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8/31/09 List of Questions the Chewaucan Biophysical Monitoring Website Can Answer Wildlife Have aspen responded to enhancement

treatments? What is the impact on soil compaction and soil repair over time? In-Stream Restoration What is the impact of upslope management activities and high road density on soil infiltration, volume of runoff, and stream velocity? What is the impact of grazing to this restoration program? What is the impact on fish passage and invertebrate migration? How has the reintroduction of willows impacted the stability of stream channels? Have they become vectors for invasive aquatic weeds? Reducing road density and habitat fragmentation What are the most practical and effective means of reducing road impacts (e.g. use restrictions, gating, decommissioning, obliteration)? Did treatment of juniper (removal) result in permanent ground herbaceous cover? Has meadow treatment reduced encroachment and allowed for grass/forbs establishment? Has a mosaic of burn/unburned areas been achieved? How is deer use affected by this project? Has implementation affected snag and downed wood habitat? Fish and Hydrology Are new culverts/ford crossings allowing for fish movement? Is aquatic habitat improving? Are soil productivity guidelines met? Have compaction percentages stayed below 20% in those units identified as below 20% pretreatment, and have those units identified as above 20% improved? Noxious Weeds Has action affected noxious weed populations? Range Has meadow enhancement work affected range conditions? Silviculture What is response of surface vegetation after treatment? include willows and mountain mahogany? What are the rate, density, and dispersal of conifer regeneration after treatment? Are openings and ground disturbance encouraging conifer regeneration (wanted or unwanted)? Is aspen expanding its range and what treatment is best accomplishing this? Are there male and female clones present? What is vegetative response to riparian burning? Is there a change in species composition?

What trees (size, age, crown class, species) are negatively affected (killed) by prescribed fire? Is there a pattern? Chewaucan Monitoring Committees Questions Prescribed Burning What are the effects of burning over compacted soil surfaces in relation to non-compacted surfaces? What percentage of the disturbed duff layer is retained after the burning? What is the impact on the species and distribution of noxious weeds in the burned areas? Reducing Soil Compaction How does sub-soiling affect the various soil types that contain percentages of plastic elements, such as clay? What is the impact on the natural hydrologic patterning, such as soil piping and the redirection of subsurface flows? What is the impact of sub-soiling on the species composition and distribution of invasive non-native plants? Is there enough canopy above the ripped lanes to contribute sufficient litter fall to cover the bare mineral ground and begin the process of duff creation? What is the impact on remnant trees due to root damage and subsequent attacks by pathogenic fungi?