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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Research Director. W. Engstrom. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. engineer. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. 1943 F. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Olson. plex arrangements of multielement systems. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. E. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Lorene E. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. Harry January. in this project. an electrical circuit. By means is of may be compared with one that better known.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Olson . The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics.

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MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Electrical Resistance B. C.2 4 II. Electrical Capacitance B.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inertance 2.2 Introduction Resistance A. A. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Rotational Compliance. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Acoustical Capacitance 2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.5 Representation of Electrical.3 Inductance. Rectilineal Compliance C.1 1 1. ELECTRICAL. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. ELEMENTS 2.1 2. Acoustical Capacitance A. Acoustical Resistance 2. Rectilineal Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Mass. Moment of Inertia. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Inductance B.3 3.1 3.2 3.

MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.6 62 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.7 3.1 Introduction 37 4..2 Two Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4.7 64 5..6 3.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series..3 5.8 67 .3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.4 Dissipation 4.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 The Electrical System . 60 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.1 Introduction 52 5. . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 4.2 4.6 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.5 Chapter 3.4 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. ELECTRICAL.10 The Acoustical System 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.13 Electrical.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational. WAVE FILTERS 6. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5... in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance.20 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6.21 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.CONTENTS Chapter 5.11 69 71 5.1 6.. Mechanical Rotational. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.17 5.6 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.10 Series 5.16 Electrical Resistance.

C. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.2 7. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. B.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.1 10. Unpolarized Armature B.2 9. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.2 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.1 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.5 9.4 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.4 Ill 7.5 114 120 7. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.6 VIII. 1 7.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. THEOREMS 10.4 8. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.1 8.5 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.X Chapter VII. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

8 1 1 .9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.CONTENTS Chapter E.4 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.6 11.2 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.5 184 185 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.7 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. APPLICATIONS 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.

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The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. as for example.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. Expressions for the kinetic energy. 1 The acoustical . Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. mechanical and acoustical tems. In other words. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems.1. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. However. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. vibrating systems.

Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. . This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Electrical elements are resistance. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. cal. ' The lished. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. Elements are the meshes. springs and brakes. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. springs and friction. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. as for example.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. constituent parts of a circuit. Of course. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. various assemblies of masses. induct- ance and capacitance. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits.

There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. However. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. I) and Firestone {Jour. ratio of force to displacement. d. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. For example. SiemensKonzern. every electrical. circuit.1 of 1942. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Hanle {JViss. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. — . all communication. 4. However. Therefore. In addition. Therefore. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. Vol. Institute of Radio Engineers. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. particularly electrical circuits. Verojf a. Vol. Amer. XI. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Acous. No. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. That is to say. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Finally.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. 4. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity.. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. in the past. In this book. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. up the mechanical and electrical. and ratio of pressure to displacement. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. Soc. mechanical and acoustical systems. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. No.

The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. all is the frequency. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. . Terms not sections. Basic Frequency. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Cycle.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. Frequency. Harmonic. Definitions ^ this section. This called a Fourier series. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. period. a period of jy. a constant. Octave. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. The remainder. reciprocal of the period. Periodic Quantity. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. equals 2x divided by the period T. or zero. negative. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. or which tity comprises a cycle. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. a positive constant. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. where T. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable.2. + T).

Dyne. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Mechanomotive Force). Electromotive Force. . Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Subharmonic. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Wave. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Effective Electromotive Force. mechanical or acoustical system. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). time interval The is unit is the abvolt. The unit the dyne. The unit is the dyne. the dyne. Wavelength. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. — — Abvolt. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The unit is the abvolt. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. force. The unit is the abvolt. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. The root unit the abvolt. stantaneous force at a point the dyne.

The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). An abampere is the unit of current. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The unit is the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. The the — Instantaneous Current. Abampere. the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. the abampere. the dyne centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. force. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). . the Dyne per Square Static Pressure.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force).

for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. is Centimeter per Second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. Peak Current. Maximum Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Effective Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. is Radian per Second. The unit is the centimeter per second. complete cycle at the point. Maximum Current. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. current. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. The unit is the abampere. the abampere. unit is the radian per second. the centimeter per second. velocity. The unit is the abampere. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. Peak Velocity. is velocity in that interval. Effective Angular Velocity.

To avoid ambiguity in this book. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. Effective Volume Current.-W is impedance. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. The unit the abohm. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. Electrical Impedance. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. Electrical Reactance. which. The unit is the mechanical ohm. times the frequency. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. electrical Inductance. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. The unit is the abfarad. the cubic centimeter per second. the cubic centimeter per second. for Peak Volume Current. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. second. where both systems are considered concurrently. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. .8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. when times the frequency. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. The unit the abohm. is Electrical Resistance. is the abohm. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance.

The unit is the mechanical ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the acoustical ohm. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mass. ' See footnote S. when multiplied by times the frequency. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. when multiplied by times the frequency. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the rotational ohm. Acoustical Impedance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Rotational Compliance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. unit is the rotational ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Compliance. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. rotational resistance ance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. page I . — Compliance The unit is the gram. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne.

mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system.. and rotational compliance. mass and compliance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Acoustical Reactance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. In the same way. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. . Electrical System. mass and compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inductance and electrical capacitance. the fourth power. Inertance. the acoustical ohm. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. moment of inertia. by "l-w times the frequency. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. when multiplied by times the frequency. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. Mechanical Rotational System. Acoustical System.

the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechanical or acoustical. torque. velocity. — Transmission. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. pressure or volume current. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. torque or pressure is electrical. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. angular velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T .DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. For example. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. voltage. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . pressures or such as forces or velocities. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. current. mechanical rectilineal. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. Either of these systems may be electrical. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. The bel is the Decibel. force. Transmission Loss {or Gain). force. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p .

2. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit.1. the vibrating systems. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. resistor. An tinguished from the devices. in abvolts. Electrical Resistance.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. electrical. A resistor. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. In this procedure. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. inductor and capacitor. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. 5. e. is defined as A. 12 . They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductance and capacitance. t 2. As indicated in the preceding chapter. Electrical resistance rs. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. 2. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. and current through the resistance. See footnote page 8. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. in abamperes. e rs^-.' 2. in abohms.

is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.RESISTANCE B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Acoustical Resistance. and velocity at the point of application of the force. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. D. in dyne centimeters. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). is defined as r^ — = y 2. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. . energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction).3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in centi- meters per second. Equation 2. in radians per second. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. Mechanical rotational energy is C.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. is defined as Vm where = — u 2.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. in dynes. in rotational ohms.

