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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. an electrical circuit. Olson . mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. E. 1943 F. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. in this project. Lorene E. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Harry January. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Research Director. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. engineer. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. W. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Olson. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Engstrom. plex arrangements of multielement systems.

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CONTENTS Chapter I. Mass.1 1 1. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Inductance B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. A. Mechanical Rectilineal. Inertance 2.1 3. Rectilineal Compliance. ELEMENTS 2. Electrical Resistance B.3 Inductance.2 4 II.5 Representation of Electrical.1 2. Moment of Inertia. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Acoustical Resistance 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.3 3. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Acoustical Capacitance 2. C.2 Introduction Resistance A. Rectilineal Compliance C.2 3. Rotational Compliance. Electrical Capacitance B.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Acoustical Capacitance A. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. ELECTRICAL.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. ELECTRICAL.1 Introduction 37 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.7 64 5.3 5.7 The Electrical System .4 5. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.4 Dissipation 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Two Electrical.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 52 5. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.6 3. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.13 Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal.6 4...6 62 5.8 67 .5 Chapter 3.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.2 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. 60 5.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.7 3.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. .10 The Acoustical System 4.

19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 6.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.2 6.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .6 6.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.10 Series 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 69 71 5...9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. WAVE FILTERS 6.4 6.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational..20 5. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.3 6.

6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.X Chapter VII. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.4 8. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.2 9.1 10. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.4 Ill 7.5 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.1 8.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.2 7. Unpolarized Armature B.5 114 120 7.2 8.6 VIII. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . THEOREMS 10. C.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.5 9.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. 1 7. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. B.1 9.4 9.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.CONTENTS Chapter E. APPLICATIONS 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.6 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.2 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.4 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .7 11.8 1 1 .3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.

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the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. 1 The acoustical . However. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason.1. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Expressions for the kinetic energy. mechanical and acoustical tems. In other words. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. vibrating systems. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. as for example.

the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. various assemblies of masses. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. . cal. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. Electrical elements are resistance. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. springs and brakes. induct- ance and capacitance. constituent parts of a circuit.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. ' The lished. as for example. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Of course. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. springs and friction. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. Elements are the meshes.

and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Hanle {JViss. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. In addition. Therefore. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. XI. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. SiemensKonzern. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. I) and Firestone {Jour.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. Acous. 4. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. In this book. circuit. However. and ratio of pressure to displacement. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. — . Vol. in the past. 4. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. mechanical and acoustical systems. up the mechanical and electrical. Amer. No.1 of 1942. That is to say. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Verojf a. However. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. ratio of force to displacement. Institute of Radio Engineers. every electrical.. Therefore. For example. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. particularly electrical circuits. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. Vol. Finally. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. d. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. No. Soc. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. all communication.

component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. Definitions ^ this section. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. Basic Frequency. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. a positive constant. or zero. period. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. reciprocal of the period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. negative. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. a period of jy. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important.2. The remainder. + T). . is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. where T. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. This called a Fourier series. Octave. all is the frequency. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. Frequency. Terms not sections. Periodic Quantity. or which tity comprises a cycle. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. Harmonic. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. Cycle. a constant. equals 2x divided by the period T.

A wave is a propagated disturbance. the dyne. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Effective Electromotive Force. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit the dyne. The unit is the dyne. Electromotive Force. The unit is the abvolt. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). — — Abvolt. Dyne. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Wave. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Subharmonic. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Mechanomotive Force). —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The unit is the abvolt. . Instantaneous Electromotive Force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Wavelength. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. mechanical or acoustical system. The root unit the abvolt. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical.

6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. the dyne centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. . —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Abampere. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. the abampere. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The the — Instantaneous Current. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. force. Effective the total instantaneous torque. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. An abampere is the unit of current.

—A cubic centimeter the unit of volume .DEFINITIONS Effective Current. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Effective Velocity. Maximum Current. The unit is the abampere. complete cycle at the point. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is Radian per Second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. the abampere. Peak Velocity. per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. the centimeter per second. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. Peak Current. unit is the radian per second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. The unit is the centimeter per second. Effective Angular Velocity. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. is velocity in that interval. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Instantaneous Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Maximum Velocity. is Centimeter per Second. current. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second.

where both systems are considered concurrently. the cubic centimeter per second. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. The unit the abohm.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. which. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy.-W is impedance. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. The unit is the abfarad. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. electrical Inductance. Effective Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second. second. . is the abohm. Electrical Reactance. is Electrical Resistance. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. times the frequency. when times the frequency. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. Electrical Impedance. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. To avoid ambiguity in this book. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. for Peak Volume Current. The unit the abohm.

