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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Engstrom. W. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Olson . for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Lorene E. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Research Director. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Harry January. in this project. 1943 F. engineer. Olson. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. plex arrangements of multielement systems. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. E. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. an electrical circuit. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers.

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CONTENTS Chapter I.2 3.1 1 1. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.2 4 II. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Inertance 2. ELECTRICAL. Rotational Compliance.5 Representation of Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. A. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Acoustical Resistance 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Inductance B. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Rectilineal Compliance. Rectilineal Compliance C. Moment of Inertia. Electrical Resistance B. ELEMENTS 2.2 Introduction Resistance A. Mass. C.1 3.4 16 Electrical Capacitance.1 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Electrical Capacitance B. Acoustical Capacitance A.3 3.3 Inductance.

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .1 Introduction 52 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.8 67 .13 Electrical. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.7 3. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4. 60 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.1 Introduction 37 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.7 The Electrical System .2 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.6 3.7 64 5. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL..5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.5 Chapter 3.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. ELECTRICAL.3 5.6 62 5..viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.4 Dissipation 4.4 5..6 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Two Electrical..12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .10 The Acoustical System 4.

. Mechanical Rotational. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .13 76 78 80 83 85 5.4 6.6 6.10 Series 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.21 5.3 6.. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5.11 69 71 5. WAVE FILTERS 6. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16 Electrical Resistance.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.1 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .20 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. and Acoustical Analogies 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.

2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .2 7. Unpolarized Armature B.2 8.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.X Chapter VII.4 9. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 8. B. THEOREMS 10.5 8.5 114 120 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.1 9.1 8. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.1 10.2 9.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.6 VIII.4 Ill 7. 1 7. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. C.5 9.

Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. APPLICATIONS 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.2 11.4 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.6 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.8 1 1 .CONTENTS Chapter E.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.7 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.

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The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. However. Expressions for the kinetic energy. In other words. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. vibrating systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical tems. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.1. as for example. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. 1 The acoustical .CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered.

This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Of course. springs and brakes. Elements are the meshes. Electrical elements are resistance. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. . the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. various assemblies of masses. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. induct- ance and capacitance. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. springs and friction. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. ' The lished. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. as for example. cal. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. constituent parts of a circuit.

XI. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical.. Amer. For example. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. Soc. In this book.1 of 1942. That is to say. However. d. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Hanle {JViss. Vol. mechanical and acoustical systems. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. ratio of force to displacement. 4. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. In addition. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Institute of Radio Engineers. I) and Firestone {Jour. in the past. all communication. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. 4. Verojf a. Vol. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. Finally. SiemensKonzern. circuit. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. However. every electrical. up the mechanical and electrical.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. Therefore. and ratio of pressure to displacement. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. No. Acous. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Therefore. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. — . and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. No. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. particularly electrical circuits.

or which tity comprises a cycle. or zero. Octave. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. a constant. This called a Fourier series. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. a period of jy. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. equals 2x divided by the period T. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. reciprocal of the period. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. Frequency. Definitions ^ this section. period. Basic Frequency. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. negative. . is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. all is the frequency. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. Cycle. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. where T.2. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. The remainder. Periodic Quantity. + T). set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. Terms not sections. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. a positive constant. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. Harmonic.

The unit is the abvolt. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Wave. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. Mechanomotive Force). mechanical or acoustical system. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Dyne. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Effective Electromotive Force. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Subharmonic. — — Abvolt. . —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Wavelength. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. A wave is a propagated disturbance. stantaneous force at a point the dyne.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. The unit is the dyne. the dyne. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Electromotive Force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. force. The unit the dyne. The root unit the abvolt. The unit is the abvolt. Instantaneous Electromotive Force.

in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The unit is the dyne centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. The the — Instantaneous Current. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. the abampere. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. . —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). An abampere is the unit of current. dyne per square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. force. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). the dyne per square centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. Abampere. the dyne centimeter.

—A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Peak Current. Cubic Centimeter per Second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. Effective Angular Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. the centimeter per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. the abampere. The unit is the abampere. Instantaneous Velocity. velocity. is velocity in that interval. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. Maximum Current. unit is the radian per second. is Centimeter per Second. Peak Velocity. Effective Velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The unit is the centimeter per second. per second. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Maximum Velocity. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. is Radian per Second. current. complete cycle at the point. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. The unit is the abampere. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point.

gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. The unit is the abfarad. the cubic centimeter per second. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. Electrical Impedance. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit the abohm. . Electrical Reactance. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which.-W is impedance. times the frequency. Effective Volume Current. second. the cubic centimeter per second. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. for Peak Volume Current. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. is the abohm. where both systems are considered concurrently. electrical Inductance. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. is Electrical Resistance. which. The unit the abohm. when times the frequency. To avoid ambiguity in this book. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements.

is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. ' See footnote S. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. rotational resistance ance. Compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mass. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Acoustical Impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the rotational ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). when multiplied by times the frequency. Rotational Compliance. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. page I . The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the acoustical ohm.

is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. and rotational compliance. Electrical System. mass and compliance. the acoustical ohm. Acoustical Reactance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Inertance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. the fourth power.. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. . A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. The unit is the acoustical ohm. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia. inductance and electrical capacitance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. Acoustical System. by "l-w times the frequency. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. In the same way. inductance and electrical capacitance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. inertance and acoustical capacitance. when multiplied by times the frequency. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. mass and compliance. Mechanical Rotational System.

/1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. force. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. mechanical rectilineal. force. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. current. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. For example. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. torque. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. Either of these systems may be electrical. voltage.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechanical or acoustical. pressures or such as forces or velocities. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . Transmission Loss {or Gain). the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . velocity. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. — Transmission. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. torque or pressure is electrical. pressure or volume current. angular velocity. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. The bel is the Decibel. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller.

e. resistor. inductor and capacitor. in abohms. the vibrating systems. 2. in abamperes. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. In this procedure. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance.' 2. electrical. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. is defined as A. Electrical Resistance.2. See footnote page 8. 12 . and current through the resistance. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. An tinguished from the devices. Electrical resistance rs. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. t 2. A resistor. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. 5. inductance and capacitance.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. in abvolts.1. e rs^-. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. As indicated in the preceding chapter.

In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. in centi- meters per second. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. in dynes.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. and velocity at the point of application of the force. in radians per second.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.RESISTANCE B.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. D. is defined as r^ — = y 2. Mechanical rotational energy is C. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. in rotational ohms. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in dyne centimeters. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Acoustical Resistance. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Equation 2. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. .3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Mechanical Rotational Resistance.

in dynes per square centimeter. York. in grams per cubic centimeter. in = width of the meters. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit.86 X 10"'* for air. and frequency in cycles per second. However. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . New . 'Olson. 1.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in centimeters.4 where p — pressure. slit normal to the direction of flow. Van Nostrand Co.5 = viscosity coefficient. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. a reaccomponent. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. volume current. in cubic centimeters per second." D. resistance. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. slit in the direction of flow. 6pww 2. density.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. d= / thickness of the centimeters. 1940. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. A tube of small diameter. slit normal to the direction of flow. 2. a narrow and metal. and U= Equation resistance current. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions.. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. in addition to the resistive component. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. in acoustical ohms.

