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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Olson . The relations and actions are more easily visualized.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. engineer. in this project. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. 1943 F. Engstrom. Lorene E. plex arrangements of multielement systems. W. Olson. Harry January. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. an electrical circuit. Research Director. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. E. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.

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Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical Resistance B. Moment of Inertia.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inductance B. Inertance 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Rectilineal Compliance. Acoustical Capacitance 2.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance C. ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. C. Mass. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. A. Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.3 3.2 Introduction Resistance A. Rotational Compliance.5 Representation of Electrical.2 4 II.1 1 1. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Electrical Capacitance B. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Acoustical Resistance 2. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .1 3.1 2.2 3. ELEMENTS 2.

5 Equations of Motion 4.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.6 4.6 3.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.4 Dissipation 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.7 3.6 62 5..2 4. 60 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.3 5.7 The Electrical System .1 Introduction 52 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.13 Electrical.5 Chapter 3.2 Two Electrical. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Mechanical Rectilineal..8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal..8 67 .9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.10 The Acoustical System 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.7 64 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.1 Introduction 37 4.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.1 6.17 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5.4 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.11 69 71 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.3 6.16 Electrical Resistance. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.15 Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.21 5. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies 5..'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.10 Series 5.2 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.

3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. THEOREMS 10. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 9.5 114 120 7.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.6 VIII.2 7.4 8.5 9.4 9.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. 1 7. C. B. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.X Chapter VII.1 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.1 10.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Unpolarized Armature B.2 9. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.4 Ill 7.5 8. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.2 8.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.

9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.7 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.6 11.4 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.5 184 185 11.2 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. APPLICATIONS 11.CONTENTS Chapter E.8 1 1 .

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in the early days of electrical circuit theory. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. mechanical and acoustical tems. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems.1. In other words. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. However. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. as for example. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Expressions for the kinetic energy. 1 The acoustical . The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. vibrating systems. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.

In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. springs and brakes. . Electrical elements are resistance. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. ' The lished. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. constituent parts of a circuit. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. various assemblies of masses.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. cal. induct- ance and capacitance.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. Elements are the meshes. springs and friction. as for example. Of course. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements.

Hanle {JViss. Therefore. Vol. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. ratio of force to displacement. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. — . However. SiemensKonzern. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. In this book. That is to say. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. in the past. 4. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. No. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. every electrical. XI. No. However. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. In addition. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. For example. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. and ratio of pressure to displacement. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage.. Finally. Institute of Radio Engineers. circuit. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. I) and Firestone {Jour. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. all communication. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. particularly electrical circuits. Vol. mechanical and acoustical systems.1 of 1942. 4. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Amer. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. Soc. Therefore. Acous. d. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. up the mechanical and electrical. Verojf a.

Frequency. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. a positive constant. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. This called a Fourier series. . Cycle. a period of jy.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. all is the frequency. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. negative. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. reciprocal of the period. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. or which tity comprises a cycle. + T). —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Terms not sections. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. Definitions ^ this section. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. or zero. a constant. The remainder. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. period. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. Harmonic. Basic Frequency. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. Periodic Quantity.2. Octave. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. where T. equals 2x divided by the period T.

—The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. — — Abvolt. The unit the dyne. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. Mechanomotive Force). The unit is the abvolt. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. . usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Effective Electromotive Force. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Wavelength. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Dyne. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The root unit the abvolt. force. mechanical or acoustical system. Wave.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Subharmonic. Electromotive Force. the dyne. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the dyne. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle.

is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). . dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. Abampere. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. the abampere. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. force. Effective the total instantaneous torque. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. the dyne per square centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The the — Instantaneous Current. the dyne centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. The unit is the dyne centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). An abampere is the unit of current. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter.

DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . is velocity in that interval. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. the centimeter per second. Peak Velocity. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. is Centimeter per Second. Maximum Velocity. current. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. Effective Angular Velocity. per second. Effective Velocity. the abampere. complete cycle at the point. Peak Current. is Radian per Second. Cubic Centimeter per Second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Instantaneous Velocity. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The unit is the abampere. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. velocity. The unit is the abampere. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Maximum Current. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. unit is the radian per second.

times the frequency.-W is impedance. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. which. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. The unit the abohm. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. is the abohm. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. The unit the abohm. The unit is the abfarad. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. Electrical Reactance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. second. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when times the frequency. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. Effective Volume Current. Electrical Impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. for Peak Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. the cubic centimeter per second. To avoid ambiguity in this book. . electrical Inductance. is Electrical Resistance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle.

rotational resistance ance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Rotational Compliance. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mass. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. Acoustical Impedance. ' See footnote S. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. Compliance. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. page I . —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application.

inertance and acoustical capacitance. . Mechanical Rectilineal System. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. In the same way. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. mass and compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. and rotational compliance. Acoustical Reactance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Acoustical System. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. mass and compliance. moment of inertia. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. inductance and electrical capacitance. Inertance. when multiplied by times the frequency. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. Electrical System. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance.

angular velocity. voltage. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. Transmission Loss {or Gain). For example. force. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. pressure or volume current. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . The bel is the Decibel. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. torque. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . — Transmission. Either of these systems may be electrical. current. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. mechanical or acoustical. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. torque or pressure is electrical. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. mechanical rectilineal. pressures or such as forces or velocities. force. velocity. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio.

1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductance and capacitance.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. inductor and capacitor.' 2. See footnote page 8. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. t 2. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. the vibrating systems. electrical. Electrical Resistance. A resistor. e. in abohms. 12 .1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. e rs^-. In this procedure. 5. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. in abamperes. An tinguished from the devices. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. resistor. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. As indicated in the preceding chapter. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. 2. and current through the resistance. Electrical resistance rs. is defined as A.2. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. in abvolts.

Equation 2. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in radians per second. Acoustical Resistance. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. is defined as r^ — = y 2. and velocity at the point of application of the force. D. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. in dynes. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction).RESISTANCE B. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Mechanical rotational energy is C. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in dyne centimeters. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. in rotational ohms. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. .3 where Jr d = = applied torque.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. in centi- meters per second.

the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. A tube of small diameter. New . 6pww 2. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. volume current. and frequency in cycles per second. 'Olson. in centimeters. Van Nostrand Co. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. a reaccomponent. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. slit normal to the direction of flow. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . York. in addition to the resistive component. 1.. 2. slit normal to the direction of flow. However.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. in = width of the meters.4 where p — pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in grams per cubic centimeter. in acoustical ohms. 1940. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit." D. resistance. slit in the direction of flow.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. density. and U= Equation resistance current.5 = viscosity coefficient. in cubic centimeters per second. a narrow and metal. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.86 X 10"'* for air.