The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity.86 X 10"'* for air. 2. and U= Equation resistance current. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 6pww 2. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. in acoustical ohms. New . Van Nostrand Co. However. in centimeters. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. density. in = width of the meters. slit normal to the direction of flow. and frequency in cycles per second. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. 1940. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. a reaccomponent. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in grams per cubic centimeter.5 = viscosity coefficient..4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. volume current. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. A tube of small diameter. York. 1. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . resistance." D.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. slit normal to the direction of flow.4 where p — pressure. 'Olson. in addition to the resistive component. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. d= / thickness of the centimeters. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. a narrow and metal. slit in the direction of flow. in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters per second.

is defined as 2. Equation C. that during linear when the velocity decreases. and rate of change of current. INERTANCE 2. Inertance A. MASS. in abamperes per second. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. mass increases. in dynes. and driving force. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. = di Ldt ^ 2. in abhenries. Inductance.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Moment of Inertia. Mass.INDUCTANCE. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. which opposes a change of velocity. B. It remains constant ance. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. in centimeters per second per second.3. 15 Inductance. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in grams. in abvolts. 2. is Inductance L. Mass. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. Moment gram (centimeter)^. that during angular acceleration. Moment of Inertia. It decreases when the current decreases. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. MOMENT OF INERTIA. is remains a constant of inertia /. given by dd . Equation 2. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. in when the angular velocity a constant.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force.

over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in centimeters. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. that tion. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in centimeters. decreases. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in dynes per square centimeter. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. in grams. in p = density of the meter. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. in radians per second per second. York. is. Van Nostrand Co. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 1940. volume current.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance M. cross sectional area in square centimeters. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. Inertance..9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. effective length of the tube. in grams per (centimeter)*. inertance. in rate of change of 2. D.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in dyne centimeters." D. New . Equation 2. in cubic centimeters per second per second.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. and driving pressure.10 m = S = mass.

in abcoulombs. and applied force. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. Rotational Com- pliance.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Electrical Capacitance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. in dynes is Equation 2. and stored. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. and electromotive force. . proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in centimeters. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force.14 = Jm = displacement. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.4. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. abvolts. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. when is spring remains immovably compressed.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Rectilineal Compliance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Acoustical Capacitance A. It is a constant.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Electrical capacitance Cg. in abfarads.n Equation 2. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged.13 states that the charge on an force.

and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. Rotational compliance Cu-.17. in is The terms of the condensation. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. C. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. p = where c c^ps 2. in radians per centimeter per dyne. D. 9. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. . in centimeters per second. D. in grams per cubic centimeter.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. and condensation. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. New York. It is constant. Rotational Compliance. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. Acoustical Capacitance.. 1940.16 p s — = = velocity.17 s = * Olson." p. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. in radians. Equation 2. Van Nostrand Co. density. and applied torque.^ in dynes per square centimeter. allowed to unwind. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in dyne centimeters. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. It is constant.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. defined in equation 2.

X 2. in cubic centimeters.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. The electrical elements.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. and volume displacement. 2. electrical resistance. mechanical rectilineal. .20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.5. equal to the volume displacement. 2. = ^ F 2.16. From equations 2.21 F= volume. From equations 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.17. in cubic centimeters. . and 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. is 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. Equation 2. Representation of Electrical. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.19 and 2.

2. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. rE . mechanical rectilineal.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass.1. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.24 sions are mass. the standard modifiers for all four systems. length.2. Table 2. ^ The Tables 8.3 uses mass M. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. The dimensions given in Table 2.3. Further.1 and 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. ELEMENTS and time. length L and time T.1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. and time. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. Tables 2.1 page and list and 2.1. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. inertance and time. self-inductance. 2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. . 1.1. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.

establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. From these definitions it is evident that friction. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rotational. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or In other words. mass. 3. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. namely.1. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. 3. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal.1. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical.2.

mechanical rectilineal. namely. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. 3.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. C. velocity. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. potential and heat energy. kinetic. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca.1. mechanical rotational. In the electrical. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Cr = T. mechanical rectilineal. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. Electrical.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. Heat is a transient form of energy. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.

mechanical rotational. and current through the inductance L. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in centimeters per second. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. the inertance. in grams per (centimeter)*. in square centimeters. and velocity of the = mass m. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. 3. It is assumed that same phase.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. electrical. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance.2 m = X mass. cross-sectional area of the opening. in cubic centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in abamperes. in radians per second. mechanical rectilineal.3 = moment of inertia. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. The sum of the kinetic. equal to the system.4 M= m = S — m/S^. X— X Sx = volume current. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in grams. by the principle of conservation of energy. all the air particles in the opening move with the . mass of air in the opening. in abhenries. potential. in centimeters per second. in grams.

and charge on the capacitance. dyne. . in centimeters per dyne.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. p = density of air. s — stiffness of the spring. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in radians per dyne per centimeter. = -.. and <l> angular displacement. in abfarads. in cubic centimeters.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in dynes per centimeter. in radians.4. in centimeters per second. and X = displacement. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in grams per cubic centimeter. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. and c = velocity of sound. in centimeters. ^ 3. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters.

+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. and current.5. .17 = = is electrical resistance. mechanical Wm.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.18 . Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. in abamperes. +— + XX 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.: 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.y- 3. force. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le ..16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. in abohms. and acoustical systems.12 where We. Wr. mechanical rotational.

in rotational ohms. and velocity. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in acoustical ohms. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. in mechanical ohms. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . in centimeters per second. and angular velocity. in radians per second.22 = acoustical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. and X= 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.6. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.

Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.28 and 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.. 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.32 „.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.

4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the angular velocity and torque. the velocity and force.38 3. .33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the impedance is m and Cm.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.jo>I — — 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.7^ Ca 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. and Cr. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.7.

44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.Ce r^ 3. mechanical rectilineal.42 3. . ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.8.

49 „ .46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. Equation 3.1.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.1.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. namely.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . 3.24.

The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. Equation 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.51 is the same as equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.26. 3.55 is the same as equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.28. .53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.

59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. 3. . further illustrate the analogies between electrical. Equation 3. mechanical rotational.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. Equations 3.30.59. inclusively.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. and acoustical systems. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. mechanical rectilineal.43 to 3.59 is the same as equation 3.

the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.1. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.2. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. mechanical rectilineal. 4. MECHANICAL Electrical. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. velocity.1. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies.1. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.

in branch 3. in abamperes. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. and velocity of the mass m.3. in radians per second. in cubic centimeters per second. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.4 M = inertance.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. in grams. .2 where x^ m = = mass. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in centimeters per second. and = h = current. in abhenries.1 93 L = inductance.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and <i>2 angular displacement. in abcoulombs. in radians. . The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. 4.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in abfarads. in centimeters.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in abamperes. and displacement. in cubic centimeters. and — current.4. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.DISSIPATION 4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in qz ohms. and X2 = volume displacement. per dyne. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4.5.

Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . and velocity.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. 2 d<t>n dcj). in rotational ohms. and Xs = volume 4. mechanical ohms. in radians per second. current.i 4.12 = acoustical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4.6. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in acoustical ohms. and angular velocity. in cubic centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in centimeters per second.

17.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.23.rsqz 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.21 4. e = = Lqz-[.25 .22.24 Differentiating equation 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. 4.18.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.1 is h = H Equation 4.19 +k 4.13.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.7. 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. The linear displacement. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4. 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.20 4.8. The relation for the currents in Fig. at/jf.14.

