This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Research Director. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. E. 1943 F. Engstrom. plex arrangements of multielement systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. Harry January. W. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Lorene E. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. an electrical circuit. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Olson . in this project. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Olson. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. engineer.

.

Electrical Capacitance B. ELECTRICAL. Electrical Resistance B.5 Representation of Electrical. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.3 3. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. ELEMENTS 2. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Acoustical Capacitance 2.3 Inductance. A. Moment of Inertia. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.1 1 1. Mechanical Rectilineal.2 4 II. Inductance B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.1 2. Rectilineal Compliance. Mass.2 Introduction Resistance A. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. C. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Acoustical Resistance 2. Rectilineal Compliance C. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Rotational Compliance.1 3.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Inertance 2.CONTENTS Chapter I.2 3. Acoustical Capacitance A. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.

. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Two Electrical.1 Introduction 52 5.5 Chapter 3. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 60 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.2 4.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 The Acoustical System 4..6 4. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.7 3.13 Electrical.8 67 . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 62 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.6 3. 4.4 Dissipation 4.3 5. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.5 Equations of Motion 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4..8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .4 5.7 64 5.1 Introduction 37 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.7 The Electrical System . ELECTRICAL.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.3 6.16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rectilineal..21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. WAVE FILTERS 6.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .11 69 71 5..6 6. Mechanical Rotational.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..17 5.1 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.2 6. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.4 6.

6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 8. B. 1 7.5 8. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.2 7. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.X Chapter VII.1 8. Unpolarized Armature B. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. C. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .4 Ill 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 114 120 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.1 10.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. THEOREMS 10.6 VIII.2 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 9.4 8. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.4 9.5 9.

Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.4 11.CONTENTS Chapter E. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.6 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.2 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. APPLICATIONS 11.7 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.8 1 1 .3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.

.

1 The acoustical . in the early days of electrical circuit theory.1. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. In other words. mechanical and acoustical tems. However. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. as for example. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. Expressions for the kinetic energy. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. vibrating systems.

Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. various assemblies of masses. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. induct- ance and capacitance. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. constituent parts of a circuit. springs and brakes. . This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Elements are the meshes. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. as for example.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. Of course. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. cal. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Electrical elements are resistance. springs and friction. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. ' The lished. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy.

ratio of force to displacement. in the past. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. In addition. That is to say. In this book. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. 4. circuit. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. 4. XI. d. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist.. and ratio of pressure to displacement. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. mechanical and acoustical systems. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. — . any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Acous. Institute of Radio Engineers. Vol. No. No. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. For example. Finally. particularly electrical circuits. Soc.1 of 1942. up the mechanical and electrical. Amer. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. Vol. all communication. SiemensKonzern. Verojf a. Therefore. However. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. every electrical. I) and Firestone {Jour. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. However.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. Therefore. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Hanle {JViss. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible.

a constant. + T).4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. This called a Fourier series. Cycle. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. negative. period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. a period of jy. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration.2. equals 2x divided by the period T. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. Periodic Quantity. Terms not sections. Frequency. The remainder. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. or zero. where T. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. or which tity comprises a cycle. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. all is the frequency. a positive constant. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. Basic Frequency. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. Harmonic. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. . A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. reciprocal of the period. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. Octave. Definitions ^ this section. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important.

The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Wavelength.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. . The root unit the abvolt. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Wave. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. — — Abvolt. Dyne. Subharmonic. the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. The unit is the dyne. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. mechanical or acoustical system. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Mechanomotive Force). A wave is a propagated disturbance. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. The unit is the abvolt. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The unit the dyne. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Electromotive Force. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Effective Electromotive Force. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle.

An abampere is the unit of current. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. the dyne per square centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). Abampere. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. force. The the — Instantaneous Current. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). the abampere. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. .6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force).

for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. is velocity in that interval. Effective Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. velocity. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. is Radian per Second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. Cubic Centimeter per Second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. the centimeter per second. complete cycle at the point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. Maximum Current. The unit is the abampere. the abampere. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The unit is the abampere. unit is the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. is Centimeter per Second. current. Effective Angular Velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. Peak Velocity. Peak Current. per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point.

The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit the abohm. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. where both systems are considered concurrently. electrical Inductance. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. which. Electrical Reactance. when times the frequency. . a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. To avoid ambiguity in this book. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. Electrical Impedance. is Electrical Resistance. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. the cubic centimeter per second. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. second. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. times the frequency. is the abohm. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. Effective Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. for Peak Volume Current. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. given cycle Maximum Volume Current.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current.-W is impedance. The unit the abohm. The unit is the abfarad. the cubic centimeter per second. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle.

Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. rotational resistance ance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Acoustical Impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Rotational Compliance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. ' See footnote S. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Compliance. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the acoustical ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. unit is the rotational ohm. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mass. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. page I .

This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. Inertance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. Acoustical Reactance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. mass and compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. and rotational compliance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. . The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. inductance and electrical capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. In the same way. mass and compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance.. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical System. the fourth power. the acoustical ohm. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. moment of inertia. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Mechanical Rotational System. The unit is the acoustical ohm. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. when multiplied by times the frequency. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. Electrical System.

The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . force. torque or pressure is electrical. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. voltage. The bel is the Decibel. angular velocity. current. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. force. mechanical rectilineal.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. pressure or volume current. mechanical or acoustical. torque. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. For example. Transmission Loss {or Gain). pressures or such as forces or velocities. Either of these systems may be electrical. — Transmission. velocity. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p .

CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. electrical. e. As indicated in the preceding chapter. An tinguished from the devices. e rs^-. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. See footnote page 8. 2. in abohms. and current through the resistance. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. in abvolts. in abamperes. resistor. is defined as A.' 2. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. inductor and capacitor.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. A resistor. inductance and capacitance.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. Electrical Resistance. Electrical resistance rs. t 2. 12 .1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. the vibrating systems. 5. In this procedure. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance.1.

is defined as Vm where = — u 2. and velocity at the point of application of the force. Acoustical Resistance. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. Mechanical rotational energy is C. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. . in dynes. D. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in centi- meters per second.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. in radians per second.RESISTANCE B. is defined as r^ — = y 2.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Equation 2.

resistance. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /.5 = viscosity coefficient." D. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. a narrow and metal. in cubic centimeters per second. a reaccomponent. 2. density.86 X 10"'* for air. and U= Equation resistance current. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. in dynes per square centimeter. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in grams per cubic centimeter. However. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . New . in addition to the resistive component. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. York. Van Nostrand Co. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 1940.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. in acoustical ohms. slit in the direction of flow. volume current. 1. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. and frequency in cycles per second. slit normal to the direction of flow. 'Olson. in = width of the meters.4 where p — pressure. 6pww 2.. in centimeters.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. A tube of small diameter. slit normal to the direction of flow.

which opposes a change of velocity.3. B. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.INDUCTANCE. INERTANCE 2. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. It decreases when the current decreases. in dynes. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. that during angular acceleration. given by dd . — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. MOMENT OF INERTIA. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. mass increases. Moment of Inertia. 15 Inductance. in abvolts. Equation C. Equation 2. in grams. Mass. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. and driving force.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. It remains constant ance. that during linear when the velocity decreases. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. Inductance. in abhenries. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Moment gram (centimeter)^. Moment of Inertia. Inertance A. Mass. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. is remains a constant of inertia /. and rate of change of current. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. is Inductance L. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. = di Ldt ^ 2. in abamperes per second. in when the angular velocity a constant. in centimeters per second per second. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. MASS. is defined as 2. 2.

