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In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

an electrical circuit. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. E. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Research Director. Olson. Olson . 1943 F. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. engineer. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Harry January. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Engstrom. By means is of may be compared with one that better known.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Lorene E. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. W. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. plex arrangements of multielement systems. in this project.

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1 1 1. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. C. Electrical Capacitance B. Inertance 2.2 3. Electrical Resistance B. A.3 Inductance. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 2.5 Representation of Electrical. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.3 3. Rotational Compliance. Rectilineal Compliance C. Rectilineal Compliance.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .2 Introduction Resistance A. Mechanical Rectilineal.CONTENTS Chapter I. ELEMENTS 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Acoustical Resistance 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. ELECTRICAL. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Mass. Acoustical Capacitance A.4 16 Electrical Capacitance.1 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.2 4 II. Inductance B. Moment of Inertia.

7 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.8 67 . .11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.6 62 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.. 60 5.1 Introduction 52 5. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 5..7 The Electrical System .1 Introduction 37 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rectilineal.10 The Acoustical System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.3 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.6 3.2 4..8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 64 5.5 Chapter 3.. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.6 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 Electrical.5 Equations of Motion 4.4 Dissipation 4.2 Two Electrical.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..20 5.. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.11 69 71 5. WAVE FILTERS 6.15 Electrical Resistance.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational.10 Series 5.21 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5.1 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.16 Electrical Resistance.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5..18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .2 6.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .4 6.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 8. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. THEOREMS 10.2 8.4 9. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.6 VIII. B.5 9.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.5 114 120 7.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. 1 7. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. C. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.2 7.4 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 9. Unpolarized Armature B. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.X Chapter VII.5 8.4 Ill 7. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.1 9.1 10.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.

6 11.2 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .4 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.8 1 1 .CONTENTS Chapter E. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. APPLICATIONS 11.7 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.

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Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. 1 The acoustical . time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. mechanical and acoustical tems. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. Expressions for the kinetic energy.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. However. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized.1. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. In other words. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. as for example. vibrating systems.

the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. cal. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. ' The lished. springs and friction. . The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Of course. Elements are the meshes. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. as for example. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. Electrical elements are resistance. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. constituent parts of a circuit. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. various assemblies of masses. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. springs and brakes. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. induct- ance and capacitance.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits.

For example.1 of 1942. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. — . d. Hanle {JViss. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. ratio of force to displacement. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. Institute of Radio Engineers. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. Therefore. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. up the mechanical and electrical.. No. Therefore. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. every electrical. Acous. Finally. all communication. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. in the past. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. particularly electrical circuits. Vol. Vol. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. Amer. Soc. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. That is to say. XI. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. In this book. In addition. Verojf a. I) and Firestone {Jour. SiemensKonzern. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. circuit. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. mechanical and acoustical systems. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. 4. 4. However. However. No. and ratio of pressure to displacement. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements.

generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Basic Frequency. Harmonic. Frequency. . Octave. + T). a positive constant. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. reciprocal of the period. Definitions ^ this section. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. or which tity comprises a cycle. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. Cycle. equals 2x divided by the period T. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. negative. This called a Fourier series. a constant. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. all is the frequency. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. where T. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. or zero. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. period. a period of jy. Terms not sections. Periodic Quantity.2. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. The remainder.

—The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Effective Electromotive Force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Mechanomotive Force). The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. The unit the dyne. The root unit the abvolt. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Wavelength. Electromotive Force. The unit is the dyne. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Wave. Dyne. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Subharmonic. — — Abvolt. The unit is the abvolt. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. mechanical or acoustical system. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. the dyne. . force.

The unit is the dyne centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. the dyne centimeter. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The the — Instantaneous Current. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). dyne per square centimeter. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. An abampere is the unit of current. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. Abampere. . The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. force. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. the abampere. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. Effective the total instantaneous torque. the dyne per square centimeter. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force).

unit is the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. is velocity in that interval. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. the abampere. per second. Peak Velocity. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. is Radian per Second. Peak Current. Instantaneous Velocity. The unit is the abampere. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. is Centimeter per Second. Maximum Velocity. Effective Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. complete cycle at the point. The unit is the abampere. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. current. the centimeter per second. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum Current. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. velocity.

is Electrical Resistance. for Peak Volume Current. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. when times the frequency. Electrical Reactance. the cubic centimeter per second. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. second. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point.-W is impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. The unit the abohm. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. is the abohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. Electrical Impedance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. which. . electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. The unit the abohm. times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Effective Volume Current. The unit is the abfarad. electrical Inductance. the cubic centimeter per second. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current.

when multiplied by times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Rotational Compliance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). The unit is the rotational ohm.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. ' See footnote S. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. rotational resistance ance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. unit is the rotational ohm. Compliance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Acoustical Impedance. page I . the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. — Compliance The unit is the gram. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mass. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which.

An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. the acoustical ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. Electrical System. mass and compliance. Acoustical Reactance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. In the same way. The unit is the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. moment of inertia. mass and compliance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. when multiplied by times the frequency. . A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. Inertance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. Acoustical System. and rotational compliance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. Mechanical Rectilineal System. inductance and electrical capacitance.. Mechanical Rotational System.

/1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . voltage. mechanical rectilineal. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. — Transmission. For example. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. current. Either of these systems may be electrical. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. force. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. torque or pressure is electrical. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. angular velocity. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . The bel is the Decibel. torque. pressure or volume current. Transmission Loss {or Gain). decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. force. pressures or such as forces or velocities. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. mechanical or acoustical. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . For For a gain the reference power is is greater. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities.

mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. 5. t 2. e. 2. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. As indicated in the preceding chapter. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. resistor.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. An tinguished from the devices. Electrical resistance rs.2. the vibrating systems. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. in abamperes. Electrical Resistance. inductor and capacitor.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. electrical. 12 . e rs^-. inductance and capacitance.1. In this procedure. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. is defined as A. A resistor. in abvolts. in abohms. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. and current through the resistance. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation.' 2. See footnote page 8.

Equation 2. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). D. Acoustical Resistance. and velocity at the point of application of the force.RESISTANCE B. is defined as r^ — = y 2. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. in rotational ohms. is defined as Vm where = — u 2.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. in radians per second. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. in centi- meters per second. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. in dynes. in dyne centimeters. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Mechanical rotational energy is C. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. . is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.

in dynes per square centimeter. resistance. slit normal to the direction of flow.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. A tube of small diameter. in cubic centimeters per second. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. slit normal to the direction of flow. 'Olson. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. 6pww 2. in acoustical ohms. 2.5 = viscosity coefficient. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d." D. volume current.4 where p — pressure. Van Nostrand Co. d= / thickness of the centimeters. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. 1. York. a narrow and metal. in grams per cubic centimeter. and frequency in cycles per second. in = width of the meters. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. slit in the direction of flow. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. a reaccomponent. in addition to the resistive component. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. density. New . primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit.. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in centimeters. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. 1940. and U= Equation resistance current.86 X 10"'* for air. However. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions.