The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. in the acoustical system.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. 4. at p.42 4. Jb /. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. Fig. at/^j.16. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.15. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.1.31.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.10. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.30.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.9. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. p = MXa + vaXz 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. The angular displacement.32 ing piston.29 4.26.26 ^ The 4.27. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. .

to mechanical rotational resistance. inertance acoustical system. 4. inclusive. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.25.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.1. Fig.19. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.29 and 4. 4.33. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. mass.1 to 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.11. vm. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. 4. shows again that resistance. 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. and to acoustical resistance.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.1. inductance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. Fig. given by ^3 JM is 4.

41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.1.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.X3 = pjccCa 4. is given by k The = f".43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. Fig.. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. X2 = Xi . the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. Fig.45 .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. is .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.1. 4. 4.

4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 1 tional systems of Figs.1 of Chapter V.48 JwCe3 Cr. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 5. see pages 53. 4. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 54. . The electrical impedances z^i.2 are as follows: 4. 4.2. 55 and 56 and Fig.12. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.3.

52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. The shunt electrical. compliance.2 save that the electrical capacitance.60 4. mass. 4. 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.59 4.— JwLmz Zb.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.2 4. 4. 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.55 jwLai 4.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.3 is the as that of Fig.57 The system shunt in Fig. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.56 ZA2 -T-z.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. Ce2.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. mechanical rectilineal.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. I2 and M2.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. ze2 = j^L2 4.

65 2^22^3 .3.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 4.

Ca.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Cri.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Electrical. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Mechanical Rectilineal. 4.\.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. L. 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.4.67 . Cei. m2.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. I2. to /i.«i. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .13.t 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. L2.3.4. mechanical rectilineal.412^3 + 4. Cb2 . Cm\. 4.

85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.78 4.86 4. 4. 4>2. to 4>o. Xi.89 . The current to.83 ZA2 4. the linear velocity Xq.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. 4>i. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.76 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. 4.74 4. X3 rectilineal system. nA where zei = . M2.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. X2. (h and 04 X2. ^ zjji = . Xi. Cai.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.84 4. i^ in show that /q.88 4. h.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.82 4.80 4.

the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.99 r^r^ . 4.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the linear velocity Xi.98 .1UU ^^^ pZA.{ZA3jrZA.) Ha ^_^^j .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.92 4. 4.93 Ha = The current ii. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.97 The current i2. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.90 4.95 .. 02 = + Zr^ 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4. the linear velocity X2.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. 01 4.

109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.106 .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.105 current 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.„. . = The equations cal. ^^^ 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. J~iR X. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. 4.107 .-riE . show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. the linear velocity X4.102 X3 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.

Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.^ an inductance. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.1. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. 5. 5. mechanical rectilineal. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 52 .2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. characteristics.2.1. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. mechanical rotational. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . branch is current flows in z^i. 5.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. Fig. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.1.

The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. consists of a system of gears. respectively. ^2. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. That is. </>!. 5. SAA. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .1 with the same tions. 5.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Xt Differentiating equation 5. </)r. = = xx -\- X2 5. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. must be in parallel. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6.4 That is. analogous to equation 5. Fig. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.3.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. Z/jt.2 for the electrical system. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. respectively. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.1. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. relations existing between//. as for example. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. shown schematically in Fig. With these specifications the differential of Fig. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. respectively. respectively. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. Equation 5.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.13 and 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. 5. equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. equations 5. ^^^^.2. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.12 relatively large 59 and 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. reactance . 5.2. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

3 is = T^ 5.5. 5. . 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.14 and 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2. Therefore.20 where Cm = compliance. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. in centimeters per dyne.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. 5. 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. Equations 5.11 and 5. The acoustical system of Fig.2. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. in grams per (centimeter)*. Fig.18 where M= inertance.42 = joiM 5. 5. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. from equations 5.

21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.13 and 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. at Equa- tions 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.3. 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.12 and 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.21 show that at low frequencies .ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. The mechanical the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.12 to the and 5.20 is shown in Fig.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.3.

5.3.4 in series across a line. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.23.11 and 5. The shown in Fig.4. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. 5.13 and 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abhenries.6.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5.14 and 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance.3. 5. equations 5.12 = ^-^ 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. tional. and electrical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. .

Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.25. in gram (centimeter)^. and Cu = rotational compliance.13 and . The output angular 5.4. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in centimeters per dyne. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.12 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5.25 where / = moment of inertia. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. and compliance.24 where m = mass. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24. in grams.

5. in (centimeter)" per dyne.13 and 5. The output volume 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 and there is very little attenuation.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5.24 also is zero.4. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.12 and 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.26.14 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.11 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5 parallel across a line. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. in grams per (centimeter)''. in Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. acoustical capacitance. current can be obtained from equations 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance.5.7. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. .64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.

27. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. in grams. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and electrical capacitance.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .28.28 where m = mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5. and compliance. in abhenries." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Cm = The output .12 and 5. in abfarads.J^mCM 5. 5.5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.

1 - 5. and = rotational compliance.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . 5.^MC.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.29.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. current can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. and acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.11 and 5. Equations 5.12 and 5.3 and the transmission is again small.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output volume 5.14 and 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. .29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.2 and the transmission is small..13 and The output angular 5. Equations 5.5 is ZR2 = . The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.30.

tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. itance in series. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. in abfarads. Electrical resistance. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.31. 5.8. in shunt with a line. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.min. in abohms.6. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. inductance. 5.6.5. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. and electrical capacitance. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.6 shows an electrical resistance. in abhenries. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. Electrical Resistance.11 and 5.

32.33. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. current can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia. from equations 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. compliance. Therefore.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in centimeters per dyne. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. Therefore. from equations 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in mechanical ohms. in grams. inertance.12 and 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass.12 and 5. 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.3 and there is very little attenuation. The output volume 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .11 and 5. in acoustical ohms. The output and 5. in rotational ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams per (centimeter)*.34. 5.

velocity can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.9. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. and compliance. in Fig.6.7. Therefore.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in abfarads.13 and 5. 5. in Fig. mass. quencies the same as that of Fig. inductance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.6. 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal. .36. 5. in abhenries.12 The output and 5. from equations 5.14 and 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.7 shows an electrical resistance.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Therefore. 5. in abohms. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.11 and 5. and electrical capacitance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in centimeters per dyne.35. 5. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.4.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . of inertia. S. = = mechanical rotational resistance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.37 where ru Cb. in acoustical ohms. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.14 Ca = 5.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.38.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical resistance. in rotational ohms. The output and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.37. acoustical capacitance. 5. inertance. in grams per and 5.7. rotational compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.

5. Fig. output electrical impedance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. 5.7. .13 and 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. 5. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.7. inductance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. However.3 and the transmission is again small.7. termed the input and output electrical impedances.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.2 and the transmission is small. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.10. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.7. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.7. 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.5.12 and 5. Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 and 5.14 and 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. 5.