Inertance. in cubic centimeters per second per second. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. Inertance M. in radians per second per second. Van Nostrand Co. in centimeters. volume current. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. cross sectional area in square centimeters. and driving pressure. 1940. York.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. in dyne centimeters. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. that tion." D. in p = density of the meter. in centimeters. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. Equation 2. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in dynes per square centimeter. in grams per (centimeter)*. inertance.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in rate of change of 2. decreases. effective length of the tube. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system.10 m = S = mass. in grams. is. D.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. New . = length plus end correc- and in the tube.

Electrical Capacitance. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in centimeters. in abfarads.n Equation 2.14 = Jm = displacement. It is a constant. Rotational Com- pliance. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. and applied force. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. abvolts. in abcoulombs. and electromotive force.13 states that the charge on an force. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance Cg.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged.4.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. and stored. in dynes is Equation 2. . — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Acoustical Capacitance A. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.

is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. allowed to unwind.^ in dynes per square centimeter. It is constant. in is The terms of the condensation. . in radians per centimeter per dyne. Van Nostrand Co. in dyne centimeters. C. and condensation. 1940. D. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. D.16 p s — = = velocity.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Rotational Compliance. Acoustical Capacitance.. Rotational compliance Cu-. in centimeters per second. and applied torque. defined in equation 2. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. p = where c c^ps 2. 9. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.17 s = * Olson. It is constant. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. in radians. Equation 2. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. in grams per cubic centimeter. New York.17.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. density." p. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.

mechanical rectilineal.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2. Representation of Electrical.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. equal to the volume displacement. The electrical elements. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. in cubic centimeters. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. .16.X 2. Equation 2. From equations 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.19 and 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. is 2. = ^ F 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. 2. and 2.17. . electrical resistance. in cubic centimeters.21 F= volume. Mechanical Rectilineal.5. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.18 X= volume displacement. and volume displacement.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.

ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass.1. rE . 2. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. mechanical rectilineal. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.3.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. . inertance and time. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. Table 2. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.2.24 sions are mass. The dimensions given in Table 2. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.1 and 2. ELEMENTS and time.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.1. length.1 page and list and 2. ^ The Tables 8. Tables 2. 1. 2.3 uses mass M. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. the standard modifiers for all four systems. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. self-inductance. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.1. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. and time.1. length L and time T. Further.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.

tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws.1. mechanical rectilineal. mass.2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. 3. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. mechanical rotational or In other words. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational. From these definitions it is evident that friction. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. namely. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal.1. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. 3.

The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. mechanical rectilineal. C. Cr = T. velocity.1. potential and heat energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In the electrical.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. namely. mechanical rectilineal. Heat is a transient form of energy.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. kinetic. mechanical rotational. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. Electrical. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . 3.

Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. mechanical rotational. equal to the system. = velocity of the air particles in the opening.3.3 = moment of inertia. in grams per (centimeter)*. mechanical rectilineal. all the air particles in the opening move with the . and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in abamperes. in square centimeters. electrical. in centimeters per second. and velocity of the = mass m. potential. in grams.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. The sum of the kinetic.4 M= m = S — m/S^. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. It is assumed that same phase. in abhenries. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. and current through the inductance L. 3. cross-sectional area of the opening. mass of air in the opening.2 m = X mass. and heat energy during an interval of time is. by the principle of conservation of energy. the inertance. in cubic centimeters per second. in centimeters per second. X— X Sx = volume current. in grams. in radians per second.

. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in centimeters per dyne. s — stiffness of the spring.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and X = displacement. and c = velocity of sound. = -. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. and <l> angular displacement. in dynes per centimeter. in radians. in radians per dyne per centimeter.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. p = density of air. in abfarads. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in centimeters per second. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in grams per cubic centimeter. ^ 3. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. and charge on the capacitance.. in cubic centimeters.4. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in abcoulombs. dyne. in centimeters.

in abohms. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. and current. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. and acoustical systems. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. . +— + XX 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.y- 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.. Wr.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. mechanical rotational.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. mechanical Wm. in abamperes.12 where We. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.: 3.5.17 = = is electrical resistance.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.18 . force.

The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.22 = acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. and angular velocity. and X= 3. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in rotational ohms. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. and velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. in radians per second.

24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.28 and 3.24.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3..26. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.32 „. — -—- JO^ Cm . 3.

jo>I — — 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.38 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the velocity and force.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the impedance is m and Cm. the angular velocity and torque.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.7^ Ca 3.7.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. and Cr.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. .

KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.Ce r^ 3. .8. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. mechanical rectilineal. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.42 3.

34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. Equation 3. 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .1. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. namely.49 „ .24.1.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.

55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.28.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. Equation 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. 3.51 is the same as equation 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.26.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. .54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.55 is the same as equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.

the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. inclusively. . mechanical rectilineal.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.30. Equation 3.43 to 3. Equations 3.59.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. and acoustical systems. mechanical rotational.59 is the same as equation 3. 3.

MECHANICAL Electrical. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. velocity.1. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. 4.2. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.1. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. 4.

in centimeters per second.2 where x^ m = = mass. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.4 M = inertance. . and velocity of the mass m. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in abhenries. in radians per second.3.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in branch 3. and = h = current. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in abamperes. in cubic centimeters per second.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.1 93 L = inductance. in grams. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.

in cubic centimeters.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.DISSIPATION 4. . in radians per dyne per centimeter. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4.4. in centimeters. 4. in abamperes.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and X2 = volume displacement. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. and <i>2 angular displacement. and displacement. in radians. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. per dyne. in qz ohms. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in abfarads. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in abcoulombs.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and — current.5.

and velocity. and Xs = volume 4.6. in acoustical ohms. in centimeters per second. in radians per second.12 = acoustical resistance. 2 d<t>n dcj). in cubic centimeters per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.i 4. current. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. and angular velocity.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. mechanical ohms. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .

14. at/jf.18.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.19 +k 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. The relation for the currents in Fig.22.17.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.23.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.21 4. 4.8. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.7.13. 4. e = = Lqz-[.rsqz 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.20 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.25 .1 is h = H Equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. The linear displacement.

torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.29 4.26.27.31.16.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.28 Differentiating equation 4. The angular displacement.42 4.9.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. Jb /. at/^j.10. 4. . SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.15. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. Fig. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. = = /03 + rij^g 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.26 ^ The 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. p = MXa + vaXz 4. in the acoustical system. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. 4.32 ing piston. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.30. at p.1.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.