in abamperes per second. which opposes a change of velocity. = di Ldt ^ 2. INERTANCE 2. in dynes. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. 2. in when the angular velocity a constant. that during linear when the velocity decreases.INDUCTANCE. in centimeters per second per second. that during angular acceleration. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. in abhenries. MOMENT OF INERTIA. It decreases when the current decreases. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. It remains constant ance. Equation 2. in abvolts. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration.3. Moment gram (centimeter)^. given by dd . Equation C. Moment of Inertia. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. is defined as 2. is Inductance L. Inertance A. and rate of change of current. mass increases. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. MASS. Mass. Mass.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Moment of Inertia.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. 15 Inductance. B. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. is remains a constant of inertia /. Inductance. in grams. and driving force.

volume current. in grams.. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. New .9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. in p = density of the meter. Equation 2. D. in centimeters. decreases. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in radians per second per second. effective length of the tube.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. in dynes per square centimeter. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. cross sectional area in square centimeters. is. Inertance M." D.10 m = S = mass. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. Van Nostrand Co. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. in dyne centimeters. York. 1940. Inertance. in rate of change of 2. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in centimeters. and driving pressure.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. inertance. in cubic centimeters per second per second. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. that tion. in grams per (centimeter)*.

13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. and stored. abvolts.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. in abcoulombs. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Rectilineal Compliance. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. Rectilineal Compliance. . Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Electrical capacitance Cg. Rotational Com- pliance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. in centimeters. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.4. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. and electromotive force. Electrical Capacitance.13 states that the charge on an force. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. It is a constant. in dynes is Equation 2. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed.14 = Jm = displacement. Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical 17 Capacitance. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. and applied force. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released.n Equation 2. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. in abfarads.

D..^ in dynes per square centimeter. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.17. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. C. 1940. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. in dyne centimeters. . and applied torque. Rotational compliance Cu-.16 p s — = = velocity. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in radians. Equation 2.17 s = * Olson. Acoustical Capacitance. Rotational Compliance. D. in is The terms of the condensation. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. and condensation. defined in equation 2. in centimeters per second. allowed to unwind. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. Van Nostrand Co. in grams per cubic centimeter. density.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. p = where c c^ps 2. 9. It is constant. in radians per centimeter per dyne." p. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. New York. It is constant. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed.

From equations 2. The electrical elements. is 2. Mechanical Rectilineal. Representation of Electrical. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. .18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. equal to the volume displacement. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. and volume displacement.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters.X 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.19 and 2. Equation 2. in cubic centimeters.21 F= volume.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. and 2.18 X= volume displacement. mechanical rectilineal.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.16. 2. . 2.5. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. = ^ F 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.17. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. From equations 2. electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.

Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. rE . mechanical rectilineal. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.1. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. Table 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. ELEMENTS and time. . Further.1 page and list and 2. self-inductance. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.1. the standard modifiers for all four systems. inertance and time. length L and time T.1. and time. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.24 sions are mass. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. 2.1. length. ^ The Tables 8.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.2. Tables 2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.1 and 2.3. The dimensions given in Table 2.3 uses mass M.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. 1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.

and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws.1. mechanical rotational or In other words. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal.2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. mechanical rectilineal.1. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. mechanical rotational. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mass. mechanical rectilineal. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. namely. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. From these definitions it is evident that friction. 3.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

velocity.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. potential and heat energy. namely. mechanical rectilineal. Heat is a transient form of energy. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. C.1. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . 3. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. Electrical. kinetic. Cr = T. In the electrical. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.

3. in grams per (centimeter)*. in grams.4 M= m = S — m/S^. X— X Sx = volume current. mechanical rectilineal. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in abamperes. mass of air in the opening. and heat energy during an interval of time is.3 = moment of inertia.3. all the air particles in the opening move with the . the inertance. It is assumed that same phase. electrical. mechanical rotational. potential. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. equal to the system. in grams. in centimeters per second. and current through the inductance L. in abhenries. cross-sectional area of the opening.2 m = X mass. in square centimeters. and velocity of the = mass m. in radians per second. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. by the principle of conservation of energy. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in cubic centimeters per second.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. The sum of the kinetic. in centimeters per second. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance.

and X = displacement. in grams per cubic centimeter. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. dyne. in centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter.. in cubic centimeters.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and <l> angular displacement.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. and charge on the capacitance.4.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in radians. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. s — stiffness of the spring. ^ 3. in abfarads. in dynes per centimeter. in centimeters per second. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters per dyne. in abcoulombs. p = density of air. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. . = -. and c = velocity of sound.

Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. in abamperes.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. and acoustical systems. force.. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. in abohms. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.17 = = is electrical resistance.5. +— + XX 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . and current.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.: 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. Wr.y- 3. mechanical rotational. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. mechanical Wm.12 where We. .18 . Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.

and angular velocity. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.6. in radians per second. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.22 = acoustical resistance. in centimeters per second. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . and X= 3. and velocity.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. in mechanical ohms. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms.

26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. 3..25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.28 and 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.26.32 „. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.

jo>I — — 3.7^ Ca 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. the impedance is m and Cm. .33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. the velocity and force. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.7.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.38 3. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. the angular velocity and torque. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.Ce r^ 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. mechanical rectilineal.42 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. .8.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.

51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.1.24. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. namely.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. 3. 3.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3.1.49 „ .46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

Equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. . The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.51 is the same as equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3.26.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.28.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.

59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. Equation 3.30. and acoustical systems.59 is the same as equation 3. 3. inclusively.43 to 3. mechanical rectilineal. Equations 3. . the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.59.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. mechanical rotational.

angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4. MECHANICAL Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.1. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .1. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. velocity. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.2. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. 4.

In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in grams. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.4 M = inertance. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in cubic centimeters per second.1 93 L = inductance. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. . and = h = current. in branch 3. in abhenries. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in abamperes. in centimeters per second. in radians per second. and velocity of the mass m.3. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.2 where x^ m = = mass.

6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and X2 = volume displacement. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in abcoulombs. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. and charge on the electrical capacitance. 4.DISSIPATION 4. and <i>2 angular displacement. in abfarads. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. and displacement. per dyne.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. . in qz ohms. in radians.9 = 4 = electrical resistance.5. in cubic centimeters.4. in centimeters. and — current. in abamperes.

in cubic centimeters per second. and angular velocity. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.i 4. and Xs = volume 4.6. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . current. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second. mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms.12 = acoustical resistance. in centimeters per second. 2 d<t>n dcj). and velocity.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.

The relation for the currents in Fig.rsqz 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.21 4.18.17.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.19 +k 4.20 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.14.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4. The linear displacement. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.8.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.25 .1 is h = H Equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.7. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. at/jf.23.13. 4. e = = Lqz-[.22. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.

The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.15. Jb /.28 Differentiating equation 4.27.29 4. in the acoustical system.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.32 ing piston.30. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.16. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.9. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. The angular displacement. at p. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. at/^j.42 4.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.1. . SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4.31.26 ^ The 4.10. p = MXa + vaXz 4. Fig.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. 4.26.

33. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. 4.1. 4. Fig.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.1. and to acoustical resistance.11. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. inductance. 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . given by ^3 JM is 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.29 and 4. to mechanical rotational resistance. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.19. shows again that resistance. Fig.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.1 to 4. vm. inclusive.25. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. 4. inertance acoustical system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. mass.

is . given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.45 . 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X. X2 = Xi .41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4.1. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. Fig. 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.1.X3 = pjccCa 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.. Fig.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. is given by k The = f". 4.

Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.48 JwCe3 Cr. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. The electrical impedances z^i.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.1 of Chapter V. .47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. 4. 4. 1 tional systems of Figs. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 54. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.12. 55 and 56 and Fig.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. see pages 53. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.2 are as follows: 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.3.2.

4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. The shunt electrical. moment of inertia and inertance L2.59 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. Ce2. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .56 ZA2 -T-z.3 is the as that of Fig.50 + jwm2 + T-p.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.57 The system shunt in Fig. compliance.60 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. I2 and M2.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. mass.2 save that the electrical capacitance.— JwLmz Zb. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.2 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. mechanical rectilineal. 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. ze2 = j^L2 4.55 jwLai 4. 4. 4.

4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.65 2^22^3 .63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.3. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.

t 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.3. I2.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. L2. Cb2 .67 .4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.«i. 4. L. Ca. mechanical rectilineal. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. 4. Electrical.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . to /i. m2.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cm\. 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.4.412^3 + 4.13.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . Cri. Cei.\.

^ zjji = . the linear velocity Xq. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.83 ZA2 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. h.82 4. 4.78 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. i^ in show that /q.86 4.84 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. nA where zei = . the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .74 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. Xi.76 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. Xi. The current to. M2. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. Ca2 in the acoustical system.89 .88 4. Cai. 4>i. 4>2.80 4. X2. X3 rectilineal system. (h and 04 X2. to 4>o.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.

50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.1UU ^^^ pZA. 01 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.92 4. 4. the linear velocity X2.95 .90 4..{ZA3jrZA. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.98 . the linear velocity Xi.93 Ha = The current ii. 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.) Ha ^_^^j . ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.97 The current i2.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. 02 = + Zr^ 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.99 r^r^ .

3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. = The equations cal. . 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the linear velocity X4.105 current 4.„. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.102 X3 4.106 .-riE .107 . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. ^^^ 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. J~iR X.

52 . consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which.^ an inductance. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.2. 5.1. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.1.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal. 5. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. characteristics. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. termed the input and output electrical impedances.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.

that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .1.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. branch is current flows in z^i. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. 5. Fig.

diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. Fig. 5. Z/jt. consists of a system of gears.1 with the same tions. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. relations existing between//. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. respectively.1. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. the differential used in automobiles and tractors.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /.. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . respectively.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. respectively. ^2. </)r. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. Equation 5. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3.2 for the electrical system. as for example. That is.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. respectively. </>!. analogous to equation 5. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. must be in parallel. SAA. With these specifications the differential of Fig.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. = = xx -\- X2 5. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. 5. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. shown schematically in Fig. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Xt Differentiating equation 5.4 That is. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6.3.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

17 where / = moment of inertia. equations 5. 5. ^^^^. 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.12 relatively large 59 and 5.13 and 5. equations 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.2. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. mechanical and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.2. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. 5. reactance .^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

The acoustical system of Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. 5. in centimeters per dyne. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. from equations 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5.3. 5. Fig.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. 5. Therefore. Equations 5.11 and 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.42 = joiM 5.14 and 5.5.18 where M= inertance. 5.3 is = T^ 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.20 where Cm = compliance. .2. 5.2. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.

5.12 to the and 5.3. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. Fig. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3.21 show that at low frequencies . 5. 5.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. at Equa- tions 5.12 and 5.13 and 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. 5.3.20 is shown in Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. The mechanical the frequency.

5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. tional. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.12 = ^-^ 5. 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abhenries.3. 5.4 in series across a line.23 where L = Ce = inductance. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.13 and 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. .11 and 5.14 and 5. 5. 5.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. 5. equations 5. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.3.23. The shown in Fig. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.6. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. and electrical capacitance.4.

in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. and Cu = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.12 and 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.25.25 where / = moment of inertia. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.4.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. The output angular 5.13 and . Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24 where m = mass. and compliance.24. in grams.

11 and 5. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The output volume 5.13 and 5. in Fig. 5. 5.24 also is zero. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.12 and 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. acoustical capacitance. 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. . mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.7. in (centimeter)" per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.4.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.5 parallel across a line. 5. in grams per (centimeter)''.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. current can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. Equations 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.26.

velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.12 and 5. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5.28 where m = mass. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and compliance.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. 5.27. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. in grams.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .J^mCM 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5. in abfarads. in abhenries. Cm = The output . and electrical capacitance. 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance.28.

14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. 5.3 and the transmission is again small. current can be obtained from equations 5.30.2 and the transmission is small. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.13 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. .5 is ZR2 = . in gram (centimeter)^.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. Equations 5. 5. 5. and = rotational compliance.29.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.13 and The output angular 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.. 1 - 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The output volume 5. and acoustical capacitance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.^MC. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.11 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.12 and 5.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.14 and 5.

ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. itance in series. Electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. . in abhenries.6. in shunt with a line. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. 5. and electrical capacitance.min. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance.6 shows an electrical resistance.31. 5. in abohms. inductance.11 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.6. 5. in abfarads.8. 5. 5.5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. in Fig.

and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne.33. 5. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in mechanical ohms. in acoustical ohms.2 and there is very little attenuation. The output and 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. mass. The output volume 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 and 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .34. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. Therefore. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. and rotational compliance. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. compliance. from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . current can be obtained from equations 5.12 and 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in rotational ohms. Therefore.32.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.3 and there is very little attenuation. of inertia. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5.

Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Fig.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in mechanical ohms.11 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance.35. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. 5. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever.13 and 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in abfarads. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. 5.9.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.7 shows an electrical resistance.7. 5. . Therefore.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. quencies the same as that of Fig. inductance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and 5. in grams. from equations 5. 5. mass.36. and electrical capacitance.12 The output and 5.6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in abohms. The mechanical network is rectihneal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. Therefore.4. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. 5. in abhenries.6. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. and compliance. in Fig.

rotational compliance.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. Electrical resistance. = = mechanical rotational resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.38. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in grams per and 5. S. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.14 Ca = 5. in rotational ohms. in acoustical ohms.7.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.37. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.37 where ru Cb. 5. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in radians per and dyne per centimeter. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. inertance. The output and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia.

the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.10. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5.7.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5.13 and 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. output electrical impedance. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. However.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.7.7.3 and the transmission is again small.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. inductance.7. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.14 and 5. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Fig.12 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.2 and the transmission is small. .7. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.

acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. output acoustical impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. 5. . The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.43 where L = inductance. 5.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. 5. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.11. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.40 ZM2. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.42 Zas. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.41 input acoustical impedance. in abhenries.43 = p = 2.