INERTANCE 2. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Moment gram (centimeter)^. that during linear when the velocity decreases.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. It decreases when the current decreases. MASS. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. and rate of change of current. Moment of Inertia. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. Mass. MOMENT OF INERTIA. which opposes a change of velocity. is defined as 2. 15 Inductance. in abhenries. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. in abamperes per second. Mass. It It when is the angular velocity decreases.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Moment of Inertia. is remains a constant of inertia /. Inductance. in when the angular velocity a constant.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. B. Inertance A. Equation C. is Inductance L.3. in dynes.INDUCTANCE. in abvolts. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. that during angular acceleration. It remains constant ance. and driving force. mass increases. in grams. in centimeters per second per second. given by dd . 2. = di Ldt ^ 2. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. Equation 2.

10 m = S = mass. in dyne centimeters. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. in rate of change of 2. Inertance M. in centimeters. volume current. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. New .." D. Van Nostrand Co. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. decreases. D. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in radians per second per second. in grams. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. in centimeters. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. in p = density of the meter. in dynes per square centimeter. that tion.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in grams per (centimeter)*.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. Equation 2. in cubic centimeters per second per second. inertance. Inertance. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. effective length of the tube. is. York.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. cross sectional area in square centimeters. 1940. and driving pressure. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.

in dynes is Equation 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. and stored. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Rectilineal Compliance. abvolts.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance.n Equation 2.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. and electromotive force. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Electrical capacitance Cg. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.14 = Jm = displacement. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. and applied force.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2.13 states that the charge on an force.4. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. in abcoulombs. Acoustical Capacitance A. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. . in centimeters. It is a constant. Electrical Capacitance. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. in abfarads. electrical capacitance is Equation 2.

It is constant. density. 1940.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Van Nostrand Co. C. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. in is The terms of the condensation. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. and condensation. and applied torque. p = where c c^ps 2.16 p s — = = velocity. allowed to unwind. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. Rotational Compliance. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand.17. ." p. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. defined in equation 2. in radians. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Rotational compliance Cu-.. in centimeters per second. Equation 2. D. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. in grams per cubic centimeter. Acoustical Capacitance. 9. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. It is constant. in dyne centimeters. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. D.^ in dynes per square centimeter.17 s = * Olson. New York.

20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.5. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. From equations 2.X 2. From equations 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. electrical resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.16. . is 2. and 2.21 F= volume. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. in cubic centimeters.17.19 and 2.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. Equation 2. The electrical elements.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. Representation of Electrical. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. and volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. equal to the volume displacement.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. .20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. = ^ F 2. Mechanical Rectilineal. in cubic centimeters. 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.18 X= volume displacement.

is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.1.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. rE . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. 2. mechanical rectilineal.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

2. inertance and time. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Further.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.1.24 sions are mass. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. length. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. . 1. ^ The Tables 8. The dimensions given in Table 2.3 uses mass M.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. and time.1.2. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. Tables 2. ELEMENTS and time. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.3.1 page and list and 2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.1 and 2. the standard modifiers for all four systems. Table 2.1. self-inductance. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. length L and time T.

inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. From these definitions it is evident that friction. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rectilineal. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. namely. 3. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 .2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom.1. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational. mechanical rotational or In other words. mechanical rectilineal. mass. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical.

3. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy.1. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. In the electrical. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Cr = T. mechanical rotational. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. mechanical rectilineal. kinetic. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. velocity. Heat is a transient form of energy. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. Electrical. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. potential and heat energy. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. mechanical rectilineal. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. namely. C. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity.

the inertance. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in square centimeters. in grams per (centimeter)*. and heat energy during an interval of time is. electrical.4 M= m = S — m/S^. potential.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems.3. in centimeters per second. in cubic centimeters per second. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. by the principle of conservation of energy. in abamperes. equal to the system. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation.2 m = X mass. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in radians per second. mass of air in the opening. 3.3 = moment of inertia. in centimeters per second. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. and velocity of the = mass m. X— X Sx = volume current. cross-sectional area of the opening. It is assumed that same phase. in grams. The sum of the kinetic. mechanical rotational. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. in abhenries. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in grams. mechanical rectilineal. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. and current through the inductance L.

and <l> angular displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in dynes per centimeter.. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. and X = displacement. in cubic centimeters. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. in centimeters per dyne. ^ 3. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in centimeters per second.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in abcoulombs. dyne. and c = velocity of sound. in radians.4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in abfarads. in cubic centimeters. = -. s — stiffness of the spring. in centimeters. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. p = density of air. and charge on the capacitance. .

+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. +— + XX 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. in abamperes. and acoustical systems.y- 3.: 3. mechanical Wm.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.17 = = is electrical resistance. in abohms.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. force. Wr. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. . mechanical rotational.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.18 . Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. and current.5.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.12 where We..

6.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. in rotational ohms. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in radians per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. and angular velocity. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. in mechanical ohms. and X= 3. in centimeters per second. and velocity. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.22 = acoustical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. in acoustical ohms.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.

28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.28 and 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.32 „.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.26. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.24.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3..27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3. 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.

32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.7.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. .34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. the velocity and force. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. the angular velocity and torque. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.7^ Ca 3. the impedance is m and Cm.jo>I — — 3.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.38 3. and Cr. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.

44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. mechanical rectilineal. .43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.42 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.8.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.Ce r^ 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.

Equation 3. 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.49 „ . namely.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .1. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.24.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.1. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.

D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.26.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.28.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.51 is the same as equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3. .53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.

1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. 3.59. and acoustical systems. inclusively. Equations 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. Equation 3. .43 to 3.59 is the same as equation 3.30.

tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. velocity. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. MECHANICAL Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.1.1. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.1. 4.2. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .

and velocity of the mass m. in radians per second. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. in grams. and = h = current. in branch 3.3. in abhenries. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.4 M = inertance. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in centimeters per second. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.2 where x^ m = = mass.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. . in abamperes. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in cubic centimeters per second.1 93 L = inductance.

39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. 4. per dyne. .9 = 4 = electrical resistance.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance.5. in radians. and displacement. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters. and — current. and <i>2 angular displacement. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in qz ohms. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in centimeters. and X2 = volume displacement. in abfarads. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in abamperes. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4.DISSIPATION 4.

and Xs = volume 4.12 = acoustical resistance. in centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. mechanical ohms. and velocity.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. and angular velocity.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in cubic centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms.i 4. 2 d<t>n dcj). in radians per second. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. current. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.

THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.17.rsqz 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.21 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. at/jf.20 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.14.19 +k 4.8. e = = Lqz-[.7. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. The relation for the currents in Fig. 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.23. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.13. 4.22.1 is h = H Equation 4. 4. The linear displacement.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.25 . The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.18.