INDUCTANCE. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Equation C.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Inductance. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in when the angular velocity a constant. Mass.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. It remains constant ance.3. that during angular acceleration.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. MOMENT OF INERTIA. 2. 15 Inductance. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. in centimeters per second per second. and rate of change of current. is defined as 2. Moment gram (centimeter)^. Moment of Inertia. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. which opposes a change of velocity. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. in abhenries. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. in grams. Mass. in dynes. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. = di Ldt ^ 2. mass increases. B. in abvolts. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Inertance A. is remains a constant of inertia /. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. that during linear when the velocity decreases. is Inductance L. Moment of Inertia. MASS. and driving force. in abamperes per second. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. It decreases when the current decreases. given by dd . Equation 2. INERTANCE 2.

and driving pressure. Inertance M.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in dyne centimeters. volume current. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson.. in dynes per square centimeter. Equation 2. Inertance. 1940. in rate of change of 2. effective length of the tube." D. where ddj dt and Ju = torque.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. inertance.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in grams per (centimeter)*. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in centimeters.10 m = S = mass. is. that tion. York. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in cubic centimeters per second per second. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. Van Nostrand Co. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. cross sectional area in square centimeters. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. decreases. in radians per second per second.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. New . ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. in grams. in p = density of the meter. in centimeters. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. D.

Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. . is defined as fM = jr where x 2.4. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. and stored.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. It is a constant. Rotational Com- pliance.n Equation 2. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Electrical capacitance Cg. Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. abvolts. in centimeters.13 states that the charge on an force. and electromotive force. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrical Capacitance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance.14 = Jm = displacement. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. in dynes is Equation 2. in abcoulombs. and applied force. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. when is spring remains immovably compressed. in abfarads. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance.

and applied torque. Rotational compliance Cu-. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Acoustical Capacitance. Van Nostrand Co.^ in dynes per square centimeter. New York. D. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. 1940. in grams per cubic centimeter. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted." p. allowed to unwind.16 p s — = = velocity.17. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. D. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. 9. C. It is constant. p = where c c^ps 2. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Equation 2. defined in equation 2. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. density. . in is The terms of the condensation.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in radians. in radians per centimeter per dyne. and condensation. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. in centimeters per second. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.. Rotational Compliance. in dyne centimeters. It is constant.17 s = * Olson.

2.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2. .17.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Equation 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. From equations 2. and volume displacement. equal to the volume displacement. .1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.21 F= volume. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. Representation of Electrical.19 and 2. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. The electrical elements. in cubic centimeters. and 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. = ^ F 2. is 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. in cubic centimeters.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance.5. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters.X 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. Mechanical Rectilineal. From equations 2.16. electrical resistance.18 X= volume displacement.

move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. rE .1. 2. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. mechanical rectilineal.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

length. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. Further.1 page and list and 2. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. 2. ELEMENTS and time. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. Tables 2.1. length L and time T.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. inertance and time. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement.1. ^ The Tables 8. and time.3. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. the standard modifiers for all four systems. The dimensions given in Table 2. Table 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.3 uses mass M.1 and 2. 1.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. . rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. self-inductance.1.24 sions are mass.

1. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical.1. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mass. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational or In other words. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. namely. 3. mechanical rotational.2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. 3. From these definitions it is evident that friction. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit.

the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. velocity. Electrical.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. mechanical rectilineal. In the electrical. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. mechanical rectilineal. namely. C. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. mechanical rotational. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. Heat is a transient form of energy. potential and heat energy. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. 3.1. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. kinetic. Cr = T. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy.

in abhenries. The sum of the kinetic. and heat energy during an interval of time is.2 m = X mass. equal to the system. It is assumed that same phase. all the air particles in the opening move with the . Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. the inertance. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in grams per (centimeter)*. mass of air in the opening. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in grams. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. electrical. mechanical rectilineal. 3. by the principle of conservation of energy.3.4 M= m = S — m/S^. X— X Sx = volume current. and velocity of the = mass m. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. potential.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. in square centimeters. cross-sectional area of the opening. in radians per second. mechanical rotational. in centimeters per second. and current through the inductance L. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in cubic centimeters per second.3 = moment of inertia. in centimeters per second. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. in abamperes. in grams.

in grams per cubic centimeter. in dynes per centimeter. p = density of air. and c = velocity of sound. = -. s — stiffness of the spring. . ^ 3. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in radians. in radians per dyne per centimeter.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3.4. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. in abfarads. in cubic centimeters. and <l> angular displacement. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in centimeters. and X = displacement. and charge on the capacitance..7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in centimeters per second. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. dyne. in centimeters per dyne.8 where X= Ca volume displacement.

14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.12 where We. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.: 3. force. . The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical..17 = = is electrical resistance. +— + XX 3.5.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.18 . may be written ^^ = dt Z/.y- 3. and current. mechanical Wm. in abamperes. mechanical rotational.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. and acoustical systems.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. in abohms. Wr. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.

in mechanical ohms.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.6. in rotational ohms. and angular velocity.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. and X= 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. and velocity. in centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.22 = acoustical resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in radians per second. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.

30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.24.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.. — -—- JO^ Cm .26.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.32 „.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.28 and 3.

36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.jo>I — — 3.7^ Ca 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. . At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.38 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. the velocity and force.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. the angular velocity and torque. and Cr.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the impedance is m and Cm.

8. mechanical rectilineal. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. .44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.42 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.Ce r^ 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.

The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. 3.24. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.49 „ . the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. Equation 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.1.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1. 3. namely.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.

KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. . The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. 3.28.26.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. Equation 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.51 is the same as equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.55 is the same as equation 3.

further illustrate the analogies between electrical.59 is the same as equation 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.30.43 to 3. and acoustical systems. Equations 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. mechanical rotational. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. .59. 3. inclusively. mechanical rectilineal. Equation 3.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.1. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.2. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. 4. velocity. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.1.

38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in grams. in branch 3. in centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. and velocity of the mass m. and = h = current.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in abhenries. in radians per second. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. . Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.1 93 L = inductance.3.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. in cubic centimeters per second. in abamperes.2 where x^ m = = mass.4 M = inertance. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.

The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in qz ohms.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and — current. in radians.5. per dyne. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in cubic centimeters.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. and X2 = volume displacement. 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in abamperes. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in centimeters. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. . Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in abcoulombs. in abfarads.DISSIPATION 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and <i>2 angular displacement. and displacement.

10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.12 = acoustical resistance. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. mechanical ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. and Xs = volume 4. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. 2 d<t>n dcj). in cubic centimeters per second. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in rotational ohms. and velocity. and angular velocity.6. in radians per second.i 4.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in centimeters per second. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . in acoustical ohms. current.

41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.8.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.13. 4. 4. e = = Lqz-[.rsqz 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.22.1 is h = H Equation 4. 4.23. at/jf.21 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.25 .14.7. The linear displacement.18.24 Differentiating equation 4.20 4.19 +k 4.17.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. The relation for the currents in Fig. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.