.8 is = jo)I 5.44 where tn = mass.45 where / = moment of inertia.8. 5. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5. 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.8.39 and 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. in grams. characteristic. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.8.8 is = j^m 5.8 equations 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. in gram (centimeters)^. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.

The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . in abfarads. 5.42 and 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.46 where M= inertance. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. The acoustical system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.8 equations 5.41 and 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.48.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. acoustical Equations 5. 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12. 5.8. 5. Equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5.

9. 5. . 5. 5.48 where Cm — compliance. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5.47. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. is 5. is ance relatively large to motion.9 to the frequency. 5. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.9. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 = 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.40 and 5. Fig. in centimeters per dyne.9 is ^R2 5.l/2 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. frequency characteristic. line and the mechanical rectihneal. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.9.

42 and 5. Mechanical Rotational.41 and 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. and per = area of the diaphragm. 5.10. acoustical capacitance tions 5. Equations 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. The mechanical rectilineal. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. dyne. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current.9. analogous to an in Fig. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. in square centimeters. 5.50.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. 5.9 is 2. 5. . The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. 5. compliance of the suspension system.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.13. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Equation 5.9.

52. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.53.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. rectilineal. in radians per dyne per centimeter. .10. and electrical capacitance.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. in abfarads. 5. The mechanical system of Fig. and = rotational compliance. in grams. 5. 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.40 and 5.39 and 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. 5. and C_if compliance. in centimeters per dyne.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.53 where m = = mass. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. and the transmission is small. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. connected in with a line. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.42 and 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and acoustical capacitance. Equations 5.39 and 5. Equations 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. and again the transmission is small.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.55.9 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. .52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.54. 5.41 and 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.11.8.14.40 and 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.41 and 5. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.50. 5.10.42 and 5. 5.

11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 5. in grams. The mechanical system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .11 is - 5. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.40 and 5.1/2 = 1 — S.57.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. in abfarads. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11 is 2/22 = :. and compliance.11. 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. in centimeters per dyne. 5. and electrical capacitance.39 and 5. 5.56. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.

12.59 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. 5. . 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*.11 is -.41 The output angular 5. Equation 5.11.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. and = rotational compliance. 5.42 == 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.39 and 5. 5.15. 5.40 and 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. Electrical Resistance.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. in grams (centimeter)^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and line. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.41 and 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. and acoustical capacitance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.59. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equations 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.11 equation 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5. 5. 2.58. ance of Fig.

12. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. in abhenries. 5. in centimeters per dyne.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.60. in grams. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. 5. Electrical resistance. inductance.40 and 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abohms. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.62 . and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . m = Cm = mass. and capacitance.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. compliance. in abfarads.61.

Fig.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. Therefore.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. where vr / = moment of inertia. The output and 5.coC. from equations 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12.12. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. and again the transmission is small.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.12.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.4 -T-z^ 5. Fig. However. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.12 is 2. 5. The output volume 5. in rotational ohms. inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Therefore. from equations 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.12. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. the acoustical reactance is zero. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. from equations 5.62. . the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. Therefore. 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. from equations 5.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.42 and 5.41 and 5.63.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.12. in acoustical ohms.40 and 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.39 and 5. Therefore.10. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and the transmission is small. in radians per dyne per centimeter.8. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

83 Parallel. in abohms.13. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. inductance. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.65 . Electrical Resistance.13. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 shows an electrical resistance.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.64. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5.39 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. inductance line. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.16. Electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. 5. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abhenries.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 is ZM2 = r. and electrical capacitance. 5.

5. 5.66. the acoustical reactance is infinite. 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.13.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5. 5. The output volume 5.9 and the attenuation is small. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. and compliance. Therefore. in where tm mechanical ohms.13.13. 5. from equations 5. mass. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. Fig. ohms. in grams. Fig. in acoustical ohms. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The output and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.13 is = jo^rAM ~. inertance.40 and 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.39 and 5. from . / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. Therefore. therefore. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.67. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.41 and 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. and Cr = rotational compliance. from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne.65.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. Therefore.40 and 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.

Fig. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.13. Referring to equation 5. 5.42 and 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5.67 the attenuation ance. that of Fig. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. 5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5.13. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5.14 Mechanical Rotational.17.11. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.18. 5.

11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.14 shows a system of made larger. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5. 5.15. Equation 5. larger. Equation 5. Equation 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. 5. Referring to equation 5. rectilineal. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.19.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5. Electrical Rectilineal. . greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.

17. rui.13 the mechanical rectihneal. Equation 5.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. respectively. respectively. In the same way equations 5. 5. and r. mechanical rotational. 5.12.20.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. mechani- and acoustical analogies. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.16. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. rm. and Zmz. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.41 and the output impedances.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. acoustical systems of Fig. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .16. wherein zm\. zri. The mechanical rectilineal. and r^i and the input impedances. "Zrz.16. 5. 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. 5.11.21.

5.14. 5. 5. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Mechanical Rectilineal.18.22. output impedance.17.12. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. me- chanical rotational.17. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. Electrical. rectihneal. .88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. ze2 is rE2. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.13 and 5. Equation 5. In this case zei is the input impedance. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. Electrical. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

5. 5. Electrical. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.68 5. The force. and zei represent the electromotive force. ei. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. ACOUSTICAL Fig.18. 5.18 the electromotive force. velocity and . ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. and of turns on the secondary. ii. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.

78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. The torque. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. /mi. consists of a mass- gear train. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. 5.18. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.79 . The 5.18. /ri.77 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.71 = — xi 5.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.18. 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. The pressure. of Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.

Xi and 2. The acoustical transformer of Fig. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. 5.. pi. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. 1940. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. two diaphragms.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. New York." D.41 and p2. ^ Engineering. . "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co.

A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. Phys. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems.2. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. G. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. Vol. Stewart. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. 92 . Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. A. I.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Bell System Tech. No. 6. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. p. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Vol. mechanical rectilineal. W..1. 1922. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. 6. 1922. Jour.. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems.. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. No. 2. G. Rev. 20. 528..

A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. respectively. that is..3. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. positive and when than four. *' . "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. 6. New York. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. velocities. Shea. velocities. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. Van Nostrand Co.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. ^ Nostrand Co. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore." D. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. Van New York. velocities. velocities.. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities." D. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. Johnson. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents.

2 6.1.94 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .Ca 6.8 . mechanical rectilineal. Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6. 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.1 zmi zri 6. 6.4.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.1.

-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. when oip = = = = 6.10 — — 0. when coe 6. 6. linear velocities.= -4 6. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.10 and show that the systems of Fig. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.17.= From and . when coc 6. 6. when coc = . 6.5. . 2A2 VMC^ . inclusive.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. and the cutoff 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. mechanical rotational.2.9 the constants of the systems. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.15 WC. mechanical rectilineal.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.17 Equations 6. when ccc 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. when uc = 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when . coc = — 2Af2 V — . 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

27 .= -4 22 6. 2£1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .26 From the constants of the systems.= 22 and .