The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.15.9. at/^j. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.31.10. p = MXa + vaXz 4. The angular displacement. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. Fig.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.30.32 ing piston. Jb /.16. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. 4.26 ^ The 4.42 4. .29 4. in the acoustical system. at p. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.1.27.26.28 Differentiating equation 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4.

and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. Fig. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . inertance acoustical system. vm. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. shows again that resistance.25. Fig. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. inclusive.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. 4. 4.33. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.19.1 to 4.1. 4.1. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. to mechanical rotational resistance.11.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. 4. given by ^3 JM is 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. inductance. mass.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.29 and 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. and to acoustical resistance.

4. Fig. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. is given by k The = f".44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. X2 = Xi .41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.. is . 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.43 volume current Xi at given by X.45 . Fig. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.1.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.X3 = pjccCa 4.1.

54. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.2. see pages 53.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 4.48 JwCe3 Cr.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. . 5. The electrical impedances z^i. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.3.2 are as follows: 4.1 of Chapter V. 4.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. 4.12. 1 tional systems of Figs.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 55 and 56 and Fig.

compliance.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.56 ZA2 -T-z. ze2 = j^L2 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.57 The system shunt in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.— JwLmz Zb.60 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. 4. 4. 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance. Ce2. mechanical rectilineal.59 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. mass. 4. The shunt electrical.2 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. I2 and M2.3 is the as that of Fig.55 jwLai 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.

The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.65 2^22^3 .62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3.

2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Cri. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .\. Mechanical Rectilineal.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. 4. Ca. 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Cm\. L. Cei.3.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. I2.4. to /i. Electrical.«i.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.t 4. m2. L2.67 . Cb2 . mechanical rectilineal. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. 4.13.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. 4.412^3 + 4.

4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . Xi.74 4.84 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. h.76 4.88 4. the linear velocity Xq. ^ zjji = .77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. to 4>o. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. The current to.82 4. 4>i.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. M2.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.78 4.83 ZA2 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. i^ in show that /q. X3 rectilineal system. Xi. nA where zei = .79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.80 4. X2.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. Cai.86 4.89 .75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. (h and 04 X2. 4>2. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.

the linear velocity Xi.99 r^r^ .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.97 The current i2. 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4..y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. 01 4.95 . the linear velocity X2.{ZA3jrZA. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. 4. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.90 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.) Ha ^_^^j . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . 02 = + Zr^ 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.98 .93 Ha = The current ii.92 4.

4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.105 current 4. ^^^ 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.„. J~iR X.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.106 .-riE . = The equations cal. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.107 . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. the linear velocity X4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.102 X3 4.

and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. 5.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. mechanical rectilineal.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.2. mechanical rotational.1. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. 52 . Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. 5.^ an inductance. characteristics.1. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.

£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .1. 5.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. branch is current flows in z^i. Fig.

In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. consists of a system of gears. Equation 5. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6.1. Z/jt. SAA. 5.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /.2 for the electrical system. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.4 That is. With these specifications the differential of Fig. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. relations existing between//. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. respectively. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. = = xx -\- X2 5. Fig. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. respectively.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. respectively. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. respectively. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. 5. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?..1 with the same tions. That is. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. must be in parallel. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. ^2. </)r. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. as for example. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. analogous to equation 5. shown schematically in Fig. </>!. Xt Differentiating equation 5.3.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

reactance .2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.13 and 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. ^^^^. 5. 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. equations 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.2. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. equations 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.12 relatively large 59 and 5.2.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. mechanical and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5.

Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. 5. 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. Therefore. in abfarads. . At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.42 = joiM 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.11 and 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Fig.3. 5. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*. The acoustical system of Fig. Equations 5.2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. 5.14 and 5. from equations 5.20 where Cm = compliance.5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.18 where M= inertance. in centimeters per dyne.3 is = T^ 5.2.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. inversely proportional to the frequency. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.12 to the and 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.3. 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.21 show that at low frequencies . velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3.12 and 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. The mechanical the frequency.13 and 5. 5. at Equa- tions 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.20 is shown in Fig.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.3.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. Fig.

62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.13 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. 5.11 and 5. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and 5. in abfarads. . tional. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.12 = ^-^ 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5. in abhenries. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. 5.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. The shown in Fig.6.23. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance.3.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. and electrical capacitance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. equations 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.3.4 in series across a line.

13 and .^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Cu = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^. and compliance.4.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.25.24 where m = mass. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in centimeters per dyne. in grams. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. 5.24. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.25 where / = moment of inertia. The output angular 5.12 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

5.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.14 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.5 parallel across a line. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.24 also is zero.26 where M= Ca = inertance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.7. 5. acoustical capacitance.26.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. .2 and there is very little attenuation. 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)''. Equations 5. in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. The output volume 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.4. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.12 and 5.11 and 5.

5.J^mCM 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . Cm = The output .27 where L = Ce = inductance.27. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 and 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.28. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.5 is jo}L -£2 5. 5. and electrical capacitance.28 where m = mass.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in grams. in abfarads. and compliance.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. 5.

At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. in grams per (centimeter)*.12 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.29.2 and the transmission is small.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.13 and 5.14 and 5. 5. and = rotational compliance. 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.30.3 and the transmission is again small.11 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5..14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.^MC. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. 1 - 5.13 and The output angular 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and acoustical capacitance. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. .5 is ZR2 = . Equations 5. 5. in gram (centimeter)^. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.

5.31. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 shows an electrical resistance. Electrical resistance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. Electrical Resistance.8. in abfarads. in abohms. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series.5. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. inductance.6. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. .min. in Fig. 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.11 and 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. in shunt with a line. itance in series.6. 5.

12 and 5. of inertia. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.12 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . inertance. from equations 5.33.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. in grams.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in acoustical ohms. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. Therefore. in mechanical ohms. The output and 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. 5.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.3 and there is very little attenuation. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. Therefore. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. from equations 5. The output volume 5.2 and there is very little attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.32. mass. compliance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.34. in rotational ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. and rotational compliance. in centimeters per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.35. in centimeters per dyne. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.13 and 5.7 shows an electrical resistance. and electrical capacitance.9. in abohms. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abhenries. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. 5. in Fig. mass.11 and 5. 5. from equations 5.4. Therefore. Therefore. in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance.14 and 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal.7. . in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever.6. 5. in grams. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. 5.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. from equations 5.6. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance.36. inductance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. in abfarads. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 The output and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.

Electrical resistance. rotational compliance. of inertia. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.38.7. The output and 5. in grams per and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.37 where ru Cb. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.37.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. acoustical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. = = mechanical rotational resistance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. inertance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in rotational ohms. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.14 Ca = 5. S. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms.

