Dynamical Analogies

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Dynamical Analogies
By

HARRY
RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.
Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK
D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
250 Fourth Avenue
1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
All Rights Reserved
This book, or any
-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. engineer. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. an electrical circuit. Engstrom. E. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Olson . in this project. plex arrangements of multielement systems. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Lorene E. Harry January. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Olson. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. W. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Research Director.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. 1943 F.

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Mass. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 1 1.3 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Rectilineal Compliance.2 4 II. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.3 Inductance. Acoustical Resistance 2. Inductance B. Rotational Compliance. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 3.1 2. Rectilineal Compliance C. Acoustical Capacitance A.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Inertance 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.5 Representation of Electrical. Electrical Resistance B. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Moment of Inertia. ELEMENTS 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.2 Introduction Resistance A. A.2 3. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. ELECTRICAL. Electrical Capacitance B. C. Acoustical Capacitance 2.CONTENTS Chapter I.

3 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.4 Dissipation 4.1 Introduction 52 5.5 Chapter 3.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.5 Equations of Motion 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . ELECTRICAL.2 4.. 60 5.10 The Acoustical System 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.7 64 5. 4.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 The Electrical System . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.2 Two Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.. Mechanical Rectilineal. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.7 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.4 5.6 3.6 4.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.13 Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 Introduction 37 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 67 .8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. .

.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.20 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6.16 Electrical Resistance.3 6. Mechanical Rotational.1 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.11 69 71 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational.17 5.10 Series 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies ..9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.15 Electrical Resistance. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.CONTENTS Chapter 5. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.

4 9.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 8. B.5 8. THEOREMS 10. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. C. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. 1 7. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 8. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.1 10. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .1 8.X Chapter VII.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.1 9.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.5 9.5 114 120 7. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.6 VIII. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.2 7.4 Ill 7.2 9. Unpolarized Armature B.

1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.8 1 1 . Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.CONTENTS Chapter E.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.2 11.6 11.5 184 185 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . APPLICATIONS 11.7 11.4 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.

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an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. as for example.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. 1 The acoustical . the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. However. Expressions for the kinetic energy. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. mechanical and acoustical tems. vibrating systems. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems.1. In other words.

The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. constituent parts of a circuit. This involves acousti- electroacoustical.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. as for example. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. springs and friction. Elements are the meshes. ' The lished. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. cal. various assemblies of masses. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. springs and brakes. Of course. Electrical elements are resistance. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. . In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. induct- ance and capacitance.

INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. up the mechanical and electrical. I) and Firestone {Jour. Therefore. Verojf a. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. in the past. However. Hanle {JViss. Finally. Every analogy possesses certain advantages.. mechanical and acoustical systems. Vol. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. XI. For example. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. In addition. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. — . the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. 4. Soc. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. 4. ratio of force to displacement. Amer. That is to say. SiemensKonzern. Acous. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. In this book. No. particularly electrical circuits. and ratio of pressure to displacement. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. every electrical. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. However. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. circuit. Vol. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. No. Therefore. d. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book.1 of 1942. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. Institute of Radio Engineers. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. all communication. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits.

—The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. Octave. reciprocal of the period. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. a period of jy. a constant. equals 2x divided by the period T. Periodic Quantity. Harmonic. Cycle. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. . or which tity comprises a cycle. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. Definitions ^ this section. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. Frequency. or zero. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second.2. Basic Frequency. where T. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. all is the frequency. negative. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. a positive constant. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. This called a Fourier series. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. The remainder. period. Terms not sections. + T).

Wave. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. Mechanomotive Force). The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Dyne. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. the dyne. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The unit is the dyne. Wavelength. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. . The unit the dyne. force. The unit is the abvolt. — — Abvolt. Subharmonic. Electromotive Force. The root unit the abvolt. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Effective Electromotive Force. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. A wave is a propagated disturbance. mechanical or acoustical system. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency.

the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). Abampere. the abampere. The unit is the dyne centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force).6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The the — Instantaneous Current. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. . the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. force. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force).

current. The unit is the abampere. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. is velocity in that interval. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is Radian per Second. complete cycle at the point. Peak Current. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. unit is the radian per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. the abampere. Maximum Velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. velocity. Effective Angular Velocity. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. per second. Peak Velocity. Maximum Current.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. is Centimeter per Second. the centimeter per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. Effective Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter per second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle.

the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. is the abohm. times the frequency. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. electrical Inductance. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. Electrical Impedance. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance.-W is impedance. the cubic centimeter per second. The unit the abohm. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. for Peak Volume Current. . —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. is Electrical Resistance. which. The unit is the abfarad. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. where both systems are considered concurrently. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. To avoid ambiguity in this book. the cubic centimeter per second. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. second. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit the abohm. Electrical Reactance. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. when times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. Effective Volume Current. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current.

Acoustical Impedance. Rotational Compliance. Compliance. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. ' See footnote S. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the mechanical ohm. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. page I . rotational resistance ance. Mass. when multiplied by times the frequency. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. The unit is the rotational ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. The unit is the rotational ohm. — Compliance The unit is the gram.

Electrical System. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. . the acoustical ohm. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. and rotational compliance. mass and compliance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. moment of inertia. inertance and acoustical capacitance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Acoustical Reactance. when multiplied by times the frequency. mass and compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance.. inductance and electrical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. In the same way. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. inductance and electrical capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. the fourth power. Inertance. Acoustical System.

For For a gain the reference power is is greater. torque. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. velocity. force. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. current. Transmission Loss {or Gain). The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. torque or pressure is electrical. voltage. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. The bel is the Decibel. pressures or such as forces or velocities. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . angular velocity. force. mechanical rectilineal. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. — Transmission. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. For example. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. Either of these systems may be electrical. pressure or volume current. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. mechanical or acoustical. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios.

They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. As indicated in the preceding chapter.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. See footnote page 8. Electrical Resistance. t 2. and current through the resistance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. resistor. A resistor. An tinguished from the devices. e. 5. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. e rs^-. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. is defined as A. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. inductance and capacitance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. in abohms. inductor and capacitor. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements.' 2. in abamperes. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance.2. Electrical resistance rs.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. in abvolts. the vibrating systems. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. electrical. 12 .1. In this procedure. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation.

At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in rotational ohms. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. and velocity at the point of application of the force. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). . is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. D. in dyne centimeters. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. in dynes.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.RESISTANCE B. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. is defined as r^ — = y 2.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Acoustical Resistance. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. in centi- meters per second. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Equation 2. Mechanical rotational energy is C. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in radians per second. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force.

This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in = width of the meters. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. in dynes per square centimeter. slit normal to the direction of flow. However.4 where p — pressure. resistance. 1940. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.86 X 10"'* for air. 'Olson. Van Nostrand Co. volume current.. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. and U= Equation resistance current. in acoustical ohms. 6pww 2. a narrow and metal. slit in the direction of flow.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . A tube of small diameter.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. 1. York. a reaccomponent.5 = viscosity coefficient. slit normal to the direction of flow. New . in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. in centimeters. density." D. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per cubic centimeter. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in addition to the resistive component. 2. and frequency in cycles per second. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions.

that during linear when the velocity decreases. given by dd . mass increases. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. It remains constant ance. which opposes a change of velocity. 15 Inductance. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. is remains a constant of inertia /. It decreases when the current decreases. MASS. in centimeters per second per second.INDUCTANCE. 2. in abvolts. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. that during angular acceleration. Moment of Inertia. in abamperes per second. in dynes.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. MOMENT OF INERTIA. Inertance A. in abhenries. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. and rate of change of current.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. INERTANCE 2. Moment of Inertia. in grams. = di Ldt ^ 2.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. Mass. Mass. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. is defined as 2. Inductance. Moment gram (centimeter)^. and driving force. is Inductance L.3. Equation C. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. in when the angular velocity a constant. B. Equation 2.

