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# Dynamical Analogies

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Harry January. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. in this project. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. 1943 F. engineer. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. plex arrangements of multielement systems. Olson. E. an electrical circuit. Research Director. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Olson . The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Lorene E. W. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Engstrom.

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Rectilineal Compliance. Inductance B.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.2 3. ELECTRICAL. Mass.2 4 II. Moment of Inertia.1 1 1.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .3 3. C.1 3.2 Introduction Resistance A. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Acoustical Capacitance A.5 Representation of Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal. Rectilineal Compliance C. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.1 2. A. ELEMENTS 2. Acoustical Resistance 2. Acoustical Capacitance 2.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inertance 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.3 Inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Electrical Resistance B. Electrical Capacitance B. Rotational Compliance.

2 4.6 4.7 3.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.4 5..8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.5 Chapter 3.5 Equations of Motion 4.7 64 5. 60 5.3 5. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.7 The Electrical System . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.8 67 .2 Two Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. ELECTRICAL. 4.6 3.6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 Electrical.4 Dissipation 4... .1 Introduction 37 4.10 The Acoustical System 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.1 Introduction 52 5.

15 Electrical Resistance. WAVE FILTERS 6.2 6.17 5.16 Electrical Resistance.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .6 6. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.CONTENTS Chapter 5.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.11 69 71 5.20 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.3 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.21 5. Mechanical Rotational.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 Series 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..1 6.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.

4 9. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.5 8.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.X Chapter VII.5 114 120 7.2 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.2 9. 1 7. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . THEOREMS 10. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.1 9. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. B.1 10. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Ill 7.5 9. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.2 8. Unpolarized Armature B. C.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 8.4 8.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.6 VIII.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.

8 1 1 .2 11.6 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .4 11.7 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.5 184 185 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. APPLICATIONS 11. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.CONTENTS Chapter E. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. In other words. However. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena.1. vibrating systems. Expressions for the kinetic energy. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. 1 The acoustical . A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. mechanical and acoustical tems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. as for example.

The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. springs and brakes. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. ' The lished. as for example. . Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. springs and friction. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. induct- ance and capacitance. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Of course. Elements are the meshes. Electrical elements are resistance. various assemblies of masses. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. cal. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. constituent parts of a circuit.

Hanle {JViss. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Institute of Radio Engineers.. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Acous. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. 4. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. In this book. No. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. ratio of force to displacement. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. No. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. 4. — . Finally. mechanical and acoustical systems. Verojf a. In addition. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. in the past. circuit. Therefore. That is to say. Vol. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. XI. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Vol. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. I) and Firestone {Jour. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. Therefore. and ratio of pressure to displacement. SiemensKonzern.1 of 1942. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. d. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. all communication. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. For example. every electrical. However. up the mechanical and electrical. However. Soc. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. Amer. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. particularly electrical circuits.

equals 2x divided by the period T. where T. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. This called a Fourier series. Octave. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Harmonic. . Cycle. all is the frequency. a constant. + T). Definitions ^ this section. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. Terms not sections. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. Frequency. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. or which tity comprises a cycle. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. The remainder. period. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. a period of jy. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second.2. a positive constant. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. Basic Frequency.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. negative. Periodic Quantity. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. or zero. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. reciprocal of the period.

Wave. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. mechanical or acoustical system. Subharmonic. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Effective Electromotive Force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). time interval The is unit is the abvolt. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Mechanomotive Force). —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). A wave is a propagated disturbance. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. The unit is the abvolt. force. Dyne. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. The unit the dyne. The unit is the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. Wavelength. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. . the dyne. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. — — Abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). stantaneous force at a point the dyne. The root unit the abvolt. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Electromotive Force.

— The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Effective the total instantaneous torque. the abampere. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The the — Instantaneous Current. force. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. dyne per square centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. the dyne per square centimeter. Abampere. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). The unit is the dyne centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. . An abampere is the unit of current. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter.

for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. Maximum Current. Instantaneous Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. complete cycle at the point. is Radian per Second. Peak Velocity. The unit is the abampere. current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Peak Current. unit is the radian per second. is Centimeter per Second. the abampere.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is velocity in that interval. Effective Angular Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Maximum Velocity. velocity. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. the centimeter per second. The unit is the centimeter per second. Effective Velocity.

the cubic centimeter per second. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. is the abohm. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. The unit the abohm. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. which. Electrical Reactance. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. for Peak Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. is Electrical Resistance. . given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. second. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. times the frequency. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. when times the frequency.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. Electrical Impedance. The unit the abohm. The unit is the abfarad. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. To avoid ambiguity in this book. where both systems are considered concurrently. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Effective Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2.-W is impedance. electrical Inductance.

gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. rotational resistance ance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). page I . Compliance. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. — Compliance The unit is the gram. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Mass. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Rotational Compliance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. ' See footnote S. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the rotational ohm. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Acoustical Impedance.

The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. when multiplied by times the frequency. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. inductance and electrical capacitance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. Acoustical System.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. moment of inertia. In the same way. Electrical System. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. mass and compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. and rotational compliance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the acoustical ohm. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance.. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. . Mechanical Rotational System. mass and compliance. by "l-w times the frequency. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. Inertance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. Acoustical Reactance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which.

pressure or volume current. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. pressures or such as forces or velocities. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . mechanical or acoustical. torque or pressure is electrical. force. For example. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. current. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. voltage. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. Either of these systems may be electrical. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. angular velocity. Transmission Loss {or Gain). force. The bel is the Decibel. velocity. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. — Transmission. torque.

is defined as A. e rs^-.2.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. See footnote page 8. A resistor. e. 5. Electrical Resistance. 12 . the vibrating systems. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. in abamperes. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. in abohms. 2. inductance and capacitance. and current through the resistance. electrical.1. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. An tinguished from the devices. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. Electrical resistance rs. inductor and capacitor. As indicated in the preceding chapter. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. In this procedure.' 2. in abvolts.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. resistor. t 2.

energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in dyne centimeters. .2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. in rotational ohms. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in dynes.RESISTANCE B. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Mechanical rotational energy is C. D.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Equation 2. is defined as r^ — = y 2. Acoustical Resistance. and velocity at the point of application of the force. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. in radians per second. in centi- meters per second. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction).

This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. volume current. 1.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. However. 6pww 2.4 where p — pressure.5 = viscosity coefficient. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. in = width of the meters. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in centimeters.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. York. density. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in addition to the resistive component. slit normal to the direction of flow. a narrow and metal. slit normal to the direction of flow. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. 1940. in dynes per square centimeter.. 2. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. resistance. in cubic centimeters per second. New .86 X 10"'* for air. and U= Equation resistance current. in grams per cubic centimeter. and frequency in cycles per second. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. Van Nostrand Co. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. 'Olson. slit in the direction of flow. A tube of small diameter. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in acoustical ohms. a reaccomponent." D. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.