Fig. 5.5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. termed the input and output electrical impedances. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5. However.11 and 5. Fig. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. inductance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. output electrical impedance.7. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5. Fig.14 and 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.3 and the transmission is again small.10.7.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.7. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5.2 and the transmission is small. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. . The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.7.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. 5.7. 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances.43 where L = inductance.41 input acoustical impedance. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.43 = p = 2. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. output acoustical impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. 5. in abhenries. 5. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. .42 Zas.11. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.40 ZM2. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.

8. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. 5. in grams. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5.8 equations 5.8 is = jo)I 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.39 and 5. in gram (centimeters)^.8.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. characteristic. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5.44 where tn = mass. 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. . 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.45 where / = moment of inertia. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8 is = j^m 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. 5.

47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.8 equations 5. 5.48. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5.12.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.41 and 5. 5.8.42 and 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.46 where M= inertance.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. in abfarads. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. acoustical Equations 5. Equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. 5.

ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. 5. 5. frequency characteristic.48 where Cm — compliance.l/2 Fig.9 = 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. line and the mechanical rectihneal.9 is ^R2 5. is 5. Fig. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.9. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.9.40 and 5. is ance relatively large to motion. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 to the frequency.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5.47. .

9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. in square centimeters.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. and per = area of the diaphragm. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.42 and 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. analogous to an in Fig. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The acoustical impedance of Fig.41 and 5.13.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. 5. compliance of the suspension system.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5. .9.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. dyne.9. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. 5. Equation 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. 5. 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.9 is 2.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. Equations 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. Mechanical Rotational. 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. The mechanical rectilineal. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.10. acoustical capacitance tions 5.50.

in radians per dyne per centimeter. in abfarads.53. 5. and = rotational compliance. and C_if compliance. in gram (centimeter)^.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.40 and 5. in abhenries. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. 5. in grams.39 and 5. The mechanical system of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne.53 where m = = mass.10.52.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. 5. rectilineal. and electrical capacitance.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. .

78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and acoustical capacitance.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.40 and 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. 5.54.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.8. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. connected in with a line.42 and 5.55.42 and 5. . in grams per (centimeter)*. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. Equations 5.41 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. 5.50. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.39 and 5.9 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.14.10.11. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and the transmission is small. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. and again the transmission is small. 5.

40 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abfarads.11.56. The mechanical system of Fig. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5. in abhenries. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.11 is - 5.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.39 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.57. in grams. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. and electrical capacitance. 5. and compliance.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.11 is 2/22 = :.1/2 = 1 — S. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. Equation 5. 5.11. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.58. 5. and acoustical capacitance. inductance and line.39 and 5. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equations 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in grams (centimeter)^. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 equation 5. ance of Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 2. and = rotational compliance. Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.8 and the attenuation is small. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5.59. .11 is -. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. 5.40 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.41 and 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.9 and again the attenuation is small.12. 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.41 The output angular 5. Electrical Resistance.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.15.42 == 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

in centimeters per dyne. 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.39 and 5. m = Cm = mass. inductance. 5. in abfarads. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. compliance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + .12 T = rE + jwL + 5.40 and 5. 5. Electrical resistance.60.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. 5. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. in abhenries. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.61. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.12. and capacitance.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. in grams.62 .

and Cr = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^.12 is 2. 5. in acoustical ohms. where vr / = moment of inertia. in radians per dyne per centimeter.39 and 5.42 and 5. Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in rotational ohms. 5.coC.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.63. from equations 5. from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. 5. 5. Therefore. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. Fig.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. . At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. 5.40 and 5.8. from equations 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. and the transmission is small. and again the transmission is small. Therefore. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.10. Fig. The output and 5.12.12.62.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.4 -T-z^ 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.41 and 5. The output volume 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. 5. Therefore. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.12.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. However.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.12.12. Therefore.

5.16.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.13 is ZM2 = r. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. in abohms. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.13. inductance. 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13 shows an electrical resistance.65 . in abfarads. Electrical resistance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 83 Parallel. 5.64. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.39 and 5. Electrical Resistance.13. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. inductance line. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. in abhenries. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.

from . 5.39 and 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. mass.66. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.13.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. therefore. in where tm mechanical ohms.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. The output volume 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. 5. 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. from equations 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.40 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. ohms. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5. inertance.40 and 5. in grams. the acoustical reactance is infinite. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. in centimeters per dyne.67. from equations 5.13.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.13. Therefore. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne.13 is = jo^rAM ~. 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. The output and 5. Therefore.65.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.41 and 5.9 and the attenuation is small. from equations 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in acoustical ohms. Therefore. and compliance.

that of Fig.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. 5. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. 5. Referring to equation 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.18.42 and 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.11. Fig.14 Mechanical Rotational.67 the attenuation ance.13.17. 5.

5. larger. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. Equation 5. 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. Equation 5. Equation 5. Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. . Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15. 5.19.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Referring to equation 5. rectilineal. Electrical Rectilineal.14 shows a system of made larger. 5.

zri. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. and r.16. rm.17. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. In the same way equations 5.12. wherein zm\. and Zmz. rui. 5. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. respectively. 5. Equation 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal.16.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.41 and the output impedances. The mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 5.20. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .21. 5. acoustical systems of Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.16. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. 5. "Zrz. respectively. mechanical rotational. mechani- and acoustical analogies.11. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. and r^i and the input impedances. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.

me- chanical rotational. Mechanical Rectilineal. In this case zei is the input impedance. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and 5. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. 5. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.17. ze2 is rE2. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.18.14. 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. output impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.22.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. Equation 5.17. rectihneal. Electrical. Electrical. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12. .

current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.18 the electromotive force. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. ii. velocity and .70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. 5.18. The force. 5. ei.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. and of turns on the secondary.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. Electrical. 5. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. and zei represent the electromotive force. ACOUSTICAL Fig.68 5.

77 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18. 5. The 5. The torque. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. /mi. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. of Fig. 5.79 . The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. /ri.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.18.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. consists of a mass- gear train.18.71 = — xi 5. The pressure. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.

In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. two diaphragms. The acoustical transformer of Fig.. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. 5.41 and p2.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. New York. . volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer." D. Xi and 2. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. ^ Engineering.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. 1940. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. pi.

2. W. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. Rev. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. mechanical rectilineal. 1922.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. 6. p. 528. No. Jour. 2. No. I. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. A. Stewart. G. Vol.. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. 20. G. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system.. 1922.1. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Bell System Tech. Vol. 6. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell... Phys. 92 .

angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. velocities. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. Van New York. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. velocities. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. velocities. velocities. positive and when than four. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line." D. Van Nostrand Co. respectively. ^ Nostrand Co. Shea. velocities. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. that is. 6. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents.3. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents.. New York. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies.. velocities.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. *' . The most important type of structure is the ladder type. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Johnson." D.