The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. in rate of change of 2. New . Equation 2.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in radians per second per second. that tion. Inertance M. in centimeters.10 m = S = mass. is. in centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. volume current. Van Nostrand Co.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. D. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. and driving pressure. decreases. in grams. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in grams per (centimeter)*. 1940. in dyne centimeters. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. inertance. cross sectional area in square centimeters. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. Inertance. in p = density of the meter. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. effective length of the tube. in cubic centimeters per second per second.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. York." D. = length plus end correc- and in the tube.. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.

Electrical capacitance Cg. . is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical 17 Capacitance. in abfarads.13 states that the charge on an force.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Rotational Com- pliance. in dynes is Equation 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. in abcoulombs.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. and applied force. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.4. Rectilineal Compliance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance.n Equation 2. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. in centimeters. and electromotive force. It is a constant. and stored. Electrical Capacitance. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Rectilineal Compliance. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne.14 = Jm = displacement. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. abvolts. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.

in centimeters per second. 9. Acoustical Capacitance. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. allowed to unwind. in radians.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. . Van Nostrand Co. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.16 p s — = = velocity. It is constant.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. It is constant. in is The terms of the condensation. in grams per cubic centimeter. density. C.17 s = * Olson.17.. New York." p. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. in dyne centimeters. and condensation. D. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. and applied torque. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. D. p = where c c^ps 2. Equation 2. defined in equation 2. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. Rotational Compliance. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted.^ in dynes per square centimeter. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Rotational compliance Cu-. 1940. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.

equal to the volume displacement.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. From equations 2.18 X= volume displacement.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. Mechanical Rectilineal. From equations 2. in cubic centimeters.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.21 F= volume. 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.5. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. and 2.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. in cubic centimeters.X 2.19 and 2. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. and volume displacement. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. The electrical elements.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.16. electrical resistance. in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. . Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. . is 2. = ^ F 2. Equation 2. mechanical rectilineal. Representation of Electrical.17. 2.

20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. 2.1. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rectilineal. rE . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. 1. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. self-inductance. inertance and time. the standard modifiers for all four systems. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. Table 2. ^ The Tables 8. length. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. The dimensions given in Table 2.3. ELEMENTS and time. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.1. Tables 2.1. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. and time. Further.2. .1 page and list and 2. 2.1.3 uses mass M. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.24 sions are mass.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.1 and 2. length L and time T.

In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mass. 3. mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. namely. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. 3. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. mechanical rotational.1. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. From these definitions it is evident that friction. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal.2. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical.1. mechanical rotational or In other words.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical.

potential and heat energy. kinetic. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. Heat is a transient form of energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . mechanical rectilineal. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. namely. Cr = T. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. C. Electrical. velocity. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms.1. mechanical rotational. 3. In the electrical. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. mechanical rectilineal. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences.

in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per (centimeter)*.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. and velocity of the = mass m. in abhenries. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in grams. mass of air in the opening. in grams.2 m = X mass. cross-sectional area of the opening. The sum of the kinetic. in square centimeters. X— X Sx = volume current. equal to the system. in centimeters per second.3 = moment of inertia. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. mechanical rectilineal. potential. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in abamperes. electrical. and current through the inductance L. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. by the principle of conservation of energy. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. the inertance.3. in radians per second.4 M= m = S — m/S^. mechanical rotational. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. It is assumed that same phase. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in centimeters per second. 3.

potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. in radians. and c = velocity of sound.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per second. in cubic centimeters. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in grams per cubic centimeter. ^ 3. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. and X = displacement. = -. and charge on the capacitance. in dynes per centimeter. . = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in abcoulombs. in abfarads. in centimeters.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. s — stiffness of the spring. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in centimeters per dyne.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. in cubic centimeters. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. p = density of air. and <l> angular displacement..4.

12 where We. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical rotational.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. +— + XX 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.18 . Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.: 3.. and acoustical systems. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.5. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. Wr.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. force.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. in abohms. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. and current.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. . in abamperes. mechanical Wm.y- 3.17 = = is electrical resistance.

Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. and X= 3. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. and velocity.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second.22 = acoustical resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in radians per second. and angular velocity.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.6. in rotational ohms. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.

23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.32 „.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.28 and 3. — -—- JO^ Cm . q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.24..30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.26.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems. 3.

the impedance is m and Cm. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.7.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7^ Ca 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. . is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. the angular velocity and torque.38 3. the velocity and force.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.jo>I — — 3.

.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.42 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.8. mechanical rectilineal.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.Ce r^ 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.

The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.24. 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.49 „ .1.1. Equation 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. 3. namely.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.

51 is the same as equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.55 is the same as equation 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. Equation 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. 3.26.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. .57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.28. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.

further illustrate the analogies between electrical.59 is the same as equation 3.43 to 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. and acoustical systems.30. Equation 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. 3. inclusively. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.59. mechanical rectilineal. Equations 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. . mechanical rotational.

In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. velocity. MECHANICAL Electrical.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.1. 4. 4. mechanical rectilineal.1. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.2. 4.1. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig.

2 where x^ m = = mass.4 M = inertance. and velocity of the mass m. in grams. in cubic centimeters per second. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in branch 3.1 93 L = inductance. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. in abamperes.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. and = h = current.3. . in radians per second.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in abhenries.

in centimeters. per dyne. in qz ohms.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in abamperes.5. in cubic centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in radians. . in (centimeter)^ per dyne.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. and <i>2 angular displacement. and — current. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. 4. in abcoulombs. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4.4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and charge on the electrical capacitance. and X2 = volume displacement.DISSIPATION 4. and displacement.

and angular velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.i 4.6. in acoustical ohms. and velocity. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . and Xs = volume 4. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. 2 d<t>n dcj). Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.12 = acoustical resistance. in rotational ohms. current. in radians per second. in cubic centimeters per second. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in centimeters per second. mechanical ohms.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.

e = = Lqz-[.18. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.17.19 +k 4. at/jf. The linear displacement. The relation for the currents in Fig.8.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.7. 4.1 is h = H Equation 4. 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.21 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.23.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. 4.25 .24 Differentiating equation 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.rsqz 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.22.14.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.20 4.13. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.

28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.42 4.32 ing piston. p = MXa + vaXz 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Jb /. .30. The angular displacement.10.26 ^ The 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.31.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. at/^j.15. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.16. at p.28 Differentiating equation 4.29 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.27. = = /03 + rij^g 4. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.26. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. 4.1. in the acoustical system. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. Fig. 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.9. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.

34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. given by ^3 JM is 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. 4.29 and 4. 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. mass. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. Fig.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.1.1.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. inclusive. 4. vm. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.11. Fig. shows again that resistance. inductance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.1 to 4.33. inertance acoustical system. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.19.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. to mechanical rotational resistance.25. and to acoustical resistance. 4.

X2 = Xi .X3 = pjccCa 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . is given by k The = f". 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. Fig.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. is .1. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm..45 . = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. Fig. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.1.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4. 4.

1 of Chapter V.3.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. see pages 53.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. . 54. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.48 JwCe3 Cr.12. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. The electrical impedances z^i. 1 tional systems of Figs. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.2 are as follows: 4. 55 and 56 and Fig.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. 5. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 4.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.