when multiplied by lir times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. rotational resistance ance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Compliance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. ' See footnote S. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. Rotational Compliance. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the acoustical ohm. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. page I . The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mass. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Acoustical Impedance.

moment of inertia and rotational compliance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. moment of inertia. Mechanical Rectilineal System. and rotational compliance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational System. Electrical System. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. Inertance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. when multiplied by times the frequency. In the same way. mass and compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. inductance and electrical capacitance. by "l-w times the frequency. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. Acoustical Reactance. the fourth power. mass and compliance. .. inductance and electrical capacitance. the acoustical ohm. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical System. The unit is the acoustical ohm.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance.

power delivered to the load under some reference condition. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . voltage. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. For example. The bel is the Decibel. velocity. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. angular velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. force. force. Either of these systems may be electrical. torque or pressure is electrical. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. — Transmission.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. pressure or volume current. pressures or such as forces or velocities. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. mechanical or acoustical. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. mechanical rectilineal. torque. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. Transmission Loss {or Gain). /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . current.

resistor. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. Electrical Resistance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. See footnote page 8. is defined as A. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. electrical. A resistor. An tinguished from the devices.' 2.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. t 2. 2. and current through the resistance. in abohms.2. e. 5.1. 12 . is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. As indicated in the preceding chapter. In this procedure. e rs^-. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. inductor and capacitor. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. in abamperes. the vibrating systems. inductance and capacitance.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. Electrical resistance rs. in abvolts.

and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis.3 where Jr d = = applied torque.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Equation 2.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Acoustical Resistance. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. is defined as r^ — = y 2. in rotational ohms. in radians per second. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). in centi- meters per second. and velocity at the point of application of the force. in dyne centimeters. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. . Mechanical rotational energy is C. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in dynes. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). rectilineal resistance Equation 2. D. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity.RESISTANCE B.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.

However. and frequency in cycles per second. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit.5 = viscosity coefficient. in cubic centimeters per second. 2. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in addition to the resistive component." D. slit normal to the direction of flow. slit normal to the direction of flow. New . in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. a narrow and metal. A tube of small diameter. 1. and U= Equation resistance current. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. density. in = width of the meters. in grams per cubic centimeter.86 X 10"'* for air. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. 1940. 6pww 2.. Van Nostrand Co. York. resistance. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. volume current. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw .4 where p — pressure. in centimeters. a reaccomponent. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. 'Olson. slit in the direction of flow. in acoustical ohms. in dynes per square centimeter.

2. given by dd . in dynes.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. Mass. = di Ldt ^ 2. which opposes a change of velocity. It remains constant ance. is Inductance L. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. in abamperes per second. Equation C. in grams. mass increases. and rate of change of current. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. Moment of Inertia. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Moment of Inertia. in centimeters per second per second. Moment gram (centimeter)^. that during angular acceleration. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. Inertance A.INDUCTANCE. Equation 2. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. is remains a constant of inertia /. that during linear when the velocity decreases. is defined as 2.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Mass. 15 Inductance. It decreases when the current decreases. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. and driving force. B. Inductance. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. in when the angular velocity a constant. MOMENT OF INERTIA. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. in abhenries. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. in abvolts.3.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. MASS. INERTANCE 2.

in centimeters. and driving pressure. York. in grams per (centimeter)*.. Inertance M. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. cross sectional area in square centimeters. effective length of the tube. D. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. 1940.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in rate of change of 2. is. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system.10 m = S = mass. in dyne centimeters. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. Van Nostrand Co.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in centimeters.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. Inertance. in radians per second per second. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. that tion. New . in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters per second per second. in grams." D. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. in p = density of the meter.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. volume current. Equation 2. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. decreases. inertance.

Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2.n Equation 2. in abcoulombs.4. and electromotive force.14 = Jm = displacement. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. electrical capacitance is Equation 2.13 states that the charge on an force. It is a constant. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. in dynes is Equation 2. . Rotational Com- pliance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. in abfarads. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. in centimeters. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Electrical Capacitance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. Electrical capacitance Cg. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. abvolts. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. and applied force. Rectilineal Compliance. and stored.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force.

Acoustical Capacitance.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force.16 p s — = = velocity. defined in equation 2. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. New York. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. D. in radians. 9. in centimeters per second. Van Nostrand Co. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. D. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. . allowed to unwind.. It is constant. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. and applied torque. and condensation. Rotational Compliance. p = where c c^ps 2. Rotational compliance Cu-.17.^ in dynes per square centimeter. It is constant. 1940. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed.17 s = * Olson. in dyne centimeters. C.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in radians per centimeter per dyne. in grams per cubic centimeter. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. in is The terms of the condensation. density." p. Equation 2.