.41 input acoustical impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. 5. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. 5. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.40 ZM2. 5.43 where L = inductance.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance.11. in abhenries. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.43 = p = 2. output acoustical impedance.42 Zas. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.

characteristic.39 and 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. . with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. 5.8. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.8.8 is = jo)I 5.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. in gram (centimeters)^.8. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.44 where tn = mass. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.8 is = j^m 5. 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8 equations 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.

Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.8 equations 5.48.42 and 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. 5. in abfarads.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Equation 5.46 where M= inertance. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.8. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The acoustical system of Fig. acoustical Equations 5. 5. 5. 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.41 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.12. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.

l/2 Fig.47. is 5.9 = 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.9.9 is ^R2 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. frequency characteristic. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.48 where Cm — compliance. 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Fig. 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. line and the mechanical rectihneal. . 5. in centimeters per dyne.9.9 to the frequency. is ance relatively large to motion.40 and 5.

5. analogous to an in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. .10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.10.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.41 and 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5.9. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. in (centimeter)" per dyne.9. in square centimeters.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.50. dyne. 5. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.13.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. Mechanical Rotational. The mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.9 is 2. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. compliance of the suspension system. and per = area of the diaphragm.42 and 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. Equations 5. 5. 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. Equation 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.

1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. 5.10.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.53.53 where m = = mass. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.52. . and = rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.40 and 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.39 and 5. in abfarads. rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams. in abhenries. The mechanical system of Fig. 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and C_if compliance.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. and electrical capacitance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.

At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.42 and 5.54. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. and the transmission is small.8.11. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5.50. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.55 where M= Ca = inertance.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.39 and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.10. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.40 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.41 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. Equations 5.14. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5.42 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. 5. 5. and again the transmission is small.55.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5.9 5. and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. connected in with a line.

5.40 and 5. in abfarads. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. and compliance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne.11 is - 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.57. 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and electrical capacitance.1/2 = 1 — S.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.11. in abhenries. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .11 is 2/22 = :.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.56. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. The mechanical system of Fig. in grams.

59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. 2. in grams (centimeter)^. and = rotational compliance.12. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 5. .11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.40 and 5.8 and the attenuation is small.12 shows an electrical resistance.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.42 == 5. Equations 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.41 The output angular 5.39 and 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Equation 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance. ance of Fig. Electrical Resistance. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.9 and again the attenuation is small.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.15. 5.58. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. Equations 5.11.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.11 is -.59. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5. 5. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. and acoustical capacitance. 5.11 equation 5. inductance and line. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

m = Cm = mass. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. in mechanical ohms. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in centimeters per dyne.39 and 5. in abhenries.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abohms. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. in abfarads. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.40 and 5.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. inductance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.62 . 5. 5. and capacitance. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in grams.61. 5.60.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . Electrical resistance.

from equations 5. Therefore. inertance.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. Fig.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. in grams per (centimeter)*. and again the transmission is small. Therefore. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5.40 and 5. However. .63. 5. Fig. The output and 5. from equations 5. 5. in acoustical ohms. Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.4 -T-z^ 5. 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. and Cr = rotational compliance.62.12 is 2.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.coC.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.12. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.42 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.12. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.41 and 5.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.12. current can be obtained from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12.12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Therefore.10. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. and the transmission is small.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.39 and 5. in rotational ohms. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.8. where vr / = moment of inertia.

5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.13 is ZM2 = r.13.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. in abohms. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.16. inductance line.64. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abhenries.65 .64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. and electrical capacitance.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. in abfarads. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. Electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. inductance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.39 and 5.13. 5. 83 Parallel. Electrical Resistance. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.13 shows an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.

At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. from equations 5. from equations 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.39 and 5. in grams. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. Fig. Therefore.66. ohms. 5. Therefore.9 and the attenuation is small. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. and compliance.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. in (centimeter)® per dyne.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5.65. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. 5. 5.40 and 5. therefore. 5.13.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Fig. mass.40 and 5. from equations 5. inertance. in centimeters per dyne. and Cr = rotational compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5.67. in acoustical ohms. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.13. 5.41 and 5. Therefore. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. in where tm mechanical ohms.13 is = jo^rAM ~.13. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output and 5. Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. from . and Ca = acoustical capacitance.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. The output volume 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite.

39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . 5.13.42 and 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5. Referring to equation 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. 5.13. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. 5. Fig.17. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.18. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.11.14 Mechanical Rotational.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. that of Fig.67 the attenuation ance.

42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. Equation 5. 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. Fig. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. 5. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. . 5. 5.15. 5.14 shows a system of made larger.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. Electrical Rectilineal.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. larger. Referring to equation 5. rectilineal. Equation 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.19. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.

The mechanical rectilineal.16.17.13 the mechanical rectihneal.11.12. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. mechanical rotational. respectively. and r. 5. "Zrz. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.20. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. wherein zm\. 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal.21.16. acoustical systems of Fig. mechani- and acoustical analogies. rui.16. zri. respectively.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. rm. 5. Equation 5. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. 5.41 and the output impedances.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. and r^i and the input impedances. In the same way equations 5. and Zmz.

5. 5. 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. rectihneal.17. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. Equation 5.14. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. . Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.18. Electrical. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. output impedance. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.12. ze2 is rE2. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.22.13 and 5. me- chanical rotational. Electrical.17. In this case zei is the input impedance.

ACOUSTICAL Fig. The force. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. 5. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ei.68 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. velocity and . ii. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.18. and zei represent the electromotive force. Electrical. and of turns on the secondary.18 the electromotive force. 5.

75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. /mi. 5.77 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. /ri. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. The torque.18. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. 5. consists of a mass- gear train.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. The pressure. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.18. of Fig.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.71 = — xi 5. The 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.79 .18.

18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. 5.41 and p2. New York." D. pi. 1940. ^ Engineering.. . The acoustical transformer of Fig. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. two diaphragms.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. Xi and 2.

. 6. Phys. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. 528. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. mechanical rectilineal.. 1922.2. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. 1922.1. W. Bell System Tech. Stewart. G. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Vol. 6. 2. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Vol. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. No. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Rev..CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. I. Jour. 20. p.. G. No. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. A. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. 92 .

that is. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. ^ Nostrand Co.3. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies." D. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van New York. velocities.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. respectively. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. 6. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. velocities." D. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. velocities. velocities. velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Shea. Van Nostrand Co. velocities. Johnson. New York. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. *' .. The most important type of structure is the ladder type.. positive and when than four. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies.

mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. 6. 6. mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.4.Ca 6.8 .5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.1.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.94 6.1.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.2 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .1 zmi zri 6. Electrical.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.

when uc = 6.9 the constants of the systems.= -4 6. 2A2 VMC^ . when ccc 6. when oip = = = = 6.2.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. coc = — 2Af2 V — . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. when coc 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.15 WC. when coc = .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.= From and .17.17 Equations 6. 6. 6. linear velocities. mechanical rectilineal. when . and the cutoff 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig. when coe 6.5. 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. inclusive.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.10 — — 0. 6. mechanical rotational.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.27 .= 22 and .= -4 22 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. .38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.12.