4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. mass. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. and to acoustical resistance. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. vm.29 and 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.25.11.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. inductance. 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . inertance acoustical system. Fig.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.1 to 4. 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.33. inclusive.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.1. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.19.1. to mechanical rotational resistance. Fig. shows again that resistance. given by ^3 JM is 4.

45 . the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. Fig.1. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. is given by k The = f". X2 = Xi .41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. is . the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. Fig. 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.X3 = pjccCa 4.. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.1.

The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. see pages 53.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.48 JwCe3 Cr.1 of Chapter V. The electrical impedances z^i.2. 4.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 54. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 55 and 56 and Fig.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.3.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. .47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2 are as follows: 4. 4. 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 1 tional systems of Figs. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 5.

4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.55 jwLai 4. mass.59 4. 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.— JwLmz Zb.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . mechanical rectilineal.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.60 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. I2 and M2.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . The shunt electrical.3 is the as that of Fig. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. Ce2.56 ZA2 -T-z.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.50 + jwm2 + T-p. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.2 save that the electrical capacitance.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. compliance. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.2 4. 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4.

mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.65 2^22^3 .62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.3. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.

Cri. I2.\. Mechanical Rectilineal.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.412^3 + 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. L2.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.t 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Cb2 .3. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Electrical. to /i.67 . O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Cm\. m2.4.4. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .«i. Cei. L.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. 4. 4. 4. 4.13. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. Ca. mechanical rectilineal. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^.

^ zjji = . 4. 4>2. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.82 4.80 4. X2.83 ZA2 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. h.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.88 4. The current to. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. i^ in show that /q.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. the linear velocity Xq.76 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . (h and 04 X2. M2. 4>i.89 . Xi. X3 rectilineal system. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. Xi.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.84 4.78 4. Cai.74 4.86 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. nA where zei = . to 4>o. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. the linear velocity Xi.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.93 Ha = The current ii.95 .97 The current i2.98 ..99 r^r^ . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .ZM3 + ZMi) 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. the linear velocity X2. 02 = + Zr^ 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.90 4.92 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. 4.{ZA3jrZA. 4.1UU ^^^ pZA.) Ha ^_^^j . 01 4.

J~iR X. = The equations cal.„.107 .105 current 4.-riE . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. 4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.102 X3 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.106 . ^^^ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the linear velocity X4. . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.

Two Mechanical Rectilineal. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.1. termed the input and output electrical impedances. characteristics. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. 52 .1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. 5.2. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. mechanical rotational. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which.1. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.^ an inductance. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. 5. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line.

Fig.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. 5. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.1. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . branch is current flows in z^i.

^2. With these specifications the differential of Fig. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.1. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. as for example. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. = = xx -\- X2 5.3. Fig. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. respectively. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. </>!. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. must be in parallel.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. Z/jt. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig.4 That is.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4.. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. respectively. analogous to equation 5. </)r. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Equation 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . shown schematically in Fig. SAA. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. relations existing between//.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. respectively. 5. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. respectively. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. Xt Differentiating equation 5. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3.2 for the electrical system. That is. consists of a system of gears.1 with the same tions. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. 5.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. reactance .INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.13 and 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2.17 where / = moment of inertia. 5. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.2. mechanical and acoustical analogies. equations 5. ^^^^.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. equations 5. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12 relatively large 59 and 5. 5.

5.3. 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. Fig. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.14 and 5. The acoustical system of Fig.11 and 5.2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. . Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. from equations 5. 5. in abfarads.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.20 where Cm = compliance.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.18 where M= inertance. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5. Therefore. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.2. 5. 5. Equations 5.3 is = T^ 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne.42 = joiM 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.

20 is shown in Fig.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. inversely proportional to the frequency.3. 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. Fig.13 and 5. 5. 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. The mechanical the frequency. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.12 and 5.3. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.21 show that at low frequencies . at Equa- tions 5. 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 to the and 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.

21 is The acoustical system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.3. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. tional. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3. and electrical capacitance.13 and 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance.14 and 5.6. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. 5.11 and 5. equations 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. .22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The shown in Fig. 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.4. in abfarads. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5.23. in abhenries.4 in series across a line. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.12 = ^-^ 5.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and . in grams.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. The output angular 5.25. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25 where / = moment of inertia. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and Cu = rotational compliance. and compliance.4. 5.24 where m = mass.24. in gram (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.2 and there is very little attenuation.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. .5 parallel across a line.24 also is zero. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. 5.11 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. The output volume 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.14 and 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.26 where M= Ca = inertance.5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. Equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)''.13 and 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. acoustical capacitance.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.26. 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.12 and 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.7.

5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .12 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.J^mCM 5.5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abfarads. and compliance. 5. 5. in abhenries. Cm = The output .28 where m = mass." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and electrical capacitance. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.5 is jo}L -£2 5.28.27 where L = Ce = inductance. 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5.27.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. and = rotational compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.11 and 5.5 is ZR2 = ..5 is joiM ''' = 1 . The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. The output volume 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.^MC. current can be obtained from equations 5. . 5. and acoustical capacitance.13 and 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.30. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.13 and The output angular 5.2 and the transmission is small.12 and 5. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. Equations 5. 1 - 5. 5.29.14 and 5.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.3 and the transmission is again small.

The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series.8.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.min. in abohms. 5.6. 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. 5.6. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. inductance.31. in shunt with a line. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abfarads. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.11 and 5. and electrical capacitance. 5. Electrical Resistance. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. . itance in series. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.6 shows an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.5. Electrical resistance. in abhenries.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. 5. in Fig.

current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.34.3 and there is very little attenuation. compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. and rotational compliance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.12 and 5. mass.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Therefore. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in mechanical ohms. 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .11 and 5. in rotational ohms.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. in centimeters per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.12 and 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. 5. in acoustical ohms.32. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.33. from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. The output and 5. Therefore. The output volume 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. from equations 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.2 and there is very little attenuation. inertance. in grams. in radians per dyne per centimeter.

6. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. 5. inductance. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.36.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. in abfarads. quencies the same as that of Fig. in Fig.12 The output and 5.4. The mechanical network is rectihneal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. Therefore.14 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.13 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. and compliance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. . + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in abohms.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. 5. 5. in Fig.7 shows an electrical resistance. in grams. mass. and electrical capacitance.9.11 and 5. 5. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in mechanical ohms.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.7. from equations 5. Therefore. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.35. in abhenries. 5.6. from equations 5.

of inertia. S. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''.38.37 where ru Cb.7. Electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in acoustical ohms. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. inertance. in rotational ohms. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams per and 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. The output and 5.37. = = mechanical rotational resistance.14 Ca = 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. rotational compliance. acoustical capacitance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .

13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.3 and the transmission is again small. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5.7.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. Fig.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.2 and the transmission is small. 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.14 and 5.5. output electrical impedance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. inductance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.7. 5.7. 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.7.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.10. . Fig. 5. However. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5.12 and 5. 5.7.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.11 and 5. 5. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.

= Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.42 Zas.41 input acoustical impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.40 ZM2. 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. output acoustical impedance. . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.43 where L = inductance. 5. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. in abhenries. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.43 = p = 2.11. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. 5.

5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. 5.44 where tn = mass. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.45 where / = moment of inertia.8.8. 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8 is = j^m 5.39 and 5.8 is = jo)I 5. . with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.8 equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. 5. in grams. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. in gram (centimeters)^. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. 5.8.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5. characteristic. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.

42 and 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.8.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. acoustical Equations 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.48.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .46 where M= inertance.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. 5. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. 5. Equation 5. 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.41 and 5.8 equations 5.12. The acoustical system of Fig. 5.

.9 to the frequency.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.48 where Cm — compliance. 5.9 = 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5. 5.47.9 is ^R2 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.40 and 5. Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. is 5. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. is ance relatively large to motion. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.9.9. frequency characteristic.l/2 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. 5. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters per dyne. line and the mechanical rectihneal.

Equation 5.10.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. . 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5.13. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current.50.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. The acoustical impedance of Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. 5. in square centimeters. compliance of the suspension system. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm.9.9 is 2.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. analogous to an in Fig. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.42 and 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. acoustical capacitance tions 5. 5.9. 5. The mechanical rectilineal.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Mechanical Rotational. and per = area of the diaphragm. Equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.41 and 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. dyne. 5.

in radians per dyne per centimeter. and electrical capacitance.10. and C_if compliance. rectilineal. 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical system of Fig.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abfarads. and = rotational compliance. in abhenries. .52.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.53.53 where m = = mass. in gram (centimeter)^.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in centimeters per dyne. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams.40 and 5.

78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.11. connected in with a line.55.55 where M= Ca = inertance. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5.50. and the transmission is small. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5.40 and 5. Equations 5. and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5.39 and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. .54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.10.8.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.54.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5.42 and 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. and again the transmission is small.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. Equations 5.14.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. 5.

5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in abhenries.1/2 = 1 — S.57. in centimeters per dyne.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.39 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in grams.40 and 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. 5.11 is 2/22 = :. 5.11 is - 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. and electrical capacitance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.56. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in abfarads. The mechanical system of Fig. 5.11.

ance of Fig. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.42 == 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. and acoustical capacitance.12 shows an electrical resistance.11 is -.41 and 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.9 and again the attenuation is small. Electrical Resistance. 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.39 and 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.15. 2. Equation 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and = rotational compliance. Equations 5. Equations 5.40 and 5.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.58.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.59. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 5. in grams (centimeter)^. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 The output angular 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.11.12. 5.11 equation 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. 5. 5. inductance and line.

60. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig.62 . graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.39 and 5. in abfarads. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and capacitance.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. m = Cm = mass.12. 5. in grams.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . 5. 5. in abohms. Electrical resistance. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.40 and 5. compliance. in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne.12 T = rE + jwL + 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance.61.

in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^. 5. Therefore. from equations 5. The output volume 5. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. where vr / = moment of inertia. Fig. 5.40 and 5. Fig. inertance. from equations 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. However. 5. in acoustical ohms. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.63. and Cr = rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.10. The output and 5.12 is 2. Therefore.12.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.12. Fig.4 -T-z^ 5.12.12.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. the acoustical reactance is zero.62. Therefore.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.coC. in grams per (centimeter)*. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. and the transmission is small.12. Therefore.41 and 5. . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.8. from equations 5. and again the transmission is small.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.39 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. in rotational ohms. 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

39 and 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. inductance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5.13. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance. 83 Parallel.64.16. Electrical resistance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.65 . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 5. in abfarads. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.13 shows an electrical resistance. 5. inductance line.13. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. in abohms.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 is ZM2 = r. 5.

the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.13 is = jo^rAM ~. in where tm mechanical ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.65. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite. Fig.13. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.67.8 and the attenuation is small.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.13. Therefore. mass. 5. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in acoustical ohms.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.39 and 5.13. Fig. from equations 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. Fig.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. therefore. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. from equations 5.66. The output volume 5. Therefore. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.9 and the attenuation is small. Therefore. in (centimeter)® per dyne. 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. The output and 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. from .67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. and compliance.40 and 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. in grams. 5. from equations 5. ohms. inertance.

may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.14 Mechanical Rotational. Fig. Referring to equation 5.67 the attenuation ance. 5.17. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5.13. that of Fig. 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. 5. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5.11.18. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.42 and 5.13.

14 shows a system of made larger.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. larger.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.15. Equation 5. rectilineal. Fig. 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Equation 5. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. Electrical Rectilineal. 5. Equation 5. .19. 5. 5. Referring to equation 5.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.

"T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal.20. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. wherein zm\.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.16.16. 5. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. respectively. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . acoustical systems of Fig. 5.12.11.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. and Zmz. "Zrz. mechanical rotational. 5. and r^i and the input impedances. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. and r.16. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. 5. The mechanical rectilineal. mechani- and acoustical analogies. respectively.41 and the output impedances. 5. Equation 5. 5. zri. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.17.21. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. In the same way equations 5. rui.13 the mechanical rectihneal. rm.

14.13 and 5. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.22. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.17.18. me- chanical rotational. Mechanical Rectilineal. output impedance.12. 5. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.17. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. Electrical. 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. . Equation 5. In this case zei is the input impedance. Electrical. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. 5. ze2 is rE2. 5. rectihneal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss.

current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.18 the electromotive force.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.18. ei. and of turns on the secondary. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. ii. and zei represent the electromotive force. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. velocity and . 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ACOUSTICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. The force.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. Electrical. 5.68 5. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. 5.

angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The pressure.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.71 = — xi 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. consists of a mass- gear train. 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.18.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. The torque. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. of Fig.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.18. 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. /mi. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.77 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. /ri. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. The 5.79 .18.

pi. .ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. New York..18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. ^ Engineering. The acoustical transformer of Fig. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. 5. two diaphragms. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss." D. 1940.41 and p2. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. Xi and 2.

G. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. W. 6. G. mechanical rectilineal... No. 1922. Stewart. Jour. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. 6. p. Vol. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. Vol. 1922. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell.1. 92 . the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Rev.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. 20. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. 2.2. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. 528. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Phys. No. Bell System Tech. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. A. I..

a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. velocities. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents.. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. respectively. positive and when than four. velocities. velocities. Johnson." D. Van Nostrand Co. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. Van New York. 6. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities." D. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Shea. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. that is. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. New York. *' . "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. velocities.3. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. ^ Nostrand Co.. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. velocities.

mechanical rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.94 6.Ca 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. Electrical.1 zmi zri 6.6 ZR2 6.1.2 6.4.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6. 6.1.8 .> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.

6. inclusive. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.10 — — 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — . mechanical rotational.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. when . mechanical rectilineal.9 the constants of the systems. when ccc 6.= From and .10 and show that the systems of Fig.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. 6. and the cutoff 6. linear velocities. 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. 6.17. when coc 6.15 WC.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. 2A2 VMC^ . when uc = 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.= -4 6.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. when oip = = = = 6. when coc = . . when coe 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.17 Equations 6.2. 6.5.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= 22 and .27 . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= -4 22 6.