Jb /. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.26 ^ The 4. The angular displacement. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.27. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.15. p = MXa + vaXz 4. at p.29 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. 4. Fig. in the acoustical system.9. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.30.16.26.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.31. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4. . torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. at/^j.42 4.28 Differentiating equation 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. 4.1.32 ing piston. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.10.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.

37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . Fig. inductance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. inertance acoustical system. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. given by ^3 JM is 4. to mechanical rotational resistance. mass. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. 4.29 and 4.1 to 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. 4.19.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. 4.33. 4. vm. and to acoustical resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. Fig.25. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.1. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. shows again that resistance.11. inclusive.1.

4.43 volume current Xi at given by X.. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.45 . is given by k The = f".X3 = pjccCa 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. is .1. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. Fig. X2 = Xi .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. Fig. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.1. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. 4.

2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.1 of Chapter V. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 5. 54. 55 and 56 and Fig. see pages 53. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.48 JwCe3 Cr.2. 4. The electrical impedances z^i. . 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 1 tional systems of Figs.12. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 4.2 are as follows: 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.

52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. I2 and M2. 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance.60 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. ze2 = j^L2 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.3 is the as that of Fig.2 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.57 The system shunt in Fig. compliance. moment of inertia and inertance L2. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.55 jwLai 4. 4. The shunt electrical. mass.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .50 + jwm2 + T-p. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.56 ZA2 -T-z. Ce2. mechanical rectilineal.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.— JwLmz Zb. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.59 4. 4.

The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.65 2^22^3 .3.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4.

\.«i. Mechanical Rectilineal. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom.13. Cm\.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Electrical. L.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .412^3 + 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. m2.4. Cb2 . I2. Cei. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.t 4. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Cri. 4. 4. Ca.3. 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.67 . mechanical rectilineal. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.4. to /i.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. L2.

4.83 ZA2 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. nA where zei = . The current to. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.76 4.84 4.82 4. Xi. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.74 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. 4. X2. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. 4>2. the linear velocity Xq.89 .78 4. M2. (h and 04 X2. h. ^ zjji = .85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. Xi. i^ in show that /q.88 4.80 4. to 4>o. X3 rectilineal system.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system.86 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. Cai. 4>i.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.

93 Ha = The current ii. 4.. the linear velocity X2.92 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . the linear velocity Xi. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.99 r^r^ .98 .50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.) Ha ^_^^j . 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.90 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.97 The current i2.95 .{ZA3jrZA.1UU ^^^ pZA. 01 4.

the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. the linear velocity X4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.-riE . 4.102 X3 4.107 .106 . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. = The equations cal.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.„. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. J~iR X.105 current 4. ^^^ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.

CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.1. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. 52 . mechanical rotational. characteristics. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. 5.1.2. termed the input and output electrical impedances.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. mechanical rectilineal. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.^ an inductance. 5.

£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.1. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. Fig. 5. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. branch is current flows in z^i.

1. Equation 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. </>!. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. ^2. analogous to equation 5. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. </)r. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. consists of a system of gears. shown schematically in Fig.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .1 with the same tions. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. respectively. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. respectively.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. must be in parallel. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3.3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Fig. 5.. 5. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. as for example. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. respectively.2 for the electrical system. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. = = xx -\- X2 5.4 That is. With these specifications the differential of Fig. SAA. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. That is. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5. Z/jt. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. respectively. relations existing between//.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.2. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. reactance . equations 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.17 where / = moment of inertia.13 and 5. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. ^^^^. 5. equations 5.12 relatively large 59 and 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

42 = joiM 5. Equations 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. Fig. in centimeters per dyne.3.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. .18 where M= inertance. 5. Therefore. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The acoustical system of Fig.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.11 and 5. in abfarads. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.14 and 5.5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.20 where Cm = compliance.3 is = T^ 5. 5.2. 5. from equations 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.

12 and 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.20 is shown in Fig.3.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.13 and 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.3.3.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.12 to the and 5. The mechanical the frequency.3 is 1 2fi2 5. inversely proportional to the frequency.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.21 show that at low frequencies . in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. at Equa- tions 5. 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. and electrical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.6.12 = ^-^ 5. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The shown in Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. 5.23. in abfarads. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.3.3. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. tional. 5. in abhenries.11 and 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. . 5. 5. equations 5.14 and 5.4 in series across a line.21 is The acoustical system of Fig.13 and 5. 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.

and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output angular 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams.25 where / = moment of inertia.12 and 5.24. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.24 where m = mass. and Cu = rotational compliance.13 and . Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.4. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in gram (centimeter)^. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. in centimeters per dyne. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. 5.

At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.24 also is zero.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)''. . current can be obtained from equations 5.26. 5.5 parallel across a line. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. acoustical capacitance. Equations 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.4. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. in (centimeter)" per dyne.11 and 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.13 and 5.14 and 5. 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.12 and 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.7. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.26 where M= Ca = inertance.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. The output volume 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. 5. in Fig.5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.2 and there is very little attenuation.

J^mCM 5. and compliance. in abhenries." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.28 where m = mass.27 where L = Ce = inductance. in abfarads. and electrical capacitance. 5.27.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.5 is jo}L -£2 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. Cm = The output . 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in centimeters per dyne.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.28. in grams.

1 - 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. .27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. and acoustical capacitance.29.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 and 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.3 and the transmission is again small. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.13 and The output angular 5. 5.5 is ZR2 = .29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. 5..2 and the transmission is small. The output volume 5. Equations 5.30.13 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and = rotational compliance.^MC. in gram (centimeter)^.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .

6.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. .6. in shunt with a line.31. in abohms.min.5. 5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. inductance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. in Fig.11 and 5.8. in abhenries. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. 5. Electrical resistance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. in abfarads. Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. 5. 5. and electrical capacitance. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.6 shows an electrical resistance. itance in series. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.

of inertia.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . mass.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. in centimeters per dyne. and rotational compliance. Therefore. 5. inertance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.33.34.2 and there is very little attenuation. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.32. compliance. The output and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. from equations 5. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. The output volume 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.11 and 5.12 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Therefore.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms.3 and there is very little attenuation. 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in mechanical ohms. in rotational ohms. 5. from equations 5.

and compliance.6.12 The output and 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. 5. in abohms. and electrical capacitance.9. . The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. from equations 5.14 and 5. inductance.4. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. mass. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever.35. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. from equations 5.13 and 5. 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6. 5.7 shows an electrical resistance. 5. in Fig.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Therefore. in Fig.11 and 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in centimeters per dyne.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. 5. in abhenries.7.36. in grams. in mechanical ohms.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.7.14 Ca = 5. in grams per and 5.38.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in acoustical ohms.37. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. S.37 where ru Cb. rotational compliance.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . Electrical resistance. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. inertance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. = = mechanical rotational resistance. of inertia. The output and 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. acoustical capacitance. in rotational ohms.

electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. Fig.3 and the transmission is again small. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5. output electrical impedance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.7. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.10. Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7.7. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. inductance. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.7. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5.14 and 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5. 5. Fig. .12 and 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.11 and 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. 5. However. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. termed the input and output electrical impedances. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5.13 and 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.2 and the transmission is small. 5.7.