41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. UCe\ (1 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.46 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. when coci = = 6. when wci = — VLiCei . 2. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .43 Let LiCei = 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.44 6. —7== VMiCai .12 =0.50 V/iGji 0. _ 4. „ when coci = .. = — 7= / 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. —= Z£2 — 4.lfi)^ ^ -. 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . . = 1 .V/2 when WC2^WiC.51 VM2C42 = . — — / 1 6.

v/2 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. (1 . -4. —= 2. one greater than uci and Therefore.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. when .41 .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.

3 band pass filters transmitting currents. 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.56 to 6.69 .62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. are 6.7. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. linear velocities.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.4. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. show that the systems of Fig. 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.64 CeiLi 6. inclusive. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.63. mechanical rectilineal.

73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.74 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.4. mechanical rectilineal.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. 6.75 = I2CR2 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.76 . Electrical.

when. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.83 —= Z^l 2.84 .1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.82 . 6. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0.42 -4. . . —= zei -4. when uci = and cca oo 6. or. when (1 . MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0.-4. —= Zr\ -4. when oici = and wa = =0 6. M\Ca\) 4. when (1 .78 —= ZR2 0. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.77 —— = ZM2 0. 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

shown in Fig. 7. 7. in centimeters per second. rectilineal resistance.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass.2. The graph depicts the current. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The current is zero = 0. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5 where aE = Te/L. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. in grams.2.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. unit torque and unit pressure. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. respectively. unit force. velocity. and driving force. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.2. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. 7.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in dynes. .

in rotational = angular velocity. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. in dyne centimeters. . 7. in radians per second.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. = mechanical rotational resistance.2.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.2. 1/riv/.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.12 = — - e"^') 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. ohms.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in gram (centimeter)^.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. and = torque.

the solution of equation 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2. 7. in dynes per square centimeter.22 . 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.17 where aji — Vr/ I. in cubic centimeters.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.20 where M= ta inertance.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.16 7. in acoustical ohms.2. in grams per (centimeter)*. and p = sound pressure.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. From is the tables of operational formulas. = acoustical resistance. U = volume current.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). as shown in Fig. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.

in abvolts. in abohms. electrical resistance series. in abfarads.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.3. 7.e-^ in Fig. From is the tables of operational formulas. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.22 111 may be written.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.28 ve .w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7. the solution of equation 7.24 JA{t) = " (1 .26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abamperes. 7. 7. and electromotive force.4.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. current. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . electrical resistance. 7.

The graph depicts the current. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7 3. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. linear velocity.3. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. unit torque and unit pressure. in centimeters.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. From the tables of operational formulas. velocity. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. respectively.30 P)rM where a. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. in dynes. 7. 7. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. is The for / shown in Fig. in centimeters per dyne.31 . shown in Fig. force.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance.y = l/rjfCv/. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rectilineal resistance. unit force. the solution of equation 7.3.

in radians per second. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. mechanical rotational resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. as shown in Fig.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. 7.3. and torque. in rotational ohms. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dyne centimeters. volume current. as shown in Fig.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. in radians per dyne per centimeter.3. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. in dynes per square centimeter. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.3. in acoustical ohms.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. is shown in Fig. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. 7. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. angular velocity. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. is shown in Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7. acoustical resistance.33 where aR = IIvrCr. . in cubic centimeters per second. and sound pressure.3. 7.

1 7. electrical resist- ance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.4. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. abohms.5. in electrical capacitance. (a + ^ Pfa .37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. . 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. is shown 7. and electromotive force. in abohms. 7.3. in current. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.38 ^.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. abamperes. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical resistance. in abvolts. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . as in Fig. in abhenries. 7.

7.4. 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the current. unit force. the solution of equation 7. velocity.^.4. series Response of an electrical resistance. unit torque or unit pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.45. . 7.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. respectively. The response sinusoid.

displacement. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. acceleration. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. 1 AC. in centimeters per dyne.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. in grams.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters per second. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. rectilineal resistance. Substituting equation 7. 7. in centimeters per second per second. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. in centimeters. velocity. v for x.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in dynes.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. and driving force.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. 1 A\ m = mass.47 .

51 = moment of inertia. It is a damped > '^in/Cu.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in grams (centimeter). = angular velocity. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. in rotational ohms. Cr = rotational compliance.4.4_S.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 7. and 4> Jr = driving torque. 4> = angular acceleration. in dyne centimeters.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. in radians. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. equation 7. lAA. 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. = angular displacement.si .48 The response sinusoid. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second. 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. is of inertia. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per second per second.

then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.45. It is a damped sinusoid.4C. 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. .54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.56 ^PR = Jo. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. 7. = '^I/Cr. lAA. WR^ 2 1 7..57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .

58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. acoustical capacitance. 7. as in Fig. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in grams per (centimeter)^. volume current.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. Substituting U for X. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and pressure.4.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. at equation 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in dynes per square centimeter. in acoustical ohms. in cubic centimeters per second. acoustical resistance.

6. 7. 7.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. cca^ = 4M/Ca.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. . solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.45. 7. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.5.

is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). «i.68 . integral. Therefore. The indicial electrical admittance. an electromotive force ei is added.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. <?i at / = Ae.u)du du 7. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. an electromotive force ^2 is added. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. The This proof. as shown in Fig.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. etc. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. etc. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7..5. as in the case of the preceding sections.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. 7.5. all being of the unit type. tem. a time «2 later.

68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.u)du du u)du 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. The velocity. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal.72 .69 fR{u) — AR{t . Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du 7.

.

Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the electromagnetic.2. 8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. the electrostatic.1. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.

and Ca with vr. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. in abvolts. in centimeters. L and Ce. length of the conductor. circuit will be used instead of network. The force. in dynes. due to motion.1 B = / = / = flux density.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.1 and 8. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.1. abohms. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. in abamperes.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. termed motional electrical impedance. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. The electromotive force. in gausses.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. From equations 8. and current. in centimeters per second. 8. When there is only one path.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.However.2 where x = velocity. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). field in which depicted in Fig. in using analogies in actual practice. it is located. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.

6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.3.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. that is. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.1.4 8. The normal electrical impedance zek. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. Zen in abohms. all of the conductor. which the mechanical There are three general types of . of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. in mechanical ohms. 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in chanical ohms.6 The 8. in 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8.3. in the absence of motion. The dynamic direct radiator 8. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in abohms. 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.

the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. 8. Consider the system shown in Fig. Unpolarized Armature Type. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. the unpolarized armature type. namely. Since there is no polarizing flux. A.2.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Assume that all the reluctance . the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.

v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. A = area of the center pole. in centimeters. . in dynes. the total flux is <f>T Aa. in square centimeters.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. in abvolts. C = l-^nA. in abamperes. and a = normal spacing.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. is where / = current in the coil.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. n = number of turns.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.13 and 8. then from equations 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.15 The force on the armature.14 e = ^r 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.

