations to find the fluid velocities in terms of the constant

pressure gradient p x .

**c) If the volume fluxes of the two fluids are Q1 and Q 2 respectively, show that:
**

Q 1 2 (7 1 2 ) Q 2 1 (7 2 1 )

3. A plate with infinite width is being extracted from an incompressible Newtonian fluid tank with constant velocity U 0 . One can suppose that fluid flow width on the plate, H , is constant in fully developed region. a) Take a control volume containing the whole width of the flow—just like the below figure—and find the shear stress on the plate. Neglect the effects of the adjacent air. b) Find the velocity profile in fully developed region by simplifying N-S equations. c) Determine at which the mass flow rate becomes zero.

4. Consider an incompressible Newtonian fluid flows in a vertical tube with radius R subjected to the gravity field. Suppose that the pressure gradient along the tube is zero and the flow is fully developed, so there is no vertical velocity. a) Without using the Navier-Stokes equations and the velocity profile, find the value of shear stress in inner surface of the tube. Hint: Try to consider an appropriate control volume and use the symmetry condition. b) Simplify the N-S equations to find the velocity profile. Express your suppositions.

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