Mechanical Rectilineal.5.X 2. The electrical elements. in cubic centimeters.21 F= volume. . Equation 2. and volume displacement.16. equal to the volume displacement.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical.18 X= volume displacement. 2.19 and 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. .17.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. 2. Representation of Electrical. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. is 2. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. mechanical rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. and 2. = ^ F 2. From equations 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters. electrical resistance. in cubic centimeters.

mechanical rectilineal. 2. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. rE .20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.1. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

1. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia.2. ELEMENTS and time. self-inductance.1 and 2. ^ The Tables 8. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.3 uses mass M. Table 2. inertance and time.24 sions are mass. Further. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. the standard modifiers for all four systems. and time.3. length. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 page and list and 2. Tables 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. 1. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.1.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. length L and time T.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical.1. The dimensions given in Table 2. . In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.

In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. mass. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity.1. namely. 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. 3. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational or In other words.2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.1. From these definitions it is evident that friction. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal.

1. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. Cr = T. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In the electrical. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. C. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. velocity. potential and heat energy. kinetic. Electrical. Heat is a transient form of energy. 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rectilineal.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. namely. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation.

3 = moment of inertia. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. electrical. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. and current through the inductance L. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. X— X Sx = volume current. in cubic centimeters per second. potential. in grams. in centimeters per second. in grams. by the principle of conservation of energy. 3. in square centimeters.3.4 M= m = S — m/S^. in radians per second. in centimeters per second. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3.2 m = X mass. mechanical rotational. equal to the system. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. It is assumed that same phase. and heat energy during an interval of time is. mechanical rectilineal. the inertance. mass of air in the opening. all the air particles in the opening move with the . and velocity of the = mass m. in abamperes. in grams per (centimeter)*. in abhenries. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. The sum of the kinetic.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. cross-sectional area of the opening.

potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. in cubic centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. = -. in abcoulombs. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.4. in centimeters. in cubic centimeters. ^ 3. and charge on the capacitance.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. dyne. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. and c = velocity of sound.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. . in radians. in dynes per centimeter.. and X = displacement. and <l> angular displacement. in abfarads. in centimeters per second. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. p = density of air. s — stiffness of the spring.

12 where We. in abamperes.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. mechanical Wm. mechanical rotational.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. in abohms. Wr.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.y- 3.18 .. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. force.5.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. and current. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.: 3. +— + XX 3. and acoustical systems. .17 = = is electrical resistance. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.

The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.6.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.22 = acoustical resistance. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. in acoustical ohms. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. in rotational ohms. in mechanical ohms. and X= 3.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. and angular velocity. in centimeters per second. in radians per second. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. and velocity. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.

30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.28 and 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.26. 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.32 „.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3..

the angular velocity and torque. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.7. the impedance is m and Cm.38 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the velocity and force.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.7^ Ca 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.jo>I — — 3. . and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.

^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. mechanical rectilineal.42 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.8. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. .40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.Ce r^ 3.

the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. namely.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.49 „ . Equation 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.1. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.1.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .24. 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 3.

1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. .58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. Equation 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.51 is the same as equation 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. 3.55 is the same as equation 3.26.28.

59 is the same as equation 3. mechanical rotational. Equation 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.43 to 3. inclusively. . Equations 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. 3. and acoustical systems. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.30.59. mechanical rectilineal.

In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . 4.2. velocity. 4. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies.1. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. MECHANICAL Electrical.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. mechanical rectilineal. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current.1.1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.

4 M = inertance. in abamperes. and = h = current. in grams. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in abhenries. and velocity of the mass m. in centimeters per second. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in branch 3. in cubic centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.2 where x^ m = = mass. in radians per second. . In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.3.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4.1 93 L = inductance. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.

in radians. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. and <i>2 angular displacement. and displacement. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in abcoulombs.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. and X2 = volume displacement. in centimeters. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. . in abamperes.5. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. per dyne. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in abfarads. 4.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in qz ohms. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in cubic centimeters.4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and — current. in radians per dyne per centimeter.DISSIPATION 4.

i 4. and velocity. in rotational ohms. in radians per second.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . and angular velocity. current.6.12 = acoustical resistance. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical ohms.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. in centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in acoustical ohms. in cubic centimeters per second. and Xs = volume 4. 2 d<t>n dcj).