— JwLmz Zb.3 is the as that of Fig.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. 4. 4. The shunt electrical. I2 and M2.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. 4. compliance. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 4. 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance. Ce2.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. ze2 = j^L2 4. mechanical rectilineal.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.59 4.60 4.55 jwLai 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. mass.

65 2^22^3 . The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.3.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 4.

Mechanical Rectilineal. 4. 4.3. 4. to /i.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. Cm\. Cb2 .48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .«i. Electrical.\. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. L2. I2.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. L. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.4. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . m2.13.4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Ca.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.t 4. Cri.412^3 + 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. mechanical rectilineal.67 . Cei. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .

4>i. The current to.88 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. i^ in show that /q.76 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. Cai.84 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. the linear velocity Xq. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. Ca2 in the acoustical system. h.82 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. Xi.80 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.89 . 4.86 4. Xi. 4>2. to 4>o.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.74 4. X3 rectilineal system.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.78 4. M2.83 ZA2 4. X2. nA where zei = .77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. ^ zjji = .87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. (h and 04 X2.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.92 4.97 The current i2. the linear velocity Xi.90 4.98 . 01 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. 4. the linear velocity X2. 02 = + Zr^ 4.{ZA3jrZA. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.) Ha ^_^^j . ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.93 Ha = The current ii.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd ..99 r^r^ . the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.95 .ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. 4.

109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.-riE .102 X3 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.„. = The equations cal. J~iR X.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.107 . show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. ^^^ 4.106 . the linear velocity X4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.105 current 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. . 4.

prior to the introduction of the corrective network.2. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5. mechanical rectilineal. characteristics.1.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.^ an inductance. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.1. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. 52 . consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. mechanical rotational.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5.

5. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. branch is current flows in z^i. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .1.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. Fig.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.

</>!.3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. SAA. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4.1 with the same tions. respectively. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. relations existing between//.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. respectively. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. Fig. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. as for example. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.4 That is. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.. consists of a system of gears.1. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. respectively. 5. shown schematically in Fig. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. analogous to equation 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. Equation 5. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. Z/jt. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. = = xx -\- X2 5. 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. With these specifications the differential of Fig. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . That is. respectively.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. ^2. </)r.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. must be in parallel. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft.2 for the electrical system. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL
The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears
these conditions
if

55

rotate with
are

its

axis coincident with gear /.
shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

as the driving gear 1.
is

Or

if

5

is

held stationary the
1.

angular displacement of gear 7

the same as the driving gear
it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x
Zri2I

^

m^
J2&

^ ti
END VIEW
Fig. i.\A.
Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

various gears are as outlined above.
the gears are massless and that
rotational impedances zrx and
all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This
Ze\

is

analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
Ze2 in the electrical circuit.
4>t

and

The angular displacement
angular displacement at
i>\

at gear 1
<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and
•Ar

of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,
<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That
5.7
is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the
7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

angular velocities at gears 5 and
Ziei

the rotational impedances zr2 and
parallel.

at gears 7

ical

and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=
Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there
if

is

no motion

at

gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.
Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances
the
is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi
Equation 5.9
is

+

X2

5.9

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat
If 2^2

=
Zai

,

+

5.10
Za2
in this
is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes
is

za2-

Thus

it

will

infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
across a line.'
^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
The output
given by
l3

57
is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=
ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
e

input electrical impedance,
electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=
ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

where Zmi Zm2
zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
rectilineal

impedance.
of a mechanical rotational network
is

The output angular
which
is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=
ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13
Zr2ZB3

where Zm
2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =
ZaiZA2

P^
+
Z.41Z.13

+

5.14
ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —
Za2

input acoustical impedance,
acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.
5.4.

Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance
where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =
co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.
if

Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
inductance inductance
is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

ances, the transmission will be small.
is

large

compared

to the input

and output
is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
characteristic
*

proportional to the

frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
of Fig. 5.2.
rectilineal

The mechanical
where

impedance of the mass
ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When
5.2
''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.17 where / = moment of inertia.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.13 and 5.2.12 relatively large 59 and 5.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. ^^^^. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. equations 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. reactance . equations 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies.

in abfarads. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. Therefore.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.14 and 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. from equations 5.3 is = T^ 5.18 where M= inertance. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The acoustical system of Fig. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.20 where Cm = compliance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. Fig. 5.3. 5. .42 = joiM 5.2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.11 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. Equations 5. 5.2.

impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.3 is 1 2fi2 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.12 to the and 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. 5.13 and 5.20 is shown in Fig.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3. Fig.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. at Equa- tions 5. 5.3.12 and 5. The mechanical the frequency.21 show that at low frequencies . in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.

6. 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.23 where L = Ce = inductance.3.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. in abfarads. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. tional.23.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. .3. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13 and 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.4. 5. equations 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.14 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. in abhenries. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. and electrical capacitance. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.4 in series across a line. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. The shown in Fig. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.11 and 5.12 = ^-^ 5.

INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. in grams. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25 where / = moment of inertia. and Cu = rotational compliance.24. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.25. in gram (centimeter)^.24 where m = mass. and compliance. The output angular 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and . in radians per dyne per centimeter.4. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.5.12 and 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.4. 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. . acoustical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.7.2 and there is very little attenuation.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. in (centimeter)" per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)''. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.26 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. in Fig.13 and 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. Equations 5.14 and 5.11 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.26. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.5 parallel across a line.24 also is zero.

1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.5.27. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 and 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance. 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. Cm = The output . 5. in abfarads.28 where m = mass.J^mCM 5. 5. in grams. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne.28.

28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The output volume 5.13 and 5. in gram (centimeter)^. 5. 5. Equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. and = rotational compliance..66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.5 is ZR2 = .13 and The output angular 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.2 and the transmission is small. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . 5.^MC. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.11 and 5.14 and 5. 5. 1 - 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.3 and the transmission is again small.30. .30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. and acoustical capacitance.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.29.

inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.6. 5. Electrical resistance. 5.8.5. in shunt with a line.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 5. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. in abfarads. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. Electrical Resistance. in abohms.6 shows an electrical resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.min. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.11 and 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. itance in series. and electrical capacitance. inductance.6.31. in Fig.

in grams per (centimeter)*. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.33. in grams. of inertia. in rotational ohms. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.34. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. mass.11 and 5.12 and 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . compliance. in centimeters per dyne.32.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . from equations 5. from equations 5. in mechanical ohms.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. in acoustical ohms.12 and 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. Therefore.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. The output and 5. inertance. 5. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.2 and there is very little attenuation. Therefore.3 and there is very little attenuation. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. and rotational compliance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.

5. in abfarads. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. . Therefore. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.6. 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in Fig. in abohms. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass. from equations 5.4. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.9. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.6. and electrical capacitance. inductance. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in mechanical ohms.7.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. in abhenries. 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in centimeters per dyne. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.12 The output and 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. and compliance. The mechanical network is rectihneal.7 shows an electrical resistance. in Fig. Therefore. from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.13 and 5.35.14 and 5.36. 5.

rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in grams per and 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. acoustical capacitance. = = mechanical rotational resistance. 5.37.37 where ru Cb. S. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^.38. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in acoustical ohms. of inertia.7. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output and 5.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.14 Ca = 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. inertance. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. rotational compliance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Electrical resistance.

This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. Fig.7.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.11 and 5. Fig.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inductance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. .7. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.10.13 and 5. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. However. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.7.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.14 and 5.2 and the transmission is small. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.7. 5. 5. 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.3 and the transmission is again small.12 and 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.7. Fig. output electrical impedance.

11. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. in abhenries. 5. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. output acoustical impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. . mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. 5.40 ZM2. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.43 = p = 2.42 Zas.41 input acoustical impedance. 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances.43 where L = inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.

impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.8 is = j^m 5. 5. in gram (centimeters)^. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.45 where / = moment of inertia. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.8. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5.44 where tn = mass. 5.8 is = jo)I 5.39 and 5.8. . with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. characteristic. in grams. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.8 equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.41 and 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .48.42 and 5. 5. 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.8 equations 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. 5. 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. in abfarads.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Equation 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. acoustical Equations 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.12. 5.46 where M= inertance. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.8.

depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.9 = 5.9. is 5. 5.40 and 5. 5. . 5.9.48 where Cm — compliance. 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. 5.9. 5.9 is ^R2 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.9 to the frequency.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.l/2 Fig. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. frequency characteristic. is ance relatively large to motion.47. Fig. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. is inversely proportional Equations 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.

The acoustical impedance of Fig.13. acoustical capacitance tions 5. in square centimeters.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. and per = area of the diaphragm. Equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal.9.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.42 and 5. 5.9 is 2. Equations 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. in (centimeter)" per dyne.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. dyne. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. Mechanical Rotational. compliance of the suspension system. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.10.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. 5. .42 = -r-— JwCa 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. analogous to an in Fig. 5.50. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5.9.41 and 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.

rectilineal.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and electrical capacitance. and C_if compliance. . The output current can be obtained from equations 5.52. in grams.40 and 5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.53 where m = = mass.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.10.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. in gram (centimeter)^. 5.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical system of Fig.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abhenries.39 and 5. in abfarads. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.53.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. and = rotational compliance.

5. 5. 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. connected in with a line.41 and 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.42 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.11.50.8.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. and the transmission is small. and acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.55 where M= Ca = inertance.14. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.41 and 5. 5.55.40 and 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.9 5.10.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.39 and 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5. 5.54.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . 5. Equations 5. and again the transmission is small. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.42 and 5.

57. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.56.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. in grams. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . The mechanical system of Fig.1/2 = 1 — S.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.11 is 2/22 = :. and electrical capacitance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.11 is - 5. and compliance.11. 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.40 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. in abhenries.

8 and the attenuation is small. 5.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.41 and 5. Electrical Resistance.40 and 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.12. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. . velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. 5. Equations 5. and = rotational compliance. ance of Fig.59.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. 2.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5.41 The output angular 5. 5. 5. and acoustical capacitance. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.42 == 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams (centimeter)^. inductance and line.11 is -.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.11 equation 5.15.58. Equations 5. 5.

60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.60. 5. 5. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.62 . in abhenries.40 and 5. in grams.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12. in mechanical ohms.39 and 5.61. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. 5. inductance. and capacitance. Electrical resistance. in abfarads. m = Cm = mass.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.

coC. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Fig.39 and 5. 5. Therefore. in rotational ohms. 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. Therefore. inertance.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.12 is 2. Fig. from equations 5. Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.41 and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.8. Therefore. 5. in gram (centimeter)^. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.12.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. the acoustical reactance is zero.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. from equations 5.12. and again the transmission is small. in acoustical ohms.62. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.12. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and the transmission is small. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Therefore.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.10.12. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.12. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.42 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. The output and 5.63.40 and 5. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. and Cr = rotational compliance.4 -T-z^ 5. . However. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5.

in abohms.16. and electrical capacitance. 5.64. 83 Parallel.13 shows an electrical resistance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.13. 5.13. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance line.13 is ZM2 = r. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5.65 . in abfarads.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 5.39 and 5. in abhenries. Electrical Resistance. Electrical resistance. 5. 5. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.

84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. Fig.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.13. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.9 and the attenuation is small. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.13. in (centimeter)® per dyne.40 and 5.39 and 5. The output volume 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. 5.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Fig.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.40 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small. the acoustical reactance is infinite. Fig.65. and compliance. 5.66. Therefore. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass. ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output and 5. Therefore. Therefore. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13. 5. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.67. therefore. in centimeters per dyne. 5. in grams. 5. in acoustical ohms. 5. inertance. from . in where tm mechanical ohms.41 and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. and Cr = rotational compliance.13 is = jo^rAM ~.

In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. Fig.67 the attenuation ance. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.13. that of Fig. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.11.17. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .18. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.13. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5.42 and 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.14 Mechanical Rotational. 5. Referring to equation 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5. 5.

12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. Equation 5. larger.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. . that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.19.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Electrical Rectilineal. Referring to equation 5. Fig. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. 5. 5. rectilineal.14 shows a system of made larger.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. 5. Equation 5. 5. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Equation 5.

Equation 5. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.13 the mechanical rectihneal.41 and the output impedances.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal. respectively.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. and r. 5. rm. and Zmz. zri.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. 5. "Zrz. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 5. In the same way equations 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. rui.11. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. wherein zm\. acoustical systems of Fig.20. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.21. and r^i and the input impedances.16.12. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .16. 5. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.17. mechanical rotational.16. 5. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. respectively.

output impedance. .18. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. Electrical. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.14. Mechanical Rectilineal.17. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. Equation 5. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Electrical. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. 5. 5. ze2 is rE2. rectihneal. 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.13 and 5.22. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. In this case zei is the input impedance. me- chanical rotational. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.17.12. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. 5.

current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. and of turns on the secondary. Electrical.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.68 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig. 5. 5. ei.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.18 the electromotive force.18. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. The force. and zei represent the electromotive force. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. velocity and . ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. ii.

consists of a mass- gear train. 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. The torque. /ri. /mi.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.71 = — xi 5.77 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. of Fig. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The 5.18. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. The pressure.79 .90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.18. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.

18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss.. 5. Xi and 2. For these and other properties of horns see Olson.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. pi. two diaphragms." D. The acoustical transformer of Fig.41 and p2. . transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. 1940. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. New York. ^ Engineering.

6. 1922. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. G. p. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 92 . 1922. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical.1. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. A. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. I. 6.. Bell System Tech.. Stewart. 20.. G. No. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. 528. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Vol. Phys.2. 2. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. No. Vol. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Rev. W. Jour. mechanical rectilineal..

New York. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. *' . a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. ^ Nostrand Co. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. Johnson. respectively. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. velocities. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. velocities.3.." D. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four.. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities." D. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Shea. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. positive and when than four. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. 6. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. Van New York. velocities. velocities. velocities. Van Nostrand Co. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. that is. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents.

mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.1 zmi zri 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.1. 6.4. 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. Electrical.Ca 6.1.6 ZR2 6.94 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.2 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. mechanical rectilineal.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . mechanical rectilineal.8 .

16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . when uc = 6.10 — — 0.= -4 6. mechanical rotational. inclusive. 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6.9 the constants of the systems. 2A2 VMC^ . — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.2. when . when coc = . . linear velocities. 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.15 WC. mechanical rectilineal.17 Equations 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. and the cutoff 6.17.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.5. when coe 6. when ccc 6. when oip = = = = 6. when coc 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig.= From and . 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems.27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.= -4 22 6.= 22 and .

. 5.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.

V/2 when WC2^WiC. = 1 . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.50 V/iGji 0.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . ..42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.51 VM2C42 = . 2. —= Z£2 — 4.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. when coci = = 6. _ 4. when wci = — VLiCei .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.44 6. „ when coci = . = — 7= / 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. —7== VMiCai .43 Let LiCei = 6. 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . — — / 1 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.46 6. UCe\ (1 6.lfi)^ ^ -.12 =0.