MASS. Moment of Inertia. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. that during angular acceleration. Mass. in dynes. 15 Inductance. in when the angular velocity a constant.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Mass. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. It decreases when the current decreases.3. Inertance A. Equation 2.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. is remains a constant of inertia /. Inductance. It remains constant ance.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. B. in centimeters per second per second. mass increases. = di Ldt ^ 2. Moment gram (centimeter)^. MOMENT OF INERTIA. is Inductance L. and driving force. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. which opposes a change of velocity. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. Moment of Inertia. INERTANCE 2. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. and rate of change of current. 2. given by dd . Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Equation C. in abvolts. in abhenries. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. in abamperes per second.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.INDUCTANCE. is defined as 2. in grams.

" D. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. decreases. effective length of the tube. and driving pressure. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in grams. in p = density of the meter. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. inertance.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. volume current.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in cubic centimeters per second per second. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Equation 2. York. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system.10 m = S = mass. is.. Inertance. cross sectional area in square centimeters. D. Van Nostrand Co. in dyne centimeters. New . in grams per (centimeter)*.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in dynes per square centimeter. that tion. 1940. in centimeters. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. in rate of change of 2. in radians per second per second. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. in centimeters. Inertance M.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current.

electrical capacitance is Equation 2. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. It is a constant.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. and applied force. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal Compliance.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2.13 states that the charge on an force. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element.4. in abcoulombs. .14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. and electromotive force. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. and stored. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. in dynes is Equation 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. abvolts. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released.n Equation 2.14 = Jm = displacement. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in centimeters. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Rotational Com- pliance. Electrical Capacitance. in abfarads. Electrical capacitance Cg. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.

p = where c c^ps 2. allowed to unwind. C. New York. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. Acoustical Capacitance. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. defined in equation 2. . density. Rotational compliance Cu-.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance." p.17. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. Rotational Compliance. 9. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. and condensation. and applied torque. It is constant.. D. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure.^ in dynes per square centimeter.16 p s — = = velocity. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in is The terms of the condensation. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. in radians. in grams per cubic centimeter. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. in dyne centimeters.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. in centimeters per second. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Van Nostrand Co. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. 1940. Equation 2. It is constant. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.17 s = * Olson. D. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted.

Representation of Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. From equations 2. .19 and 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. and volume displacement.5. in cubic centimeters.X 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. is 2. in cubic centimeters.16. Mechanical Rectilineal.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.17. From equations 2. 2. mechanical rectilineal.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. electrical resistance. equal to the volume displacement.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. and 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. . schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.18 X= volume displacement. Equation 2. 2.21 F= volume. The electrical elements.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. = ^ F 2.

1. 2. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. rE . ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rectilineal. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Table 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. ELEMENTS and time.1. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. and time. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.3. self-inductance. The dimensions given in Table 2.2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.1.24 sions are mass. length L and time T. Tables 2.3 uses mass M. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. length. . The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. the standard modifiers for all four systems. inertance and time. Further. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.1 page and list and 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. ^ The Tables 8. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. 2.1 and 2.1.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. 1. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia.

the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. mechanical rectilineal.2. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable.1.1. mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational. mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational or In other words. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. 3. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. namely. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. From these definitions it is evident that friction. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. 3.

Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. Heat is a transient form of energy. C. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical. Cr = T.1. potential and heat energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. kinetic. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. velocity. namely.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. In the electrical. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. 3. mechanical rectilineal. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon .

and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in square centimeters. cross-sectional area of the opening.4 M= m = S — m/S^. the inertance. in grams. X— X Sx = volume current. in abhenries.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. 3. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. mass of air in the opening. and velocity of the = mass m.2 m = X mass. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. potential. The sum of the kinetic. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. electrical. and current through the inductance L. in grams. mechanical rotational. in cubic centimeters per second. in radians per second.3 = moment of inertia. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in grams per (centimeter)*. It is assumed that same phase. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. mechanical rectilineal. in centimeters per second. equal to the system. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in centimeters per second.3. by the principle of conservation of energy. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in abamperes.

p = density of air. in centimeters. in cubic centimeters. . in centimeters per second. and <l> angular displacement. in centimeters per dyne.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in grams per cubic centimeter. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3.4. in radians. = -. in dynes per centimeter. ^ 3.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in abcoulombs. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity.. s — stiffness of the spring. dyne. and X = displacement. and charge on the capacitance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and c = velocity of sound. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. in abfarads.

Wr. in abohms. force. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. +— + XX 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.18 .17 = = is electrical resistance. .+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. in abamperes.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical Wm.: 3. and current.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.. mechanical rotational. and acoustical systems.12 where We.y- 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.5.

and X= 3. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. in centimeters per second. in mechanical ohms.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. and velocity. in radians per second. and angular velocity. in rotational ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. in acoustical ohms. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.22 = acoustical resistance.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.

30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.32 „.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.. 3.28 and 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .24.26.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.

. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the velocity and force.7^ Ca 3.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. and Cr. the impedance is m and Cm. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.7.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.jo>I — — 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. the angular velocity and torque.38 3.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.

8.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. . electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.42 3. mechanical rectilineal.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.Ce r^ 3.

1. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.1.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. 3.24. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. Equation 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. namely.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.49 „ . The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.

D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.55 is the same as equation 3.26.51 is the same as equation 3. 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. Equation 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.28.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. .

further illustrate the analogies between electrical. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.59 is the same as equation 3. . inclusively. mechanical rotational.59. 3. Equation 3.43 to 3. mechanical rectilineal.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.30.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. and acoustical systems. Equations 3.

Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. velocity. 4.2. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. MECHANICAL Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. 4.1.1.1. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. 4.

2 where x^ m = = mass. in abamperes. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. . The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.3. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in grams. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in centimeters per second. and = h = current.4 M = inertance. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. and velocity of the mass m. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in branch 3.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in radians per second. in abhenries.1 93 L = inductance. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. in cubic centimeters per second.

4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. 4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in qz ohms.5. and displacement.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in abfarads. . in centimeters. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. in abamperes.DISSIPATION 4. per dyne. and — current. in abcoulombs. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in radians. and <i>2 angular displacement.

10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in centimeters per second. 2 d<t>n dcj). Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in acoustical ohms. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 = acoustical resistance.6. and velocity. mechanical ohms.i 4. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . in cubic centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. in rotational ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. and Xs = volume 4. in radians per second. current. and angular velocity.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.

The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.14.20 4.17.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.rsqz 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.8. e = = Lqz-[.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.21 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.25 .1 is h = H Equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.18. 4.22.7. 4. 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.23. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. at/jf.13.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. The linear displacement.24 Differentiating equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 +k 4.

in the acoustical system.31. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.9.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. The angular displacement. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.26 ^ The 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. Fig.16. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.26.1. p = MXa + vaXz 4. at p. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. Jb /.27. = = /03 + rij^g 4. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. .30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.29 4.15.32 ing piston. 4.42 4.28 Differentiating equation 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.10. at/^j. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. 4.30.