The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.18.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.14. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. at/jf.1 is h = H Equation 4.25 .23. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.17.22.rsqz 4.8. 4.21 4.7. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.20 4. 4. 4.19 +k 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4. The linear displacement. e = = Lqz-[.13.

4.42 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. p = MXa + vaXz 4.10. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.26. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. Jb /.1. = = /03 + rij^g 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.27. .30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.28 Differentiating equation 4.32 ing piston. in the acoustical system. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. at/^j.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. The angular displacement.26 ^ The 4.31. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. at p.9.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. Fig.16. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.29 4.15. 4.30.

COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.1 to 4. 4.29 and 4.25. given by ^3 JM is 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.1. Fig. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.19. Fig. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. vm. inductance. inclusive. and to acoustical resistance. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. 4. 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.11.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .33. shows again that resistance. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. to mechanical rotational resistance. mass.1.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. inertance acoustical system.

X2 = Xi .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4..45 . the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.1.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. is . 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. Fig. 4. 4. Fig.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. is given by k The = f".X3 = pjccCa 4.1.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2.

see pages 53. . 1 tional systems of Figs. 54. 5.2 are as follows: 4. 55 and 56 and Fig.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.3. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The electrical impedances z^i.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.12. 4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.48 JwCe3 Cr.1 of Chapter V.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4.

Ce2. 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.56 ZA2 -T-z.— JwLmz Zb.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.55 jwLai 4. 4. 4.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. mechanical rectilineal.2 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.60 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. The shunt electrical.2 save that the electrical capacitance.3 is the as that of Fig. compliance.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .59 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. I2 and M2. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. mass.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . ze2 = j^L2 4. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.

The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.3.65 2^22^3 . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.

O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Cei. 4.13.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. Electrical.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.«i. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . m2. Cb2 .69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.4. Mechanical Rectilineal.t 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Ca. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.412^3 + 4. L.4. Cri.3. to /i. I2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.\. L2. Cm\. 4. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . mechanical rectilineal.67 .

76 4. nA where zei = .89 . the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . i^ in show that /q. M2.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.78 4. X2.86 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. to 4>o.84 4. ^ zjji = . Cai. X3 rectilineal system.88 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.80 4.82 4. h. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. The current to. (h and 04 X2. 4>i.83 ZA2 4. the linear velocity Xq.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.74 4. Xi.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. Ca2 in the acoustical system. 4>2. 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. Xi.

02 = + Zr^ 4.) Ha ^_^^j .{ZA3jrZA. 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. 4.1UU ^^^ pZA.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.98 . the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.92 4.93 Ha = The current ii. the linear velocity X2. 01 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. the linear velocity Xi. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .95 .90 4.99 r^r^ .y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.97 The current i2.

103 4>z = —— 7} 4. = The equations cal.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.„.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.107 .105 current 4. J~iR X. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. ^^^ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. .106 .102 X3 4.-riE . the linear velocity X4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.

It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.2.1.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5. mechanical rectilineal.^ an inductance. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5.1. mechanical rotational. characteristics. 52 . electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.

branch is current flows in z^i. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.1.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. 5. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . Fig.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.

54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4.2 for the electrical system.1. analogous to equation 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. as for example.4 That is. respectively. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. 5. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.3. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. Xt Differentiating equation 5. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. </>!. shown schematically in Fig. SAA. ^2. With these specifications the differential of Fig. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Z/jt. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. Equation 5. respectively. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. = = xx -\- X2 5. the differential used in automobiles and tractors.1 with the same tions. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. Fig. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. 5. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. </)r. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. relations existing between//. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. That is. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. respectively. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /.. respectively. must be in parallel. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. consists of a system of gears. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

mechanical and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. ^^^^.12 relatively large 59 and 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. 5. equations 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. reactance . I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. equations 5.2. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.13 and 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.17 where / = moment of inertia. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.

Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.2.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.42 = joiM 5.18 where M= inertance. from equations 5. Therefore. Equations 5.3. 5. 5. 5. Fig.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.20 where Cm = compliance. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. 5. in centimeters per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)*.3 is = T^ 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. . Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.11 and 5.2. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.14 and 5. 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.5.