56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. when . <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. -4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .41 .55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.v/2 1 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. —= 2.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. one greater than uci and Therefore.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .^C2'MiCaxY = --—. (1 .

63. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. are 6.4.56 to 6. mechanical rectilineal.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. 6. show that the systems of Fig.7.69 . 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. inclusive. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.64 CeiLi 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. linear velocities. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.

mechanical rectilineal.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.76 .74 6. 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4. Electrical.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.

6. when uci = and cca oo 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.79 ^— = ZA2 0. M\Ca\) 4.83 —= Z^l 2.77 —— = ZM2 0. when (1 .84 . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6.42 -4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. when. —= Zr\ -4.78 —= ZR2 0.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when (1 . .-4. —= zei -4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . .82 . 6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . . or.

104

WAVE FILTERS
other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and
tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and
^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER
7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS
Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear
trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a
volume currents have become con-

steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state
stant direct or periodic functions of time.
condition.
Electrical, mechanical
to all types of varying

and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

solution of the differential equation
state term

may
The

be divided

'

into the steady
is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.
^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS
general analysis used by Heaviside
is

The

applicable to

any type of

vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
calculus.
electrical,
It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
pressure respectively.
7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT
t=

o
electromotive force, force, torque or pressure
/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a
system which was
initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the
operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

piled which serve for operational calculus the
^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book
*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE
of integrals serve the integral calculus.
modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure
equation

in the

Method

to be

followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known
7.3.

operators.

Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

an electromotive force,
series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~
where

di
-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,
electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

electromotive force, in abvolts.
for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. shown in Fig. 7. 7. unit force.2. rectilineal resistance. unit torque and unit pressure.8 where m = = /m — V mass. velocity.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2. in grams.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. . in dynes. respectively. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The graph depicts the current. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.2. The current is zero = 0.5 where aE = Te/L. and driving force. in centimeters per second.

2. in radians per second. 1/riv/.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. . I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. in dyne centimeters.2. and = torque. as shown in Fig.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.12 = — - e"^') 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. in rotational = angular velocity. 7. ohms.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in gram (centimeter)^. = mechanical rotational resistance.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.

then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. From is the tables of operational formulas.2. in grams per (centimeter)*.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.16 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. and p = sound pressure. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. U = volume current.20 where M= ta inertance. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. the solution of equation 7.2. in dynes per square centimeter.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.17 where aji — Vr/ I. 7.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. as shown in Fig. = acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms. 7. in cubic centimeters. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.22 .18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.

27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. 7. and electromotive force.2. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.3. in abohms.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.28 ve . electrical resistance series.4. in abamperes. 7. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . 7.e-^ in Fig.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.22 111 may be written. in abvolts. From is the tables of operational formulas. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. 7. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. current.24 JA{t) = " (1 . the solution of equation 7. electrical resistance. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. the solution of equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.

7. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. unit force.y = l/rjfCv/.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. the solution of equation 7.3. is The for / shown in Fig. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7.30 P)rM where a. From the tables of operational formulas. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit torque and unit pressure. in mechanical ohms. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. shown in Fig. 7.31 . respectively. in dynes. linear velocity. force. The graph depicts the current. 7 3. in centimeters per dyne. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. velocity.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters.3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.

and sound pressure.3. acoustical resistance. in dyne centimeters. and torque. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3. 7. in cubic centimeters per second. as shown in Fig. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. in radians per second.3. in acoustical ohms. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. angular velocity. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. volume current. in rotational ohms. as shown in Fig.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7.3. mechanical rotational resistance. 7. . is shown in Fig. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dynes per square centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. 7. is shown in Fig.

(a + ^ Pfa .3. and electromotive force. in abvolts.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 1 7. is shown 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. electrical resistance. in electrical capacitance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. in current. abamperes. as in Fig. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in abohms.38 ^. 7. . The volume current decreases for values of / limit.5.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = .4. electrical resist- ance. 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. in abhenries. abohms.

for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7. 7. The response sinusoid.^.4. 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. unit torque or unit pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force. The graph depicts the current. the solution of equation 7.45.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. .4. velocity. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. respectively.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. series Response of an electrical resistance.

4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. and driving force. in centimeters per second per second. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. 7. v for x. acceleration. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in grams. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.47 . in dynes. in centimeters per dyne.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in centimeters per second. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. rectilineal resistance. Substituting equation 7.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. 1 AC. displacement.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. 1 A\ m = mass.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in centimeters.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. velocity.

as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. is of inertia. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 7. in rotational ohms. in radians per second per second.51 = moment of inertia. in dyne centimeters.48 The response sinusoid.si . 4> = angular acceleration. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. in radians per second. = angular velocity. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. = angular displacement. 7.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.4_S.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. 7. equation 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in grams (centimeter). Cr = rotational compliance. in radians. and 4> Jr = driving torque. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.4. lAA. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7.

WR^ 2 1 7. 7. = '^I/Cr.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. . It is a damped sinusoid. 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. If rR^ > AI/Cr. lAA.4C.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7..45. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.56 ^PR = Jo. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne. acoustical resistance.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in grams per (centimeter)^. acoustical capacitance.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . at equation 7. in cubic centimeters per second. Substituting U for X.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. volume current. in dynes per square centimeter.4. 7. as in Fig. in acoustical ohms. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. and pressure.

7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca.45. . then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.5. 7.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation.6. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca.

as in the case of the preceding sections.u)du du 7. Therefore. etc. an electromotive force ei is added. an electromotive force ^2 is added. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. as shown in Fig. «i.. all being of the unit type. tem. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. The indicial electrical admittance. 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. The This proof.5.5. 7. a time «2 later. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. etc.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. <?i at / = Ae.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces.68 . integral.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ .

72 .u)du 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.u)du du u)du 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.69 fR{u) — AR{t . In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The velocity.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. 7.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.

.

8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.CHAPTER 8. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW .2. the electrostatic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.1. the electromagnetic.

1 B = / = / = flux density.2 where x = velocity. When there is only one path. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . The force. in dynes. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). termed motional electrical impedance. in gausses. and Ca with vr. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. abohms.However. and current. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. The electromotive force. in abamperes. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. L and Ce. in centimeters. 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. From equations 8.1 and 8. length of the conductor. in abvolts.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.1. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.1. in using analogies in actual practice. due to motion. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. it is located. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. field in which depicted in Fig. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. in centimeters per second. circuit will be used instead of network.

which the mechanical There are three general types of . all of the conductor. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. in 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. that is. Zen in abohms. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The dynamic direct radiator 8.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. in abohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. in the absence of motion. in mechanical ohms.3. The normal electrical impedance zek. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. 8.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.1.4 8.6 The 8. in chanical ohms.

Unpolarized Armature Type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. the unpolarized armature type. A. 8. Since there is no polarizing flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Assume that all the reluctance . the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. namely.2.

in abamperes.13 and 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. in centimeters. the total flux is <f>T Aa.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. A = area of the center pole.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. . generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. n = number of turns. in dynes. in abvolts.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. in square centimeters. C = l-^nA.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.15 The force on the armature. is where / = current in the coil. then from equations 8.14 e = ^r 8. and a = normal spacing.