6 ZR2 6.1 zmi zri 6.2 6. 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. 6.4.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. Electrical.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.1. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.1. mechanical rectilineal.8 . mechanical rectilineal.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.94 6.Ca 6.

and the cutoff 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .10 — — 0.15 WC. coc = — 2Af2 V — .= From and .5.10 and show that the systems of Fig. 6. 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. when coc 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. linear velocities. when .13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.17 Equations 6.9 the constants of the systems.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when uc = 6. 2A2 VMC^ .2. 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. . when coe 6. when coc = . mechanical rectilineal. inclusive. when oip = = = = 6. when ccc 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. mechanical rotational. 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.17.= -4 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= 22 and .26 From the constants of the systems. 2£1 6.27 .= -4 22 6.

38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec. 5.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. .

43 Let LiCei = 6..47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. when coci = = 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .12 =0.lfi)^ ^ -. —7== VMiCai . = — 7= / 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. UCe\ (1 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . _ 4. „ when coci = .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.44 6.51 VM2C42 = . V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . when wci = — VLiCei .49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. = 1 . . 2.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. 6.46 6. — — / 1 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. —= Z£2 — 4.50 V/iGji 0.

one greater than uci and Therefore.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.41 . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.v/2 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. -4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . —= 2.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. when . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. (1 .

56 to 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. are 6. inclusive. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.64 CeiLi 6. 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.7.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.63. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.4.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. linear velocities.69 . show that the systems of Fig.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.

74 6.75 = I2CR2 6.4.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. Electrical. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.76 .70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.

84 . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . .42 -4. 6.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when uci = and cca oo 6. M\Ca\) 4. when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.83 —= Z^l 2. or. 6. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . when (1 .82 . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. .77 —— = ZM2 0.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.78 —= ZR2 0.79 ^— = ZA2 0. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. —= zei -4. —= Zr\ -4. when.-4. when oici = and wa = =0 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

shown in Fig.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.2. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. . The graph depicts the current. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. rectilineal resistance.2. in centimeters per second. in dynes.2. 7. velocity.5 where aE = Te/L. 7. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. unit torque and unit pressure.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit force.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. respectively.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. The current is zero = 0.8 where m = = /m — V mass. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. in grams. and driving force. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). .10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. in gram (centimeter)^. 1/riv/.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. = mechanical rotational resistance.2. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. in radians per second.2. 7. ohms. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. 7. as shown in Fig. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. and = torque.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.12 = — - e"^') 7. in dyne centimeters. in rotational = angular velocity.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.

in cubic centimeters. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). and p = sound pressure.20 where M= ta inertance.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.2. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. as shown in Fig. From is the tables of operational formulas. = acoustical resistance.16 7. in dynes per square centimeter. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.22 .17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. U = volume current. in grams per (centimeter)*. the solution of equation 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. in acoustical ohms.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.2.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.17 where aji — Vr/ I.

-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.e-^ in Fig. 7.4. in abamperes.2. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. 7.3. the solution of equation 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. current. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . in abvolts. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. From is the tables of operational formulas. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. 7.22 111 may be written.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. electrical resistance. in abfarads. and electromotive force. 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. in abohms. the solution of equation 7.28 ve .25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. electrical resistance series. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.24 JA{t) = " (1 .

y = l/rjfCv/.3.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. The graph depicts the current. in mechanical ohms. is The for / shown in Fig. From the tables of operational formulas. in centimeters. linear velocity.30 P)rM where a. respectively.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. the solution of equation 7.3. in dynes. 7 3.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. 7. unit force. force. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in centimeters per dyne. shown in Fig. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.31 . unit torque and unit pressure. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. mechanical rectilineal resistance.

34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. angular velocity. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.3.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. and sound pressure. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. is shown in Fig. in radians per second. acoustical resistance. as shown in Fig. 7.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. as shown in Fig. . The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in dynes per square centimeter.3.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance.3. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.3. and torque. 7. mechanical rotational resistance. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. volume current. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in acoustical ohms. in cubic centimeters per second.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. 7. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. is shown in Fig.

J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. in abvolts. in abhenries. as in Fig. . electrical resistance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. abamperes.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.4. electrical resist- ance.5. and electromotive force.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in abohms. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. in electrical capacitance.38 ^.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . 7. 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. is shown 7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. abohms. (a + ^ Pfa . in current.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . 1 7.3. 7.

angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. . velocity. series Response of an electrical resistance. 7.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig.45. unit force. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit torque or unit pressure. respectively. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.^.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. The graph depicts the current.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. the solution of equation 7.4. 7. The response sinusoid. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.4. 7.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.

1 A\ m = mass. Substituting equation 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in grams. 1 AC. acceleration. in dynes. in centimeters per second. in centimeters per dyne. displacement. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. 7. rectilineal resistance.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.47 . velocity. in centimeters per second per second. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. and driving force. in centimeters.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. v for x.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.

and 4> Jr = driving torque. Cr = rotational compliance. = angular displacement. in radians. equation 7.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. is of inertia.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.48 The response sinusoid.4. 7. in grams (centimeter). If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in rotational ohms.si . vr = mechanical rotational resistance. 4> = angular acceleration. in dyne centimeters.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. lAA. in radians per second. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. 7. 7. It is a damped > '^in/Cu.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.51 = moment of inertia.4_S. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. in radians per second per second. = angular velocity.

Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . It is a damped sinusoid.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.56 ^PR = Jo. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. WR^ 2 1 7.4C.45.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7..55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. . 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. lAA. = '^I/Cr.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.

as in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in dynes per square centimeter. in acoustical ohms. Substituting U for X. and pressure. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. volume current. at equation 7. acoustical resistance. acoustical capacitance. 7. in grams per (centimeter)^. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.4.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. in cubic centimeters per second.

6.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. Step function approximation. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.45. 7. .4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.5. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. 7.

u)du du 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. an electromotive force ei is added. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. all being of the unit type. a time «2 later..67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. tem. The indicial electrical admittance.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. etc. «i. Therefore. etc. 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. integral. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). The This proof. an electromotive force ^2 is added. as shown in Fig. 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces.68 . <?i at / = Ae.5. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. as in the case of the preceding sections.5.

70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.72 . The velocity.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.u)du 7.69 fR{u) — AR{t . In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. mechanical rotational rectilineal. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.u)du du u)du 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.

.

The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electromagnetic. the electrostatic. 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.CHAPTER 8. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.2.

2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. and current. From equations 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). When there is only one path. in gausses. abohms. in using analogies in actual practice.1 B = / = / = flux density. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.1 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. due to motion. in centimeters. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. L and Ce. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. The electromotive force.However. length of the conductor. field in which depicted in Fig. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.1. in centimeters per second. termed motional electrical impedance.1. The force. in abamperes. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. circuit will be used instead of network. in abvolts. and Ca with vr. it is located.2 where x = velocity. 8.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in dynes.

of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. that is.4 8. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked.3. in the absence of motion. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. The dynamic direct radiator 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. all of the conductor. 8. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. in 8.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zen in abohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.1. in abohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in chanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance zek.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.3. in mechanical ohms.6 The 8. 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.