4TrJa*/M . the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. nC^P 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.2.18 Equation 8. in mechanical ohms.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.15 and 8. mechanical ohms.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. 8. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. Substituting equation 8. in seconds. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.21 . then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.17 for the current in 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. and time. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.16.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.20 — X From equations 8.

23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. = number of turns.22 = motional electrical impedance. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. in maxwells. and impedance of the coil.2. ^ = area of center pole.19.3. . in abohms. / = current. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. Zen in abohms. in gilberts. from the poles of a permanent magnet. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. B. in centimeters. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. a = spacing. vibrators and clippers. in mechanical ohms. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. 8.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. this system cannot be used It is.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. in abamperes. filing — as in Fig. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. in abohms. in square centimeters. for the reproduction of sound. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. Therefore. Polarized Reed Armature Type. in abohms. in oersteds.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil.20 and 8. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. 8. 8. saws. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. for converting electrical variations into however.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . in 131 oit maxwells. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. and time. 27r/. in oersteds. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.axsin wt n coil. in abamperes. frequency.

28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.32 „ . in gilberts.. the flux.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . sidered. in square centimeters. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. Ax -\- Ax . the reluctance 4>i = a 8. spacing between the armature and pole.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. in centimeters. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. __ . in abvolts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. the flux will now be 4>x + A.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. in maxwells. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. and area of the pole.^ . due to the steady field.

assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.24 and 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.38 a Zm .3. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. fu = MNi ~r — . total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.33.34..34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. 8. in abohms.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. From equations 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. in mechanical ohms.35 and 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.35 8. in me- chanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. ~ 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.37. 8.32 and e i = — X 8. ZAfi.

3. in abohms. and impedance of the coil.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Equation 8. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. C.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.38 is similar to equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. ARMATURE MAGNET . The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. in abohms.

2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. 8. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in abamperes. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current .= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. at each pole magnet. in dynes.4. of the pole piece.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in maxwells. and yf effective area. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. The sum of the forces. i?2 = = coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. The flux. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in square centimeters. 8. The . The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. which the coil energizes. in maxwells. in oersteds. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. at the poles (Fig. The steady magnetic field is force. in dynes. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature.

47 at a at a is The electromotive force. NMA —^x a^ 8. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.136 flux. in merectilineal chanical ohms.4.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. and effective area of a pole piece. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in mechanical ohms. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in abvolts. in square centimeters. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8.44 A. and zm2 impedance of the load. of the steady field. . through the armature to the right and upward. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. in gilberts.45. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in mechanical ohms. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in centimeters.

43 =-^ 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.50.50 and 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. Zm\. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8. .

galvanometers.4. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. This driving system is used for loud speakers. system of Fig. 8. Therefore.

in dynes. is The current. in statfarads. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. in statvolts. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. = CeCq 8.59 and 8. in dynes. in statfarads. the fourth term will be negligible. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser.60 From equations 8. in statcoulombs. ^o^max sin wt . on the condenser is q considered. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.57 numerator of equation 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in statamperes.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. and capacity per unit area. motive Cq is large .57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. The useful force.62 . The force.

in mechanical ohms.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.61.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. 8. 47r(a — 8. 4ir(<2 + . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. in stat- amperes.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. ohms.69 . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.66 in 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.5. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. . is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. the generated current.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . . Ax) 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.

in stat- Zem = motional ohms.5.68. electrical network in Fig. adding a large stiffness. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. in statohms. at the same time.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.58 and 8.5. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.69 and 8. 8. statohms. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. + . and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.

current is applied to 2m . 8.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.6. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Consider the system shown in Fig.

The electromotive force. coil.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. induced in the winding.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. and area of the rod.74 and ehminating the steady force. in seconds. 8. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in abamperes. in centimeters. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. in abvolts. in square centimeters. turns in the coil. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . e = MJ^ dt 8. in current in the abamperes. current. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in gausses. CO/ 8. . due to is the Villari effect. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in square centimeters. and time. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. in cycles per second.73 Combining equations and 8. is If the rod allowed to vibrate.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. induction is of the nickel rod.X JR 8.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. frequency.

za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. and Young's modulus. in centimeters. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. rectilineal impedances zm.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.78 From equation 8. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. in mechanical ohms. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical to one .144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.6. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in abvolts.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms.

total in abohms. in mechanical ohms. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. as shown by equation 8.83 From equations 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. 8. 8.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. Van Nos- trand Co.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.6). .82 and 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance." D.86 Mason. in abohms — equation 8.. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.6. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.79. The mass mi in Fig. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. = motional impedance. 8. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.84. is assumed to be a In general. 1942. 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. New York.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. in abohms. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.

in square centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. and cross section of the rod. in centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod. in centimeters.80. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in Fig. 8.7. and Young's modulus. length of the rod. in square centimeters. 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. is where p The compliance Cmi.

For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.7. Young's modulus. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.7. The vibrating system of Fig.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.7C A and B given in Fig. A= E = area. X = 4^. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. in dynes. that is. due to a force. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. 8. air load and support resistance. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. 8.8. 8. EA and 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. . in square centimeters. 8. is The deformation per unit length. 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.84. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.8.88 where Jm = total force.

89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. the data of Fig. flux density. in square centimeters..90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. . equations 8.6. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. 8.88 and 8. B = A= From and area. c„ .8 and Young's modulus. 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant.

and A = cross-sectional area. due to the application of a force. in centimeters. in square centimeters. in dynes. and The displacement.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal.91 and 8.92 X From = 8. in dynes. E = Young's modulus. q is 149 = KJu 8.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. in statcoulombs. 6.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. 4 = length of the crystal. due an applied force.93 . equations 8. is .4 force. in centimeters. X to 10~* for quartz.

8. 8.9. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. zmi and z. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. . in mechanical ohms. in square = length of the crystal. and E = Young's modulus.97.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. / centimeters.100 and 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in statohms. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in mechanical ohms.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.101 From equations 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. namely.1. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET .3. 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.

in maxwells. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters per second. in abohms. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 9. 9. and + ZE2. in abohms. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. 9. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.2. in centimeters. due to the steady field. force. is The velocity of the armature.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. coil. area of the pole. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. and impedance of the external load. in centimeters per second. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. . and velocity of the armature.6 ze = = = = = total flux. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. spacing between the armature and pole. in square centimeters.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters. in gilberts. through the armature.2.

Balanced Armature Generating System.3. r~ . In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. due to the deflection of the armature. flows through the armature. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. 9.