Substituting equation 8.2. in mechanical ohms.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. in seconds.20 — X From equations 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. mechanical ohms.16. and time.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .17 for the current in 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.21 . 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.18 Equation 8.15 and 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 4TrJa*/M . the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. nC^P 8. 8. in mechanical ohms.

in gilberts.22 = motional electrical impedance. in mechanical ohms. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.3. a = spacing. vibrators and clippers. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. from the poles of a permanent magnet. Polarized Reed Armature Type. Zen in abohms. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. B. 8. / = current. in oersteds. ^ = area of center pole.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. 8. for converting electrical variations into however. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. filing — as in Fig. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. = number of turns. this system cannot be used It is. in abohms. in abamperes. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. in abohms.2.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. saws. in maxwells. .24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.20 and 8. and impedance of the coil.19. in centimeters. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. for the reproduction of sound. in abohms. Therefore. 8. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in square centimeters.

in 131 oit maxwells. and time. in abamperes. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . frequency.axsin wt n coil. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. 27r/. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in oersteds. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux.

__ . the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. in square centimeters. sidered.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. Ax -\- Ax . impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible..29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . spacing between the armature and pole. the flux will now be 4>x + A. in gilberts.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. the flux.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. and area of the pole.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. due to the steady field. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.32 „ . For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. in abvolts.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. in centimeters.^ . in maxwells.

and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.35 and 8.32 and e i = — X 8. 8. in me- chanical ohms. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8..24 and 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. fu = MNi ~r — .26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.35 8.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. ~ 8.3. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. in abohms. in mechanical ohms. From equations 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. 8.34. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. ZAfi.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.37.33. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.38 a Zm .33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.

The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. in abohms. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. in abohms.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. C. Equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.3. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. and impedance of the coil.38 is similar to equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. ARMATURE MAGNET .

41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. and yf effective area. at each pole magnet.4. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in dynes. i?2 = = coil. 8. in oersteds. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. 8. The flux. at the poles (Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. in maxwells. The steady magnetic field is force. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in square centimeters. The sum of the forces.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. of the pole piece. in abamperes. in dynes.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. which the coil energizes. in maxwells. The . it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^.

of the steady field.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in merectilineal chanical ohms. in square centimeters. in gilberts. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in centimeters. in abvolts. through the armature to the right and upward. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. and effective area of a pole piece. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. .47 at a at a is The electromotive force.4. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in mechanical ohms. 8.44 A. NMA —^x a^ 8. in mechanical ohms. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. and zm2 impedance of the load.136 flux.45.

43 =-^ 8. Zm\.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. .50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.

motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.4. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. Therefore. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . galvanometers. system of Fig. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. 8. This driving system is used for loud speakers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.

in dynes. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.60 From equations 8. in dynes. the fourth term will be negligible. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. ^o^max sin wt . is The current.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. The useful force. and capacity per unit area. in statvolts. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. in statcoulombs.62 . in statfarads. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.59 and 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. The force.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.57 numerator of equation 8. in statfarads. = CeCq 8. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. on the condenser is q considered. motive Cq is large . in statamperes.

140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.66 in 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. .68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. in mechanical ohms. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . in Zm2 mechanical ohms.5. in stat- amperes. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. 47r(a — 8. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.69 . Ax) 8. the generated current. 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .61. . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 4ir(<2 + . ohms.

8.58 and 8. in statohms. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. + . statohms.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. adding a large stiffness. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser.5. electrical impedance of the condenser.5. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.69 and 8. 8. electrical network in Fig. at the same time.68. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. 8. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. current is applied to 2m . The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.6.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.

CO/ 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. in square centimeters. induction is of the nickel rod. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in seconds.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. and area of the rod. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in centimeters. due to is the Villari effect. in gausses. induced in the winding. in current in the abamperes.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. The electromotive force. . reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 8. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. turns in the coil. in abvolts. e = MJ^ dt 8.73 Combining equations and 8. in abamperes. in square centimeters. frequency. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.74 and ehminating the steady force.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.X JR 8. in cycles per second. and time. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. current. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . coil.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.

in mechanical ohms. and Young's modulus.78 From equation 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. in mechanical ohms. in square centimeters.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. The mechanical to one . is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. length of the rod. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in abvolts. in centimeters. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. rectilineal impedances zm. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.6. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. 8.

magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.82 and 8.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. in abohms. 8. 8. 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. as shown by equation 8. . = motional impedance. The mass mi in Fig. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. 1942. New York.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.86 Mason. in abohms — equation 8. is assumed to be a In general. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. Van Nos- trand Co. total in abohms.79.6. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms.." D.83 From equations 8.6).84.

87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. and cross section of the rod. in centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. in Fig. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in centimeters.7. length of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8. 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in square centimeters. and Young's modulus.80. in square centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod.

5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.84. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. . X = 4^. in dynes. due to a force. 8. A= E = area. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. 8. is The deformation per unit length. air load and support resistance. 8. The vibrating system of Fig.88 where Jm = total force. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 8. Young's modulus.7. 8. in square centimeters.7C A and B given in Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. EA and 8.7.8.8. that is.

88 and 8.. 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant.6.8 and Young's modulus.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. the data of Fig. .89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. c„ . 8. B = A= From and area. in square centimeters. flux density. equations 8.

due an applied force.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. in centimeters. due to the application of a force. 4 = length of the crystal. 6. equations 8. in square centimeters. in dynes.92 X From = 8. and A = cross-sectional area. in dynes.4 force. in centimeters.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.93 . is . E = Young's modulus.91 and 8. q is 149 = KJu 8. X to 10~* for quartz. and The displacement. in statcoulombs.

102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. .99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms. and E = Young's modulus.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.101 From equations 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. / centimeters. in square = length of the crystal. in statohms. in mechanical ohms.100 and 8.9. zmi and z.97. in centimeters. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. 8. 8. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. in mechanical ohms. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
The normal
electrical

151

impedance of the
Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem
,

8.103

where zem
Cei

= =

motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical
is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

The damped impedance and
in parallel as
circuit in Fig. 8.9.

In the above considerations the length of the crystal
a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the
crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^
is

8.104

where p

=

density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
the crystal, in centimeters, and
cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.
in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi
where
//
le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.
8.105
is

The compliance given by equation
pliance given
^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in
Fig.
8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z
Ze.

f

"V

c
'Ml.
_ifc;

z

7^^

4
SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING
Fig. 8.10.
other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.
8.10.

CHAPTER IX
GENERATING SYSTEMS
9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.
9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system
is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
field. Fig. 9.1, is
e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the
^See footnote
1,

page 125.
153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme
where

=

{Blf
9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

length of the conductor, in centimeters,
Z£l

+ Ze2,
impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.
MAGNET

electrical
electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.
driving force,
.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm
zm

+ Zme

9.3

From
volts,
is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=
2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.1. namely.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.3. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9.

in abohms. force. is The velocity of the armature. through the armature. 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and impedance of the external load. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. and velocity of the armature. in centimeters per second.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. area of the pole. in centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. . and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in maxwells. coil.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters. 9. due to the steady field. in abohms. 9.2.2. and + ZE2.6 ze = = = = = total flux. in gilberts. in centimeters. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force.