5.41 input acoustical impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. 5. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. output acoustical impedance. 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.40 ZM2. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.11. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. .8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. in abhenries. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.43 = p = 2.43 where L = inductance.42 Zas. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.

5.8 is = jo)I 5.8. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.44 where tn = mass. in grams. 5.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.8 is = j^m 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. . 5. in gram (centimeters)^. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.39 and 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.8. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.45 where / = moment of inertia. characteristic. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8 equations 5.

8. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.8 equations 5. Equation 5.48. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.42 and 5.46 where M= inertance. 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. acoustical Equations 5.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.41 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.12.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. in abfarads. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. 5.

l/2 Fig. 5. 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal.40 and 5. Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. is ance relatively large to motion.9 is ^R2 5. is 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9. 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. is inversely proportional Equations 5. 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. . frequency characteristic.48 where Cm — compliance.9 to the frequency.9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.47.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. in centimeters per dyne.9.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.9 = 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.

5. The mechanical rectilineal.9.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.42 and 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5.9. and per = area of the diaphragm. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. Equation 5. 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. Mechanical Rotational. 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.50. 5.13. 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.9 is 2. 5.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. Equations 5. compliance of the suspension system.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. dyne. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. in square centimeters.41 and 5.10. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. analogous to an in Fig.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.

The mechanical system of Fig. and electrical capacitance. in gram (centimeter)^. in grams.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and = rotational compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and C_if compliance. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. .53 where m = = mass.10.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. in abhenries.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.53.40 and 5. 5.52. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne. in abfarads.39 and 5.

55 where M= Ca = inertance.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.54.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5. . Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.40 and 5.41 and 5. 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.8.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.9 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.42 and 5.55. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.41 and 5.10. 5. connected in with a line. and the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.50. and acoustical capacitance.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. and again the transmission is small.11. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.42 and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.14.39 and 5. 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. 5.

in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. in abhenries.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. and electrical capacitance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and compliance.11. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.56. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.39 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. in abfarads.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.57. 5.11 is 2/22 = :.1/2 = 1 — S.11 is - 5. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical system of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .40 and 5. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in grams. 5.

11. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. Equation 5. in grams (centimeter)^. Electrical Resistance.41 and 5. ance of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.42 == 5.41 The output angular 5.59.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 5.58.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. and acoustical capacitance.9 and again the attenuation is small.12 shows an electrical resistance. Equations 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 2.11 equation 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. inductance and line. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.11 is -.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. 5. 5. .42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.8 and the attenuation is small.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. 5. and = rotational compliance. Equations 5.15. 5.39 and 5. 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12.

12 T = rE + jwL + 5. 5. 5.60. in abfarads.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.62 . inductance. in grams. and capacitance.40 and 5. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . in mechanical ohms. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.39 and 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance.12. m = Cm = mass. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.61. compliance. in centimeters per dyne. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. 5.

inertance. Fig. 5.12. where vr / = moment of inertia.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.42 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Fig. Therefore. 5. Fig.40 and 5. in rotational ohms. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. and Cr = rotational compliance.39 and 5.12 is 2.8. in grams per (centimeter)*. the acoustical reactance is zero. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and again the transmission is small. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. 5.12. The output and 5. from equations 5.10. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Therefore. 5.63. However.41 and 5. and the transmission is small.62. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. The output volume 5. from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5.12. 5. Therefore.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. from equations 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.coC.12. Therefore. in gram (centimeter)^. . and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.4 -T-z^ 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.

13. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.65 . in abohms. and electrical capacitance. 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. in abhenries. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13 shows an electrical resistance.13. inductance. 5. 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.16.39 and 5. inductance line. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Electrical resistance. 5. 83 Parallel. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical Resistance.13 is ZM2 = r.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.64.

The output and 5.40 and 5.66.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. from . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.41 and 5.9 and the attenuation is small. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.13. Therefore. in acoustical ohms. in (centimeter)® per dyne. 5.8 and the attenuation is small. ohms. from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. and Cr = rotational compliance.40 and 5. inertance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne.13. and compliance. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Fig.65. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.39 and 5.67. Therefore. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.13 is = jo^rAM ~. 5. 5. from equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass. 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. therefore. The output volume 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. Therefore. in where tm mechanical ohms. 5. from equations 5. in grams. 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Fig.

42 and 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .13. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.67 the attenuation ance. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. that of Fig. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.17. 5.11. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.13.14 Mechanical Rotational. 5. 5. 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5. Fig. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.18. Referring to equation 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.

The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. 5. Equation 5. larger.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. 5. Equation 5. 5. . rectilineal.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Electrical Rectilineal. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5.14 shows a system of made larger. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Referring to equation 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. Equation 5. Fig. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.19.

and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. and r^i and the input impedances. rm. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. respectively. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. 5. In the same way equations 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . and 2^3 is the sum of rui. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. rui.16. 5. 5.17. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. "Zrz.21.16. 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.12. The mechanical rectilineal. acoustical systems of Fig. respectively. mechanical rotational. Equation 5. and r.13 the mechanical rectihneal. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.41 and the output impedances. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. and Zmz. 5.16. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. wherein zm\.20. mechani- and acoustical analogies.11.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. zri.

17. In this case zei is the input impedance. output impedance. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.17. rectihneal.18. Mechanical Rectilineal. Equation 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12. 5.14. Electrical. 5. ze2 is rE2.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. Electrical. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and 5. 5. me- chanical rotational. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. . 5. 5.22.

5. Electrical. velocity and . mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. ACOUSTICAL Fig.18 the electromotive force. and zei represent the electromotive force. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal.18. 5.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ii. ei.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. and of turns on the secondary. 5.68 5. The force.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.

two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. The pressure. The torque. 5. of Fig. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18. /mi. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.77 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. The 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. /ri.71 = — xi 5.18.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.79 .90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. consists of a mass- gear train.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. 5. 5.

41 and p2. pi. .. 1940. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co." D. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. two diaphragms. 5. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. ^ Engineering. Xi and 2.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. The acoustical transformer of Fig. New York.

Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. 1922. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems.. Vol. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. I. G. Jour. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters.. W. 6. Phys. 528. p. 6. 2. No. 92 . the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.1.. 1922.2. Bell System Tech. mechanical rectilineal. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure.. No. G. A. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Stewart. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. 20. Rev. Vol.

Van New York. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Johnson. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents.. New York. velocities. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. 6. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. velocities." D. ^ Nostrand Co. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Van Nostrand Co.3. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. positive and when than four. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. that is. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. Shea. velocities. respectively. velocities.. velocities. velocities. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters." D. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities. velocities. *' . angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents.