25. inductance. 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.1. vm. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. inclusive.19.11.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. Fig. given by ^3 JM is 4. to mechanical rotational resistance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. mass. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. Fig.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. inertance acoustical system. 4. shows again that resistance. and to acoustical resistance.33. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.1 to 4. 4.29 and 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.1. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. 4.

given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. Fig. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.X3 = pjccCa 4.1. X2 = Xi .1. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. Fig. 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X.45 .40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. is . is given by k The = f". 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. 4.

2.2 are as follows: 4. 54. see pages 53.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. 5.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.12.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. .3. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.1 of Chapter V. 1 tional systems of Figs.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. 4. The electrical impedances z^i. 55 and 56 and Fig.

ze2 = j^L2 4. 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.50 + jwm2 + T-p. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .55 jwLai 4. I2 and M2.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.— JwLmz Zb. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.59 4. Ce2.57 The system shunt in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. The shunt electrical. compliance. moment of inertia and inertance L2.60 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.3 is the as that of Fig. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. mass. mechanical rectilineal. 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.2 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance.

3.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.65 2^22^3 .64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.

Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . 4.t 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. m2.3.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. Cb2 .412^3 + 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.4. 4. 4. I2.4. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .\. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. L. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Ca. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Cri. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. mechanical rectilineal.13. Cei.«i.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Cm\. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Electrical. L2.67 . is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. to /i.

nA where zei = . the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. Xi. to 4>o. 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. The current to. (h and 04 X2.84 4.89 . the linear velocity Xq. 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. X2. Cai. h.86 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. M2. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. Xi.78 4.82 4. i^ in show that /q. 4>2.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.83 ZA2 4. 4>i.80 4.88 4. X3 rectilineal system.74 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. ^ zjji = .76 4.

ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. the linear velocity X2.92 4.90 4.97 The current i2.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.99 r^r^ . + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.98 .1UU ^^^ pZA.{ZA3jrZA. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.ZM3 + ZMi) 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. the linear velocity Xi.) Ha ^_^^j . 4.93 Ha = The current ii. 02 = + Zr^ 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. 4. 01 4.95 .

SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.105 current 4. . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.-riE . 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.107 . J~iR X.106 . = The equations cal. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.102 X3 4. ^^^ 4. the linear velocity X4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.„.

1.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. 5. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. 5. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.2. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.^ an inductance. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. characteristics. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. termed the input and output electrical impedances. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. 52 . It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.1.

5. Fig.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.1. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. branch is current flows in z^i. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.

ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Z/jt. </)r. = = xx -\- X2 5. shown schematically in Fig. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . 5. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. Fig. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. ^2. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. That is. respectively.4 That is. consists of a system of gears. </>!. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. SAA. Equation 5. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5..5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. relations existing between//. analogous to equation 5. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.1 with the same tions. the differential used in automobiles and tractors.1. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. respectively.2 for the electrical system. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. With these specifications the differential of Fig. Xt Differentiating equation 5. respectively. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. 5. as for example. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. must be in parallel. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type.3. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. respectively.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

^^^^.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.2.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5.12 relatively large 59 and 5. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.2.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. equations 5. 5. reactance . equations 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.17 where / = moment of inertia. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. 5.13 and 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.

in centimeters per dyne. 5. Equations 5. in abfarads.42 = joiM 5.2. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 is = T^ 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. 5.11 and 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. The acoustical system of Fig. .2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.14 and 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.3.18 where M= inertance. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.20 where Cm = compliance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. from equations 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.2. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. Therefore. 5.5. 5.

impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3. 5.3. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.3 is 1 2fi2 5. The mechanical the frequency.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. 5.13 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Fig. 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.20 is shown in Fig.12 to the and 5.21 show that at low frequencies . at Equa- tions 5.12 and 5.

21 is The acoustical system of Fig.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5. equations 5. The shown in Fig. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.23 where L = Ce = inductance.23. 5. 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.6. 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.12 = ^-^ 5. and electrical capacitance. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.14 and 5.3. tional. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.4. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. in abhenries.13 and 5.11 and 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. . transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.4 in series across a line. 5.3.

5. in grams. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in radians per dyne per centimeter.4. in centimeters per dyne. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.25 where / = moment of inertia.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output angular 5.12 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.25. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Cu = rotational compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.13 and .24 where m = mass.24. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in gram (centimeter)^.

Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.11 and 5. The output volume 5.4. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.7.5.26. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.14 and 5. 5. acoustical capacitance. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12 and 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Equations 5. 5.24 also is zero.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.26 where M= Ca = inertance. in grams per (centimeter)''.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.5 parallel across a line. in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. . At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.13 and 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. in (centimeter)" per dyne.2 and there is very little attenuation.

" ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.12 and 5. in grams. in abfarads. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. 5.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in abhenries.5. and compliance.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . 5.28.27 where L = Ce = inductance. in centimeters per dyne.J^mCM 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.27. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.28 where m = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and electrical capacitance. 5. Cm = The output .5 is jo}L -£2 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5.14 and 5.^MC. 5.2 and the transmission is small. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5.29. in grams per (centimeter)*.3 and the transmission is again small. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. . 5.30. Equations 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and = rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. and acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne..30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. in gram (centimeter)^.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. 5.13 and 5. 5. The output volume 5. 1 - 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.13 and The output angular 5.5 is ZR2 = .11 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.

itance in series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. in abfarads. Electrical Resistance. Electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.6. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. in Fig.6. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. 5.5. in abhenries. . inductance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.8. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in abohms. 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.6 shows an electrical resistance. 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.31. and electrical capacitance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.min. 5.11 and 5. in shunt with a line.

At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5.32.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. of inertia. compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + .11 and 5. Therefore.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5. The output volume 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in grams. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in rotational ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance. in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.12 and 5. 5. 5.12 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. mass.34.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.33. from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. Therefore.3 and there is very little attenuation. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. in centimeters per dyne. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. and rotational compliance. The output and 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. . 5. 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in Fig.11 and 5.12 The output and 5. and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne.4.9.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. in Fig. from equations 5. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. from equations 5.6. inductance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. Therefore. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. in abfarads. The mechanical network is rectihneal. in grams.35.7. Therefore.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance.14 and 5. 5. quencies the same as that of Fig.36.7 shows an electrical resistance. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. in abohms. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.6. mass. in mechanical ohms. 5. 5.

7. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in grams per and 5. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.14 Ca = 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.37.37 where ru Cb. inertance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical resistance. S. The output and 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.38. acoustical capacitance. = = mechanical rotational resistance. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia. rotational compliance.

. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.7. 5.7.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. output electrical impedance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.3 and the transmission is again small. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. However.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.7. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.14 and 5.7.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.10. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5.11 and 5. 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances.7. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. Fig. Fig. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. inductance.13 and 5.12 and 5.2 and the transmission is small. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.

of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. output acoustical impedance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.40 ZM2. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. in abhenries. 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.11. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.43 where L = inductance.42 Zas. 5. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.43 = p = 2. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.41 input acoustical impedance. 5.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.