= total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. a = spacing between armature and pole.4. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. in oersteds. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. of the alternating magnetic circuit.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in gilberts.3. i?2 = reluctance. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. M. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. = magnetomotive force. in centimeters per second. in A .9 and 9. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. 9. of the magnet.11 zme From equations 9. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. in maxwells.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. ZE = Zei + Ze2. velocity of the armature. in statamperes. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. The current. 9. in abohms. in centimeters. as depicted 9.3. in abohms. is The /m Zm + 9.

The current. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in statvolts. in square centimeters. ^= a area of the plate. in statamperes. in centimeters. in statfarads. in centimeters per second.14 where e = electromotive force. spacing between the plates. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statohms. and velocity of the X movable plate. electrical and impedance of the external load. 9.stationary "plate . in statvolts.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage.4 e is t2 9.

4. in square centimeters. a spacing between plates. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. electrical and 9. area of the plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.18 Zme) .15 and 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.4. is Ze2 in parallel. in statohms. electrical impedance of the external load.71 of the chapter on ZME = . Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. in centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. is The velocity of the movable plate. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. in statfarads. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.17 zme e From equations 9. in statvolts. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. = Zm /^^ + 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. X in centimeters per second. e.

= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.25.25 Comparing equations 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.22.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9. = — a CnX 9.23 Substituting equation 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.21 in 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.26 .23 in 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.E1 = -r—.21 Substituting equation 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.24 and fi 9.19.

26 and an internal impedance zei.5. 9. zei.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. L\ and rE\.27 . the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. ZEi. In the electrical circuit: e. The volt- age. is ^tNK 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. coil.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. shown in Fig. In the mechanical circuit: zm. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. 9. zme. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. in abvolts. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. Magnetostriction generating system.5. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. from equation 8. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. Equation 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. However.5. coil.

length of the rod.79 or 8. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. in centimeters. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. and impedance of the external circuit.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and Young's modulus. electrical electrical wavelength. force. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. . - £ 9.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in centimeters per second. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 9.5. in square centimeters. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. in abohms. in abohms.

equations 9. in mechanical ohms.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. are given by equations 8. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.32 the generated electromotive force. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.86 and 8. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. 9.27 and 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. ohms.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 9. .6. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.32 From abvolts. in mechanical = ohms. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in Fig.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. to be a In general.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.5. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.28. in centimeters per second.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.6.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.

A. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. E= 4 = Young's modulus. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. ZMi. = = length of the crystal. the driving force. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. in centimeters. and velocity of the crystal. 2_bi j<^Li.6. zei. zme.7.6. in Fig. in centimeters. + 9. In the mechanical networks: /m. length of the crystal. 6. . generated The h = —.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil.6 can be obtained from equation 9. in statamperes. Li and tei.4 X 10~* for quartz. 9. the effective Zjv/i. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. the other. where KEJ — •* 9. in centimeters per second. 9. cross-sectional area of the crystal.27 and the velocity. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. In the electrical circuits: e. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. mass and compliance of the rod.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. mi and Cmi. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. 9. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. zei.

the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. in statfarads. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. in statohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. z^'i zei. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . in statamperes. 2_b2. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.35 Ze where e = electromotive force.34 force e. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. circuit: e. Ce\.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. in statvolts. From equations 9. 9. In the Piezoelectric generating system.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. electrical and impedance of the external load.7. electrical and 9. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. crystal.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force.

4 = length of the crystal. the crystal.41 . In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.4 X 10~* for quartz. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. and E= Young's modulus.97 or 8. and „ „„ 9.7.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in centimeters. in centimeters. length of the crystal. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. 9. electrical impedance of the external load. length of in centimeters. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. in statfarads. E = Young's modulus.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. A = area of the electrode. in statohms. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.

Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.47 .7. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. in mechanical ohms. depicted equations 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.45 . in centimeters per second.36 and 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms. The velocity at the end of crystal.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. is .= where i. in mechantotal ical ohms.

In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.49 Substituting 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. e.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.45.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. 9.47 in 9.48. However.50 and 9.8. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.49 in 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. Equation 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . in Fig.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.51.104 and 8. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . == -^ AwKEx 9.

zei. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. ze\. In the electrical circuits: e. . Piezoelectric generating systems. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the driving force. 9. the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B.8. the electrical impedance of the external load. In the mechanical networks: Jm. Zm2. A. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. zme. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.45 and the velocity.37.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. 9.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. electrical network of Fig.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.

. I. e^' . i^' . and superposition theorems to electrical.2. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance.R. . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. produce a current distribution z'l'. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. 1 Ballentine. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems.E.1." 171 . 17. S. e^" . Vol. . No. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. the elements. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. . in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". 929. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. Proc. . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. Reciprocity Theorems A. p. z„". /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. 6.. /s" . It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Then 10. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. A number cal systems. ' 10. 1929.

e" and /'. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. equation 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10.2 = /'/' where e' . as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. o e .172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1. /" are the electromotive forces 10.

/ji/2./b' and (J)'. equation 10.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. 10.. and provided the applied torques /iji. fli" are the torques and angular 10. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. ^ Olson. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. ." D.6 velocities depicted .5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10.1." Vol. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces.1. "Theory of Sound. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. . //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering./7j2'. =/a/V 10. C. produce a rotational velocity — . and provided the applied forces /mi.1.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . equation 10. 4>2" . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". • distribution ^i'./m3 all of the same frequency. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. mechanical rotational system of Fig. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. 1940. fB2" . . York. 145. frequency.fRi" • 4>2. 10.4 where /^f'.1. 1926./fl3 . D./ij„ are all of the same .. ^2'. '4>^" . p. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Van Nostrand Co. London.7 p Rayleigh. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. MacMillan and Co.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. let a set of torques/iji'. II. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.3 becomes fu'x" . New . 10./ij2.

.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. p"v' 10. v' grad po „ = 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. equation 10.174 THEOREMS .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. .15 v' . - p 1 .1.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.4 by the p and v of the other set. .9 and 1.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. y" . 10.9 and 10. 10.13 If. equation 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .—.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.10 From neering" equations 1. . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.1.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".12 is for a point.. dv" — .8. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.11 From equations 10. 10. 10.+ dv' . 1 .

acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . . pi. pz same frequency. X^" Xn" Then . . pressures and volume currents. . X2. . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . 10. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. . 10. equation 10. . . . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . .1. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . and let a second set of pressures ^i". as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . X2".RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. produce a volume current distribution Xi./". . . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. velocities. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.16 becomes . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . let also. . . Then — . E. 10. X^ X^. .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.1. . which there are only two pressures. . produce pn." a second volume current distribution Xi". However. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first.19 .

2^. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . 10. Mechanical-acoustical.2. an interconnected e\ . — In .S. .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.21 . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. .. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. .S.S. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. The 10. Electrical-mechanical. . i" . B. forces n and velocities. px L. P"X' tn\ B M . L.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. . . C. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. HX* E p"X D Fig. . fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. let also. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. E. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . n Then 10. P"X' i" L. currents. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. D. F.

Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. e"i' 10. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. mechanical. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.23 . Electrical-Mechanical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. e'i" = e"i' 10. 10. Electrical-Mechanical. field. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. Theorem. acoustical. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.2C. is H.23 states that a if.2fi. electrical transducer. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. me- chanical. . acoustical transducer. mechanical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. 2D.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. as shown in Fig. G. 10.

If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC.3.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. as shown in Fig. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.178 I. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. = p"X' 10. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. D. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- .Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.2£. 10.

velocities.4. Each source. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. force. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. forces. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. save the one being considered. current. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. forces. velocity. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. . torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. mechanical rectilineal. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents.

Introduction The fundamental lineal.2. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. principles relating to electrical.1. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . However. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. muffler is quite effective.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. Convert the answer into the original system. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. However. An exhaust back pressure. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. by acoustical capacitances. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. 11.

1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. 11. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.u. with rft. . When there is only one path. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. in the audible frequency range. circuit will be used instead of network. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. Therefore. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. 11.1. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. 11.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.However. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.1. The system of Fig. in Fig. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.M and Ca for an acoustical system.

.3.3. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. sate for approximations.182 APPLICATIONS In general. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.2. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. 11. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.

zem. 11.7. In the mechanical circuit: m\.1. 11. teg. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. .3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .3. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. The mechanical driving from equation 8.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11.3. 11. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.. nii and r. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. and .3.w2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. rMi and Ci. in mechanical Jm = driving force." I"*. 11. in dynes. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. radiator tube. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.4. 11. the mass of the cone. force can be determined /m 11. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube.

the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper..2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. . 1940. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. New York. 11. phonograph pickups." D. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H.5. in mechanical ohms. the moment Cg. Van Nostrand Co. m. telephone receivers.4. measuring cal systems. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . loud speakers. is The sound power output. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. of inertia of the flywheel. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.YWHEEL I. comphance of the damper. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. The simple vibration fly- damper. In the mechanical network: A. etc. in centimeters per second. shown ^ in Fig. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. and the shaft. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies.4.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. given by 11. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 11. FX. velocity of the cone. These systems include microphones. F.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. 11. Olson.

A. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. the mass of the machine.6. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. isolator. zmf. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. W. The shunt mechanical vibration.SA.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. The driving force/i. ciple of the device. Cm /4 and 4rM . for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. z. Jm./ is due to the . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr.SA. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced.5. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the mass of the machine. /jf. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig.vF. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. W. 11. B.

only isolation in the system of Fig. these values springs.7. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. the mass of the case. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. . the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 11.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. mi.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. consists of the following elements: nii. shown in Fig. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. 11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.6.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. isolating mechanical network. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. pressor.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. 11. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.6. the compliance and mechanical mi. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. Jm.

4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf.7. Of course. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. .7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig.v/i/4. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the mass of the case. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. The mechanical network of Fig. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.8. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. zmf. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. 11.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. the system in Fig. 187 Cmi and rui. 11. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 11.

degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig.u 11. r. 11. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. etc.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. Cm2. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . engine. the compliance of the spring suspension. the compliance of the spring. the mass of the frame. mum. the combined driving force at the four legs. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. the mass of the tire. the driving force at each tire. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. m2.v/3. both rectilineal and rotational. 11.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. Cms a-nd r. m-i. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. the mass of the instrument and carriage. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. tmi. 11. body. Cmi and tires.v/2. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi.9. This system has many degrees of freedom.7. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. Cm2.8. wheel and axle. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. in general. 11. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration.

8.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. m^. view. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. 4rif 2. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. Cji/2/4. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. However. the combined driving force at the four tires. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. 4?ni. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. 4:rM2. the mass of the frame. . I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. 189 m^. the mass of the four tires. the driving force. Since there are four tires. body and engine.\f 1. Cmi/4 and 4r. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. springs and shock absorbers. the mass of the passenger. 11. mi. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the compliance of the springs.i/a./ifi the comtires. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. Cms. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. Cms and r. the mass of the passenger. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. fn2. wheels. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the compliance of the four springs.

A mechanical rectilineal resistance. which controls the oscillations. an automobile has several modes of vibration. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. that is. developed at the tires. 11. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. Acoustical Ohm. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. For example. Supplementary Note: Electrical. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. An acoustical resistance.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. Mechanical Ohm. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. An electrical resistance. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances.6. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. pitching or swaying motion. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. Rotational Ohm. As already indicated. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. Electrical abohm. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. — — —A — . the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. mechanical rotational resistance. Most of the forces. mechanical rectilineal.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

175 Rotational vibration damper. 6 Static pressure. 10. peak. impedance. 61. 48 two degrees of freedom. compliance. 188 Systems. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 23 Theorems. 122 . 13. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 21. acoustical. 9. 18. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 178 electrical. 13. automobile. 88 electrical. 171 Resonant frequency. ohm. 37 and analogies. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 9. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 9 resistance. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 6 Sound effective. 179 Thevenin's. (see cor- effective. 35 effective. 9. 45 electrical. 45 instantaneous. 177 reactance. 6 peak. reciprocity. 111 electrical resistance. electrical Superposition theorem. 18. 17. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 10. 6 14 pressure. 22. 6 Transducer. 6 Stiffness. 13. 6 maximum. 21. 178 mechanical rotational. 42 one degree of freedom. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. acoustical. 179 Suspension systems. 9. 32 Rotational. 25 three degrees of freedom. 22 mechanical rotational. 120 Duhamel's integral. 22. 88 mechanical rotational. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 21. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. electrical-mechanical.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 184 Rotatomotive force. 22 networlcs. 13. 23. 171 acoustical. 9. 6. 23 maximum. 85 rotational. 5 Transformer. 6. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 9. 42 inductance and series coupled. 187 Torque. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 10. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 107 Transients. 172 mechanical rotational. 10. 6 instantaneous. 6. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 105 arbitrary force. 178 electrical.) 195 Table. 28 Subharmonic. 88 Transient response. 21. 11 instantaneous. 23 mechanical. 23 23. 6 maximum. 178 acoustical. 6 peak. 37. 41 mechanical rotational. 13. 173 superposition.

93. 45 Unit function. 8 8 "T" type network. magnetostriction. 106 unit function. 8. 11 loss. 150. 7. 163. 94 response characteristics. 5 filters. 22. peak. 24 Velocity. 23. 7. 23 Transmission. 20.) INDEX Villari effect. 7 Vibration. 148 machine isolator. 165. 144. 92. 167 . 106 163 Volume current. 93 22 7 Wavelength. peak. Wave band elimination. 22 angular. 93. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 21. "X" isolator. 8 maximum. band pass. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 147. 92. gain. 7 linear. cut quartz crystal. 97 93. 149. 184 186 Young's modulus. 7 Wave. 37. 146. 5 maximum. 11 effective.196 Transients (Cont. 151. 143. high pass. 106 Units. 95 low pass. 92. 92. 101 instantaneous. Heaviside's Calculus. 23 effective. 8 instantaneous. 93. 7.

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