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In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Lorene E. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Research Director. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Engstrom. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. E. Olson . By means is of may be compared with one that better known. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. plex arrangements of multielement systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. an electrical circuit. in this project. engineer. Olson. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. 1943 F. Harry January.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. W.

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Inertance 2. ELECTRICAL. Mass. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.3 3. Electrical Capacitance B. Acoustical Resistance 2. Rectilineal Compliance C. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Rotational Compliance. C. Acoustical Capacitance A. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Moment of Inertia. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.3 Inductance. Rectilineal Compliance. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Electrical Resistance B.2 3.CONTENTS Chapter I.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . A.2 4 II. ELEMENTS 2. Inductance B.1 2.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 1 1.2 Introduction Resistance A.5 Representation of Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 3. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.

2 Two Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.6 4.. .7 The Electrical System . 60 5. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 62 5.4 5.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 The Acoustical System 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. ELECTRICAL.2 4.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .1 Introduction 52 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.7 3.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 37 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.5 Equations of Motion 4.13 Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.7 64 5. Mechanical Rectilineal..5 Chapter 3. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.6 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 5.8 67 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. and Acoustical Analogies 5..10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.17 5.3 6.1 6.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.11 69 71 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.6 6. WAVE FILTERS 6. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.20 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .2 6..CONTENTS Chapter 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.15 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .16 Electrical Resistance.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.

THEOREMS 10. B.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.5 114 120 7. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. Unpolarized Armature B.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.2 8.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.2 9.4 9.1 9. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.2 7. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.5 9. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.X Chapter VII. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.1 8. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.5 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. C. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.4 8.4 Ill 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.6 VIII.1 10. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 1 7. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.

Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.5 184 185 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.4 11.2 11.6 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.CONTENTS Chapter E.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. APPLICATIONS 11. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.7 11.8 1 1 .9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.

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Expressions for the kinetic energy. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. 1 The acoustical . higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. as for example. In other words. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena.1. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. However. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical tems. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. vibrating systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.

This involves acousti- electroacoustical. constituent parts of a circuit. as for example. springs and friction. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Elements are the meshes.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. induct- ance and capacitance. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. springs and brakes. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Of course. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. various assemblies of masses. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. . ' The lished. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Electrical elements are resistance. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. cal.

and the Standards of Electroacoustics. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Soc. Finally. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. Vol. No. Vol. 4. Verojf a. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. For example. However. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. I) and Firestone {Jour. — . d. mechanical and acoustical systems. Therefore. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. XI. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. However. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Institute of Radio Engineers.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. circuit. Therefore. That is to say. In addition. Amer. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. all communication.. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Hanle {JViss.1 of 1942. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. in the past. every electrical. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. particularly electrical circuits. SiemensKonzern. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. No. ratio of force to displacement. Acous. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. 4. and ratio of pressure to displacement. up the mechanical and electrical. In this book. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted.

and the and a's are constants which may be positive. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.2. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. + T). —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. reciprocal of the period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. Definitions ^ this section. Harmonic. period. Octave. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. where T. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. This called a Fourier series. all is the frequency. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. a constant. a positive constant. . —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. Periodic Quantity. a period of jy. The remainder. Frequency. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. negative. or which tity comprises a cycle. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Terms not sections. Basic Frequency. or zero. Cycle. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. equals 2x divided by the period T.

The unit is the dyne.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. — — Abvolt. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. Effective Electromotive Force. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. . The unit the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. force. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. The root unit the abvolt. A wave is a propagated disturbance. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Electromotive Force. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. Subharmonic. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). mechanical or acoustical system. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Wavelength. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Mechanomotive Force). the dyne. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. Dyne. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Wave.

6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. . —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). dyne per square centimeter. Abampere. The the — Instantaneous Current. Effective the total instantaneous torque. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). the abampere. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). force. the dyne per square centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. The unit is the dyne centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle.

Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. complete cycle at the point. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. The unit is the centimeter per second. is Centimeter per Second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. is Radian per Second. The unit is the abampere. velocity. per second. Effective Velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Peak Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. Maximum Velocity. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Effective Angular Velocity. The unit is the abampere. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. the centimeter per second. the abampere. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. unit is the radian per second. is velocity in that interval. current. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Maximum Current. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Peak Current.

electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. The unit the abohm. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. times the frequency. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. Effective Volume Current. To avoid ambiguity in this book. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. is the abohm. is Electrical Resistance. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. . The unit is the mechanical ohm. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. when times the frequency. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. The unit the abohm. the cubic centimeter per second. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. Electrical Reactance. the cubic centimeter per second. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. The unit is the abfarad. Electrical Impedance. which. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. second. where both systems are considered concurrently. for Peak Volume Current. electrical Inductance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance.-W is impedance. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second.

is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. ' See footnote S. unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the rotational ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mass. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. page I . Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance).DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. The unit is the acoustical ohm. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Compliance. rotational resistance ance. Rotational Compliance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Acoustical Impedance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which.

an element in a mechanical rectilineal. Electrical System.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. mass and compliance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. by "l-w times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.. the acoustical ohm. moment of inertia. The unit is the acoustical ohm. inductance and electrical capacitance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rectilineal System. Inertance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. mass and compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical Reactance. Acoustical System. . This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. In the same way. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. Mechanical Rotational System. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. and rotational compliance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. the fourth power. inductance and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system.

The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. — Transmission. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. angular velocity. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. mechanical rectilineal. current. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. pressures or such as forces or velocities. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . For For a gain the reference power is is greater. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . voltage. velocity. mechanical or acoustical. The bel is the Decibel.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. Transmission Loss {or Gain). the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. For example. Either of these systems may be electrical. force. force. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. torque. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. pressure or volume current. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. torque or pressure is electrical.

' 2. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit.1. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. Electrical resistance rs. in abohms. e rs^-. is defined as A. in abvolts. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. e. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. in abamperes. and current through the resistance. resistor. t 2. A resistor. inductor and capacitor.2. 5. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. 2. See footnote page 8. 12 . — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. electrical. As indicated in the preceding chapter. An tinguished from the devices. In this procedure. the vibrating systems. Electrical Resistance. inductance and capacitance. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.

in dyne centimeters. rectilineal resistance Equation 2.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Mechanical rotational energy is C. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. Acoustical Resistance. . in rotational ohms. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is defined as r^ — = y 2. in radians per second. in centi- meters per second. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. D. Equation 2.RESISTANCE B.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. and velocity at the point of application of the force. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction).3 where Jr d = = applied torque. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Energy is lost by the cal resistance. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. in dynes. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.

Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /.. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. in addition to the resistive component. resistance. in acoustical ohms. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . a narrow and metal. in dynes per square centimeter. 1940. 1. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. and U= Equation resistance current.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. is defined as VA P = ~ 2.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. York. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. in cubic centimeters per second. Van Nostrand Co. a reaccomponent. d= / thickness of the centimeters. New . in centimeters. 2. volume current. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. However. slit normal to the direction of flow.4 where p — pressure. density. slit in the direction of flow. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.86 X 10"'* for air. 'Olson. A tube of small diameter. in = width of the meters. and frequency in cycles per second. 6pww 2. slit normal to the direction of flow." D.5 = viscosity coefficient. in grams per cubic centimeter.

is defined as 2. that during linear when the velocity decreases.INDUCTANCE. Moment gram (centimeter)^. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. in abamperes per second.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. INERTANCE 2. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. given by dd . Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. It decreases when the current decreases. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. 15 Inductance. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. Equation 2. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. B. It remains constant ance. is remains a constant of inertia /. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. is Inductance L. in abhenries. and rate of change of current. Equation C. MOMENT OF INERTIA. MASS. Mass. and driving force. in centimeters per second per second. = di Ldt ^ 2. Inductance.3. Mass. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in abvolts. mass increases. 2. in grams.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. which opposes a change of velocity. Moment of Inertia. in when the angular velocity a constant. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. that during angular acceleration. Moment of Inertia. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. Inertance A. in dynes.

Inertance M. in centimeters. in radians per second per second. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. in dyne centimeters. decreases. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. in grams. in p = density of the meter. in cubic centimeters per second per second. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Van Nostrand Co. New ." D. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. D. is. in dynes per square centimeter. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. effective length of the tube. York. = length plus end correc- and in the tube.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in grams per (centimeter)*. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. volume current. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. Equation 2. 1940. cross sectional area in square centimeters. Inertance. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. and driving pressure. inertance. in rate of change of 2.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity.10 m = S = mass.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. that tion.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in centimeters.

. in dynes is Equation 2. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance.13 states that the charge on an force. abvolts. when is spring remains immovably compressed.4. Rectilineal Compliance.n Equation 2. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Electrical 17 Capacitance. and stored. Acoustical Capacitance A. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Electrical capacitance Cg. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrical Capacitance.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. in abcoulombs. and electromotive force. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.14 = Jm = displacement. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. and applied force. in abfarads.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. in centimeters. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. It is a constant.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2.

is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. Rotational Compliance. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Equation 2.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. density. 9. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. p = where c c^ps 2. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.17. It is constant. defined in equation 2. D.^ in dynes per square centimeter. . and condensation. D. Rotational compliance Cu-. Acoustical Capacitance. in is The terms of the condensation.." p. in grams per cubic centimeter. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque.17 s = * Olson. C. allowed to unwind. in centimeters per second. New York. 1940. in radians. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. and applied torque. in dyne centimeters. Van Nostrand Co. It is constant.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.16 p s — = = velocity.

in cubic centimeters. and 2. The electrical elements.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. and volume displacement.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. 2.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. electrical resistance. in cubic centimeters. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. mechanical rectilineal. 2.17. From equations 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal.19 and 2. in cubic centimeters. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.5. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.18 X= volume displacement. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. From equations 2.21 F= volume. .20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. Equation 2. = ^ F 2. Representation of Electrical.X 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. .16. is 2. equal to the volume displacement.

mechanical rectilineal.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.1. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. 2. rE . is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. . length. ^ The Tables 8. Table 2. self-inductance. Further. Tables 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 page and list and 2.1.3.1 and 2. the standard modifiers for all four systems.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. and time.1. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. inertance and time. ELEMENTS and time.2. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.1.24 sions are mass.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. length L and time T.3 uses mass M. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. 1. The dimensions given in Table 2.

and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or In other words.1.1. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal.2. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. namely. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. 3. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. mechanical rotational. mass. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. From these definitions it is evident that friction. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mechanical rectilineal. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 .

Heat is a transient form of energy. namely. C. Cr = T. Electrical. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. In the electrical. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. mechanical rectilineal. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. 3. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms.1. potential and heat energy. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . kinetic. velocity. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation.

cross-sectional area of the opening. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in square centimeters. in grams. in abhenries. by the principle of conservation of energy. in cubic centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. potential.4 M= m = S — m/S^. equal to the system. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. mass of air in the opening. in centimeters per second.2 m = X mass. the inertance. 3. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in radians per second. and velocity of the = mass m. electrical.3 = moment of inertia.3. in grams per (centimeter)*. mechanical rotational. X— X Sx = volume current. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in centimeters per second.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. It is assumed that same phase. in grams. and current through the inductance L. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. The sum of the kinetic. mechanical rectilineal. in abamperes. all the air particles in the opening move with the .

^ 3. in centimeters per second. in centimeters.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3.. = -. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. p = density of air. in cubic centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. dyne.4. s — stiffness of the spring. in grams per cubic centimeter. in radians. in centimeters per dyne. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in abcoulombs. and <l> angular displacement. and c = velocity of sound.8 where X= Ca volume displacement.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. . The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. and charge on the capacitance. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in dynes per centimeter. in abfarads. and X = displacement. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.

and acoustical systems.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.y- 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .12 where We. mechanical Wm. in abohms.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. . Wr.17 = = is electrical resistance..11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical rotational. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.18 . Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. in abamperes. +— + XX 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.5.: 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. and current. force.

and velocity. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. in acoustical ohms. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. and angular velocity. in rotational ohms. in radians per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. in centimeters per second. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.22 = acoustical resistance.6. and X= 3. in mechanical ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.

29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3..26. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.28 and 3. 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.24.32 „.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.

jo>I — — 3. the velocity and force.7^ Ca 3.38 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. .4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. and Cr. the angular velocity and torque.7.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the impedance is m and Cm.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.

mechanical rectilineal. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.8.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. . It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.42 3.Ce r^ 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.

Equation 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. namely.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 3.1.24. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.1. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.49 „ .

D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.26.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.51 is the same as equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. Equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.28. .

43 to 3.30. Equations 3. inclusively. and acoustical systems. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. 3.59 is the same as equation 3. mechanical rectilineal. Equation 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. . mechanical rotational.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.59.

4. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.2.1. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. velocity.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. MECHANICAL Electrical.1. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . 4.

Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. and velocity of the mass m. in centimeters per second. in abhenries. and = h = current. in abamperes.3. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4.1 93 L = inductance. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in grams. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. .3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in branch 3.4 M = inertance. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.2 where x^ m = = mass.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. in radians per second. in cubic centimeters per second.

4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.9 = 4 = electrical resistance.DISSIPATION 4. and X2 = volume displacement. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. and displacement. in centimeters. . in radians. in abamperes. in abfarads.4.5.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and — current. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. per dyne. in qz ohms. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in cubic centimeters. in abcoulombs. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and <i>2 angular displacement.

in rotational ohms. and velocity. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . and angular velocity. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.i 4.6. mechanical ohms. 2 d<t>n dcj). VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. and Xs = volume 4. current. in centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. in radians per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in cubic centimeters per second.12 = acoustical resistance. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in acoustical ohms.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.