40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. 5.39 and 5. .44 where tn = mass.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. in gram (centimeters)^. 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.8 equations 5.8. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. 5. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5. 5. in grams. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.8. 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.45 where / = moment of inertia.8 is = j^m 5. characteristic. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.8 is = jo)I 5.8.

Equation 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. acoustical Equations 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5.48. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.46 where M= inertance.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.8 equations 5.41 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. in abfarads.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.8. 5.12. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.42 and 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. The acoustical system of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .

depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. .ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. line and the mechanical rectihneal.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. is ance relatively large to motion. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.47.9.40 and 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. 5.9 = 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. 5. Fig. frequency characteristic. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.l/2 Fig. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.9 to the frequency. is 5. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.9. 5.48 where Cm — compliance.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.9 is ^R2 5. is inversely proportional Equations 5.

and per = area of the diaphragm. 5. 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. dyne.41 and 5. 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.10. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational. Equations 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.9.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5. compliance of the suspension system.13.50.9 is 2.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. in square centimeters.42 and 5.9. 5. Equation 5. analogous to an in Fig. The acoustical impedance of Fig. 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. .9 inversely proportional to the frequency. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.

5.53. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. in gram (centimeter)^.39 and 5. and C_if compliance. rectilineal. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. .10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.52.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. in grams. and = rotational compliance.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. in centimeters per dyne. and electrical capacitance. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. The mechanical system of Fig. 5. in abfarads. in radians per dyne per centimeter.53 where m = = mass.10. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.40 and 5. 5.

5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.42 and 5. 5.11.14. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.55. and the transmission is small. 5. . connected in with a line.40 and 5. and again the transmission is small.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Equations 5. Equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.10.54. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.42 and 5. Equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.41 and 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.39 and 5.8. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.9 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.50. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.

5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.1/2 = 1 — S. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical system of Fig.40 and 5. in grams. in centimeters per dyne. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5.11 is - 5.11 is 2/22 = :. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. and compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and electrical capacitance.39 and 5.11.57.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. in abfarads.56. 5. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

12. Electrical Resistance.39 and 5.11 equation 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.59.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. and = rotational compliance. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 == 5. 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. inductance and line.40 and 5.11 is -. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. ance of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance.8 and the attenuation is small.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5. 5. Equation 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. in grams (centimeter)^. 5. .41 and 5.15. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.11. 2. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.9 and again the attenuation is small. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. and acoustical capacitance. 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.58. 5.41 The output angular 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in grams. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abohms.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. and capacitance. m = Cm = mass. in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance.62 . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. inductance.39 and 5. 5. compliance.12.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in abhenries. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.61.40 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. 5. 5.60. in abfarads.

41 and 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5.12 is 2. Therefore.12. from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. 5. from equations 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. The output volume 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.12.63.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in rotational ohms.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. and the transmission is small. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Therefore. . and again the transmission is small.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.42 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.39 and 5.10.62.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. 5.8. in acoustical ohms. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. from equations 5. Fig. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. where vr / = moment of inertia.12.coC. However. current can be obtained from equations 5.40 and 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.4 -T-z^ 5. The output and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. Fig.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. inertance. Therefore. 5.12.12. and Cr = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. 5. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Resistance.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. in abhenries.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. 83 Parallel. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.13 is ZM2 = r.39 and 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. in abfarads.13.65 . 5. inductance line.64. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.13 shows an electrical resistance.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. inductance.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abohms. and electrical capacitance. Electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.16.

in M= grams per (centimeter)*. current can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. The output and 5.8 and the attenuation is small. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. in (centimeter)® per dyne.67.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. from equations 5. inertance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. mass. from . and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in where tm mechanical ohms.41 and 5.66. 5.13.39 and 5. 5. ohms.40 and 5. and Cr = rotational compliance.13. 5. Therefore.9 and the attenuation is small. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. in grams. and compliance. 5. Fig. in centimeters per dyne. 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. Therefore.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. Fig. Therefore. from equations 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. therefore.65. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.40 and 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in acoustical ohms.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. Fig. the acoustical reactance is infinite.13 is = jo^rAM ~. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output volume 5.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.

and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.42 and 5.14 Mechanical Rotational.11. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.13. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. Fig. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.18. Referring to equation 5.17. 5. 5. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .13. that of Fig. 5.67 the attenuation ance.

11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. Equation 5. 5. Referring to equation 5.19. 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. Electrical Rectilineal. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. 5. 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5. .15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. larger.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. 5. Equation 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. Equation 5.14 shows a system of made larger. Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. rectilineal.15.

and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .12. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.20.41 and the output impedances. mechanical rotational. 5. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. and r.11. respectively.13 the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. Equation 5. mechani- and acoustical analogies. and r^i and the input impedances.21. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. 5. rui. acoustical systems of Fig. In the same way equations 5. and Zmz. The mechanical rectilineal. rm. 5.16.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. wherein zm\. 5. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.16. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. respectively. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.16. "Zrz. 5. zri.17.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5.

5.12. Equation 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.13 and 5. ze2 is rE2.17.22. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. 5.17. . Electrical. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. rectihneal.14. In this case zei is the input impedance. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. 5. output impedance.18. Electrical. me- chanical rotational. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. 5.

18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. The force. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. ei. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. 5. Electrical. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. and zei represent the electromotive force.18.68 5. and of turns on the secondary. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. 5. velocity and .18 the electromotive force. ii.

18. 5. 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18.18.71 = — xi 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.79 .75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.77 5. 5.18. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. of Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. consists of a mass- gear train. /mi.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. The pressure. The torque. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. /ri.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. The 5.

18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.41 and p2. 5. . The acoustical transformer of Fig. pi. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. 1940. ^ Engineering. New York. two diaphragms. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure." D.. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. Xi and 2.

An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Rev. G.. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. W. Jour. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 6. No. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. Stewart. p. G. Bell System Tech. No. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. 20. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 92 . the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.1.2. mechanical rectilineal. 2. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. Vol.. Vol.. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. I. 528. 1922. 6. 1922..CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Phys. A.

a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. New York. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4.3." D. respectively. 6.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents.. *' . A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. velocities. Shea. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. Van New York. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. velocities. velocities.. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. Johnson. velocities. velocities. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. positive and when than four. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. Van Nostrand Co. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. that is. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. ^ Nostrand Co. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies." D.

mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. Electrical. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.8 .> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. 6.Ca 6. 6.1.2 6.1 zmi zri 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.4.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.1.94 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.6 ZR2 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . mechanical rectilineal.

when oip = = = = 6. and the cutoff 6.= From and .-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.15 WC. when coe 6.2.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. when coc = . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.10 and show that the systems of Fig. when coc 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.5.10 — — 0. mechanical rotational. .14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. mechanical rectilineal. 2A2 VMC^ . 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. when uc = 6.= -4 6. 6.17 Equations 6.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when . 6. inclusive. linear velocities. 6.17. when ccc 6. coc = — 2Af2 V — .9 the constants of the systems.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems.= 22 and .= -4 22 6. 2£1 6.27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .

37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5. .35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.

. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . „ when coci = .44 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC.46 6. — — / 1 6.lfi)^ ^ -. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . —7== VMiCai . when coci = = 6. 2. when wci = — VLiCei .49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. = 1 . = — 7= / 6. .41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .43 Let LiCei = 6.50 V/iGji 0. _ 4.12 =0.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.51 VM2C42 = . —= Z£2 — 4.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. UCe\ (1 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.

54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . one greater than uci and Therefore.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .53 —= ZiJ2 -4.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. -4. —= 2.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.v/2 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. (1 .^C2'MiCaxY = --—.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.41 .

7.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.56 to 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.4.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. show that the systems of Fig.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r. are 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.63.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.64 CeiLi 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. inclusive. 6.69 . linear velocities.

4.76 .73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.74 6.75 = I2CR2 6. 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. mechanical rectilineal.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.

6. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .79 ^— = ZA2 0.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0.78 —= ZR2 0. —= Zr\ -4. M\Ca\) 4. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. .-4. —= zei -4. when uci = and cca oo 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6. 6. or. when (1 . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. .77 —— = ZM2 0.83 —= Z^l 2.42 -4. when.84 .82 . when (1 .1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. 7. in dynes. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7.2. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and driving force. respectively.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in grams. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. 7. The graph depicts the current. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.5 where aE = Te/L. in centimeters per second. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. unit torque and unit pressure.8 where m = = /m — V mass.2. shown in Fig. unit force. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.2. . rectilineal resistance. velocity. 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. The current is zero = 0.

= mechanical rotational resistance. as shown in Fig.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. . 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.12 = — - e"^') 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.2. in rotational = angular velocity. 1/riv/. in dyne centimeters. and = torque. ohms.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.2. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. in radians per second.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in gram (centimeter)^.

The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. U = volume current. in cubic centimeters. 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. in acoustical ohms. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. in dynes per square centimeter. and p = sound pressure. as shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7. in grams per (centimeter)*.17 where aji — Vr/ I. 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.2. = acoustical resistance.16 7.20 where M= ta inertance. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.22 .21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2.

7. and electromotive force.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. in abohms. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. in abfarads. 7.e-^ in Fig.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.28 ve . the solution of equation 7.22 111 may be written.24 JA{t) = " (1 .-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. electrical resistance series. in abamperes. electrical resistance.4. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. current.2.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. in abvolts. the solution of equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.3. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .

shown in Fig. unit torque and unit pressure.31 .29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. From the tables of operational formulas. in mechanical ohms. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in centimeters per dyne. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.30 P)rM where a. unit force. mechanical rectilineal resistance.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. in centimeters. The graph depicts the current.y = l/rjfCv/. the solution of equation 7. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.3. 7. 7 3. velocity. is The for / shown in Fig. respectively. force. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3. linear velocity. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. in dynes.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per second.3. angular velocity. in dyne centimeters. as shown in Fig. 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in acoustical ohms.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. in rotational ohms. . volume current. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. is shown in Fig.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. is shown in Fig. 7.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. and sound pressure. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. mechanical rotational resistance. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.3. in dynes per square centimeter. 7. acoustical resistance. and torque.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.3. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3. as shown in Fig. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in cubic centimeters per second.

electrical resist- ance. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. 7. . 1 7.3.4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. 7. abohms. as in Fig.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. in current.5. is shown 7. abamperes.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. in electrical capacitance.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.38 ^.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. and electromotive force. in abohms.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. electrical resistance. (a + ^ Pfa .39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . 7. in abhenries. in abvolts.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. respectively. The graph depicts the current.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. The response sinusoid. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. . series Response of an electrical resistance.^.45. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. velocity. 7. 7.4.4. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. the solution of equation 7. unit force. unit torque or unit pressure. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.

7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. 1 A\ m = mass.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. and driving force. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in centimeters per second per second. displacement. in centimeters.47 . in centimeters per second.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. acceleration.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. in grams. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. 1 AC.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in dynes.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. velocity. Substituting equation 7. in centimeters per dyne. rectilineal resistance. v for x.

48 The response sinusoid. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. lAA. is of inertia.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in dyne centimeters. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. and 4> Jr = driving torque. 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. in radians per second. in radians. Cr = rotational compliance. 7. equation 7. 4> = angular acceleration. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in grams (centimeter).si . = angular displacement.51 = moment of inertia. in radians per dyne per centimeter. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. 7.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. = angular velocity. in radians per second per second.4_S.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4.

56 ^PR = Jo.45. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. WR^ 2 1 7.. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. It is a damped sinusoid.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. lAA. 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. = '^I/Cr. .4C.

in dynes per square centimeter. as in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)^. in cubic centimeters per second.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance.4. 7. acoustical resistance. and pressure.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in acoustical ohms.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . at equation 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Substituting U for X. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. volume current. acoustical capacitance.

then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.45. 7. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.5. 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. Step function approximation.6. . The value of the unit force t=o Fig. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.

an electromotive force ei is added. as shown in Fig. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. an electromotive force ^2 is added. The This proof.. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. tem. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. etc. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).68 . The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. all being of the unit type.u)du du 7. a time «2 later. 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. The indicial electrical admittance.5. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. etc.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. «i. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . Therefore. 7.5.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. <?i at / = Ae. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. integral. as in the case of the preceding sections.

angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.u)du 7. The velocity. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .u)du du u)du 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.69 fR{u) — AR{t .3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. 7.72 . Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. mechanical rotational rectilineal.

.

VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electrostatic.1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . 8.2. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.CHAPTER 8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. the electromagnetic.

in centimeters per second. in abvolts. in centimeters. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. in dynes. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. and current. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. it is located. termed motional electrical impedance. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.However. L and Ce. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . circuit will be used instead of network. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in using analogies in actual practice. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1. When there is only one path. The force. From equations 8. abohms. and Ca with vr.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. in gausses. field in which depicted in Fig. The electromotive force. in abamperes.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.2 where x = velocity. due to motion. length of the conductor.1 B = / = / = flux density.1. 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.1 and 8.

6 The 8. in chanical ohms. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.3. Zen in abohms. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. all of the conductor.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. which the mechanical There are three general types of . me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8.4 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. that is. in 8. in abohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. in the absence of motion. in mechanical ohms.1. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. The normal electrical impedance zek.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. 8.3.

the unpolarized armature type. Assume that all the reluctance . Unpolarized Armature Type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Since there is no polarizing flux. A. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. namely. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. 8.2. Consider the system shown in Fig.