37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec. .98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.12.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.

50 V/iGji 0.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. 2.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . when coci = = 6. when wci = — VLiCei .51 VM2C42 = .12 =0. = 1 . . 6. „ when coci = .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. _ 4. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.lfi)^ ^ -. —7== VMiCai .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .46 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. = — 7= / 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. — — / 1 6.44 6. UCe\ (1 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. —= Z£2 — 4.

58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.41 . —= 2.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . (1 .54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. -4. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.v/2 1 6. one greater than uci and Therefore. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. when .

angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". inclusive.4.7. mechanical rectilineal.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. linear velocities.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.56 to 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. are 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. show that the systems of Fig.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.63.69 .64 CeiLi 6. 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.

4.74 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.76 . mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. 6. mechanical rectilineal.75 = I2CR2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical.

LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. or. .79 ^— = ZA2 0. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.-4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. when oici = and wa = =0 6. .82 .42 -4. —= Zr\ -4. M\Ca\) 4.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. —= zei -4. when (1 . 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. when (1 . when.77 —— = ZM2 0.84 . .78 —= ZR2 0.83 —= Z^l 2. 6. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. when uci = and cca oo 6.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

unit force.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in dynes. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.2. in grams. velocity. unit torque and unit pressure. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. rectilineal resistance.2. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The graph depicts the current. .5 where aE = Te/L. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. shown in Fig.2. 7.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. 7. and driving force. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. respectively. in centimeters per second. The current is zero = 0.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. as shown in Fig. = mechanical rotational resistance. 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. ohms.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. 7. in dyne centimeters. in rotational = angular velocity. .10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in gram (centimeter)^.12 = — - e"^') 7. 1/riv/.2. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. and = torque. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.2.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). in radians per second.

The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. = acoustical resistance. in grams per (centimeter)*. in dynes per square centimeter.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.16 7. as shown in Fig. in acoustical ohms.22 . U = volume current.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. and p = sound pressure.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. in cubic centimeters.2. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. 7.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.20 where M= ta inertance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.2.

3. in abfarads. 7. current. 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.22 111 may be written. electrical resistance series. and electromotive force.24 JA{t) = " (1 . 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.e-^ in Fig. the solution of equation 7. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.2.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.28 ve . electrical resistance. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. in abamperes. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.4.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. the solution of equation 7. in abvolts. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. in abohms.

Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the current. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. respectively. unit force. mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. in dynes.31 . 7 3.y = l/rjfCv/. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit torque and unit pressure. the solution of equation 7.3. From the tables of operational formulas. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. 7. force. velocity. in centimeters. shown in Fig. linear velocity. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. 7.3. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. is The for / shown in Fig.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per dyne.30 P)rM where a.

is shown in Fig.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. and torque. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in cubic centimeters per second.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. volume current. is shown in Fig.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. and sound pressure. acoustical resistance. as shown in Fig.3. 7.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in dynes per square centimeter. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in acoustical ohms. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. in dyne centimeters. angular velocity. 7. in rotational ohms. as shown in Fig. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. 7.3.3. 7. .

abohms. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. abamperes. in current. . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. in electrical capacitance.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. (a + ^ Pfa . 7.4.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . 7. in abhenries.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. is shown 7.3.38 ^.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. and electromotive force. in abohms. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. electrical resist- ance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in abvolts. 1 7. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. as in Fig.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.5. electrical resistance.

respectively.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. The response sinusoid. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The graph depicts the current. unit force. 7.45. 7.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. series Response of an electrical resistance. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. .4. unit torque or unit pressure. 7.4. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. the solution of equation 7. velocity.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.

in dynes. in centimeters per second. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. 1 AC.47 .4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. displacement. in grams. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. acceleration. rectilineal resistance.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in centimeters per dyne. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. and driving force. 1 A\ m = mass. in centimeters per second per second. Substituting equation 7.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. velocity. v for x. 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters.

as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. = angular velocity.48 The response sinusoid. in rotational ohms. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. in dyne centimeters. in radians. and 4> Jr = driving torque. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. 7. 4> = angular acceleration. in radians per second per second. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. Cr = rotational compliance.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. is of inertia.4_S.4.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.51 = moment of inertia. 7. in radians per second. 7.si . in radians per dyne per centimeter. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. equation 7. lAA. = angular displacement. in grams (centimeter).

54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr..57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.45.4C.56 ^PR = Jo. 7. WR^ 2 1 7. It is a damped sinusoid. = '^I/Cr.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. lAA. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . 7. .55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.

Substituting U for X.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in cubic centimeters per second. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in dynes per square centimeter.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. at equation 7. in acoustical ohms. 7. acoustical capacitance. acoustical resistance. and pressure. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)^. as in Fig.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.4. volume current.

7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. . cca^ = 4M/Ca.6. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. 7.5. 7.45.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.

7.u)du du 7. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. an electromotive force ^2 is added. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ .68 . t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. Therefore. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).5. a time «2 later. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions.5. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. «i. The indicial electrical admittance.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. as in the case of the preceding sections. The This proof. all being of the unit type. etc. an electromotive force ei is added. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. 7. etc. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. <?i at / = Ae. as shown in Fig.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. tem.. integral.

3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.u)du du u)du 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.u)du 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .72 . The velocity. mechanical rotational rectilineal. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.69 fR{u) — AR{t . As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.

.

Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the electrostatic. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. the electromagnetic.2. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.1. 8.

The latter convention will be used in this chapter. and current. in using analogies in actual practice.2 where x = velocity. field in which depicted in Fig. L and Ce. in dynes. and Ca with vr. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. in abvolts. termed motional electrical impedance.1. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. The electromotive force. in gausses. due to motion.However.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. in centimeters per second.1 B = / = / = flux density. When there is only one path. From equations 8. abohms. circuit will be used instead of network. in abamperes. it is located. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M .ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in centimeters. The force. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).1 and 8. length of the conductor. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. 8.1.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.

driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. which the mechanical There are three general types of . The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in mechanical ohms. in chanical ohms.3. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. in the absence of motion.4 8. 8.6 The 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance zek. that is. in abohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.3.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil.1.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. all of the conductor. 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8. Zen in abohms.

A. Assume that all the reluctance . namely.2. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. 8. Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Since there is no polarizing flux. Unpolarized Armature Type. the unpolarized armature type. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type.

12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in dynes. n = number of turns. in square centimeters.13 and 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. is where / = current in the coil. A = area of the center pole. then from equations 8. C = l-^nA. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. and a = normal spacing. in abamperes.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. .14 e = ^r 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a.15 The force on the armature. in centimeters. in abvolts.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.

and time.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . nC^P 8. mechanical ohms.18 Equation 8. in seconds. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.15 and 8.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. in mechanical ohms.20 — X From equations 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. the force on the armature is Im = '.21 . in mechanical ohms. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.16.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.2. 8. Substituting equation 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.17 for the current in 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. 4TrJa*/M .