5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.2 6. mechanical rectilineal.Ca 6.1.94 6. Electrical. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . mechanical rectilineal.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.6 ZR2 6.1 zmi zri 6.4. 6.1. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.8 .

— ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. inclusive.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when .HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . mechanical rotational.17. 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.= -4 6. mechanical rectilineal. when coc = .14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.5.2. when uc = 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig. coc = — 2Af2 V — .9 the constants of the systems. 6.= From and . . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. when coc 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. linear velocities. and the cutoff 6. when coe 6. 6.10 — — 0. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.17 Equations 6.15 WC. 2A2 VMC^ . 6. when ccc 6. when oip = = = = 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems.= -4 22 6.27 .= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.

5.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. .12.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.

49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. _ 4.12 =0. „ when coci = . when coci = = 6. 2.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.51 VM2C42 = . — — / 1 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.lfi)^ ^ -.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. = — 7= / 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. UCe\ (1 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. . when wci = — VLiCei .46 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.44 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.V/2 when WC2^WiC. = 1 . 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .50 V/iGji 0. —7== VMiCai . —= Z£2 — 4.

-4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. one greater than uci and Therefore.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . (1 .55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. —= 2. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.41 .59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.v/2 1 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .^C2'MiCaxY = --—. when .

show that the systems of Fig. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.63. linear velocities.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. inclusive.7. 6. mechanical rectilineal.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.56 to 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. are 6.69 . Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.4.64 CeiLi 6. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.

6. mechanical rectilineal.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.75 = I2CR2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.74 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.4.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.76 . Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.

-4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. 6. when uci = and cca oo 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. when (1 . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . —= Zr\ -4. M\Ca\) 4. —= zei -4. . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. when (1 . when.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.79 ^— = ZA2 0.82 .77 —— = ZM2 0. .83 —= Z^l 2.84 . or.42 -4. . MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . 6.78 —= ZR2 0.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

4 = (ajj + p)L 7. . velocity. respectively. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass.2.8 where m = = /m — V mass. in centimeters per second.2.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. unit torque and unit pressure. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.2. and driving force. The graph depicts the current. rectilineal resistance. 7. 7. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in grams.5 where aE = Te/L.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in dynes.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. The current is zero = 0. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.

I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. in dyne centimeters. in radians per second. = mechanical rotational resistance. as shown in Fig. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. in gram (centimeter)^.2.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. and = torque.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. . in rotational = angular velocity. 7. 1/riv/.12 = — - e"^') 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. ohms.2.

U = volume current.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.22 .2. in dynes per square centimeter.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. = acoustical resistance. the solution of equation 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. in cubic centimeters.20 where M= ta inertance.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. and p = sound pressure.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.2. 7. as shown in Fig.16 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). in acoustical ohms. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.

in abfarads. 7. in abamperes.4.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. and electromotive force.e-^ in Fig.3. in abvolts. electrical resistance series. the solution of equation 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. current. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. the solution of equation 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.22 111 may be written.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.28 ve .24 JA{t) = " (1 .27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. in abohms. 7.

and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. linear velocity. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.3. 7.3. The graph depicts the current.31 . / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. velocity.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7.30 P)rM where a. shown in Fig. From the tables of operational formulas. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. the solution of equation 7. mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. in dynes. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in centimeters. respectively. 7 3. is The for / shown in Fig. unit torque and unit pressure. force.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. 7. unit force. in mechanical ohms.y = l/rjfCv/.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance.

2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. in radians per second.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. is shown in Fig. and sound pressure. in cubic centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. 7. mechanical rotational resistance. .TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. in rotational ohms.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7. acoustical resistance. 7.3. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr.3. is shown in Fig. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. as shown in Fig.3. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3. 7. in dynes per square centimeter. angular velocity. as shown in Fig. volume current. in dyne centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. and torque. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.

1 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.38 ^.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.5. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. is shown 7. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. in abohms. and electromotive force.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. (a + ^ Pfa . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . electrical resistance. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. electrical resist- ance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. abohms.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . as in Fig. abamperes. 7. in current. in electrical capacitance.3. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. in abvolts. 7. . in abhenries. 7.4.

The response sinusoid. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. The graph depicts the current.^. unit force. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. the solution of equation 7. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.4.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. velocity. unit torque or unit pressure. . respectively.4.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. 7.45. series Response of an electrical resistance. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. 7. 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.

The differential equation of a force driving a mass. v for x. rectilineal resistance.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. and driving force. in centimeters per second. in dynes.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. 7. velocity. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in centimeters per second per second.47 . displacement. acceleration. 1 AC. 1 A\ m = mass. in centimeters. in grams. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. Substituting equation 7.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.

and 4> Jr = driving torque. 7. = angular velocity. in radians.4_S. Cr = rotational compliance. 4> = angular acceleration. in grams (centimeter). in radians per dyne per centimeter. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.4. 7.si . rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. It is a damped > '^in/Cu.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in rotational ohms.51 = moment of inertia. in radians per second. = angular displacement. is of inertia.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. equation 7. 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per second per second. lAA.48 The response sinusoid.

then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.45. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. It is a damped sinusoid.56 ^PR = Jo.. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . WR^ 2 1 7.4C. 7. = '^I/Cr. If rR^ > AI/Cr. lAA. 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .

59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. in grams per (centimeter)^. Substituting U for X. and pressure. in cubic centimeters per second. acoustical resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. 7. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical capacitance. as in Fig. volume current.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. at equation 7. in acoustical ohms.

4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. Step function approximation.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. cca^ = 4M/Ca.5. 7. 7.45.6. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. .

ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. an electromotive force ei is added. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. as in the case of the preceding sections. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ .67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions.68 .66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces.. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. all being of the unit type. as shown in Fig.u)du du 7.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. The This proof. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. tem. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. «i. <?i at / = Ae.5. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. 7. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.5. The indicial electrical admittance. Therefore. 7. etc. an electromotive force ^2 is added. etc. a time «2 later. integral.

Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. The velocity. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.u)du 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. mechanical rotational rectilineal.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .u)du du u)du 7. 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.69 fR{u) — AR{t .72 .

.

2. 8.1. the electrostatic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electromagnetic.

field in which depicted in Fig.1.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. termed motional electrical impedance. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in dynes. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. L and Ce. When there is only one path.1 and 8. circuit will be used instead of network. 8. in gausses. due to motion. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . length of the conductor. and current. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. in centimeters.2 where x = velocity. The electromotive force. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. The force. From equations 8. and Ca with vr. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. abohms. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.1. in abamperes. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. it is located. in abvolts.However. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. in using analogies in actual practice. in centimeters per second.1 B = / = / = flux density. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE.

Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. which the mechanical There are three general types of . in mechanical ohms. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in the absence of motion. 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. in abohms. in chanical ohms. all of the conductor.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.4 8. 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.3.6 The 8. in 8. The normal electrical impedance zek.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. The dynamic direct radiator 8. that is.1. Zen in abohms.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.