In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.3.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. 9. Balanced Armature Generating System. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. r~ . flows through the armature.

generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in maxwells. in centimeters. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. M. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in statamperes.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.11 zme From equations 9. in centimeters per second. i?2 = reluctance. in oersteds. in A . and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in abohms.9 and 9. in gilberts. is The /m Zm + 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.4. as depicted 9.3.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. of the alternating magnetic circuit. The current. 9. of the magnet.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. = magnetomotive force.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. velocity of the armature. a = spacing between armature and pole. in abohms. 9.3.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates.

in centimeters per second. in statvolts. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in square centimeters. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. ^= a area of the plate. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in statohms. The current. electrical and impedance of the external load. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statamperes. 9.14 where e = electromotive force. spacing between the plates. in statfarads. in statvolts.stationary "plate . in centimeters.4 e is t2 9.

electrical and 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.4. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate.18 Zme) . X in centimeters per second. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in square centimeters. is Ze2 in parallel. electrical impedance of the external load.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. a spacing between plates. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in statohms. e. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. area of the plates. in statfarads. is The velocity of the movable plate.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. in statvolts. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. in centimeters. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.17 zme e From equations 9.4.15 and 9. = Zm /^^ + 9.

23 Substituting equation 9.21 Substituting equation 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.E1 = -r—.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.25.24 and fi 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. .21 in 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.25 Comparing equations 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.19.23 in 9.22.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.26 . = — a CnX 9.

26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. is ^tNK 9. in abvolts.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.27 . the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. coil. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. zme. ZEi. In the electrical circuit: e. However. In the mechanical circuit: zm.26 and an internal impedance zei. zei. L\ and rE\. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5. Magnetostriction generating system.5. shown in Fig.5. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. from equation 8. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. The volt- age. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. 9. 9. Equation 9. coil.

79 or 8.5. - £ 9. . 9. and impedance of the external circuit. force.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. length of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. in abohms. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. electrical electrical wavelength. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. and Young's modulus. in abohms. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. in square centimeters. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. in centimeters per second. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.

6. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. .6.32 From abvolts.32 the generated electromotive force. to be a In general. 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. in Fig. equations 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. ohms. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.28. in mechanical ohms.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.27 and 9.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. are given by equations 8. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. in centimeters per second.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in mechanical = ohms.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.86 and 8. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.5.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.

Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. mass and compliance of the rod. in statamperes. the effective Zjv/i. . Rod free on one end and driven on the other. 9. + 9. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. the driving force. zei. in Fig.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. 2_bi j<^Li.6. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. in centimeters. in centimeters. 9. zei.6 can be obtained from equation 9. Li and tei. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig.27 and the velocity.6.7. the other. ZMi. 9. A.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. where KEJ — •* 9. mi and Cmi. generated The h = —. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. 6. in centimeters per second. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. E= 4 = Young's modulus. and velocity of the crystal. In the mechanical networks: /m. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. = = length of the crystal. in square centimeters. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8.4 X 10~* for quartz. In the electrical circuits: e. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. cross-sectional area of the crystal. zme. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.

the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . electrical and impedance of the external load. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. Ce\. electrical and 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statamperes. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 9.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current.35 Ze where e = electromotive force.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in statohms. From equations 9.7. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. crystal. in statfarads. in statvolts. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. z^'i zei. 2_b2. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.34 force e. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. circuit: e.

length of the crystal. in centimeters. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. in centimeters. and „ „„ 9. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and E= Young's modulus.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.97 or 8. A = area of the electrode. 9. in statohms. the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.4 X 10~* for quartz. in centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. in square centimeters. electrical impedance of the external load. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.41 .102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.7. in statfarads. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. 4 = length of the crystal. length of in centimeters. E = Young's modulus. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.

e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. is . = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. The velocity at the end of crystal. 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.47 . in mechantotal ical ohms. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. in centimeters per second.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. zm2 in mechanical ohms.36 and 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. in mechanical ohms. depicted equations 9.= where i. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.45 .36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.7.43 From Ze2 in parallel.

45. e.48.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.51. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.49 in 9. Equation 9.8.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.47 in 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. in Fig.49 Substituting 9. However.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.104 and 8. 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.50 and 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.

Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. zei. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. Piezoelectric generating systems. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. In the electrical circuits: e.45 and the velocity.8. A. In the mechanical networks: Jm. Zm2.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.37. the driving force.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. the other.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. zme. 9. 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. electrical network of Fig. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the electrical impedance of the external load. crystal. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. . ze\.

Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. 17. . .1. the elements. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. /s" . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. 929. . e^" . 1 Ballentine. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. z„". i^' . produce a current distribution z'l'. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". No. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. Reciprocity Theorems A. S. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 6. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . and superposition theorems to electrical. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. p. Proc.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. 1929. I. Vol. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal." 171 . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . ' 10.. Then 10..CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. .R. A number cal systems. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. e^' . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.E.2. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" .

172 THEOREMS system of Fig.2 = /'/' where e' .1. /" are the electromotive forces 10.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10. o e . equation 10.1 becomes 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. e" and /'.

/ij„ are all of the same . and provided the applied torques /iji. '4>^" . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. fB2" . Van Nostrand Co. 145. "Theory of Sound. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". produce a rotational velocity — . p. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.1. ^ Olson. London. .7 p Rayleigh. MacMillan and Co.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n ./ij2. equation 10. 10. 10." D. 1940.1. 10. D.1.1. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig./m3 all of the same frequency. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable.." Vol. • distribution ^i'. ./7j2'. II. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. C. /ji/2./fl3 . . York. and provided the applied forces /mi..RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. =/a/V 10. let a set of torques/iji'. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. . fli" are the torques and angular 10. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. New . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques./b' and (J)'. 4>2" .4 where /^f'.fRi" • 4>2. mechanical rotational system of Fig.6 velocities depicted . Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. ^2'. frequency. equation 10.3 becomes fu'x" . 1926. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10.

10. equation 10. 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.—. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .8. . v' grad po „ = 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. . .12 is for a point. - p 1 .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.11 From equations 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. 1 . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.15 v' .9 and 1. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. y" . In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. dv" — .1.4 by the p and v of the other set. equation 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.9 and 10.. 10.174 THEOREMS .13 If. p"v' 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. 10.+ dv' ..10 From neering" equations 1.1. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .

pressures and volume currents. ./". . . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.19 . . let also.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . X^" Xn" Then . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. 10. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. and let a second set of pressures ^i"." a second volume current distribution Xi". pz same frequency. Then — . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. pi. . 10. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . . . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .16 becomes . . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. .1.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. X2". However. .1. . equation 10. X2. . produce pn. . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . which there are only two pressures. produce a volume current distribution Xi. 10. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. E. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . . X^ X^. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. velocities. .

fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system.S. currents. let also. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. P"X' tn\ B M . . F. The 10. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . 10. forces n and velocities.S. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. . . — In . E. . P"X' i" L. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. .S. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .. Electrical-mechanical. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. px L.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. HX* E p"X D Fig. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. i" .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.2.21 . an interconnected e\ . L.2^. C. D. Mechanical-acoustical. n Then 10. B.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. .

10.23 states that a if. mechanical. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. me- chanical.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. is H. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. as shown in Fig. e"i' 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. mechanical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. 2D. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. field.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. Electrical-Mechanical. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.2fi. Electrical-Mechanical. acoustical. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers.23 .2C. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. electrical transducer. e'i" = e"i' 10. 10. Theorem. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. acoustical transducer.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. G. . The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.

If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. 10. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. as shown in Fig.3. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker.178 I. = p"X' 10. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. D. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical.2£. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze .

forces. save the one being considered. velocity. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.4. current. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. velocities. Each source. force. . torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical.

In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. principles relating to electrical.2.1. An exhaust back pressure. Convert the answer into the original system. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 .CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. 11. However. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. muffler is quite effective. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. However. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. by acoustical capacitances. Introduction The fundamental lineal.

11. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. Therefore. 11. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. circuit will be used instead of network. The system of Fig.M and Ca for an acoustical system. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.However. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. . m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.1. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies.u. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. 11. in the audible frequency range. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.1. When there is only one path. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. with rft. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. in Fig.

. sate for approximations.3. 11.3. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.2. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.182 APPLICATIONS In general. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.

teg. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. 11.. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. . impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11." I"*.3. zem. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.7. in dynes.3.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.4.1. The mechanical driving from equation 8. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the mass of the cone. 11.3. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. radiator tube. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. rMi and Ci. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. and . force can be determined /m 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .w2. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. In the mechanical circuit: m\. 11. 11. nii and r. in mechanical Jm = driving force.

telephone receivers. Van Nostrand Co. . A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. etc.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. comphance of the damper. in centimeters per second. 11.YWHEEL I. FX. 11. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. The simple vibration fly- damper. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. is The sound power output. New York. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 ." D.4. in mechanical ohms.. of inertia of the flywheel. shown ^ in Fig. loud speakers. 11. and the shaft. the moment Cg. F. velocity of the cone. given by 11. phonograph pickups. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H.4. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.5. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 1940. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. Olson. measuring cal systems. These systems include microphones. In the mechanical network: A. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. m.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.

ciple of the device. /jf. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Cm /4 and 4rM . A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. W. the mass of the machine./ is due to the . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . W. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. The driving force/i. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.vF. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure.SA. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. The shunt mechanical vibration. zmf. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. 11. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig.5. z. the mass of the machine. isolator. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Jm.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.SA. B. A. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.

r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. only isolation in the system of Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. 11.7. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. . the compliance and mechanical mi. these values springs. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . Jm. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. shown in Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. 11. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. the mass of the case. pressor. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. 11.6. consists of the following elements: nii. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. isolating mechanical network.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.6.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. 11.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. mi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.

The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.v/i/4. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2.8. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises.7. 11. . the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. zmf. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 11.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the mass of the case. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. 11. the system in Fig. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. 187 Cmi and rui. Of course. The mechanical network of Fig. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.

mum. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. Cms a-nd r. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. 11. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. etc. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. m2. engine. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. Cmi and tires. tmi. wheel and axle. the compliance of the spring. 11. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the combined driving force at the four legs.8. body. both rectilineal and rotational.u 11. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. This system has many degrees of freedom. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.v/3.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the mass of the frame. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. the driving force at each tire. the compliance of the spring suspension.7. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the mass of the tire. in general. 11. m-i. 11. r. Cm2. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- .v/2.9. Cm2.

mi. Cms. the mass of the frame. body and engine. 4rif 2. the compliance of the four springs. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. the compliance of the springs. However. 4?ni. Since there are four tires. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. wheels. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. springs and shock absorbers. fn2. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. m^. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the mass of the four tires. 4:rM2.8. 11. . This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. Cms and r. view. 189 m^. the mass of the passenger./ifi the comtires. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small.\f 1.i/a. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the driving force. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. Cmi/4 and 4r. Cji/2/4. the mass of the passenger. the combined driving force at the four tires.

Electrical abohm. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig.6. For example. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. Supplementary Note: Electrical. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. developed at the tires. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Rotational Ohm. — — —A — . mechanical rectilineal. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. An electrical resistance. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. Acoustical Ohm. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. An acoustical resistance. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rotational resistance. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. pitching or swaying motion. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. As already indicated. that is. Most of the forces. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. an automobile has several modes of vibration. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. Mechanical Ohm. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. 11. which controls the oscillations.

INDEX
Abampere, 6
Abvolt, 5
Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
reactance, 10, 23
resistance, 10, 13, 23

Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
series, 71

Acoustomotive
effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,
effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126
Capacitance,
acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76
electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69
resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192
Current,
effective, 7

INDEX
Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,
peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88
principle, 33

D'Alembert's
Decibel, 11
Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33
effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,
peak, 5
Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23
electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5
force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
torque, 6
velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,
kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39
8

volume current,
Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190
22, 23, 60, 74

Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
8,

wave
21,

(see

wave
6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,
5,

35

INDEX
Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120
effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5
force, 5
5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5
5,

sound pressure, 6
34
torque, 6
velocity, 7
6,

mechanomotive,
peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4
basic,

4

Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
Introduction,
1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
magnetostriction, 162
piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine
Harmonics, 4
Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,
acoustical, 9, 23
electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,
acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
motional, 126

electromotive force, 5
force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34
force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
torque, 6
velocity, 7

volume current,
Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23
rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194
Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22
rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX
Parallel,

22

system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
rectilineal
rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

wave

filters,

92
iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5
force, 5

Mechanical refrigerator vibration
lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment
73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,
electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
impedance,
125,

Motional

torque, 6
velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,
Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14
52,

Periodic quantity, 4
125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)
acoustical, 52, 125, 181
electrical, 52, 125, 181

driving system, 148 generating system, 165
"it" type network, 87

mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
resistance corrective, 85
series corrective, 71

Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,
acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190
electrical, 8, 22,

Radians per second, 7
Reactance,
acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25
electrical,

22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22
23

rotational, 9

mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
106

Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
electrical, 8, 12,

22

6 peak. ohm. 6 peak. 120 Duhamel's integral. 35 effective. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 85 rotational. acoustical. 21. 13. 6. 6. 9. 6 14 pressure. 171 Resonant frequency. 178 mechanical rotational. 107 Transients. 21. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 6 instantaneous. automobile. 178 electrical. 23 Theorems. 172 mechanical rotational. electrical-mechanical. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 184 Rotatomotive force. 9.) 195 Table. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 23 23. 42 one degree of freedom. 13. 11 instantaneous. 45 electrical. 22. 6. 6 Static pressure. 17. 88 electrical. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 18. 6 maximum. 6 Transducer. 37 and analogies. 18. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 23. (see cor- effective. acoustical. 10. 22 networlcs. 187 Torque. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Sound effective. impedance. 188 Systems. 6 maximum. 179 Suspension systems. 23 maximum. 105 arbitrary force. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 173 superposition. 179 Thevenin's. electrical Superposition theorem.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 28 Subharmonic. 9. 13. 25 three degrees of freedom. compliance. 37. 178 electrical. 48 two degrees of freedom. 6 mechanical rectilineal. reciprocity. 45 instantaneous. 177 reactance. 9. 171 acoustical. 10. 23 mechanical. 21. 21. 22 mechanical rotational. 178 acoustical. 13. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 9. peak. 41 mechanical rotational. 61. 9 resistance. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 9. 5 Transformer. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 32 Rotational. 42 inductance and series coupled. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 22. 9. 122 . 9. 88 mechanical rotational. 111 electrical resistance. 88 Transient response. 6 Stiffness. 10. 10. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies.

7. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 146.) INDEX Villari effect. 21. cut quartz crystal. 143. 144. 106 163 Volume current. peak. 95 low pass. 94 response characteristics. 92. 148 machine isolator. 106 Units. 92. 151. 23. 11 loss. 8 instantaneous. 92. 93. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 20. 8 8 "T" type network. 163. 24 Velocity. 101 instantaneous. Wave band elimination.196 Transients (Cont. 106 unit function. 5 filters. 45 Unit function. 150. 149. 93. 7. high pass. 37. 11 effective. 167 . gain. 7 linear. 7 Vibration. Heaviside's Calculus. 23 Transmission. band pass. 97 93. 8 maximum. 165. 147. 22. 8. 7. 22 angular. 5 maximum. 93. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. peak. 184 186 Young's modulus. magnetostriction. "X" isolator. 23 effective. 7 Wave. 92.

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