A = area of the center pole. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in abamperes.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. in dynes. is where / = current in the coil. and a = normal spacing.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in square centimeters. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.13 and 8.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in abvolts.14 e = ^r 8. . in centimeters.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. then from equations 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. the total flux is <f>T Aa.15 The force on the armature. n = number of turns. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. C = l-^nA.

18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.16. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.17 for the current in 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.18 Equation 8. in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in mechanical ohms.21 .16 e 1 X ^ 4 .V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. Substituting equation 8. mechanical ohms.15 and 8.20 — X From equations 8.2. and time. in seconds. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. 4TrJa*/M . and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the force on the armature is Im = '. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. nC^P 8.

this system cannot be used It is. for the reproduction of sound. in mechanical ohms. in abohms.3. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. B. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. / = current. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.20 and 8. saws. ^ = area of center pole. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. in gilberts.2. 8. and impedance of the coil. Zen in abohms. in centimeters. in abamperes.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. vibrators and clippers. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in maxwells. in abohms. a = spacing. from the poles of a permanent magnet.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. . 8.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. Therefore. 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. in abohms. in oersteds. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit.19. filing — as in Fig.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.22 = motional electrical impedance. = number of turns. Polarized Reed Armature Type. in square centimeters. for converting electrical variations into however.

r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . in abamperes. in oersteds.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.axsin wt n coil. in 131 oit maxwells. and time. 27r/. frequency. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.

Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.^ . in square centimeters.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. Ax -\- Ax . due to the steady field. in gilberts.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. the flux will now be 4>x + A.32 „ . in abvolts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. spacing between the armature and pole. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. __ . sidered. and area of the pole.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. in maxwells. the flux.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. in centimeters.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.

From equations 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.37.32 and e i = — X 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8..33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.35 8. in mechanical ohms. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. ~ 8. in abohms. ZAfi.33.38 a Zm . assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.34. fu = MNi ~r — . 8. in me- chanical ohms.35 and 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.24 and 8.3. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.

in abohms.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms.38 is similar to equation 8. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. and impedance of the coil. in abohms. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. Equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. ARMATURE MAGNET . C. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. 8.3.

at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current .= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The flux. in maxwells. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. i?2 = = coil. and yf effective area. The sum of the forces. The steady magnetic field is force.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. 8. in square centimeters. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in dynes. in abamperes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in oersteds. in maxwells.4. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 8. at the poles (Fig. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. at each pole magnet. which the coil energizes.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. The . in dynes. of the pole piece. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux.

in mechanical ohms. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in mechanical ohms. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.136 flux.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. in abvolts. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in centimeters. in square centimeters.45.44 A. NMA —^x a^ 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. through the armature to the right and upward.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. .v) where M = magnetomotive a force. in gilberts. 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. and effective area of a pole piece. in merectilineal chanical ohms. rectilineal impedance of the armature. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.4. of the steady field.

. Zm\.50.43 =-^ 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.

system of Fig. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.4. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. 8. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. This driving system is used for loud speakers. Therefore.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. galvanometers.

on the condenser is q considered. in dynes. in statfarads. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. in statfarads. motive Cq is large . the fourth term will be negligible. ^o^max sin wt .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statvolts. = CeCq 8. in statcoulombs. in dynes. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. in statamperes. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. The force.62 .57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.57 numerator of equation 8. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. The useful force.59 and 8. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force.60 From equations 8. and capacity per unit area.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. is The current. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces.

(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. 47r(a — 8.5. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. in mechanical ohms.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. in stat- amperes. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. .61.69 . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. ohms. 4ir(<2 + . Ax) 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. the generated current.66 in 8. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 8.

8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. adding a large stiffness. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.5. 8.68. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. in statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.5. electrical network in Fig.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.69 and 8. statohms. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. electrical impedance of the condenser.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. 8.58 and 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. at the same time. + .

8. Consider the system shown in Fig. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.6.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .

B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. in abvolts. in abamperes. in gausses.X JR 8. . in seconds. induction is of the nickel rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. CO/ 8. current. in square centimeters. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. coil. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. induced in the winding.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in cycles per second.73 Combining equations and 8. and area of the rod. due to is the Villari effect. The electromotive force.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in square centimeters. and time. 8.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters.74 and ehminating the steady force. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. e = MJ^ dt 8. in current in the abamperes. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. frequency. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . turns in the coil. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.

The mechanical to one . The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in centimeters. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in square centimeters. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal impedances zm. and Young's modulus. 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. length of the rod. in abvolts.78 From equation 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.6. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. in mechanical ohms.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. 8. Van Nos- trand Co.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.6.84. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.82 and 8.79. 1942. total in abohms. in mechanical ohms. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. in abohms. 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.86 Mason.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. = motional impedance." D. as shown by equation 8. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. is assumed to be a In general. 8. in abohms — equation 8. .85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. The mass mi in Fig. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.6). 8. 8.83 From equations 8. New York.. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.

87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in square centimeters. and cross section of the rod. in Fig. length of the rod. 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. in square centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .80. in centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. 8. and Young's modulus. in centimeters. length of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. is where p The compliance Cmi.7.

7. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.88 where Jm = total force. air load and support resistance. is The deformation per unit length. 8. 8.7. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. in square centimeters. that is.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. . 8. X = 4^.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. in dynes. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. The vibrating system of Fig. 8.8.7C A and B given in Fig. A= E = area. EA and 8. 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.84. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. due to a force.8. 8. 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. Young's modulus.

the data of Fig. . in square centimeters. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. c„ .90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation..6. B = A= From and area.89 K = magnetostriction constant. flux density.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.8 and Young's modulus. equations 8. 8.88 and 8.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. 8.

in square centimeters.4 force.92 X From = 8. E = Young's modulus. X to 10~* for quartz. equations 8. in dynes. in centimeters.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. due an applied force. in centimeters. and A = cross-sectional area. is .91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. 4 = length of the crystal. in dynes.93 .91 and 8. in statcoulombs. q is 149 = KJu 8. due to the application of a force. and The displacement.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. 6.

.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in square = length of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. zmi and z. in centimeters. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. / centimeters.9. 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.101 From equations 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in mechanical ohms. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. 8.97.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in statohms. 8.100 and 8. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. and E = Young's modulus.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET .3.1. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. 9. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. namely. 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.

The vibrating system is shown in Fig. force. in abohms. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in centimeters. through the armature. and impedance of the external load.2.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. 9. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and + ZE2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. is The velocity of the armature. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. area of the pole. in centimeters. 9.6 ze = = = = = total flux. in square centimeters. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in abohms. in centimeters per second. due to the steady field. and velocity of the armature. in gilberts.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil.2. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. in maxwells. . 9. spacing between the armature and pole.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. coil. in centimeters per second.

ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. r~ . Balanced Armature Generating System. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. 9.3. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. flows through the armature.

of the alternating magnetic circuit. in oersteds. velocity of the armature. as depicted 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. is The /m Zm + 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig.3. 9. in centimeters per second. M. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. a = spacing between armature and pole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.9 and 9. in A . ZE = Zei + Ze2. i?2 = reluctance.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. in abohms. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. = magnetomotive force.3. of the magnet.4. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. in statamperes. in centimeters.11 zme From equations 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. in gilberts.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. in abohms. The current. in maxwells.

and velocity of the X movable plate. ^= a area of the plate. in statamperes. in statvolts.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statfarads.14 where e = electromotive force. in statohms. in centimeters per second. The current. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. 9. spacing between the plates. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in square centimeters. in centimeters. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in statvolts.stationary "plate .4 e is t2 9.

15 and 9.17 zme e From equations 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.71 of the chapter on ZME = .160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. in square centimeters. is Ze2 in parallel. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in centimeters. in statvolts. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. is The velocity of the movable plate. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in statohms. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. electrical impedance of the external load. e. a spacing between plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.4. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in statfarads. X in centimeters per second. = Zm /^^ + 9.18 Zme) . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. 9. area of the plates. electrical and 9.4.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.

24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9. = — a CnX 9.E1 = -r—.26 .21 Substituting equation 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.23 in 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.19.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.23 Substituting equation 9.22.21 in 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.25.24 and fi 9. .62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.25 Comparing equations 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.

the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. In the mechanical circuit: zm. The volt- age. However.26 and an internal impedance zei. Equation 9.27 . 9. 9.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. In the electrical circuit: e. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. zei.5.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. Magnetostriction generating system. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5.5. in abvolts. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. shown in Fig. zme. L\ and rE\. from equation 8. ZEi. is ^tNK 9. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. coil. coil.

The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. in abohms. 9. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. and Young's modulus. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. . The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and impedance of the external circuit. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. - £ 9. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.79 or 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. length of the rod. in abohms. force. electrical electrical wavelength. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in centimeters.5. in square centimeters.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.27 and 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in Fig.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. in centimeters per second.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. equations 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.32 the generated electromotive force. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.6. 9. are given by equations 8.86 and 8. . in mechanical = ohms. ohms.6. to be a In general. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.5.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.32 From abvolts. 9. in mechanical ohms. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.28.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.

mi and Cmi.6 can be obtained from equation 9. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. cross-sectional area of the crystal.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. the driving force. where KEJ — •* 9. in square centimeters. zme. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. ZMi. generated The h = —. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. length of the crystal. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current.27 and the velocity. the effective Zjv/i. zei. in centimeters. 9. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. in centimeters. and velocity of the crystal. 9. = = length of the crystal. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. in statamperes.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.6. mass and compliance of the rod. zei. + 9. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. In the electrical circuits: e. the other. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. E= 4 = Young's modulus. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.4 X 10~* for quartz. in Fig. 9.7. In the mechanical networks: /m. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. 6. . Li and tei. A. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 2_bi j<^Li. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. in centimeters per second.

2_b2. electrical and 9. From equations 9. in statfarads. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. electrical and impedance of the external load. Ce\. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. crystal. in statvolts. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. In the Piezoelectric generating system. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.7. 9. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. in statamperes. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. z^'i zei. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. circuit: e. in statohms.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.34 force e.

7. electrical impedance of the external load.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. E = Young's modulus. and „ „„ 9. in statfarads.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. length of in centimeters.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. 4 = length of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in centimeters. A = area of the electrode.97 or 8. 9. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. in statohms.4 X 10~* for quartz. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. the crystal. and E= Young's modulus. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in square centimeters. length of the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.41 .

= where i. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.47 . in centimeters per second. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. zm2 in mechanical ohms.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. in mechanical ohms. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.45 . The velocity at the end of crystal. in mechantotal ical ohms. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.36 and 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.7. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. depicted equations 9. is .

PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.104 and 8.48. However. 9. in Fig.50 and 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. e.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .52 and an internal impedance Ze\. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.49 Substituting 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. Equation 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.51.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.8.45.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. 9.49 in 9.47 in 9.

electrical network of Fig. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. Piezoelectric generating systems. zme.8 can be obtained from equation 9. crystal. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. zei. In the electrical circuits: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. ze\.45 and the velocity. the driving force. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. . 9. A. 9. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the electrical impedance of the external load.8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the other. Zm2.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. In the mechanical networks: Jm.37.

Then 10. p. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. e^' . . Vol.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. 929. the elements. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . and superposition theorems to electrical.. /s" . S. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency.1. i^' . linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. Reciprocity Theorems A. produce a current distribution z'l'. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. 17. No. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.2. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. ' 10. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.E. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable.R. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . I. z„". the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". 1929. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. Proc. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device." 171 . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. e^" . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. . A number cal systems. 1 Ballentine. . 6.

equation 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. /" are the electromotive forces 10. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10. o e .2 = /'/' where e' . e" and /'.

York.7 p Rayleigh.6 velocities depicted . "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. frequency. p. =/a/V 10./b' and (J)'. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. and provided the applied torques /iji. '4>^" . . Van Nostrand Co.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10." Vol. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces.3 becomes fu'x" ./fl3 . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. ^2'. /ji/2. 1940. produce a rotational velocity — . mechanical rotational system of Fig.4 where /^f'. and provided the applied forces /mi../7j2'. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. C. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. 4>2" . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i".. equation 10. .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . 1926. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. 10. fB2" ./ij2. II. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. MacMillan and Co.fRi" • 4>2. fli" are the torques and angular 10. London. let a set of torques/iji'.1. equation 10. 10. 145. . "Theory of Sound. D. New ." D. • distribution ^i'. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.1.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10./ij„ are all of the same . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. 10.1.1./m3 all of the same frequency. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. . ^ Olson.

10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . 1 . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.9 and 1. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. 10.13 If. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.8. y" .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.12 is for a point.11 From equations 10. p"v' 10.+ dv' . 0' dt dt p v" grad po .12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". - p 1 . equation 10. 10.. .1.1. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.4 by the p and v of the other set. v' grad po „ = 10.10 From neering" equations 1. dv" — . In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.9 and 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.—. .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. . equation 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.15 v' . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' ..174 THEOREMS . 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.

acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. 10. equation 10. X2". X2. . 10." a second volume current distribution Xi".1. E. . . velocities. which there are only two pressures. . 10. . produce pn. pz same frequency.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. X^" Xn" Then . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device./".1.16 becomes . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable.19 . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . However. pressures and volume currents. Then — . . . pi. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. let also. X^ X^. . produce a volume current distribution Xi. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. and let a second set of pressures ^i". n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. . . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . . . . . . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. .

.S. P"X' i" L. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. . 10. .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system.S. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem.21 . an interconnected e\ . . forces n and velocities. let also. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . P"X' tn\ B M . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . L. .. E. F.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. The 10. C. currents. . px L. D.2. n Then 10.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. i" . . electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. Electrical-mechanical. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. B. — In . then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. HX* E p"X D Fig.2^. Mechanical-acoustical. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. .S.