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. 5.12.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6. .

— — / 1 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.V/2 when WC2^WiC. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.46 6. when wci = — VLiCei . UCe\ (1 6. 2. —= Z£2 — 4.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. = — 7= / 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . „ when coci = . = 1 .44 6.12 =0. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . 6.. when coci = = 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.50 V/iGji 0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. .43 Let LiCei = 6. —7== VMiCai .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.lfi)^ ^ -.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. _ 4.51 VM2C42 = .

1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.v/2 1 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.41 . (1 .i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. one greater than uci and Therefore.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . —= 2.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when . -4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.

66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". mechanical rectilineal.56 to 6. are 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.64 CeiLi 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. 6. 6. linear velocities.4. inclusive.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.69 .65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.7. show that the systems of Fig.63.

71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.75 = I2CR2 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.76 .ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6. mechanical rectilineal.74 6. Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4.

.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. M\Ca\) 4.82 . 6. . when. —= Zr\ -4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. or.83 —= Z^l 2. when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.78 —= ZR2 0. when (1 . when uci = and cca oo 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0.-4.77 —— = ZM2 0. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .42 -4. —= zei -4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.84 . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. . when oici = and wa = =0 6.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

The current is zero = 0. rectilineal resistance. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. in dynes.2. respectively. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2. 7. in grams.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. .108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. unit torque and unit pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7. velocity. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.2.8 where m = = /m — V mass. 7. The graph depicts the current. 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. in centimeters per second. unit force.5 where aE = Te/L. and driving force. shown in Fig.

in dyne centimeters.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). and = torque.12 = — - e"^') 7. = mechanical rotational resistance.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. as shown in Fig. in rotational = angular velocity.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.2. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.2. in radians per second.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. . ohms. 1/riv/. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in gram (centimeter)^.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. 7.

in dynes per square centimeter. and p = sound pressure. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.22 .18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. U = volume current.2. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. in grams per (centimeter)*. in cubic centimeters.20 where M= ta inertance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).17 where aji — Vr/ I.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. 7. in acoustical ohms. = acoustical resistance. the solution of equation 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. From is the tables of operational formulas.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.2.16 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. as shown in Fig.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.

3. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abvolts. in abfarads. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.2.24 JA{t) = " (1 . is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.4.22 111 may be written. the solution of equation 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.28 ve .-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. electrical resistance.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.e-^ in Fig. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. in abamperes. electrical resistance series. current.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. 7. in abohms. 7. 7. and electromotive force.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.

1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. respectively. the solution of equation 7.3.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. 7.31 . in centimeters per dyne. linear velocity. velocity. mechanical rectilineal resistance.y = l/rjfCv/. shown in Fig. The graph depicts the current.30 P)rM where a. From the tables of operational formulas.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. in mechanical ohms. in dynes. unit force. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. is The for / shown in Fig. 7 3. unit torque and unit pressure.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.3. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. force. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.

and sound pressure. in rotational ohms. acoustical resistance. is shown in Fig. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7.3. in radians per dyne per centimeter. is shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. and torque.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. as shown in Fig. 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. mechanical rotational resistance. as shown in Fig. 7. in radians per second. volume current.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. in cubic centimeters per second.3. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. angular velocity. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. 7. in acoustical ohms.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in dynes per square centimeter.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance.3. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit.3.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. .

{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . electrical resistance. and electromotive force. abohms. (a + ^ Pfa . 7. in abhenries.5. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. in current.4. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. in abvolts. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. is shown 7. electrical resist- ance.38 ^. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. . 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. as in Fig. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 7. 1 7.3. abamperes. in electrical capacitance. in abohms.

unit force.^. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.4. The graph depicts the current. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. 7. . series Response of an electrical resistance. the solution of equation 7. unit torque or unit pressure. velocity. The response sinusoid. 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. respectively.45. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.4. 7.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.

then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in centimeters.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. in dynes. Substituting equation 7. rectilineal resistance.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.47 . v for x. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. acceleration. in grams. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in centimeters per second. in centimeters per dyne. displacement. in centimeters per second per second.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. and driving force. velocity. 1 AC. 7. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. 1 A\ m = mass.

in radians per second per second. = angular velocity. 7. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. in rotational ohms. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. 4> = angular acceleration. lAA. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. 7.4.48 The response sinusoid. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. is of inertia. in dyne centimeters.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in radians. equation 7.si . = angular displacement.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.51 = moment of inertia. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. Cr = rotational compliance. 7. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. in grams (centimeter). in radians per dyne per centimeter.4_S. and 4> Jr = driving torque. in radians per second.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.

= '^I/Cr. 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.45.56 ^PR = Jo. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. WR^ 2 1 7. . lAA.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.. 7. It is a damped sinusoid.4C. If rR^ > AI/Cr. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.

acoustical capacitance. 7.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. at equation 7. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. as in Fig. in cubic centimeters per second.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .4. in acoustical ohms. and pressure. volume current. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical resistance. Substituting U for X.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)^.

The value of the unit force t=o Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. Step function approximation. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.6. . 7. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.45.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. 7.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.5.

68 . etc. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. a time «2 later. as in the case of the preceding sections.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. an electromotive force ei is added. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems.. The indicial electrical admittance. an electromotive force ^2 is added. as shown in Fig. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. tem.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later.u)du du 7. etc. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. Therefore. all being of the unit type. 7. <?i at / = Ae. The This proof.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. integral. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.5. «i.5.

28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. 7.69 fR{u) — AR{t .72 . The velocity.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.u)du 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.u)du du u)du 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. mechanical rotational rectilineal. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.

.

1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electromagnetic.CHAPTER 8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.2. the electrostatic.

1. it is located. due to motion. circuit will be used instead of network. When there is only one path. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. field in which depicted in Fig. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system.2 where x = velocity. From equations 8. in centimeters per second. The electromotive force.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. 8.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. L and Ce.1 B = / = / = flux density. and current. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.1. in gausses. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. The force. in centimeters. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in abamperes. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. in abvolts. length of the conductor. and Ca with vr. termed motional electrical impedance. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.However. in dynes. in using analogies in actual practice.1 and 8. abohms.

3.6 The 8. in the absence of motion. 8. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. in 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in abohms.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8.1. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. Zen in abohms. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.3. The normal electrical impedance zek. in mechanical ohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . in chanical ohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. 8. all of the conductor. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. that is.4 8. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.

8. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Assume that all the reluctance . A.2. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. namely.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Unpolarized Armature Type. Since there is no polarizing flux. Consider the system shown in Fig. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type.

in abvolts. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. A = area of the center pole.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in square centimeters. is where / = current in the coil. in centimeters. . the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. and a = normal spacing. C = l-^nA.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.14 e = ^r 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. n = number of turns.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. in dynes.15 The force on the armature. then from equations 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. in abamperes. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.13 and 8.