23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in abohms. filing — as in Fig.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. and impedance of the coil. in maxwells. / = current.20 and 8. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature.19. Therefore. = number of turns. in oersteds. in abamperes.2. . of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters. B. in square centimeters. Polarized Reed Armature Type. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in gilberts. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. from the poles of a permanent magnet. a = spacing.3.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. 8.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in abohms. for converting electrical variations into however. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abohms. 8. saws. vibrators and clippers. ^ = area of center pole. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. for the reproduction of sound.22 = motional electrical impedance. Zen in abohms. this system cannot be used It is. 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.

27r/. in oersteds. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux.axsin wt n coil. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in abamperes. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. and time. in 131 oit maxwells. frequency.

the flux will now be 4>x + A. sidered. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. spacing between the armature and pole.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. __ . in centimeters. the flux.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. and area of the pole.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in abvolts. Ax -\- Ax .. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. in square centimeters. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.32 „ . in gilberts. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.^ . in maxwells.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. due to the steady field.

36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.35 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. 8. ~ 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.37. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.32 and e i = — X 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. in abohms.34. 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. fu = MNi ~r — . assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.35 and 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.3.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. ZAfi. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.33. in me- chanical ohms. From equations 8.38 a Zm .ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8..34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. in mechanical ohms. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.24 and 8.

7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. C. in abohms. ARMATURE MAGNET .38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.3. and impedance of the coil. in abohms. 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.38 is similar to equation 8. Equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.

= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in dynes. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in square centimeters. i?2 = = coil. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. The . it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in dynes. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in maxwells. 8.4. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The sum of the forces. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in abamperes. The steady magnetic field is force. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The flux. 8.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. which the coil energizes. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. in oersteds. and yf effective area. in maxwells.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. at each pole magnet. at the poles (Fig. of the pole piece.

A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in mechanical ohms. 8. . in gilberts. of the steady field. NMA —^x a^ 8. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. and effective area of a pole piece. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. in abvolts. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in square centimeters.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance.136 flux.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.44 A. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 impedance of the load. through the armature to the right and upward. in centimeters.4. in merectilineal chanical ohms.45. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.

43 =-^ 8. . and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50.50 and 8. Zm\.

8. system of Fig. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. galvanometers.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. Therefore. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . This driving system is used for loud speakers.4. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.

= CeCq 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . ^o^max sin wt . generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser.62 . in statamperes. in statcoulombs. motive Cq is large . The force. in statvolts. in statfarads.57 numerator of equation 8. and capacity per unit area. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. in dynes. the fourth term will be negligible. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. in statfarads. on the condenser is q considered. The useful force. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.59 and 8. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces.60 From equations 8. is The current. in dynes.

is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. Ax) 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.5. in stat- amperes.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. 8. the generated current. . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. 4ir(<2 + . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. .x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. in mechanical ohms. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. 47r(a — 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. ohms.66 in 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .61. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .69 .63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.

and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. adding a large stiffness.58 and 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. at the same time.69 and 8. electrical network in Fig. statohms. 8. + . in statohms. 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.68.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.5.5. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.

142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. 8. current is applied to 2m . Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.6.

reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The electromotive force. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in current in the abamperes.74 and ehminating the steady force. and time. in seconds. in gausses. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. frequency. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in square centimeters.73 Combining equations and 8. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. due to is the Villari effect. in cycles per second. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . induced in the winding. in centimeters. in abvolts. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. coil. . current. induction is of the nickel rod.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. CO/ 8. e = MJ^ dt 8. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. and area of the rod. in abamperes. turns in the coil. in square centimeters.X JR 8.

75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. and Young's modulus. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. in square centimeters.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. in mechanical ohms.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The mechanical to one . za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in abvolts. 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. length of the rod. in centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.6. rectilineal impedances zm.78 From equation 8.

in mechanical ohms.79. is assumed to be a In general.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. 1942. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.82 and 8. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 8.83 From equations 8. ..84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. total in abohms. 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. New York.86 Mason. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod." D. The mass mi in Fig.84.6. in abohms — equation 8. 8. = motional impedance. 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. Van Nos- trand Co.6).7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. as shown by equation 8.

length of the rod. in Fig. and Young's modulus.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. is where p The compliance Cmi.7. 8. length of the rod. in square centimeters. in centimeters.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. 8. in square centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in centimeters.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. and cross section of the rod.80.

For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. EA and 8. 8. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. 8.84. is The deformation per unit length. Young's modulus.8. X = 4^. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. due to a force. 8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. A= E = area.8. in dynes.88 where Jm = total force. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. 8.7.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. in square centimeters. that is. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8.7. .7C A and B given in Fig. 8. 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. air load and support resistance. The vibrating system of Fig.

in square centimeters. equations 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. B = A= From and area.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. . c„ .89 K = magnetostriction constant.8 and Young's modulus.. 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. 8. flux density.88 and 8. the data of Fig.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.6.

4 = length of the crystal. due to the application of a force. equations 8. in dynes. and The displacement. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. in centimeters. due an applied force. 6.92 X From = 8. E = Young's modulus. in square centimeters. X to 10~* for quartz. in dynes. and A = cross-sectional area. is .4 force. in statcoulombs.93 .91 and 8.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. q is 149 = KJu 8.

is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in mechanical ohms.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.9.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. and E = Young's modulus.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. / centimeters. in statohms. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. in centimeters. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.100 and 8.101 From equations 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. zmi and z.97. in square = length of the crystal. . 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

1. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.3. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. namely.

in centimeters. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. . in abohms. in gilberts.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. in centimeters per second. coil. 9.2. is The velocity of the armature. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force.2. 9.6 ze = = = = = total flux.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in square centimeters. and velocity of the armature.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. in centimeters. in centimeters per second. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. due to the steady field. area of the pole. in abohms. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. in maxwells. force. through the armature. spacing between the armature and pole. and impedance of the external load. and + ZE2.

flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature.3. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. r~ . In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. 9. Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.

52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.3.11 zme From equations 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in abohms. M. The current. of the alternating magnetic circuit. i?2 = reluctance. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. ZE = Zei + Ze2. a = spacing between armature and pole. in abohms. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. of the magnet. as depicted 9.9 and 9. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. velocity of the armature. in centimeters per second. in A . In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. is The /m Zm + 9.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.3.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in maxwells. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. in oersteds. 9. = magnetomotive force.4. in gilberts. in statamperes.

in statfarads. in statvolts. and velocity of the X movable plate. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statamperes. in square centimeters. The current.4 e is t2 9. ^= a area of the plate. 9. in centimeters per second. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. spacing between the plates. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. electrical and impedance of the external load.stationary "plate . in centimeters. in statvolts.14 where e = electromotive force. in statohms.