21 4.22. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4. at/jf.17. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.23.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.7. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.8.1 is h = H Equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.20 4. 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.14. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.18. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.13.25 .19 +k 4. The linear displacement.rsqz 4. e = = Lqz-[. 4.

p = MXa + vaXz 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.42 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1.26 ^ The 4. in the acoustical system.16. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. at/^j.29 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. .30.26. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.32 ing piston.31. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.10. 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. Fig. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.9. 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. Jb /. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.27.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. = = /03 + rij^g 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.15. at p. The angular displacement.

moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. given by ^3 JM is 4.1.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. Fig. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.29 and 4. mass. Fig. shows again that resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.11.25. 4. 4. inclusive. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. inductance.33.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. inertance acoustical system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . and to acoustical resistance. to mechanical rotational resistance. vm.19.1. 4. 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.1 to 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.

the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.. 4. 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2.1. Fig. is .1. 4.45 . Fig. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.X3 = pjccCa 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. X2 = Xi .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. is given by k The = f". 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.

4.2 are as follows: 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.2. 1 tional systems of Figs.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. The electrical impedances z^i. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 54.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 4.1 of Chapter V. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.12. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. . Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 5.3. 4. see pages 53. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 55 and 56 and Fig.

56 ZA2 -T-z.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4. 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.3 is the as that of Fig. 4.— JwLmz Zb.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. Ce2. 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.60 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. The shunt electrical.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.59 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .55 jwLai 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.2 save that the electrical capacitance. compliance. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.50 + jwm2 + T-p. 4.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. mechanical rectilineal. I2 and M2.2 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. mass.

62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.65 2^22^3 .3. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . Cri.4. 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. L2. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom.3. L. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. Ca. Electrical. to /i.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.67 .t 4. 4.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . 4.\.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . I2.«i. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.13. m2. Cb2 .412^3 + 4. Cei. Cm\.4.

Xi. The current to.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.89 .86 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. X3 rectilineal system. (h and 04 X2. Cai. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. 4>2. the linear velocity Xq. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.78 4.84 4. nA where zei = . in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. h.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. Ca2 in the acoustical system.88 4.76 4.80 4. i^ in show that /q.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.82 4. M2.74 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.83 ZA2 4. X2. to 4>o. 4>i. ^ zjji = . and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. 4. Xi. 4.

91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4. the linear velocity Xi.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. 01 4. 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.98 .90 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . the linear velocity X2.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.92 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.97 The current i2.99 r^r^ .) Ha ^_^^j .{ZA3jrZA.95 . the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.93 Ha = The current ii.

4. = The equations cal. the linear velocity X4.106 . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.„. ^^^ 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. .107 . J~iR X.102 X3 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.105 current 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.-riE .

Two Mechanical Rectilineal. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.^ an inductance. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. mechanical rectilineal.1. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. 5.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope.1. 52 . mechanical rotational. characteristics. termed the input and output electrical impedances.2.

Fig. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. branch is current flows in z^i. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . 5.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.1.

^2.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.1. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . respectively. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. </>!. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. </)r. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. That is.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. With these specifications the differential of Fig. Fig. SAA. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. as for example. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Xt Differentiating equation 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. respectively. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .2 for the electrical system. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8.. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3.3. must be in parallel. Z/jt. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. analogous to equation 5. Equation 5. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5.4 That is. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. shown schematically in Fig. 5.1 with the same tions. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. respectively. = = xx -\- X2 5. consists of a system of gears. respectively. relations existing between//.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

equations 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.13 and 5.2. ^^^^. mechanical and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. reactance . 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. 5.12 relatively large 59 and 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.2. 5. 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.

18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5.2.20 where Cm = compliance. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.2. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.11 and 5. Therefore.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. from equations 5. Equations 5. 5.42 = joiM 5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5. in centimeters per dyne. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. . 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.14 and 5.18 where M= inertance.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.3 is = T^ 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. in abfarads. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. Fig.3. in grams per (centimeter)*.5. 5.

21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3.21 show that at low frequencies .13 and 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.12 to the and 5. inversely proportional to the frequency.20 is shown in Fig. Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. at Equa- tions 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.3. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical the frequency.3. 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.12 and 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3 is 1 2fi2 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. 5.

5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. 5.4 in series across a line. The shown in Fig. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.13 and 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5. 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in abfarads.3.21 is The acoustical system of Fig.4.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.3.23 where L = Ce = inductance. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.14 and 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 and 5. equations 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. and electrical capacitance. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. in abhenries.6.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. . tional. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.12 = ^-^ 5.23. 5.

^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.24 where m = mass.25. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.4. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in grams. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output angular 5. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5.25 where / = moment of inertia. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne.12 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and .24. and Cu = rotational compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. and compliance.

At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.11 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. .26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)''.26. 5.24 also is zero. in (centimeter)" per dyne. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.4.2 and there is very little attenuation.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7.5 parallel across a line. 5. 5.13 and 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.5. current can be obtained from equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.14 and 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. The output volume 5. in Fig. acoustical capacitance. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.12 and 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance.

27 where L = Ce = inductance.5 is jo}L -£2 5.27. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in grams. 5. 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and compliance.12 and 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. in abfarads. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.28.J^mCM 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in abhenries. Cm = The output .28 where m = mass.5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. and electrical capacitance.

5 is ZR2 = . 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. 5.30. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.14 and 5.11 and 5.29.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. .29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. current can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.12 and 5. 1 - 5.^MC.. The output volume 5. and acoustical capacitance.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.13 and 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.13 and The output angular 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. in gram (centimeter)^. and = rotational compliance.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.2 and the transmission is small.3 and the transmission is again small. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

5.31. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abohms. in abhenries. in abfarads. in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a line. . The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. inductance.8. and electrical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. Electrical resistance.6.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. itance in series.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. 5.min. Electrical Resistance. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.11 and 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.6. 5.6 shows an electrical resistance.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5.33. The output and 5.11 and 5. in acoustical ohms.34. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. The output volume 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .12 and 5.12 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Therefore. in rotational ohms. from equations 5.3 and there is very little attenuation. 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.2 and there is very little attenuation. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.32. inertance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . compliance. of inertia. and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in grams. Therefore.

12 The output and 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. .6. in mechanical ohms. from equations 5. in Fig. from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. The mechanical network is rectihneal. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. 5. in abohms. inductance. quencies the same as that of Fig.7 shows an electrical resistance.36. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.13 and 5. 5. in grams. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever.4. and electrical capacitance. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. in centimeters per dyne. 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.7. 5. in abfarads.6. in abhenries. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.14 and 5. Therefore. mass.9. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. Therefore. and compliance.11 and 5.35. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. 5. in Fig.

The output and 5. of inertia. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.37.7. Electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. = = mechanical rotational resistance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. rotational compliance.37 where ru Cb.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. inertance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.14 Ca = 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.38. S. in grams per and 5. acoustical capacitance.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in rotational ohms. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in acoustical ohms.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .

SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.7. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and the transmission is small. inductance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.14 and 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.12 and 5. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.3 and the transmission is again small.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. Fig. Fig. 5. 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5. output electrical impedance. 5. However.7.13 and 5. Fig.10.7.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. . 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.11 and 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5.

of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.11.42 Zas. 5. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. 5. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.40 ZM2.41 input acoustical impedance. . = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.43 where L = inductance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. output acoustical impedance.43 = p = 2. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abhenries. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.

40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. in grams.8.8 is = j^m 5. 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.39 and 5. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.44 where tn = mass.8.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. characteristic. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig.8. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8 is = jo)I 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. .8 equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. in gram (centimeters)^.

If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.8 equations 5. in abfarads. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 5.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.8. 5. Equation 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .42 and 5. 5.41 and 5. 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.12. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5.46 where M= inertance. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.48. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. acoustical Equations 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.

in centimeters per dyne. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. frequency characteristic. in radians per dyne per centimeter. is ance relatively large to motion. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. line and the mechanical rectihneal.48 where Cm — compliance. 5.9 to the frequency. 5.9. .47. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.l/2 Fig. Fig.9.9 = 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5.40 and 5. is 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.9.9 is ^R2 5.

electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9.50. compliance of the suspension system.9 is 2.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. analogous to an in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5.42 and 5.9. 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. . and per = area of the diaphragm. 5.10. 5.41 and 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. 5. 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. acoustical capacitance tions 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.13. 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. dyne. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. Equation 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. Mechanical Rotational. in square centimeters. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Equations 5. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.40 and 5.52. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.39 and 5. and C_if compliance. 5. in abfarads.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rectilineal. in grams.53.10.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.53 where m = = mass. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. 5. 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and electrical capacitance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. . and = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.39 and 5.41 and 5.10.14. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.55. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. .54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. 5.9 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. and again the transmission is small. Equations 5.50. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.54.42 and 5. 5. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.11.40 and 5. connected in with a line.42 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.55 where M= Ca = inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.8. Equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. and the transmission is small.

INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.11 is - 5. in abfarads. The mechanical system of Fig. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in abhenries.56. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. and compliance. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.1/2 = 1 — S. 5. 5. in grams.11 is 2/22 = :.11.39 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.57. and electrical capacitance.40 and 5.

5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. Equation 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in grams (centimeter)^. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. and acoustical capacitance.39 and 5. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.9 and again the attenuation is small.15. 5.40 and 5.11 equation 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.41 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.58. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Electrical Resistance.12 shows an electrical resistance. 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. Equations 5.59. 2. 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11.11 is -. ance of Fig. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. 5. and = rotational compliance.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. . 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.42 == 5.41 The output angular 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. inductance and line.8 and the attenuation is small.59 where M= Ca = inertance.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.12.

in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. inductance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Electrical resistance.12. in abfarads. m = Cm = mass.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abohms. compliance. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. 5. 5. and capacitance.40 and 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne.62 .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig.61.60. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. in acoustical ohms. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. and Cr = rotational compliance. Therefore.39 and 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.coC. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. Fig.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. where vr / = moment of inertia.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. current can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. The output and 5.12. 5. However.12. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 and 5. and the transmission is small.62.8. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*. in rotational ohms. from equations 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5. The output volume 5.40 and 5.12 is 2.4 -T-z^ 5.12. 5. Therefore.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. 5. 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5. Therefore. 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and again the transmission is small.12. the acoustical reactance is zero. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12. from equations 5. 5. 5.63.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Therefore.10. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.41 and 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. . inertance.

mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.64.13.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. inductance.13 is ZM2 = r. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. inductance line. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. Electrical resistance. 83 Parallel. Electrical Resistance. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5.39 and 5. 5. in abfarads. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.65 . and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. in abohms.13.16.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13 shows an electrical resistance. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

13.13.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Therefore. the acoustical reactance is infinite.9 and the attenuation is small. from equations 5. in where tm mechanical ohms. 5. 5. from equations 5. ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5. Therefore.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Fig. in (centimeter)® per dyne. from . 5. The output volume 5. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.67. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inertance.65.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.39 and 5. Therefore. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. therefore. mass. 5. in acoustical ohms. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.13 is = jo^rAM ~.13.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.40 and 5. The output and 5.66. and Cr = rotational compliance.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. from equations 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. and compliance. in grams. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.41 and 5.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. in centimeters per dyne.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.

5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. 5.42 and 5.14 Mechanical Rotational.18. Referring to equation 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. Fig. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. that of Fig. 5.11. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.17. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.13.13.67 the attenuation ance. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.

Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Fig.14 shows a system of made larger. 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. 5. 5. larger.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. rectilineal. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Equation 5.15. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. Electrical Rectilineal.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Referring to equation 5. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Equation 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. . Equation 5.19.

and Zmz. 5. 5. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.16.11. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.21. In the same way equations 5. rm. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. and r. respectively. rui. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.20. mechanical rotational. mechani- and acoustical analogies.17.41 and the output impedances. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . Equation 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. "Zrz. wherein zm\.13 the mechanical rectihneal. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. acoustical systems of Fig. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.16. respectively.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and r^i and the input impedances.16. 5. 5. 5. zri. The mechanical rectilineal.12.

5. 5. Electrical. me- chanical rotational.22. output impedance. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. Equation 5.17. 5.12.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.18.14. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. rectihneal. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.17. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. . In this case zei is the input impedance. Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.13 and 5. ze2 is rE2.

and zei represent the electromotive force. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. Electrical.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. 5.18.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ACOUSTICAL Fig.68 5. ei. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. and of turns on the secondary.18 the electromotive force. velocity and . The force. 5. ii.

71 = — xi 5. consists of a mass- gear train.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.18.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. The pressure.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.18. /ri. The torque. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. /mi. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. 5. The 5. of Fig. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.18.18.77 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.79 . angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.

transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. pi. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. New York. 5. ^ Engineering..ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. .18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. 1940. The acoustical transformer of Fig. Xi and 2." D. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co.41 and p2. two diaphragms.

No. 1922. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. A. Jour. G. 6. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. Vol. 528. Vol.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Bell System Tech. Stewart. No. Rev. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands.. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. 1922.1. 20. G. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. p.. W. I. mechanical rectilineal. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters.. 2. Phys. 6. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. 92 . Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others.2. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems..

velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. velocities.. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. 6. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents.3. *' . velocities. velocities. ^ Nostrand Co.. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies." D.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. respectively. that is. velocities. Shea." D. Johnson. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. Van New York. New York. velocities. positive and when than four. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van Nostrand Co. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four.

7 1 Z42 = T j(x. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.Ca 6. mechanical rectilineal.2 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.4.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.1.1. mechanical rectilineal. 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .6 ZR2 6. 6.8 .94 6. Electrical.1 zmi zri 6.