The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. the unpolarized armature type. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Since there is no polarizing flux. Unpolarized Armature Type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. A. namely. Assume that all the reluctance . the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type.2. Consider the system shown in Fig.

11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. then from equations 8. in dynes.14 e = ^r 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. C = l-^nA. in square centimeters. n = number of turns.15 The force on the armature. A = area of the center pole. in abvolts.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.13 and 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. .128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. in abamperes.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in centimeters. and a = normal spacing. is where / = current in the coil.

18 Equation 8. and time.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. 4TrJa*/M .17 for the current in 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.21 . mechanical ohms.16.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. in seconds.2.15 and 8. in mechanical ohms. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. in mechanical ohms. nC^P 8.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. Substituting equation 8. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.20 — X From equations 8.

8. B. for the reproduction of sound. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. in abohms.19. in oersteds. ^ = area of center pole. this system cannot be used It is.22 = motional electrical impedance. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in abohms. in mechanical ohms. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. in gilberts. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. Therefore.3.2. / = current.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in maxwells. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. 8.20 and 8. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. saws. from the poles of a permanent magnet.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. and impedance of the coil. Polarized Reed Armature Type. Zen in abohms. 8. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. . = number of turns. a = spacing. filing — as in Fig. vibrators and clippers. in abohms.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in abamperes.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in square centimeters. in centimeters. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. for converting electrical variations into however.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.axsin wt n coil. 27r/. frequency. in oersteds. in abamperes. and time. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in 131 oit maxwells.

For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . the flux. due to the steady field. in maxwells.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. the flux will now be 4>x + A. __ .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.. and area of the pole.^ . sidered.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. in gilberts.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. spacing between the armature and pole. Ax -\- Ax . Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.32 „ . impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. in abvolts. in square centimeters.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. in centimeters. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.

34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. in mechanical ohms.. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.33.3. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.32 and e i = — X 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. 8.35 8. in me- chanical ohms. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.37. ZAfi. in abohms. From equations 8.24 and 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. ~ 8. fu = MNi ~r — .ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.34.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.35 and 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.38 a Zm .

in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. C.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil.38 is similar to equation 8. ARMATURE MAGNET . This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. and impedance of the coil. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. Equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. 8. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. in abohms. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. in abohms.3.

it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. 8. i?2 = = coil. in abamperes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in dynes.4. The .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in dynes. which the coil energizes. of the pole piece. at the poles (Fig. The steady magnetic field is force. at each pole magnet. in square centimeters. in maxwells. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. The sum of the forces.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The flux. and yf effective area. 8. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in oersteds. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in maxwells.

48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. and effective area of a pole piece.4. in abvolts. .v) where M = magnetomotive a force. rectilineal impedance of the armature. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in centimeters. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. and zm2 impedance of the load.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.45. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. of the steady field. 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in gilberts.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. NMA —^x a^ 8. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in mechanical ohms. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8.44 A. in mechanical ohms. in square centimeters.136 flux. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms. through the armature to the right and upward.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50. Zm\.50 and 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.43 =-^ 8. .

galvanometers.4. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. system of Fig.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. Therefore. This driving system is used for loud speakers. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. 8.

in statfarads. in dynes. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. The useful force. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.57 numerator of equation 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. in statvolts. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . motive Cq is large . The force.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. ^o^max sin wt . = CeCq 8.60 From equations 8. in statcoulombs. on the condenser is q considered. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.59 and 8. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statamperes.62 . in dynes.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. the fourth term will be negligible. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. is The current. in statfarads. and capacity per unit area.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.66 in 8. in mechanical ohms. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.5. 4ir(<2 + . 47r(a — 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. Ax) 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . in stat- amperes.61. .67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. ohms. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. .(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. 8. the generated current.69 .66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.

58 and 8. + . In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.69 and 8. 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. statohms. 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.5. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.68. 8. electrical impedance of the condenser.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. at the same time. electrical network in Fig. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . in statohms. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.5.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. adding a large stiffness.

8.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. Consider the system shown in Fig.6. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .

77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.74 and ehminating the steady force. . in square centimeters.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. in centimeters.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. 8. in current in the abamperes. e = MJ^ dt 8. and area of the rod. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. frequency. in seconds. in gausses. CO/ 8. induced in the winding. in square centimeters.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. in cycles per second. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in abvolts. turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. due to is the Villari effect. current. The electromotive force.X JR 8. induction is of the nickel rod.73 Combining equations and 8. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. and time. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in abamperes.

in mechanical ohms. rectilineal impedances zm.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. The mechanical to one . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in centimeters. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. and Young's modulus.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in mechanical ohms.6. in abvolts. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.78 From equation 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in square centimeters. 8.

Van Nos- trand Co. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. as shown by equation 8. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.6. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.6). in mechanical ohms.84. in abohms.83 From equations 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. 1942.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. 8. = motional impedance.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. 8. 8." D. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. New York. The mass mi in Fig. 8.. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. .85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.82 and 8. 8. in abohms — equation 8. is assumed to be a In general.79. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.86 Mason. total in abohms.

146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. in centimeters. length of the rod. length of the rod. in square centimeters. in centimeters.80. and cross section of the rod. in square centimeters.7. and Young's modulus. 8. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . is where p The compliance Cmi.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. in Fig.

A= E = area. Young's modulus. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. that is. in dynes. 8.8. 8. 8.84.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. EA and 8. 8.7C A and B given in Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.7.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The vibrating system of Fig. X = 4^. in square centimeters.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. . 8. air load and support resistance. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 8. 8. due to a force.7.8.88 where Jm = total force. is The deformation per unit length.

89 K = magnetostriction constant. 8. c„ . 8. the data of Fig. equations 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.6.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. B = A= From and area. flux density.88 and 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.8 and Young's modulus. in square centimeters. ..

in centimeters. and The displacement. is . X to 10~* for quartz.91 and 8. in dynes. in dynes. in square centimeters. and A = cross-sectional area. in centimeters.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal.4 force.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.92 X From = 8. due an applied force. equations 8.93 . in statcoulombs.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. q is 149 = KJu 8. due to the application of a force. 4 = length of the crystal. 6. E = Young's modulus.

in square = length of the crystal. 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.9. in centimeters. in statohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.97.100 and 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. .99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms. zmi and z. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.101 From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. / centimeters. and E = Young's modulus. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in mechanical ohms. 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. namely. 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.1. 9.

the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. area of the pole. . spacing between the armature and pole. 9. in abohms.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in centimeters.2.6 ze = = = = = total flux. in maxwells. is The velocity of the armature. and velocity of the armature. due to the steady field. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in abohms. in square centimeters. through the armature. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. 9. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. and impedance of the external load. force.2. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. 9. in centimeters. coil. in centimeters per second. and + ZE2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in gilberts. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.

9. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. flows through the armature. r~ .3. due to the deflection of the armature.