21 .16. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. in mechanical ohms. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. mechanical ohms. nC^P 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. Substituting equation 8.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.18 Equation 8.17 for the current in 8.15 and 8. in seconds. in mechanical ohms.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 4TrJa*/M . then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.2.20 — X From equations 8. the force on the armature is Im = '.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 8. and time.

and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature.2. from the poles of a permanent magnet. 8. for the reproduction of sound.3.22 = motional electrical impedance. in oersteds. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. a = spacing. in abohms. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators.19. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. saws. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. Therefore. filing — as in Fig. = number of turns.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. in square centimeters. / = current. 8. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. ^ = area of center pole.20 and 8. vibrators and clippers. in gilberts.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. . for converting electrical variations into however.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. Polarized Reed Armature Type.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Zen in abohms. in maxwells. this system cannot be used It is. and impedance of the coil. in abohms. in abohms. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. in abamperes. 8. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in mechanical ohms. B. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in centimeters.

in abamperes. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. and time. 27r/. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in oersteds. frequency.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. in 131 oit maxwells.axsin wt n coil. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .

the flux. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. in maxwells. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. and area of the pole.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. spacing between the armature and pole. __ . the flux will now be 4>x + A.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.. in gilberts.^ . the reluctance 4>i = a 8.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.32 „ . sidered.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. in centimeters. in abvolts. in square centimeters. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. due to the steady field. Ax -\- Ax .29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .

33.38 a Zm . assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. in me- chanical ohms.37. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.3. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. in abohms.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. in mechanical ohms. From equations 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.34.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. fu = MNi ~r — .ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. ~ 8.35 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. 8.35 and 8..32 and e i = — X 8. ZAfi.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.24 and 8.

8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. C.3. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. in abohms. and impedance of the coil. in abohms.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. ARMATURE MAGNET . sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. in abohms. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. Equation 8.38 is similar to equation 8.

at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. i?2 = = coil. in maxwells. of the pole piece. which the coil energizes. The flux. 8. in dynes. at each pole magnet. in dynes. The sum of the forces. The steady magnetic field is force. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in square centimeters. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in abamperes. in maxwells. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. and yf effective area. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. The . and reluctance of the magnetic circuit.4. in oersteds. 8. at the poles (Fig.

48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. NMA —^x a^ 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. through the armature to the right and upward. in gilberts.136 flux. in abvolts. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. 8. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms. . of the steady field. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in centimeters.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.44 A. rectilineal impedance of the armature.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.45. and effective area of a pole piece.4. in square centimeters. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.

50 and 8. Zm\.50.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. . rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.43 =-^ 8.

c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.4. This driving system is used for loud speakers. galvanometers. 8.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. system of Fig. Therefore. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.

If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.62 . The force. in statfarads. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. = CeCq 8. is The current. The useful force. ^o^max sin wt . and capacity per unit area. in statcoulombs.57 numerator of equation 8. in dynes.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. on the condenser is q considered. in dynes. in statfarads. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in statvolts. in statamperes.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. the fourth term will be negligible. motive Cq is large . then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces.60 From equations 8.59 and 8.

69 .68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. 47r(a — 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 4ir(<2 + . in Zm2 mechanical ohms.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.61. in stat- amperes.5.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. the generated current.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. ohms. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .66 in 8. in mechanical ohms.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. . Ax) 8. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. .x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.

adding a large stiffness. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. in statohms.5. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.5. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.69 and 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. statohms.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. at the same time.58 and 8. 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.68. electrical network in Fig. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. + . electrical impedance of the condenser.

Consider the system shown in Fig. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.6. 8. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.

reluctance of the magnetic circuit. induction is of the nickel rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in cycles per second. and area of the rod.73 Combining equations and 8. due to is the Villari effect. The electromotive force. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. 8. and time. e = MJ^ dt 8. in abvolts. current. CO/ 8. in current in the abamperes.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. in gausses.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in seconds. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.X JR 8. frequency.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. . /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in abamperes.74 and ehminating the steady force. turns in the coil.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. coil. in square centimeters. in square centimeters. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in centimeters. induced in the winding.

in square centimeters. in abvolts. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. in centimeters. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal impedances zm.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. 8. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.6. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. The mechanical to one .144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. and Young's modulus.78 From equation 8.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.

83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other..84.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. total in abohms. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.6. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig." D. in mechanical ohms. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. Van Nos- trand Co. The mass mi in Fig. = motional impedance. New York.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.82 and 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. in abohms — equation 8. in abohms. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. is assumed to be a In general. 8.86 Mason. 1942. 8.6). 8. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. 8. as shown by equation 8.79. .83 From equations 8. 8.

in centimeters. and Young's modulus. and cross section of the rod. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. length of the rod. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in Fig. 8.7.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. in square centimeters. in square centimeters. length of the rod.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. in centimeters.80. is where p The compliance Cmi.

8. due to a force.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. air load and support resistance.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. in dynes.84. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. The vibrating system of Fig.7C A and B given in Fig. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. 8. in square centimeters. 8.7. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. that is. A= E = area. 8. is The deformation per unit length. EA and 8.7. 8. 8. X = 4^. . 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. Young's modulus.8.88 where Jm = total force. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.

.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.. equations 8. in square centimeters. c„ . 8. flux density.6.88 and 8. B = A= From and area. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. the data of Fig.89 K = magnetostriction constant.8 and Young's modulus.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. 8.

and A = cross-sectional area. in square centimeters. equations 8.93 . E = Young's modulus.4 force. X to 10~* for quartz. due to the application of a force.92 X From = 8.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal.91 and 8. 4 = length of the crystal. in dynes. in statcoulombs. q is 149 = KJu 8. 6. and The displacement. in centimeters.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. due an applied force. in centimeters. is .PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. in dynes.

from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.101 From equations 8. zmi and z. in mechanical ohms.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. .102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.97. in statohms.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. in centimeters.100 and 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. / centimeters. in square = length of the crystal. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. and E = Young's modulus. 8. 8.9. in mechanical ohms.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. in mechanical ohms. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

namely.1. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. 9.3.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.

in abohms. through the armature. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. is The velocity of the armature. . and + ZE2. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. and velocity of the armature. area of the pole. force. coil. in gilberts. and impedance of the external load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in centimeters.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole.2. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. due to the steady field. 9. in abohms.6 ze = = = = = total flux. 9.2. in centimeters. 9. in centimeters per second. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. in maxwells. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force.

3. Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. 9. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature. r~ .