Assume that all the reluctance . 8.2. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. Since there is no polarizing flux. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. namely. Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. A. Unpolarized Armature Type. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type.

generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. is where / = current in the coil. in centimeters.14 e = ^r 8.15 The force on the armature. then from equations 8. in abvolts. C = l-^nA. .14 \i Ax is small compared to a. and a = normal spacing. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. the total flux is <f>T Aa.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in dynes.13 and 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. in abamperes. n = number of turns. A = area of the center pole. in square centimeters.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.

Substituting equation 8. nC^P 8. in mechanical ohms.16.2. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. mechanical ohms. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in mechanical ohms.20 — X From equations 8. 8.17 for the current in 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.21 . The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.18 Equation 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. and time.15 and 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. in seconds. 4TrJa*/M . 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.

= number of turns. in square centimeters. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.22 = motional electrical impedance.20 and 8. Therefore. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. this system cannot be used It is. in abamperes.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. B. in maxwells. saws. Polarized Reed Armature Type. Zen in abohms. in abohms.3. ^ = area of center pole.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in oersteds. / = current. in abohms. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. filing — as in Fig. for converting electrical variations into however. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. in centimeters.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. vibrators and clippers. in abohms. 8. for the reproduction of sound. from the poles of a permanent magnet. in gilberts. in mechanical ohms. 8.2.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. 8. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. .19. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. and impedance of the coil. a = spacing.

axsin wt n coil. 27r/. in abamperes. in 131 oit maxwells. frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in oersteds. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. and time. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.

and area of the pole. the flux will now be 4>x + A.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.32 „ .29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.^ . the flux. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. in square centimeters. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. __ . in maxwells.. in abvolts. in gilberts.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. sidered.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. due to the steady field. spacing between the armature and pole. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. Ax -\- Ax . impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. in centimeters.

in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.35 and 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.3. in me- chanical ohms.35 8. in abohms.37. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm..34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.24 and 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. 8. ~ 8. fu = MNi ~r — . The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. From equations 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.33.34. ZAfi. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.32 and e i = — X 8. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.38 a Zm .ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.

C.3. and impedance of the coil.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. in abohms. Equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.38 is similar to equation 8.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. ARMATURE MAGNET . The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. in abohms. 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.

8. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. The . at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. The steady magnetic field is force.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. i?2 = = coil. at the poles (Fig. in dynes. of the pole piece.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. which the coil energizes. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and yf effective area. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The sum of the forces. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in maxwells. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in abamperes. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in dynes. in maxwells.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. at each pole magnet. The flux. 8.4. in oersteds. in square centimeters.

44 A. in gilberts. 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. of the steady field. in abvolts.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.45. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms.4. rectilineal impedance of the armature.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. NMA —^x a^ 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. through the armature to the right and upward.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. in square centimeters.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in mechanical ohms. . and effective area of a pole piece. and zm2 impedance of the load. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms.136 flux.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.43 =-^ 8.50. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. . Zm\.50 and 8.

5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. system of Fig. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. 8. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.4. This driving system is used for loud speakers. Therefore. galvanometers. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency.

62 . in statfarads. in statvolts. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. The force. = CeCq 8. the fourth term will be negligible. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.59 and 8. in statfarads. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. motive Cq is large .ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in dynes.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.60 From equations 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. in statcoulombs.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. is The current.57 numerator of equation 8. The useful force. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. and capacity per unit area. ^o^max sin wt . on the condenser is q considered. in statamperes. in dynes. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force.

64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . 8. in mechanical ohms.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.66 in 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. 4ir(<2 + . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. ohms.5. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . .61. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. in stat- amperes. . the generated current. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. 47r(a — 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. Ax) 8.69 . rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.

in stat- Zem = motional ohms.68. adding a large stiffness. 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. electrical network in Fig. + . In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.5.58 and 8. statohms. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.69 and 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.5. at the same time. in statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.

6. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. Consider the system shown in Fig. current is applied to 2m . The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. 8.

and time. in centimeters. in abamperes. due to is the Villari effect. in gausses. CO/ 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. induced in the winding.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. induction is of the nickel rod.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.74 and ehminating the steady force. in square centimeters. turns in the coil. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in abvolts. in seconds.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in current in the abamperes. frequency. in square centimeters. coil. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.X JR 8.73 Combining equations and 8. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. . = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . e = MJ^ dt 8. in cycles per second. and area of the rod. The electromotive force. 8. current.

82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8.78 From equation 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. in square centimeters. The mechanical to one . from the mechanical circuit of Fig. in centimeters.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. length of the rod. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. and Young's modulus. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. in mechanical ohms.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. rectilineal impedances zm. in abvolts. 8. in mechanical ohms.

84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance.86 Mason.6.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. Van Nos- trand Co. as shown by equation 8.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. in abohms.82 and 8. 1942.84. in mechanical ohms. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. is assumed to be a In general. in abohms — equation 8. = motional impedance. 8. The mass mi in Fig.79. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod." D.83 From equations 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. . 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.6). 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. New York. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. 8. total in abohms. 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.

is where p The compliance Cmi.80. 8. and Young's modulus. in square centimeters. in square centimeters. and cross section of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. in Fig. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod.7. length of the rod. 8. in centimeters.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in centimeters.

The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. 8. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. Young's modulus. 8. 8. air load and support resistance. 8.84. EA and 8.7C A and B given in Fig.88 where Jm = total force.7.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. that is. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. . 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8.8. 8. X = 4^.7. due to a force. in dynes. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. is The deformation per unit length. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic.8. A= E = area. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. The vibrating system of Fig. in square centimeters. 8.

in square centimeters. 8. c„ .89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.88 and 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant. equations 8. 8. . flux density. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze..90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.6. the data of Fig.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. B = A= From and area.8 and Young's modulus.

E = Young's modulus. in statcoulombs. is . in dynes. 4 = length of the crystal.4 force. in dynes. in square centimeters.92 X From = 8. equations 8.91 and 8. in centimeters. in centimeters. due to the application of a force. X to 10~* for quartz. and The displacement.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. 6.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.93 . q is 149 = KJu 8. due an applied force. and A = cross-sectional area.

and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in mechanical ohms.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.100 and 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. in statohms.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.97. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.9. and E = Young's modulus. . from the mechanical circuit of Fig. in square = length of the crystal. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in mechanical ohms.101 From equations 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. zmi and z. in centimeters. / centimeters. in mechanical ohms.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.1. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. namely.3.

9. in maxwells. is The velocity of the armature. area of the pole. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in centimeters per second. . due to the steady field.2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. and impedance of the external load.6 ze = = = = = total flux. coil.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. through the armature. in square centimeters. in centimeters. in centimeters. and velocity of the armature. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. spacing between the armature and pole.2. in abohms. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in abohms. force.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in centimeters per second.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. 9. 9. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. and + ZE2. in gilberts.

Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. flows through the armature. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.3. Balanced Armature Generating System. r~ .ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. 9.