52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. in statamperes.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.3. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. M. of the alternating magnetic circuit.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. i?2 = reluctance.9 and 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. in maxwells. a = spacing between armature and pole. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. as depicted 9. 9.11 zme From equations 9. The current. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in abohms.4. in gilberts. of the magnet. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. in abohms. velocity of the armature. = magnetomotive force. 9. in centimeters per second. is The /m Zm + 9. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature.3. ZE = Zei + Ze2.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. in A . in oersteds. in centimeters. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8.

in statvolts. in square centimeters.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in centimeters per second.stationary "plate . J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . ^= a area of the plate. in centimeters. spacing between the plates. in statfarads. 9. and velocity of the X movable plate. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statohms.14 where e = electromotive force. in statvolts. The current. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.4 e is t2 9. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statamperes.

electrical impedance of the external load.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.4. in statfarads.15 and 9. in centimeters.17 zme e From equations 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. 9. is Ze2 in parallel. is The velocity of the movable plate. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. in statvolts.18 Zme) . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. a spacing between plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. = Zm /^^ + 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. electrical and 9. in square centimeters.4. X in centimeters per second. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. e.71 of the chapter on ZME = .14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. area of the plates. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. in statohms.

ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.25.23 in 9.E1 = -r—.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.19. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.21 Substituting equation 9.24 and fi 9.21 in 9. . = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.23 Substituting equation 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. = — a CnX 9.22.25 Comparing equations 9.26 .24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.

162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. coil. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. in abvolts. In the electrical circuit: e. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. from equation 8. However.5.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. shown in Fig. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. The volt- age.5.26 and an internal impedance zei. 9. L\ and rE\. coil. zei. zme. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency.27 . Magnetostriction generating system. Equation 9. is ^tNK 9. In the mechanical circuit: zm. ZEi.

and Young's modulus. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. length of the rod. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod.5. electrical electrical wavelength. in square centimeters. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. .79 or 8. in centimeters per second. - £ 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. force. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters. and impedance of the external circuit. in abohms. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms.

28. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.32 the generated electromotive force. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in Fig.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. ohms. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. 9. equations 9.6. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.5.32 From abvolts. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.6. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.86 and 8. in mechanical ohms. .87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. to be a In general. 9. are given by equations 8. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. in mechanical = ohms. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in centimeters per second.27 and 9.

and velocity of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the coil.27 and the velocity. zme. 6.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. E= 4 = Young's modulus. In the electrical circuits: e. 9.6. in centimeters. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems.6. the driving force. cross-sectional area of the crystal.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. in centimeters per second. in centimeters.7. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. Li and tei. = = length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. in Fig. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. A. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. generated The h = —. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. length of the crystal. zei. . 9. In the mechanical networks: /m. 2_bi j<^Li. zei. in statamperes. ZMi. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. + 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. mass and compliance of the rod.4 X 10~* for quartz.6 can be obtained from equation 9. the effective Zjv/i. mi and Cmi. where KEJ — •* 9. 9. the other. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.

35 Ze where e = electromotive force.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. Ce\. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .7. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. in statamperes. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. electrical and 9. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. z^'i zei. From equations 9. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. 2_b2. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. circuit: e. 9. in statohms. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. electrical and impedance of the external load. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statfarads. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. in statvolts. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.34 force e.

97 or 8. in statfarads.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. 4 = length of the crystal. in centimeters. in centimeters.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. and „ „„ 9. the crystal. and E= Young's modulus. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.4 X 10~* for quartz. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. electrical impedance of the external load. in square centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.7. A = area of the electrode. in statohms. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.41 . length of in centimeters. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. length of the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. E = Young's modulus.

Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.45 . is . depicted equations 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms.43 From Ze2 in parallel. The velocity at the end of crystal.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.47 . The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.36 and 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. in mechanical ohms. in mechantotal ical ohms. 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.= where i. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.7. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. in centimeters per second.

PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.48. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.104 and 8.8. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. e.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.51.50 and 9.45. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. However. == -^ AwKEx 9.49 in 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.49 Substituting 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. in Fig.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. 9. Equation 9.47 in 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.

the other. 9. 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /.8. crystal.8 can be obtained from equation 9. electrical network of Fig. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. Zm2. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the electrical impedance of the external load. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. ze\. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined.37. zme. In the mechanical networks: Jm. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. zei. . the electromotive force generated across the crystal. A. Piezoelectric generating systems.45 and the velocity. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the electrical circuits: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the driving force.

Vol.R.2. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . 1929. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. p. 1 Ballentine. z„". It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. e^" . Then 10. I. . 6. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical." 171 . No. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. and superposition theorems to electrical. ' 10. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal.. Proc. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". let a set — of electromotive forces ^i .. . produce a current distribution z'l'. S.E. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Reciprocity Theorems A. . i^' . e^' . "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. 17.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10.1. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. 929. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. the elements. A number cal systems. . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. /s" .

e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. equation 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. e" and /'. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1.2 = /'/' where e' .1. /" are the electromotive forces 10. o e .1 becomes 10.

^2'. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. • distribution ^i'. fB2" .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . let a set of torques/iji'. and provided the applied forces /mi. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". '4>^" . 10. fli" are the torques and angular 10. 1940.3 becomes fu'x" . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities.1./7j2'. ./ij2. C. =/a/V 10.fRi" • 4>2. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. 145. New ." Vol. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. 4>2" . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.4 where /^f'.1. 10.6 velocities depicted .1. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. and provided the applied torques /iji. D. equation 10. MacMillan and Co. equation 10.. "Theory of Sound. .7 p Rayleigh./b' and (J)'. produce a rotational velocity — . 1926.1. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. . . York./ij„ are all of the same ." D. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. London. /ji/2./fl3 .5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. II. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. Van Nostrand Co. frequency./m3 all of the same frequency. mechanical rotational system of Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. ^ Olson.. p. 10.

.9 and 1... ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. v' grad po „ = 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.4 by the p and v of the other set.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. dv" — . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . 10.12 is for a point.8.15 v' .13 If. equation 10.9 and 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. equation 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. 10.174 THEOREMS .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.10 From neering" equations 1. . y" .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .11 From equations 10. - p 1 .+ dv' . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. p"v' 10. 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. 1 . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.1. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. .1.—.

. velocities. .19 . . . which there are only two pressures. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. . . 10.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . let also. X2". Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . . 10. E.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . . . . . . and let a second set of pressures ^i"." a second volume current distribution Xi". pz same frequency. Then — ./". . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. produce pn. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . X^" Xn" Then .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first.16 becomes . X^ X^.1. X2.1. . . pi. equation 10. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . produce a volume current distribution Xi. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. 10. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. pressures and volume currents. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. However. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.

n Then 10. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. . Electrical-mechanical. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. . let also.21 . . an interconnected e\ .S. .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. P"X' i" L. currents. F. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . forces n and velocities. Mechanical-acoustical.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical.S. P"X' tn\ B M . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. px L.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. .2. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.. — In . en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . L. D. E. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. . 10. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. . The 10. HX* E p"X D Fig.S.2^. i" . C. B.

acoustical transducer. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. Theorem. Electrical-Mechanical.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. field.23 . me- chanical. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. e"i' 10. G. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. e'i" = e"i' 10. acoustical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. as shown in Fig. is H. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. Electrical-Mechanical.23 states that a if. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. mechanical. . electrical transducer. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.2C. 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. 2D. mechanical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.2fi. 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system.