17 zme e From equations 9. in statvolts.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. area of the plates. 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. e.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.18 Zme) . in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.71 of the chapter on ZME = . The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.15 and 9. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. electrical and 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. X in centimeters per second. is Ze2 in parallel. a spacing between plates.4. electrical impedance of the external load.4. is The velocity of the movable plate. in statohms. in statfarads. in square centimeters.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.

.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.23 Substituting equation 9.22.25.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.E1 = -r—.21 Substituting equation 9.24 and fi 9. = — a CnX 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.19.25 Comparing equations 9.23 in 9.21 in 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.26 .

is ^tNK 9. from equation 8.5. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. shown in Fig.5.26 and an internal impedance zei. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. zme.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. coil. In the mechanical circuit: zm. However. L\ and rE\.27 . the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. Equation 9. ZEi. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. 9. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. The volt- age.5. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. in abvolts. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zei. In the electrical circuit: e. coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Magnetostriction generating system.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9.

84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. and impedance of the external circuit. - £ 9. 9. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters per second. length of the rod. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig.5. in centimeters.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. in abohms. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant.79 or 8. and Young's modulus. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in abohms. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. electrical electrical wavelength. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. in square centimeters. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. force. .

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. in Fig. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. in centimeters per second.27 and 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.32 the generated electromotive force.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.6. to be a In general. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.86 and 8.6.5.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.32 From abvolts. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. equations 9. 9. ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical = ohms.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.28.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. are given by equations 8. .

where KEJ — •* 9. = = length of the crystal. in square centimeters. the other. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. . In the mechanical networks: /m. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. in centimeters. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. mass and compliance of the rod. zme. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil.7. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. 2_bi j<^Li. cross-sectional area of the crystal.27 and the velocity. in statamperes. and velocity of the crystal. In the electrical circuits: e. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. 9. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. A.6. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. Li and tei. ZMi.4 X 10~* for quartz.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. zei. the driving force. the effective Zjv/i.6 can be obtained from equation 9.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. generated The h = —. 9. in centimeters per second. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. E= 4 = Young's modulus. in centimeters. + 9. in Fig. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. 6. mi and Cmi.6. length of the crystal. zei.

electrical and 9.34 force e. crystal. in statamperes. From equations 9.7. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. circuit: e. Ce\.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. in statohms. z^'i zei. 2_b2. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. in statvolts. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statfarads.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. electrical and impedance of the external load.

A = area of the electrode. in statohms. in centimeters. E = Young's modulus. 9.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. length of in centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.41 . The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. length of the crystal. in centimeters. the crystal.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.4 X 10~* for quartz.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. electrical impedance of the external load.97 or 8. in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. and E= Young's modulus. 4 = length of the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.7. and „ „„ 9. in statfarads.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in square centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.

42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechantotal ical ohms.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.47 .7.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.36 and 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. The velocity at the end of crystal. depicted equations 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. in mechanical ohms.45 . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in centimeters per second. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. is .168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.= where i. zm2 in mechanical ohms.

50 and 9.104 and 8. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . in Fig. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .49 in 9. 9.8.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.51.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.48. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. However. 9.45.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. e.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. Equation 9.47 in 9.49 Substituting 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.

The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the other. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. crystal.8. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. Zm2.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Piezoelectric generating systems.45 and the velocity.37. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the mechanical networks: Jm. 9. A. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.8 can be obtained from equation 9. zei. In the electrical circuits: e. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. electrical network of Fig. zme. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the electrical impedance of the external load. ze\. . Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.

Reciprocity Theorems A. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. Then 10. i^' .1. e^' . Vol. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. e^" . /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. p. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. z„". 929. . 1 Ballentine.R. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . S. . produce a current distribution z'l'. and superposition theorems to electrical. No. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. . 6.2. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems." 171 . 17. Proc. ' 10. the elements.. /s" . A number cal systems. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. . I.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal.E. 1929. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi".. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency.

e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. /" are the electromotive forces 10.1 becomes 10. o e .1.1. equation 10.2 = /'/' where e' . e" and /'.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10.

mechanical rotational system of Fig. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. and provided the applied forces /mi./ij2./b' and (J)'. 145. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". 1926. . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. II. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. "Theory of Sound. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. frequency. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. • distribution ^i'. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. and provided the applied torques /iji. D./m3 all of the same frequency. fB2" . 10. '4>^" . let a set of torques/iji'.3 becomes fu'x" . =/a/V 10.1. produce a rotational velocity — . 1940. 10.6 velocities depicted .1. p. Van Nostrand Co. 4>2" . In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia.1. New .. York. .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. ^ Olson. ^2'./fl3 . equation 10. C. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. .1. /ji/2.. equation 10. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. London.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . .4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10./7j2'. MacMillan and Co." D.7 p Rayleigh.fRi" • 4>2. fli" are the torques and angular 10. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1." Vol. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. 10.4 where /^f'. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system./ij„ are all of the same .

1 .12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. .1. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.9 and 1. equation 10. . equation 10.. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time..5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.13 If.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . - p 1 . y" .+ dv' . p"v' 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.11 From equations 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. dv" — . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.4 by the p and v of the other set.1. . v' grad po „ = 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . 10. 10.174 THEOREMS .9 and 10.15 v' .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.8.12 is for a point. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.—.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.10 From neering" equations 1. 10.

. . However. . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.1. velocities.1. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 10. E. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. produce pn. pz same frequency.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. and let a second set of pressures ^i". .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . Then — .19 . X^ X^. . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. X2". x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. produce a volume current distribution Xi. . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . 10. pressures and volume currents. let also.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . .16 becomes . . . equation 10.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . X^" Xn" Then .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems./". pi. X2. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. 10. which there are only two pressures. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. . . ." a second volume current distribution Xi". . . .

.2. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. Mechanical-acoustical. C. forces n and velocities. . . The 10. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . n Then 10.S. let also. . P"X' i" L. . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. D. F.S. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical.. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. . currents. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . 10. P"X' tn\ B M .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.2^. px L. HX* E p"X D Fig. B. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. an interconnected e\ . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. i" . . electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. — In . .21 . L. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. E.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. Electrical-mechanical.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system.

e"i' 10. e'i" = e"i' 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. Electrical-Mechanical. Theorem. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. electrical transducer.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.2C. mechanical. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. mechanical. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. G. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. . Electrical-Mechanical. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. 2D.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.2fi.23 . 10. acoustical.23 states that a if. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. me- chanical. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. field. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. as shown in Fig. acoustical transducer. 10. is H. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.

10.3. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. as shown in Fig. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. = p"X' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. D. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem.2£. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.24 Thevenin's Theorems A.178 I. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'.

Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents.4. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. current. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. mechanical rectilineal.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. velocities. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. force. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. Each source. . save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. forces. velocity. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. forces.

In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. An exhaust back pressure. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Convert the answer into the original system. 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. muffler is quite effective. However. principles relating to electrical. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise.2. However. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. Introduction The fundamental lineal. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 .1. by acoustical capacitances. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.