This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. acoustical. mechanical. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. mechanical. e'i" = e"i' 10. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. acoustical transducer. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. Theorem.2C.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. 10. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. is H. e"i' 10.2fi. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.23 .22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. Electrical-Mechanical. me- chanical. Electrical-Mechanical.23 states that a if. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. electrical transducer. as shown in Fig. field. G. 2D. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. . 10.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.

the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. 10. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system.3. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. = p"X' 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. D.2£. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.178 I.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. as shown in Fig. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .

velocities. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. mechanical rectilineal. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. current. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. forces. . Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.4. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. save the one being considered. force.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. Each source. velocity.

CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. by acoustical capacitances. Convert the answer into the original system.1. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. muffler is quite effective.2. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. 11. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. An exhaust back pressure. However. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . Introduction The fundamental lineal. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. principles relating to electrical. However. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method.

The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. The system of Fig. with rft. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. 11. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. in the audible frequency range. in Fig.u. 11. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. circuit will be used instead of network.However. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. When there is only one path. . /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.M and Ca for an acoustical system. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. Therefore.1. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.1. 11.

3. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.182 APPLICATIONS In general. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11.3. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. . sate for approximations. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.2.

cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig." I"*. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. and .4. radiator tube. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. 11.. . 11. 11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. electrical dynamic loud speal<er.3. rMi and Ci.3. nii and r. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 11.1.w2. 11. In the mechanical circuit: m\.7. The mechanical driving from equation 8. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. teg. force can be determined /m 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit.3. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. in mechanical Jm = driving force. zem. the mass of the cone. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. in dynes.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig.

In the mechanical network: A. loud speakers. given by 11. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. The simple vibration fly- damper. These systems include microphones.4. telephone receivers. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. in mechanical ohms. etc. 11.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. .184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. 1940. New York. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11." D. FX. in centimeters per second. Olson. comphance of the damper. measuring cal systems.4.YWHEEL I. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. phonograph pickups.5. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 11. the moment Cg.. F. Van Nostrand Co.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. of inertia of the flywheel. m. is The sound power output. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. and the shaft. 11. shown ^ in Fig. velocity of the cone.

11. A. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. The driving force/i. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced.5.6. z.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. the mass of the machine. the mass of the machine. Cm /4 and 4rM . ciple of the device. /jf. B. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. W.vF. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. zmf. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. The shunt mechanical vibration.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . Jm. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. isolator./ is due to the . In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.SA. W.SA. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.

RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. these values springs.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. 11. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the compliance and mechanical mi. . shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. 11. only isolation in the system of Fig. 11. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.6. the mass of the case. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.6. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . pressor.7. consists of the following elements: nii. 11.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. mi. isolating mechanical network. Jm.

The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. zmf. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 11.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. the system in Fig. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Of course.v/i/4. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. 187 Cmi and rui. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator.8. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti.7. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. Cm2 and ^1-/2. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. . the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. the mass of the case. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. 11. 11. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. The mechanical network of Fig.

11. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. Cms a-nd r. the combined driving force at the four legs.v/2.v/3. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. Cmi and tires.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the mass of the tire. etc. the compliance of the spring. m2. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. the compliance of the spring suspension. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. body.8. both rectilineal and rotational. tmi. r.9. in general. Cm2. engine. the driving force at each tire.7. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. Cm2. 11. 11. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.u 11. the mass of the frame. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . 11.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. m-i. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. mum. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. wheel and axle. This system has many degrees of freedom. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the mass of the instrument and carriage.

Cms. wheels. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the mass of the passenger. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the mass of the four tires. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. fn2.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. 189 m^. Since there are four tires. mi. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. 4?ni. the mass of the passenger. body and engine. the combined driving force at the four tires. Cji/2/4. springs and shock absorbers. the compliance of the springs. Cms and r./ifi the comtires. 4:rM2. . the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. 4rif 2. the compliance of the four springs. However. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. m^. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the mass of the frame. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion.8. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the driving force. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs.i/a. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . view. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. 11.\f 1.

A mechanical rectilineal resistance. pitching or swaying motion. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. Electrical abohm. mechanical rectilineal. Most of the forces. Mechanical Ohm. An acoustical resistance. For example. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. Acoustical Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. — — —A — . an automobile has several modes of vibration.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. Rotational Ohm. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. An electrical resistance. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances.6. As already indicated. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. developed at the tires. mechanical rotational resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. that is. 11. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. Supplementary Note: Electrical. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. which controls the oscillations. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

21. automobile. 111 electrical resistance. 48 two degrees of freedom. 171 acoustical. 120 Duhamel's integral. 88 electrical. 11 instantaneous. acoustical. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 178 mechanical rotational. 18. reciprocity. 25 three degrees of freedom. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 6. 177 reactance. compliance. 6. 13. 22 networlcs. 23 Theorems. 6 maximum. 178 acoustical. 178 electrical. 22. 88 mechanical rotational. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 9. 6 peak. 178 electrical. 6 peak. acoustical. 187 Torque. 18. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 9. 37 and analogies. 122 . 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 45 instantaneous. ohm. 23 maximum. 61. 13. 6 Stiffness. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 6. 10. 21. 32 Rotational. 107 Transients. 6 instantaneous. 172 mechanical rotational. 23 mechanical. electrical Superposition theorem. 88 Transient response. 173 superposition. 9. 28 Subharmonic. 35 effective. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 10. 9. 21. 9. 6 Static pressure. 171 Resonant frequency. 45 electrical. 22. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 23 mechanical rectilineal.) 195 Table. peak. impedance. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 37. 6 14 pressure. 105 arbitrary force. 9. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 188 Systems. 23 23. 22 mechanical rotational. 85 rotational. 13. 41 mechanical rotational. 6 Transducer. 42 inductance and series coupled. 17. 13. 42 one degree of freedom. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 184 Rotatomotive force. 10. (see cor- effective. 23. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 9. 6 maximum. 179 Thevenin's. 5 Transformer. 9. 6 Sound effective. 179 Suspension systems. 21. 9 resistance. electrical-mechanical. 10. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal.

7. 11 effective. 106 163 Volume current. high pass. 101 instantaneous. 21. 151. peak. 165. cut quartz crystal. 23 Transmission. 37. 163. 24 Velocity. 8 instantaneous. 93. 143. 7 Wave. 106 unit function. 93. band pass. Heaviside's Calculus. Two 87 degrees of freedom. magnetostriction. 93. peak. 5 filters. 144. 92. 8 8 "T" type network. 150.) INDEX Villari effect. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper.196 Transients (Cont. 11 loss. 7 Vibration. 22. 94 response characteristics. 8. 7. 22 angular. 23 effective. gain. 147. 7. 8 maximum. 45 Unit function. 146. 92. 106 Units. 149. 97 93. 5 maximum. 92. "X" isolator. 167 . 148 machine isolator. Wave band elimination. 95 low pass. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 7 linear. 184 186 Young's modulus. 20. 23. 92.