24 Thevenin's Theorems A. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. as shown in Fig. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. D. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem.178 I. = p"X' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.3. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem.2£. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . 10. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze .

forces. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. Each source. velocities.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. forces. mechanical rectilineal. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces.4. force. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. velocity. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. . torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. current. save the one being considered. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force.

The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. by acoustical capacitances. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. However. An exhaust back pressure. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. However. Convert the answer into the original system. muffler is quite effective. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range.2. Introduction The fundamental lineal.1. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. 11. principles relating to electrical.

are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.M and Ca for an acoustical system. When there is only one path. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. in the audible frequency range. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. The system of Fig. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. . 11. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. 11. with rft. circuit will be used instead of network.u.1. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j.1.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. 11. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. Therefore. in Fig. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range.However.

182 APPLICATIONS In general. 11.3. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. 11.2. sate for approximations. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. .3.

11. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. and . the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. 11. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.1. The mechanical driving from equation 8. 11.7.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. In the mechanical circuit: m\. force can be determined /m 11. in dynes. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil.w2. zem. rMi and Ci.3. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| ." I"*.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.4. 11. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube.. teg. nii and r.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. 11. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the mass of the cone.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. . in mechanical Jm = driving force. radiator tube. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit.3. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3.

in centimeters per second.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range." D. Olson. The simple vibration fly- damper. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. FX. . loud speakers. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. New York. These systems include microphones.4. of inertia of the flywheel. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. is The sound power output.4. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. telephone receivers.YWHEEL I. In the mechanical network: A.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. measuring cal systems. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 .. the moment Cg. m. etc. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. shown ^ in Fig. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. Van Nostrand Co. 11. in mechanical ohms. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. phonograph pickups. 11.5. 11. 1940. and the shaft.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. given by 11. comphance of the damper. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. velocity of the cone. F.

The driving force/i. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. the mass of the machine. 11. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. A. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. Cm /4 and 4rM . A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. zmf.5.vF. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable.6./ is due to the . ciple of the device.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. W.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . isolator. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced.SA. B. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. z. W. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.SA. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. /jf. Jm. the mass of the machine. The shunt mechanical vibration.

isolating mechanical network. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . only isolation in the system of Fig. pressor. .7. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.6. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. 11. 11.6. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. mi.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. the compliance and mechanical mi. shown in Fig. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. consists of the following elements: nii. these values springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. Jm. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11. 11. the mass of the case.

the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The mechanical network of Fig. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. .7. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. the system in Fig.v/i/4. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. zmf. Of course. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. 11. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. 11. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. the mass of the case. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. 187 Cmi and rui. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises.8. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Cm2 and ^1-/2. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. 11. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration.

Cif i/4 and 4rM i.8. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. the driving force at each tire. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting.u 11. the compliance of the spring suspension. the combined driving force at the four legs. the mass of the frame. wheel and axle. the compliance of the spring. in general.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. body. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. Cmi and tires. tmi. the mass of the tire.v/2. the mass of the instrument and carriage. engine.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. m-i. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. 11. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber.v/3. Cms a-nd r. Cm2. both rectilineal and rotational. 11. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. Cm2. mum. etc.7. 11. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels.9. This system has many degrees of freedom. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. m2. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. r.

wheels. view. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . . 4?ni. Cms. the mass of the four tires. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. 4rif 2. the compliance of the four springs.\f 1.8. the driving force. 11. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. 4:rM2. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. springs and shock absorbers. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. the mass of the passenger. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. 189 m^. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the mass of the frame. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. body and engine. Since there are four tires.i/a./ifi the comtires. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. Cji/2/4. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. fn2. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. Cms and r. the compliance of the springs. the combined driving force at the four tires. m^. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. the mass of the passenger. However. mi.

an automobile has several modes of vibration. Mechanical Ohm. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Most of the forces. For example. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. Supplementary Note: Electrical. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. mechanical rectilineal. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical resistance. Rotational Ohm. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. Acoustical Ohm. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. Electrical abohm. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. As already indicated. which controls the oscillations. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. — — —A — . pitching or swaying motion. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. 11.6. developed at the tires. An electrical resistance. that is. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

acoustical. 23. 18. 21. ohm. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 23 mechanical rectilineal. acoustical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 179 Thevenin's. 32 Rotational.) 195 Table. 13. 177 reactance. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 171 acoustical. 85 rotational. 9. peak. 88 electrical. 9. 22 mechanical rotational. 6 Sound effective. 48 two degrees of freedom. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 107 Transients. 23 Theorems. 178 electrical. 6 peak. 184 Rotatomotive force. 5 Transformer. 21. 17. 28 Subharmonic. 13. 10. 9. 179 Suspension systems. compliance. 37. 178 mechanical rotational. 21. 9. 23 mechanical. 6 maximum. 6 Static pressure. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 10. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 6. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 45 instantaneous. 45 electrical. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 6 maximum. 22. 6 instantaneous. 6 Stiffness. 13. 37 and analogies. electrical-mechanical. 35 effective. 42 inductance and series coupled. 22. electrical Superposition theorem. 88 Transient response. 22 networlcs. 23 maximum.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 178 acoustical. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 120 Duhamel's integral. 172 mechanical rotational. 178 electrical. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 173 superposition. 6. 188 Systems. 10. 41 mechanical rotational. 6 14 pressure. 13. 9. 88 mechanical rotational. (see cor- effective. 9. 9. 11 instantaneous. automobile. 18. 105 arbitrary force. 111 electrical resistance. 23 23. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. reciprocity. 9 resistance. 122 . 171 Resonant frequency. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 10. 25 three degrees of freedom. 187 Torque. 6 peak. impedance. 42 one degree of freedom. 9. 13. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 21. 6 Transducer. 6. 61.

24 Velocity. 106 Units. 11 loss. "X" isolator. peak. 106 163 Volume current. 144. 106 unit function. 8 instantaneous. magnetostriction. 8. 148 machine isolator. 94 response characteristics. band pass. 8 8 "T" type network. 93. 184 186 Young's modulus. 150.) INDEX Villari effect. 5 maximum. 93. Wave band elimination. 92. 20. 23. 7. 7. 92. 22. 167 . 97 93. 93 22 7 Wavelength. Two 87 degrees of freedom. high pass. 7 Vibration. 5 filters. 7 linear.196 Transients (Cont. 146. 23 Transmission. 92. 8 maximum. 7 Wave. 143. 95 low pass. 151. 23 effective. 11 effective. 93. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 165. 147. 21. 7. peak. 22 angular. cut quartz crystal. Heaviside's Calculus. 149. gain. 37. 163. 45 Unit function. 101 instantaneous. 92.

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