The current.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. is The /m Zm + 9. M. in oersteds. of the alternating magnetic circuit.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load.9 and 9. in centimeters per second. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. as depicted 9. in maxwells. in statamperes. in A . Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. in abohms.4. 9. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates.3.11 zme From equations 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. velocity of the armature. 9. i?2 = reluctance. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.3. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in abohms. a = spacing between armature and pole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. in gilberts. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. of the magnet. = magnetomotive force.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters.

in square centimeters. in centimeters. in statfarads. in statvolts.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statamperes. 9. ^= a area of the plate. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.stationary "plate . in statvolts.4 e is t2 9. in statohms. spacing between the plates. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in centimeters per second. The current.14 where e = electromotive force. electrical and impedance of the external load.

The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. = Zm /^^ + 9. a spacing between plates.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. in square centimeters. electrical impedance of the external load. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. is The velocity of the movable plate. in statohms. in statfarads.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. e. in centimeters.71 of the chapter on ZME = . ^ \ira^{%M + 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.4.4. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. in statvolts.17 zme e From equations 9. is Ze2 in parallel. electrical and 9. X in centimeters per second.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate.15 and 9. area of the plates. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.18 Zme) .

26 .25. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.23 in 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.22.19.21 Substituting equation 9.25 Comparing equations 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.23 Substituting equation 9. = — a CnX 9.24 and fi 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.21 in 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.E1 = -r—.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9. . = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.

from equation 8. zme.5. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. In the electrical circuit: e. shown in Fig.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. Magnetostriction generating system.26 and an internal impedance zei. in abvolts. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. However. L\ and rE\.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. Equation 9. is ^tNK 9.5. coil. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi.27 . 9. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. 9. In the mechanical circuit: zm. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.5. zei.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. The volt- age. ZEi. coil.

9. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.79 or 8. in centimeters. and impedance of the external circuit. in abohms. in square centimeters. electrical electrical wavelength. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. in centimeters per second. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. force. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. . in abohms. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system.5. and Young's modulus. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. length of the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. - £ 9.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.

in Fig. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. in mechanical ohms. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.27 and 9.32 From abvolts. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.6. are given by equations 8. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.28. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. . equations 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in mechanical = ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.5. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.86 and 8. 9.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.32 the generated electromotive force. to be a In general.6. ohms. in centimeters per second.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.

generated The h = —. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. length of the crystal. in centimeters.27 and the velocity. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. mi and Cmi. zei. 6. in centimeters.4 X 10~* for quartz. zei. In the electrical circuits: e.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. zme. the other. the driving force. E= 4 = Young's modulus.7. A.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined.6 can be obtained from equation 9. In the mechanical networks: /m. and velocity of the crystal. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 9. Li and tei. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. ZMi.6. mass and compliance of the rod. in square centimeters. 9.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. the effective Zjv/i. cross-sectional area of the crystal. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. + 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in statamperes.6. 2_bi j<^Li. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. in centimeters per second. 9. . where KEJ — •* 9. = = length of the crystal. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B.

Ce\. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. in statvolts.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. From equations 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. 9.7. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. circuit: e. electrical and impedance of the external load. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. in statamperes. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 2_b2.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .34 force e. z^'i zei. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. In the Piezoelectric generating system. electrical and 9. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. in statfarads.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statohms.

rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. and E= Young's modulus. in square centimeters. length of the crystal. in statohms. E = Young's modulus. length of in centimeters. in centimeters.4 X 10~* for quartz. A = area of the electrode.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. 9.41 . The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. in centimeters.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.7.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. and „ „„ 9.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. 4 = length of the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. electrical impedance of the external load.97 or 8. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in statfarads.

43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.47 .7. The velocity at the end of crystal. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. in centimeters per second. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. in mechanical ohms. in mechantotal ical ohms.36 and 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.45 .4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. zm2 in mechanical ohms.43 From Ze2 in parallel. depicted equations 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is .= where i.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.

49 in 9.8. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. in Fig.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. == -^ AwKEx 9.104 and 8. However.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. Equation 9.49 Substituting 9. 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. e. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.51. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.50 and 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. 9.47 in 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.45.48.

the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. zei. Piezoelectric generating systems.45 and the velocity. electrical network of Fig. In the mechanical networks: Jm. ze\.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.37.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the other. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. In the electrical circuits: e. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. .8 can be obtained from equation 9. Zm2. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. zme. crystal. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.8. 9. 9. A. the electrical impedance of the external load.

^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. Then 10. Proc. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal.." 171 . 17. 1929. p. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. Vol. the elements.. /s" .R. produce a current distribution z'l'.2. 929. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. i^' . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. e^" . S.1. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi".CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. 6. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. . e^' . . No. I. .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. ' 10. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. 1 Ballentine. z„". and superposition theorems to electrical. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . A number cal systems. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . . Reciprocity Theorems A. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems.E. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .

o e .2 = /'/' where e' . e" and /'. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. equation 10.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1 becomes 10. /" are the electromotive forces 10.

Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. ^2'. II. Van Nostrand Co.1. London. 1940. "Theory of Sound. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. produce a rotational velocity — . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. D./m3 all of the same frequency. equation 10. 145.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n ./ij2. and provided the applied torques /iji./ij„ are all of the same . let a set of torques/iji'. equation 10.1. '4>^" ." Vol. . and provided the applied forces /mi. • distribution ^i'. York. 10. =/a/V 10. 1926. 4>2" . /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. fli" are the torques and angular 10../fl3 . fB2" . "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. New . In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". /ji/2.1. . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques." D.6 velocities depicted .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements./b' and (J)'..7 p Rayleigh. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. p. C./7j2'. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1. frequency.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. ^ Olson. MacMillan and Co.3 becomes fu'x" .fRi" • 4>2. mechanical rotational system of Fig. 10. . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. .4 where /^f'. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. 10.

12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.10 From neering" equations 1. dv" — .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. .4 by the p and v of the other set. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.1. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. .—. 10. v' grad po „ = 10.9 and 1.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".12 is for a point. .13 If. 0' dt dt p v" grad po . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.9 and 10.. y" ..15 v' .11 From equations 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.1. p"v' 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . 1 .+ dv' .174 THEOREMS . - p 1 . equation 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.8. 10. equation 10. 10. 10.

19 . X2". X^ X^. produce pn. . However. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . X^" Xn" Then .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. equation 10./". as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems." a second volume current distribution Xi". let also. Then — . . . . . . pz same frequency. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.16 becomes . E. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. X2. which there are only two pressures. .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . .1. pi. . .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. .1. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . . 10. produce a volume current distribution Xi. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. velocities. . .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. and let a second set of pressures ^i". . 10. 10. pressures and volume currents. . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.

L.. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. . px L. B. F.21 . Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. P"X' tn\ B M . Electrical-mechanical.2^. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. . electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. HX* E p"X D Fig. . in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .S. E.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.2. forces n and velocities. . i" . The 10. an interconnected e\ . D.S. . currents. n Then 10. let also. C. Mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. — In . en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . P"X' i" L.S.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. . 10. .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.

Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Theorem. Electrical-Mechanical.23 .21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. 2D. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. mechanical. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.2C. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. electrical transducer. as shown in Fig. acoustical transducer.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. mechanical. field. is H. G. . This may be expressed as If both connecting medium.23 states that a if. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. acoustical. e'i" = e"i' 10. 10. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. e"i' 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. Electrical-Mechanical. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. me- chanical. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. 10. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.2fi.

D. = p"X' 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. 10.3.2£.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system.178 I. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. as shown in Fig.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.

mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal.4. forces. forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. current. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. velocities. Each source. force. velocity. . angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.

principles relating to electrical. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. However. muffler is quite effective. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise.1. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. by acoustical capacitances. Introduction The fundamental lineal. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. Convert the answer into the original system. 11. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. However. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. An exhaust back pressure. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters.2.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11.

11. circuit will be used instead of network.1. 11. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. with rft.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.However. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.u. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. in the audible frequency range. Therefore.1. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. 11. in Fig. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. .M and Ca for an acoustical system. When there is only one path. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. The system of Fig. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.

changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. . 11. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. sate for approximations.3.3.182 APPLICATIONS In general.2. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.

11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. nii and r.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. .3. in mechanical Jm = driving force. and . radiator tube. the mass of the cone.w2.7." I"*. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. The mechanical driving from equation 8.3. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig.1. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. rMi and Ci. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. teg.3. 11. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. 11. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. in dynes. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. In the mechanical circuit: m\. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. zem.4. force can be determined /m 11. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8.

F. shown ^ in Fig. measuring cal systems. New York. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. . the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. comphance of the damper. loud speakers. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. the moment Cg.. 11.YWHEEL I. and the shaft. etc. phonograph pickups. in mechanical ohms.4. in centimeters per second. These systems include microphones. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. FX. of inertia of the flywheel. 1940. telephone receivers." D.5. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. Van Nostrand Co.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. velocity of the cone. is The sound power output. The simple vibration fly- damper.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. 11. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . 11. m. In the mechanical network: A. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.4. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. given by 11. Olson.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies.

the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. A. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. /jf.6. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.vF. the mass of the machine.SA. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11.SA. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. W. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. Cm /4 and 4rM . W.5. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. z. Jm. isolator.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? .MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. ciple of the device. zmf./ is due to the . The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. The driving force/i. The shunt mechanical vibration. B. the mass of the machine.

11. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.6. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. 11. only isolation in the system of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11. isolating mechanical network. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . mi. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. the compliance and mechanical mi. . these values springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. 11. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.6. pressor. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. the mass of the case. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.7.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. Jm.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. shown in Fig. consists of the following elements: nii.

Of course. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. 11.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. zmf.7.v/i/4. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. 187 Cmi and rui. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Cm2 and ^1-/2. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The mechanical network of Fig. the mass of the case. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 11. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. . the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 11. the system in Fig. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2.8. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2.

the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. 11. engine. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Cmi and tires. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.u 11. the compliance of the spring suspension. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. 11. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. 11. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the compliance of the spring. 11. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. Cms a-nd r.v/3. tmi. the mass of the frame. the mass of the instrument and carriage. body.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. mum. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. r.v/2. the combined driving force at the four legs. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. etc. This system has many degrees of freedom. m-i. both rectilineal and rotational.8. the mass of the tire. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. Cm2.9. Cm2. wheel and axle.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line.7. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. the driving force at each tire. m2. in general.

8. Cms and r. Cms. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. the mass of the frame. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. view. the compliance of the springs. the mass of the passenger. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the combined driving force at the four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. . rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. 189 m^. body and engine. fn2. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the mass of the four tires. 11. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. Cmi/4 and 4r. 4rif 2. wheels./ifi the comtires. the driving force. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion.\f 1. the compliance of the four springs. mi. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. 4?ni.i/a. Since there are four tires. m^. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. 4:rM2. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. However. Cji/2/4. springs and shock absorbers. the mass of the passenger. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig.

The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rectilineal. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. Rotational Ohm. which controls the oscillations. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. 11. pitching or swaying motion.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. Acoustical Ohm. an automobile has several modes of vibration. Most of the forces.6. An electrical resistance. developed at the tires. mechanical rotational resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. An acoustical resistance. Electrical abohm. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. Supplementary Note: Electrical. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. For example. As already indicated. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. — — —A — . A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. Mechanical Ohm. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. that is. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

122 . 88 electrical. 184 Rotatomotive force. 88 Transient response. 6. reciprocity. 13. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. impedance. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 45 instantaneous. 10. 21. 32 Rotational. 10. 6 peak. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Transducer. 25 three degrees of freedom. 88 mechanical rotational. 5 Transformer. 22. 18.) 195 Table. 171 Resonant frequency. 107 Transients. 23 Theorems. 178 electrical. 178 acoustical. 21. 10. 37 and analogies. 111 electrical resistance. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. automobile. 13. 22 mechanical rotational. 9. 41 mechanical rotational. 45 electrical. 22 networlcs. 179 Thevenin's. 9 resistance. 10. 13. 6 instantaneous. 187 Torque. 9. 42 one degree of freedom. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 178 mechanical rotational. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 9. 6.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 22. 6 Static pressure. 61. 105 arbitrary force. 35 effective. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 21. 23 mechanical. ohm. 178 electrical. 23. 6. 18. (see cor- effective. 17. 177 reactance. 42 inductance and series coupled. 23 23. 171 acoustical. 13. acoustical. 21. 28 Subharmonic. electrical-mechanical. 23 maximum. 48 two degrees of freedom. 179 Suspension systems. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 188 Systems. electrical Superposition theorem. 172 mechanical rotational. 6 14 pressure. 6 Sound effective. 6 maximum. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. compliance. 13. 120 Duhamel's integral. 173 superposition. 6 Stiffness. 9. 175 Rotational vibration damper. acoustical. 6 peak. 9. 9. 85 rotational. 37. 11 instantaneous. 6 maximum. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. peak. 9.

149. 93. 23. gain. 8 maximum. 22 angular. 20. 150. 151. high pass. 146. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 92. 97 93. Wave band elimination. 167 .) INDEX Villari effect. 143. 106 163 Volume current. 144. 184 186 Young's modulus. 11 loss.196 Transients (Cont. 148 machine isolator. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 7. 92. 7. 23 Transmission. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 23 effective. peak. 94 response characteristics. 7 Vibration. 11 effective. 147. 92. "X" isolator. 8 instantaneous. 7. peak. 93. 45 Unit function. 165. 8 8 "T" type network. 106 Units. 7 linear. 95 low pass. 101 instantaneous. 106 unit function. Heaviside's Calculus. 7 Wave. magnetostriction. 5 maximum. 21. band pass. 92. 37. 5 filters. 93. 8. 163. 24 Velocity. cut quartz crystal. 22.

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