6.= From and .HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.10 and show that the systems of Fig.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.17 Equations 6. and the cutoff 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.9 the constants of the systems. 6. inclusive. . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6. 6. coc = — 2Af2 V — . 6.17.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. when uc = 6. 2A2 VMC^ .2. when .12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.= -4 6.10 — — 0. when ccc 6. linear velocities. when coc 6. when coc = .5.15 WC. mechanical rotational. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. when oip = = = = 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. when coe 6.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .27 .= -4 22 6.26 From the constants of the systems.= 22 and . 2£1 6.

35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.12. 5.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. .

43 Let LiCei = 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.44 6.51 VM2C42 = .46 6. — — / 1 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.. . „ when coci = . 6.lfi)^ ^ -.50 V/iGji 0.V/2 when WC2^WiC.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . _ 4. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.12 =0. 2. = — 7= / 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. = 1 . —7== VMiCai .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. —= Z£2 — 4. when wci = — VLiCei . when coci = = 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. UCe\ (1 6.

(1 .v/2 1 6.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. when . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .^C2'MiCaxY = --—. —= 2. -4.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.41 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . one greater than uci and Therefore. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.

show that the systems of Fig.4.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. linear velocities.64 CeiLi 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.56 to 6.7. 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.69 .62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. inclusive.63. are 6.

mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.74 6. 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4.76 .73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rectilineal.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. Electrical.

-4. 6. when. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when (1 . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.84 .83 —= Z^l 2.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when oici = and wa = =0 6.42 -4. M\Ca\) 4.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . —= zei -4.77 —— = ZM2 0. .78 —= ZR2 0. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. . when uci = and cca oo 6. when (1 .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.82 . —= Zr\ -4. or.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

7. . The current is zero = 0. 7. velocity. in dynes. in grams. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.2.5 where aE = Te/L. in centimeters per second. 7.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. shown in Fig.2. 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. rectilineal resistance. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and driving force. unit force.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. respectively. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the current.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7.2.8 where m = = /m — V mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit torque and unit pressure.

and = torque.2.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. 7. = mechanical rotational resistance. in gram (centimeter)^.12 = — - e"^') 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.2.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in rotational = angular velocity. 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. in radians per second. ohms. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. . 1/riv/.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). as shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.

in acoustical ohms. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. as shown in Fig. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.16 7.20 where M= ta inertance.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). 7.2.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. in grams per (centimeter)*. and p = sound pressure. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.2. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.22 . in cubic centimeters. = acoustical resistance. U = volume current. From is the tables of operational formulas.17 where aji — Vr/ I. in dynes per square centimeter.

27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. and electromotive force.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. From is the tables of operational formulas. current.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.3.2. the solution of equation 7.4. 7.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. in abfarads. the solution of equation 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. electrical resistance.e-^ in Fig. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. 7. 7.24 JA{t) = " (1 . is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. in abamperes.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. 7. electrical resistance series. in abohms.22 111 may be written. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . in abvolts.28 ve .

31 . angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.3. From the tables of operational formulas. shown in Fig. unit torque and unit pressure. in centimeters. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. 7 3.3. is The for / shown in Fig. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. the solution of equation 7. mechanical rectilineal resistance. in dynes.y = l/rjfCv/. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in centimeters per dyne.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. unit force. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. linear velocity. The graph depicts the current. respectively. force. velocity. in mechanical ohms. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 7.30 P)rM where a. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.

7. in rotational ohms. as shown in Fig. angular velocity. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. in dynes per square centimeter. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. volume current. . The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in radians per second. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. as shown in Fig. mechanical rotational resistance.3. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. is shown in Fig. in acoustical ohms. and torque. acoustical resistance. 7. 7. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.33 where aR = IIvrCr.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. in cubic centimeters per second.3. in dyne centimeters.3.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. is shown in Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and sound pressure.3. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. (a + ^ Pfa . in abhenries. electrical resistance. in abvolts. 7. 7.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . and electromotive force. 1 7. abamperes. in abohms. in current.5. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.38 ^.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.4. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. in electrical capacitance. electrical resist- ance. 7. is shown 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. as in Fig. abohms.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = .3. . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.

for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. The graph depicts the current.45. velocity. respectively. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. unit torque or unit pressure.4.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. unit force. series Response of an electrical resistance.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. the solution of equation 7. The response sinusoid.4.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. .^. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. 7.

in centimeters per second. in dynes. v for x.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. and driving force. in centimeters per dyne. 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. 1 AC. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. velocity. displacement. in centimeters.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in grams. in centimeters per second per second. rectilineal resistance. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. acceleration. 1 A\ m = mass.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.47 .Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. Substituting equation 7.

si . If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7.48 The response sinusoid. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. = angular displacement. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in rotational ohms. in grams (centimeter).51 = moment of inertia. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. Cr = rotational compliance. = angular velocity.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. 7. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in radians.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. is of inertia. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. 7. in dyne centimeters. and 4> Jr = driving torque. equation 7.4.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. 4> = angular acceleration.4_S.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. in radians per second. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. lAA. 7. in radians per second per second.

55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. WR^ 2 1 7. 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.4C. It is a damped sinusoid.45. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . .^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. = '^I/Cr.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .. lAA.56 ^PR = Jo.

acoustical resistance. 7. Substituting U for X. in cubic centimeters per second. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. volume current. in dynes per square centimeter.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. and pressure.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in grams per (centimeter)^. at equation 7. as in Fig.4.

solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.6. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. 7.45.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. .5. 7.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. cca^ = 4M/Ca. 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.

a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . <?i at / = Ae. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.u)du du 7.5.5. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. an electromotive force ei is added. 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. «i. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. The This proof.68 . is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). The indicial electrical admittance.. etc. an electromotive force ^2 is added. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. integral. as in the case of the preceding sections. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. Therefore.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. a time «2 later.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. all being of the unit type. tem. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. as shown in Fig. 7. etc. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.

68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.u)du 7. The velocity.72 . As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series.69 fR{u) — AR{t .u)du du u)du 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal.

.

It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electrostatic. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. 8.2. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.CHAPTER 8.1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the electromagnetic.

and Ca with vr. circuit will be used instead of network. it is located. in abamperes.However. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. field in which depicted in Fig.2 where x = velocity. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. The force. From equations 8.1 B = / = / = flux density. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in dynes. in centimeters per second.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. termed motional electrical impedance. 8. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. in gausses. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. abohms.1 and 8. in abvolts. due to motion. L and Ce. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.1.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE.1. length of the conductor. and current. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. When there is only one path. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. The electromotive force. in centimeters. in using analogies in actual practice.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.

The normal electrical impedance zek.6 The 8. in chanical ohms. 8.1. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. in mechanical ohms. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. The dynamic direct radiator 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.3. Zen in abohms. in the absence of motion. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . all of the conductor.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. in abohms.3. 8.4 8. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. that is. in 8.

the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Consider the system shown in Fig. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. Assume that all the reluctance . Since there is no polarizing flux.2. A. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. Unpolarized Armature Type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. 8. the unpolarized armature type. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. namely.