In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. of the magnet.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in oersteds. in statamperes. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load.3.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. ZE = Zei + Ze2. of the alternating magnetic circuit. velocity of the armature. The current. i?2 = reluctance. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. in maxwells. a = spacing between armature and pole. is The /m Zm + 9. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature.3. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. in centimeters per second. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9.11 zme From equations 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. in A . The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.9 and 9.4. as depicted 9. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in gilberts. = magnetomotive force. 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. in abohms. M. in abohms.

ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. 9. spacing between the plates. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.4 e is t2 9. in statohms. in centimeters per second. ^= a area of the plate.14 where e = electromotive force. The current. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statamperes. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . and velocity of the X movable plate. in statfarads.stationary "plate . in statvolts. in centimeters. in square centimeters. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser.

16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.17 zme e From equations 9. is Ze2 in parallel. in square centimeters. a spacing between plates.15 and 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. electrical impedance of the external load. in statohms. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in statvolts. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. is The velocity of the movable plate. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. e.4.18 Zme) . in centimeters.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.4. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. electrical and 9. X in centimeters per second. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in statfarads.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. 9. area of the plates.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.

25 Comparing equations 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.21 Substituting equation 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.24 and fi 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.19.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.22.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.25. = — a CnX 9.E1 = -r—.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.23 Substituting equation 9. .15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.23 in 9.26 .21 in 9.

the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. zei. from equation 8. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. coil.26 and an internal impedance zei.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. Equation 9. 9. In the mechanical circuit: zm. 9. Magnetostriction generating system. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. zme. shown in Fig.5. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. In the electrical circuit: e. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. in abvolts. However.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. is ^tNK 9. L\ and rE\. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. coil.27 . ZEi.5.5. The volt- age. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig.

K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in centimeters.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. and Young's modulus. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters.79 or 8. force. and impedance of the external circuit. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil.5. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. 9. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical electrical wavelength. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in centimeters per second. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. - £ 9. in abohms. in abohms. length of the rod. . and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.

ohms.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.28. in mechanical = ohms.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.86 and 8. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.27 and 9. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.6. 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.32 the generated electromotive force.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in Fig. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.32 From abvolts. equations 9. .5. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. are given by equations 8. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.6. in centimeters per second.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. to be a In general.

generated The h = —. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. = = length of the crystal. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties.4 X 10~* for quartz. 6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. A. length of the crystal. the other.27 and the velocity. 9. the driving force. In the mechanical networks: /m. in centimeters. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in centimeters. zme. cross-sectional area of the crystal. and velocity of the crystal. where KEJ — •* 9. in statamperes.7. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig.6 can be obtained from equation 9. . In the electrical circuits: e.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. E= 4 = Young's modulus.6. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. ZMi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. the effective Zjv/i. zei. Li and tei. in Fig.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. in centimeters per second. 9. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. 2_bi j<^Li. mi and Cmi. 9. zei. + 9.6. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. mass and compliance of the rod. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8.

ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. in statvolts. 9.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. in statohms. z^'i zei. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. Ce\. From equations 9. in statfarads. 2_b2. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me.34 force e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. crystal. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. circuit: e.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. electrical and 9. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. In the Piezoelectric generating system.7. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statamperes. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal.

97 or 8.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. length of in centimeters. A = area of the electrode. in statohms. 9. the crystal. in centimeters. electrical impedance of the external load. length of the crystal. E = Young's modulus. and E= Young's modulus. in centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7. in square centimeters. and „ „„ 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in statfarads.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.41 . 4 = length of the crystal. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.4 X 10~* for quartz.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. in centimeters. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.

in mechanical ohms.= where i. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.45 . Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. depicted equations 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms.7.47 .44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. in centimeters per second.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.36 and 9. in mechantotal ical ohms.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. is . 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. The velocity at the end of crystal. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. Equation 9.49 in 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. e.50 and 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.8. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.49 Substituting 9. in Fig.47 in 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. 9.48.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .104 and 8. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.45. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. However. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .51.

8 can be obtained from equation 9. 9.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. ze\. zme. the driving force. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. zei. the electrical impedance of the external load. . Piezoelectric generating systems. the other. Zm2. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.37. A. crystal.45 and the velocity.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. electrical network of Fig. 9. In the mechanical networks: Jm.8. In the electrical circuits: e.

Vol. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. 1929. . It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Reciprocity Theorems A. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. ' 10. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. e^' . e^" . A number cal systems. and superposition theorems to electrical. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. 17. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". Proc. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. Then 10.1. No. p. S. produce a current distribution z'l'. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. I. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . /s" . ." 171 . in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. the elements.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. . . 1 Ballentine. 929.E.. i^' . 6. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book.2.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. z„".R.

1 becomes 10. as illustrated in the electrical 10. e" and /'.1. /" are the electromotive forces 10. equation 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.1. o e . e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.2 = /'/' where e' .

fB2" . and provided the applied torques /iji. '4>^" . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". 1926. C. 1940. produce a rotational velocity — . ^ Olson. =/a/V 10.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10./fl3 . II. equation 10. 10. frequency.7 p Rayleigh. fli" are the torques and angular 10. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.1.4 where /^f'.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . 10. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig./m3 all of the same frequency. .fRi" • 4>2. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques./b' and (J)'. New . . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.3 becomes fu'x" . London. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. D." D. . MacMillan and Co. equation 10. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. 145. • distribution ^i'. 10. mechanical rotational system of Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.1. p. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. York./7j2'. Van Nostrand Co.6 velocities depicted . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. "Theory of Sound.. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering." Vol.1. and provided the applied forces /mi. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia./ij„ are all of the same ./ij2. 4>2" .1. /ji/2. let a set of torques/iji'. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. ^2'..

8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. .11 From equations 10. 10.—. equation 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . 10.8.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.174 THEOREMS .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.12 is for a point. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. y" . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. 10.9 and 1. v' grad po „ = 10.1..5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. equation 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. p"v' 10. 1 .15 v' ..10 From neering" equations 1. - p 1 . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. 0' dt dt p v" grad po . In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".+ dv' .13 If. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.9 and 10.4 by the p and v of the other set. . 10. .1. dv" — .

. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.16 becomes . 10.1. X2. . . Then — . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . ./". . . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . pz same frequency. pi. 10. However. . produce a volume current distribution Xi. . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . equation 10. .19 . produce pn. . pressures and volume currents. . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. .1. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. and let a second set of pressures ^i". let also. . ." a second volume current distribution Xi". . . .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. X^ X^.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. velocities. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. E.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. X2". . . X^" Xn" Then . 10. which there are only two pressures.

21 . n Then 10. . — In . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. D. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. B. . . P"X' i" L. currents.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. i" . Mechanical-acoustical. C. E. L. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system.2. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. F. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.S..176 THEOREMS Equation 10. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .S. .S. . Electrical-mechanical. The 10. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. px L. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. an interconnected e\ . 10. . let also. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . HX* E p"X D Fig.2^.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. P"X' tn\ B M . . forces n and velocities. .

Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. field. me- chanical. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. Electrical-Mechanical. 10.23 states that a if. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. Electrical-Mechanical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. e'i" = e"i' 10. 2D. acoustical transducer. mechanical.2C. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.23 . then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. mechanical. electrical transducer.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. is H. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. acoustical. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. G. Theorem. e"i' 10. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. as shown in Fig.2fi. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.

then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . D. 10. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. = p"X' 10. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . as shown in Fig.3. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. This may be expressed as p'X" 10.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker.2£. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system.178 I. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.

mechanical rectilineal. save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. forces. Each source.4. velocity. . velocities.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. force. current. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance.

CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. muffler is quite effective. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. Convert the answer into the original system. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. An exhaust back pressure. 11. principles relating to electrical. However. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. However.2. by acoustical capacitances. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory.1. Introduction The fundamental lineal. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise.

The system of Fig. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. in Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. with rft. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.However. 11. . there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.1. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. circuit will be used instead of network. in the audible frequency range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. 11. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. When there is only one path. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.M and Ca for an acoustical system. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. 11. Therefore.u.1.

3.2. 11.182 APPLICATIONS In general. 11. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. sate for approximations.3. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. .

! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.4. teg. 11.. The mechanical driving from equation 8. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. rMi and Ci. the mass of the cone.7. 11.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. radiator tube.3." I"*. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. nii and r. In the mechanical circuit: m\. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. 11. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. 11. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. 11.3. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .3. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. .1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.w2. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. in mechanical Jm = driving force. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. zem.1. and . in dynes.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. force can be determined /m 11.

the moment Cg. These systems include microphones. shown ^ in Fig. In the mechanical network: A.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. loud speakers. The simple vibration fly- damper.YWHEEL I. telephone receivers. 11.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. and the shaft. FX. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. velocity of the cone. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. measuring cal systems. Olson. is The sound power output. phonograph pickups.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. F.4. in centimeters per second. Van Nostrand Co. m. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper.5." D. etc. in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. 11. . New York. given by 11. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. 1940.4.. 11. comphance of the damper. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. of inertia of the flywheel. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.

Cm /4 and 4rM . the mass of the machine. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. ciple of the device. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. Jm. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.SA. B. 11.5. z. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. The shunt mechanical vibration. the mass of the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings.vF. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. isolator. W. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. The driving force/i. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr.6./ is due to the . zmf. /jf.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . A.SA. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. W. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\.

the compliance and mechanical mi. isolating mechanical network. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations.7.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. 11.6. these values springs. 11. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine.6. shown in Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Jm. 11. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the case. pressor. consists of the following elements: nii. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. mi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. . Cui/'i and 4rii/2. only isolation in the system of Fig. 11.

a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 11. 11. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf.7. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Cm2 and ^1-/2.v/i/4. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. 11. Of course. 187 Cmi and rui. the system in Fig. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. . Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. the mass of the case. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs.8. zmf. The mechanical network of Fig. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig.

L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig.u 11.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the driving force at each tire. 11. the compliance of the spring. Cmi and tires.8. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. in general. Cm2. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. tmi. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. the combined driving force at the four legs. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . etc.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. Cms a-nd r. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. m-i.7. the mass of the instrument and carriage. This system has many degrees of freedom. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting.v/3. both rectilineal and rotational. body. r. the compliance of the spring suspension. 11. 11. Cm2. the mass of the tire. mum. Cif i/4 and 4rM i.9.v/2. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. m2. engine. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the mass of the frame. wheel and axle.

This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Cmi/4 and 4r. the compliance of the springs.i/a. fn2. m^. 4?ni. 11. However. Since there are four tires. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . 189 m^. springs and shock absorbers. the mass of the frame. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs.\f 1. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. the mass of the four tires. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the mass of the passenger. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the compliance of the four springs. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. Cji/2/4. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. 4rif 2. .8. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the driving force. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the combined driving force at the four tires. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the mass of the passenger. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. Cms. Cms and r. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. mi. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires./ifi the comtires. body and engine. view. 4:rM2. wheels.

In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. For example. It has been found that by the use of such damping means.6. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. Acoustical Ohm. Mechanical Ohm. An electrical resistance. Electrical abohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. Most of the forces. mechanical rotational resistance. 11. developed at the tires. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. — — —A — . Supplementary Note: Electrical. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Rotational Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. As already indicated. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. an automobile has several modes of vibration. that is. which controls the oscillations. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. An acoustical resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. mechanical rectilineal. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. pitching or swaying motion.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

177 reactance. 48 two degrees of freedom. 61. 9. 9. 178 acoustical. 21. 23 mechanical rectilineal. peak.) 195 Table. 23. 9. ohm. 6 maximum. 23 maximum. 88 electrical. 179 Suspension systems. 6 instantaneous. 13. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 6 peak. 179 Thevenin's. 85 rotational. 6 Static pressure. acoustical. 21. 107 Transients. 178 electrical. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 10.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 88 Transient response. 6. 6 14 pressure. 21. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 45 electrical. 28 Subharmonic. 172 mechanical rotational. 13. 35 effective. 22 networlcs. 10. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 6 maximum. 9 resistance. 171 acoustical. 13. 32 Rotational. impedance. 37 and analogies. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Stiffness. 6. 9. 22 mechanical rotational. 9. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 171 Resonant frequency. 88 mechanical rotational. 41 mechanical rotational. 18. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. electrical-mechanical. 187 Torque. 17. 6 Transducer. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 5 Transformer. 23 mechanical. compliance. 37. electrical Superposition theorem. 21. 173 superposition. 120 Duhamel's integral. 25 three degrees of freedom. 6 peak. (see cor- effective. 178 electrical. 178 mechanical rotational. 122 . 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 6 Sound effective. 42 inductance and series coupled. 105 arbitrary force. 184 Rotatomotive force. reciprocity. 11 instantaneous. acoustical. 22. 9. 45 instantaneous. 42 one degree of freedom. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 111 electrical resistance. 6. 13. 10. 23 23. 18. automobile. 13. 22. 9. 10. 23 Theorems. 188 Systems.

101 instantaneous. "X" isolator. 7 linear. 106 unit function. band pass. 106 163 Volume current. 95 low pass. 150. 11 loss. 92. 146. 97 93. 143. 144. peak. 7 Vibration. 7. 5 maximum. Heaviside's Calculus. peak. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 151. 92. 11 effective. 22 angular. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 23. Two 87 degrees of freedom. gain. 8 instantaneous.) INDEX Villari effect. 37. 92. 8 8 "T" type network. 5 filters. 149. 8. 93.196 Transients (Cont. 93. 23 Transmission. 165. 8 maximum. 24 Velocity. 22. 184 186 Young's modulus. 148 machine isolator. 7. 7. 147. 163. 94 response characteristics. magnetostriction. 21. 45 Unit function. high pass. 106 Units. 23 effective. Wave band elimination. cut quartz crystal. 7 Wave. 93. 167 . 92. 20.

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