When there is only one path. . From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.u. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. circuit will be used instead of network. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.M and Ca for an acoustical system. 11. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies.1.However. Therefore. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. with rft. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure.1. The system of Fig. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. in the audible frequency range. in Fig. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. 11. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. 11.

. sate for approximations. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.2. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.182 APPLICATIONS In general. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11.3. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.3. 11.

Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. the mass of the cone.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.1. zem. In the mechanical circuit: m\.. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. in mechanical Jm = driving force. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.7. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. 11. in dynes. .3. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .4. The mechanical driving from equation 8. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. force can be determined /m 11.3.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. radiator tube. rMi and Ci. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. 11. nii and r.w2. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. teg. and . The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 11.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.3.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e." I"*.

telephone receivers. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper." D. is The sound power output.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. of inertia of the flywheel. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. The simple vibration fly- damper. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. 11. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. in mechanical ohms. m. .184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. Olson. FX. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. loud speakers. comphance of the damper. measuring cal systems. shown ^ in Fig.4.. phonograph pickups. 1940. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. the moment Cg.5. given by 11. New York. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. in centimeters per second. 11. Van Nostrand Co. etc.4. These systems include microphones.YWHEEL I. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . 11. F. and the shaft.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. In the mechanical network: A. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. velocity of the cone.

Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. z. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. Cm /4 and 4rM . A. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm.SA. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.6. The driving force/i. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. B. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. zmf.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. W. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. Jm. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig.5. 11.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? .SA.vF. The shunt mechanical vibration. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. isolator. the mass of the machine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. ciple of the device. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. /jf. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. the mass of the machine. W. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi./ is due to the . This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system.

the mass of the case. Cui/'i and 4rii/2.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. 11. 11. mi.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. only isolation in the system of Fig.7. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. Jm. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. isolating mechanical network. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . 11.6.6. these values springs. the compliance and mechanical mi. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. . the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. 11. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. consists of the following elements: nii. pressor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.

shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor.v/i/4. The mechanical network of Fig. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. zmf. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements.7. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Cm2 and ^1-/2. Of course. 187 Cmi and rui. .8. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. 11. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. the mass of the case. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 11. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 11. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. the system in Fig. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor.

wheel and axle. mum. engine. tmi. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the mass of the frame. Cm2. r. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. 11. the mass of the tire.v/2. Cmi and tires. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. 11. m2. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. both rectilineal and rotational. the combined driving force at the four legs.9. in general.8. Cms a-nd r. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . Cm2.7. 11. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the compliance of the spring.v/3. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. etc. 11. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. m-i. body.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the driving force at each tire. This system has many degrees of freedom. the compliance of the spring suspension.u 11. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.

AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. Cji/2/4. 4:rM2. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. . the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires.8.i/a. m^. the mass of the four tires. the mass of the frame. the combined driving force at the four tires. Cms and r. the driving force. 11. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. However. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small.\f 1. wheels. 4rif 2. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. fn2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. Cmi/4 and 4r. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the mass of the passenger. springs and shock absorbers. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. Since there are four tires. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . Cms. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. the compliance of the springs. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. body and engine. the compliance of the four springs. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. 4?ni. the mass of the passenger. mi. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. view. 189 m^./ifi the comtires.

As already indicated. mechanical rotational resistance. Rotational Ohm. which controls the oscillations. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. Most of the forces. pitching or swaying motion. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. Supplementary Note: Electrical. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. an automobile has several modes of vibration. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. developed at the tires. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. Electrical abohm. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires.6. Mechanical Ohm. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. Acoustical Ohm. For example. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. 11. mechanical rectilineal. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. — — —A — . that is. An acoustical resistance. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. An electrical resistance.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

28 Subharmonic. 187 Torque. 122 . (see cor- effective. 37 and analogies. 171 Resonant frequency. 13. 61. 178 electrical. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. peak. 105 arbitrary force. 18. 6 Static pressure. 9. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 178 electrical. 23 23. 111 electrical resistance.) 195 Table. 184 Rotatomotive force. 6 peak. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 6 14 pressure. 6 mechanical rectilineal. electrical-mechanical. 32 Rotational. acoustical. reciprocity. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 107 Transients. 13. 22. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 41 mechanical rotational. 42 inductance and series coupled. 22 mechanical rotational. 88 electrical. 188 Systems. 6 Sound effective. 6. 9. 23 maximum. 11 instantaneous. 23 Theorems. 6. 88 mechanical rotational. 22 networlcs. 177 reactance. 85 rotational. 18. 179 Thevenin's. 88 Transient response. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 10. 23.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 6 Transducer. 21. 23 mechanical. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 21. 25 three degrees of freedom. 37. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. electrical Superposition theorem. 42 one degree of freedom. 21. 5 Transformer. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 172 mechanical rotational. 45 instantaneous. acoustical. 13. 10. 45 electrical. 179 Suspension systems. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 10. 120 Duhamel's integral. 6 instantaneous. 6 maximum. 6 peak. 22. 178 acoustical. 178 mechanical rotational. 9. impedance. 48 two degrees of freedom. 9 resistance. 13. automobile. compliance. 21. 10. 171 acoustical. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 9. 6 Stiffness. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 9. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 maximum. 9. 6. 9. 35 effective. ohm. 17. 173 superposition. 9.

97 93. 94 response characteristics. 24 Velocity. 146. band pass. 23 Transmission. 23 effective. 144. high pass. 93. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 92. 21. 106 Units.196 Transients (Cont. 184 186 Young's modulus. 106 163 Volume current. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 7 Wave. 11 effective. 5 maximum. 8. 7. 8 8 "T" type network. 143. 92. "X" isolator. 106 unit function. 149. 95 low pass. 45 Unit function. 22 angular.) INDEX Villari effect. 147. peak. 7. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 93. magnetostriction. 163. Heaviside's Calculus. 148 machine isolator. 37. 92. Wave band elimination. 8 instantaneous. 7 linear. 11 loss. 165. 7 Vibration. 20. 22. 8 maximum. cut quartz crystal. 7. 151. peak. 92. 23. 167 . 5 filters. gain. 150. 93. 101 instantaneous.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- BenJemaa2004
- Circuit Q (Q Factor)
- 10727
- ECE_2074_Lab05
- Bridge Circuits
- tmp6EA6.tmp
- 05557807
- Paper 1
- What is White Noise_new
- r05221103 Bio Transducers and Applications
- Newtek Probe Material(1)
- Design and characterization of Adaptive microbolometers
- PHY2Specimen
- Inductance
- GATE- EC -Networks.pdf
- Memristors
- Origins of Equivalent Circuits History
- Emission Control
- CBSE Physics Lab Manual Part 2
- Wheatstone bridge
- Laboratories3_4
- 1_1_2010
- Form 5 End of Term 2013 Upper
- Chap4 AcDcmeter New Diploma
- Anjali.doc
- Em jly 2014
- ohm_m
- Basic Electrical Engg
- Form 5 End of Term 2013 Upper
- Counterpoise Applicationfor Tower
- Dynamical Analogies (H.F. Olson, RCA, 1943, Text Search Able)