14 e = ^r 8. is where / = current in the coil. the total flux is <f>T Aa. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in abamperes. in dynes. and a = normal spacing.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. n = number of turns. in abvolts. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. A = area of the center pole.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.15 The force on the armature. C = l-^nA.13 and 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. in square centimeters.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in centimeters. . then from equations 8.

20 — X From equations 8.16. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.18 Equation 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.21 . 4TrJa*/M . mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. in seconds.15 and 8. and time.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. the force on the armature is Im = '.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.17 for the current in 8. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in mechanical ohms.2. nC^P 8. Substituting equation 8. 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.

B. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. ^ = area of center pole. in abohms. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. Therefore. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. for the reproduction of sound. = number of turns. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature.19. for converting electrical variations into however. vibrators and clippers. 8. in gilberts. in abamperes.22 = motional electrical impedance. and impedance of the coil. in centimeters.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in square centimeters. from the poles of a permanent magnet. filing — as in Fig.20 and 8. this system cannot be used It is. 8. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in abohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type. in abohms. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Zen in abohms. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. .21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8.2. saws. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in oersteds. 8. in maxwells.3. in mechanical ohms.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. a = spacing. / = current. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8.

axsin wt n coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. in 131 oit maxwells. in abamperes. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. 27r/. and time. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in oersteds. frequency.

26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. and area of the pole.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. due to the steady field. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. the flux. spacing between the armature and pole. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. in gilberts. in square centimeters. sidered. in centimeters. the flux will now be 4>x + A.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. in maxwells. Ax -\- Ax .30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.32 „ . in abvolts. __ .^ .28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.

The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.33.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. ~ 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.24 and 8.32 and e i = — X 8.35 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. fu = MNi ~r — . 8. in mechanical ohms.35 and 8.38 a Zm . From equations 8.37. in abohms.3.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. ZAfi. 8.34.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. in me- chanical ohms..

134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. ARMATURE MAGNET . The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.38 is similar to equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.3.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. and impedance of the coil. in abohms.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. C. 8. in abohms. Equation 8.

The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. 8. in dynes. The flux. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. and yf effective area. 8. in square centimeters.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in dynes. in maxwells. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature.4.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. at the poles (Fig. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in abamperes. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The steady magnetic field is force. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . The sum of the forces. at each pole magnet. The . and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. i?2 = = coil. which the coil energizes. of the pole piece. in oersteds.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in maxwells.

44 A. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in mechanical ohms.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.45. and zm2 impedance of the load. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. and effective area of a pole piece. through the armature to the right and upward. of the steady field. . in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.136 flux. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.4. NMA —^x a^ 8. in centimeters. 8. in abvolts.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. rectilineal impedance of the armature. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms. in square centimeters. in mechanical ohms. in gilberts.

50 and 8.50. Zm\. .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.43 =-^ 8.

the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. system of Fig. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. This driving system is used for loud speakers. Therefore. 8. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.4. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. galvanometers.

The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.57 numerator of equation 8. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. = CeCq 8. The useful force. on the condenser is q considered. ^o^max sin wt . is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in dynes. in statfarads. motive Cq is large .59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. and capacity per unit area. the fourth term will be negligible. in statvolts. in statfarads.59 and 8. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. is The current. in statamperes. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.62 . The force. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . in dynes. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.60 From equations 8.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statcoulombs.

. 47r(a — 8. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. .140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.69 . ohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. 4ir(<2 + . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.66 in 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.5. the generated current.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. 8. in stat- amperes.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.61. in mechanical ohms. Ax) 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.

68.5. + . electrical network in Fig.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. in statohms. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. at the same time. 8. 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.58 and 8.69 and 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.5. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. adding a large stiffness. 8. statohms.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. current is applied to 2m . Consider the system shown in Fig. 8.6. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.

this stress may be considered to be the driving force. 8. and area of the rod. due to is the Villari effect. in square centimeters. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. turns in the coil. and time. coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.X JR 8. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . in abvolts. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. in current in the abamperes. in seconds. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. . in cycles per second. in square centimeters. induction is of the nickel rod. The electromotive force. CO/ 8.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. current. induced in the winding. in abamperes. e = MJ^ dt 8. in centimeters.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.73 Combining equations and 8. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. frequency. in gausses.74 and ehminating the steady force.

The mechanical to one .75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. in square centimeters.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. length of the rod. in centimeters. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.6. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. 8. rectilineal impedances zm. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. and Young's modulus. in abvolts.78 From equation 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.

New York. . The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. in mechanical ohms. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. is assumed to be a In general.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.83 From equations 8.6. 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.. as shown by equation 8. in abohms — equation 8.86 Mason. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.79. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. The mass mi in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.6). The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. total in abohms. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. 1942. = motional impedance.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. 8. 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.82 and 8. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig." D. 8.84. Van Nos- trand Co. in abohms. 8.

in square centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. 8. length of the rod. and cross section of the rod. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.7.80. in grams per cubic centimeter. in Fig. 8. in square centimeters. length of the rod. in centimeters. in centimeters. and Young's modulus.

X = 4^.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.7. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. 8. in dynes. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 8. Young's modulus. A= E = area.7. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. 8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. is The deformation per unit length. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. . 8. EA and 8. The vibrating system of Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. in square centimeters. due to a force.84.88 where Jm = total force.8. that is. 8. air load and support resistance.8. 8.7C A and B given in Fig. 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.

flux density. the data of Fig.8 and Young's modulus.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. in square centimeters. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.. 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant. 8.88 and 8. equations 8.6. B = A= From and area. c„ .89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. .

PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. is . and The displacement. in centimeters. q is 149 = KJu 8.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. in centimeters. 4 = length of the crystal.93 . in square centimeters. equations 8.92 X From = 8.91 and 8. X to 10~* for quartz. due an applied force. in dynes.4 force. E = Young's modulus. due to the application of a force.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. 6. and A = cross-sectional area. in statcoulombs. in dynes.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.9. zmi and z. in square = length of the crystal. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. . 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms. and E = Young's modulus.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. / centimeters. 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.97. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.101 From equations 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. in mechanical ohms. 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in centimeters.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.100 and 8. in statohms. in mechanical ohms.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

9.1. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. namely. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET .ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.3. 9. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.

and velocity of the armature. in centimeters per second.2. in maxwells. 9. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. due to the steady field.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. through the armature.2. and + ZE2. and impedance of the external load. .38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in abohms. in centimeters. in centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. area of the pole. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. force. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in abohms. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. is The velocity of the armature. in gilberts. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters.6 ze = = = = = total flux. coil.

Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. r~ . Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. due to the deflection of the armature. 9. flows through the armature. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.3.

in oersteds. in statamperes. as depicted 9. in abohms. a = spacing between armature and pole. in A . in maxwells.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. of the magnet. The current. in centimeters per second.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.4.3. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.9 and 9. = magnetomotive force. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in abohms. 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2. i?2 = reluctance. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. of the alternating magnetic circuit.3. is The /m Zm + 9. M. velocity of the armature.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.11 zme From equations 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. in gilberts.

in statohms.14 where e = electromotive force.4 e is t2 9.stationary "plate . Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statfarads. in centimeters. and velocity of the X movable plate. 9. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. electrical and impedance of the external load. The current. in statvolts. in statamperes. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters. ^= a area of the plate. spacing between the plates. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.

X in centimeters per second. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.71 of the chapter on ZME = .15 and 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.17 zme e From equations 9. is Ze2 in parallel. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in statohms. = Zm /^^ + 9. area of the plates.18 Zme) . Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. electrical impedance of the external load. a spacing between plates. in square centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in centimeters. is The velocity of the movable plate. 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.4. in statfarads. e.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. in statvolts. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. electrical and 9. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.4.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.

21 in 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.25.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.25 Comparing equations 9.23 in 9. = — a CnX 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. .E1 = -r—.21 Substituting equation 9.19.24 and fi 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.23 Substituting equation 9.26 .22.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.

zei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. shown in Fig. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.5. coil.26 and an internal impedance zei. zme. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. 9. from equation 8. Magnetostriction generating system. ZEi. In the mechanical circuit: zm. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi.5. in abvolts.27 .162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. 9. L\ and rE\. In the electrical circuit: e. is ^tNK 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. coil.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. The volt- age. However. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5. Equation 9.

- £ 9.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. . The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. and Young's modulus. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. in square centimeters. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. length of the rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. in abohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system.79 or 8. and impedance of the external circuit. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.5. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. 9. in abohms. electrical electrical wavelength. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters per second. force.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. in centimeters.

in Fig. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.86 and 8.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in centimeters per second. 9.32 the generated electromotive force.28. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. equations 9. to be a In general. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.27 and 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.6. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. .32 From abvolts. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. in mechanical = ohms. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. are given by equations 8.5.6. ohms.

9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems.6. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. and velocity of the crystal. E= 4 = Young's modulus. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. length of the crystal. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. In the mechanical networks: /m. mass and compliance of the rod.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. the driving force. zei. zei.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. in centimeters. cross-sectional area of the crystal. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. A. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. In the electrical circuits: e. + 9. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. in Fig. . in centimeters per second. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. mi and Cmi. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. = = length of the crystal. 9. where KEJ — •* 9. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.27 and the velocity.4 X 10~* for quartz.6 can be obtained from equation 9. ZMi. 9. in centimeters. in square centimeters. the other. Li and tei. 6. the effective Zjv/i.7. zme. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. 2_bi j<^Li.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. in statamperes. generated The h = —.

166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. 2_b2.34 force e. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. electrical and 9. in statvolts. From equations 9.7. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. electrical and impedance of the external load. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. crystal. Ce\. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. In the Piezoelectric generating system.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statohms. z^'i zei. circuit: e. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. in statamperes. 9. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. in statfarads.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force.

9. in centimeters.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. E = Young's modulus. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. the crystal. length of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in statfarads. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. electrical impedance of the external load. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.4 X 10~* for quartz. in centimeters.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. length of in centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. and E= Young's modulus. 4 = length of the crystal.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. and „ „„ 9. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in square centimeters. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.41 .40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. A = area of the electrode.7.97 or 8.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. in statohms. in centimeters.

168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.= where i. in centimeters per second. 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.36 and 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.7. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.47 . depicted equations 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. is . in mechantotal ical ohms.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. zm2 in mechanical ohms.45 . The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.45.51. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.8. However. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.49 in 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. in Fig.104 and 8.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. Equation 9. 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. e.47 in 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.48.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.50 and 9.49 Substituting 9.

the electromotive force generated across the crystal. electrical network of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. In the electrical circuits: e. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. . the driving force. crystal. zei.45 and the velocity. zme. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. Zm2. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. A. 9.8. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. Piezoelectric generating systems. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. In the mechanical networks: Jm. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.37. ze\. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the electrical impedance of the external load.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the other.

z„".R. 1 Ballentine. and superposition theorems to electrical. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. e^" . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Reciprocity Theorems A.1.2. . . the elements. Then 10. 1929. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal." 171 . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. p. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. produce a current distribution z'l'. Vol. 929. e^' . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. ' 10. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". A number cal systems.. I. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. /s" . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. . It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Proc. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i .CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. ..E. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. No. S. i^' . in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . 17. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 6.

and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. o e .1 becomes 10. /" are the electromotive forces 10.2 = /'/' where e' . equation 10. e" and /'.1.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10.

mechanical rotational system of Fig. let a set of torques/iji'. • distribution ^i'. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. /ji/2. C. p. 10. .4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. II. =/a/V 10. 10. produce a rotational velocity — ./b' and (J)'. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. London.7 p Rayleigh.1. equation 10. fB2" . .1. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.1.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . 4>2" . 1940. . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.. '4>^" .. D./m3 all of the same frequency. MacMillan and Co./ij„ are all of the same . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. 10. "Theory of Sound./7j2'." D. New .fRi" • 4>2. 1926./fl3 . "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig.1. ^2'. and provided the applied torques /iji. York. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.6 velocities depicted . .3 becomes fu'x" . equation 10. frequency. 145. Van Nostrand Co." Vol.4 where /^f'./ij2. and provided the applied forces /mi. ^ Olson. fli" are the torques and angular 10.

13 If.9 and 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. dv" — . 0' dt dt p v" grad po .1.. equation 10.174 THEOREMS . In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. - p 1 . ..11 From equations 10. 1 . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .12 is for a point.10 From neering" equations 1. 10. equation 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.4 by the p and v of the other set. . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. v' grad po „ = 10. 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.9 and 1.8. p"v' 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. 10. y" .15 v' .+ dv' . .1. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.—.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .

. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. X2". X^" Xn" Then . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. produce a volume current distribution Xi. 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. produce pn. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 10.1. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. . velocities. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. . . . let also. Then — . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. However./". pz same frequency. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. pi. which there are only two pressures. equation 10. .16 becomes . . .19 . . 10. . . . ." a second volume current distribution Xi". X2. E. . . X^ X^.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. and let a second set of pressures ^i". .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . pressures and volume currents. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces.1.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.

. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.S. .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. P"X' i" L. E.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. forces n and velocities. . F. .21 . an interconnected e\ . — In .. . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. P"X' tn\ B M . px L. B. 10. n Then 10. D. C. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system.176 THEOREMS Equation 10.S. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. currents. . The 10. . i" .S.2. let also.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. HX* E p"X D Fig. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . Mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical.2^. L. Electrical-mechanical. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical.

as shown in Fig. is H. mechanical. 10.2C. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. Theorem. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. G. acoustical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. field. mechanical. Electrical-Mechanical. e'i" = e"i' 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.23 . volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. me- chanical. . acoustical transducer.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. Electrical-Mechanical.23 states that a if.2fi. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. electrical transducer. 10. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. e"i' 10. 2D.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.

Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. D. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem.3. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .24 Thevenin's Theorems A. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- .2£. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system.178 I. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. as shown in Fig. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. = p"X' 10. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker.

force. forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. save the one being considered. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. . current. Each source. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. velocities. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces.4. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. mechanical rectilineal. velocity.

The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. However. by acoustical capacitances.2. muffler is quite effective. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. 11. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. principles relating to electrical. Introduction The fundamental lineal. Convert the answer into the original system. An exhaust back pressure. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size.1. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . However. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters.

in the audible frequency range.1. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. with rft. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. Therefore. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. The system of Fig. .M and Ca for an acoustical system. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. 11. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. circuit will be used instead of network. When there is only one path. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.u. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. 11. in Fig. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.However.1.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. 11.

system the unpolarized type described in section 8. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.2. sate for approximations. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.3.182 APPLICATIONS In general. . Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. 11.3. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11.

. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. force can be determined /m 11. The mechanical driving from equation 8. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. zem. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . radiator tube. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. 11.7.3. teg. 11. in mechanical Jm = driving force. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig.3.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. and .3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.1.w2. In the mechanical circuit: m\. 11.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.4.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. 11. 11. rMi and Ci. in dynes." I"*. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. . the mass of the cone.3.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. nii and r.

^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H.YWHEEL I. 11. is The sound power output. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. F. Van Nostrand Co. These systems include microphones. of inertia of the flywheel. shown ^ in Fig. in mechanical ohms. New York.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. 1940. phonograph pickups. velocity of the cone. telephone receivers. In the mechanical network: A.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. . A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. in centimeters per second. and the shaft. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation.. 11. measuring cal systems. The simple vibration fly- damper. Olson. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. 11. the moment Cg. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.4. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system.5.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. given by 11." D. etc. comphance of the damper. loud speakers.4. m. FX.

/ is due to the . the mass of the machine.SA. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. A.5. B. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. ciple of the device. 11. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. The driving force/i. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. the mass of the machine. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. The shunt mechanical vibration. /jf. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. isolator. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. W.SA. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. W. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.vF.6. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. zmf. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. Jm. Cm /4 and 4rM . In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . z.

4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . pressor.6.6.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the mass of the case. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. . Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. 11.7.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. these values springs. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. the compliance and mechanical mi.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. isolating mechanical network.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. mi. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 11. consists of the following elements: nii. shown in Fig. only isolation in the system of Fig. 11. 11. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. Jm.

v/i/4. . The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Of course. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C.8. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The mechanical network of Fig.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.7. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. 187 Cmi and rui. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. 11. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 11. the system in Fig. 11. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the mass of the case. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. zmf. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic.

VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. wheel and axle. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. Cm2. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the compliance of the spring suspension. 11. body. Cms a-nd r. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. in general. m-i. 11. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. etc. r. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. mum.8.9. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. both rectilineal and rotational.v/2. the mass of the tire. the mass of the frame.7. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. the compliance of the spring. tmi.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. 11. This system has many degrees of freedom. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the driving force at each tire.v/3. Cmi and tires. Cm2. m2. engine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- .u 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. the combined driving force at the four legs. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig.

A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. . the compliance of the four springs. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. However. Cms. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. mi.8. m^. 4:rM2. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the mass of the frame.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. springs and shock absorbers. the compliance of the springs. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. Cji/2/4. Cms and r. Since there are four tires. 4rif 2. 189 m^.\f 1. the mass of the passenger. view. 11. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small.i/a. wheels. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4./ifi the comtires. body and engine. Cmi/4 and 4r. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the combined driving force at the four tires. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. 4?ni. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. fn2. the mass of the four tires. the mass of the passenger. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion.

A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. Acoustical Ohm. An electrical resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. an automobile has several modes of vibration. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. pitching or swaying motion. which controls the oscillations. Most of the forces. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. An acoustical resistance. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. As already indicated. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. 11. For example. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. — — —A — .6. mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Ohm. Electrical abohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. developed at the tires. Supplementary Note: Electrical. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational resistance. that is. Rotational Ohm. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

18. 23 mechanical rectilineal. electrical Superposition theorem. 9. 179 Thevenin's. 6. acoustical. 111 electrical resistance. 10. 11 instantaneous. 9. 42 inductance and series coupled. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 6.) 195 Table. compliance. 9. 6 Transducer. 13. 171 Resonant frequency. 6 instantaneous. 6 maximum. 25 three degrees of freedom. 179 Suspension systems. 17. 120 Duhamel's integral. 9. 5 Transformer. peak. 10. 22 mechanical rotational. 23 Theorems. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 6. 41 mechanical rotational. (see cor- effective. 23 mechanical. 178 electrical. 172 mechanical rotational. 48 two degrees of freedom. automobile. electrical-mechanical. 13. 171 acoustical. 13. 10. 6 Sound effective. 23 mechanical-acoustical.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 6 14 pressure. 28 Subharmonic. 9. 32 Rotational. 22. 23. 9 resistance. 9. 88 Transient response. 37 and analogies. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 188 Systems. 13. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 105 arbitrary force. 107 Transients. 184 Rotatomotive force. 45 electrical. 122 . 21. 35 effective. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. reciprocity. 6 maximum. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 173 superposition. 9. 42 one degree of freedom. 10. 21. 22 networlcs. 37. 85 rotational. 21. 18. 9. 178 electrical. ohm. 13. 6 Stiffness. 23 maximum. 187 Torque. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 178 acoustical. acoustical. 178 Three degrees of freedom. impedance. 88 electrical. 21. 177 reactance. 23 23. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 6 peak. 88 mechanical rotational. 61. 6 peak. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 22. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 178 mechanical rotational. 45 instantaneous. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Static pressure.

8 8 "T" type network. 22. 23 effective. "X" isolator. 7. 151. 92. 92. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 167 . 7 linear. 8 maximum. 144. 95 low pass. 11 effective. 93. 150. 106 163 Volume current.196 Transients (Cont. peak. 148 machine isolator. magnetostriction. 106 Units. 165. 146. 8. 143. 92. peak. 101 instantaneous. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 7 Wave. 94 response characteristics. 147. 163. 23. 23 Transmission. 20. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 5 maximum. 7. 106 unit function. 97 93. 184 186 Young's modulus. 92. 149. high pass. 7 Vibration. cut quartz crystal.) INDEX Villari effect. 37. 8 instantaneous. 7. 24 Velocity. 11 loss. band pass. Heaviside's Calculus. 93. 93. 45 Unit function. 21. gain. 5 filters. 22 angular. Wave band elimination.

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