20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. at Equa- tions 5. inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.13 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. Fig. 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.3. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.3 is 1 2fi2 5.3. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. The mechanical the frequency. 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12 and 5.21 show that at low frequencies .20 is shown in Fig. 5.12 to the and 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. and electrical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.12 = ^-^ 5.4 in series across a line. 5. 5.23. in abhenries. 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.13 and 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. .6.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. tional.4.14 and 5. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. 5.3. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.11 and 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.23 where L = Ce = inductance. equations 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The shown in Fig.

in radians per dyne per centimeter. The output angular 5.13 and . and Cu = rotational compliance.12 and 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25 where / = moment of inertia.4. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in grams.24. 5.25. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24 where m = mass.

At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. acoustical capacitance.11 and 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.5 parallel across a line. in Fig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.24 also is zero.7.4.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.14 and 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.5. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.26. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. in grams per (centimeter)''. current can be obtained from equations 5. . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.12 and 5. Equations 5. The output volume 5.13 and 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

28. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.27.5.28 where m = mass. 5. in centimeters per dyne.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and compliance.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. 5. 5. Cm = The output ." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance.12 and 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5. in grams.J^mCM 5. in abfarads. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.

1 - 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.13 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.13 and The output angular 5.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.29.5 is ZR2 = . and = rotational compliance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. . The output volume 5.12 and 5. 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.^MC.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.11 and 5.30. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and acoustical capacitance.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.3 and the transmission is again small. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. in gram (centimeter)^.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. Equations 5.2 and the transmission is small.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.6.11 and 5. 5. in shunt with a line. 5. and electrical capacitance.min. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.8. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. itance in series.6 shows an electrical resistance. .5.6. Electrical resistance. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. in abohms.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in abhenries. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.31. inductance. 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abfarads.

in centimeters per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 and 5. 5. The output and 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inertance.3 and there is very little attenuation. in mechanical ohms.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. 5.34.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.32. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in rotational ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. Therefore. in grams.2 and there is very little attenuation. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.12 and 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in acoustical ohms. The output volume 5.11 and 5. of inertia. mass. from equations 5. 5. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. and rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. compliance.33. from equations 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + .

7 shows an electrical resistance.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance.9. in abohms.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. mass.6. Therefore. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Therefore. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. in grams. 5. 5.14 and 5.12 The output and 5. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. inductance. in centimeters per dyne. and compliance.6. from equations 5. from equations 5. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. and electrical capacitance. in mechanical ohms. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. in abhenries.35. The mechanical network is rectihneal. in Fig. quencies the same as that of Fig.7. 5. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.4. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in Fig. 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.13 and 5. . nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.11 and 5.36.

inertance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. S. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.14 Ca = 5. of inertia. in rotational ohms. 5. The output and 5. in grams per and 5. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. = = mechanical rotational resistance.7. rotational compliance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.37 where ru Cb. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.38. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical resistance. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''.37. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. in acoustical ohms.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.

in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.10. However. 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.11 and 5.7. Fig. . 5. 5.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.12 and 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Fig. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.7. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5.3 and the transmission is again small. output electrical impedance. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance.7. inductance.7.14 and 5.5. 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.2 and the transmission is small.7. 5.

. 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. 5.11. 5. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.42 Zas.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.40 ZM2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. output acoustical impedance.43 where L = inductance.41 input acoustical impedance. in abhenries. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.43 = p = 2.

Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. . 5.8.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5. 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8 is = jo)I 5.8.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. in gram (centimeters)^. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.39 and 5.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.8 is = j^m 5.8. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. characteristic. 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. in grams. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.44 where tn = mass. 5.8 equations 5.

8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.12.48.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8.8 equations 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. in grams per (centimeter)*.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. in abfarads. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.42 and 5. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. Equation 5. 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. acoustical Equations 5. 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.41 and 5. The acoustical system of Fig.46 where M= inertance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.

is 5.9.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.9.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.l/2 Fig.9 = 5. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.40 and 5.9 is ^R2 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. line and the mechanical rectihneal. is ance relatively large to motion. Fig. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. is inversely proportional Equations 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. in radians per dyne per centimeter. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. frequency characteristic.9 to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. 5.47. .9.48 where Cm — compliance.

9.13. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. acoustical capacitance tions 5. Equation 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5.42 and 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.10. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. dyne.9 is 2.50.41 and 5. 5. in square centimeters.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational. The mechanical rectilineal. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. analogous to an in Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5. compliance of the suspension system. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Equations 5. .51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. 5.9. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. and per = area of the diaphragm. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.

5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.53 where m = = mass.10.53.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. and = rotational compliance. The mechanical system of Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.39 and 5. in grams.52.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in abhenries. . The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and C_if compliance.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and electrical capacitance. in abfarads. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in radians per dyne per centimeter.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.40 and 5. in centimeters per dyne.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. rectilineal. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.

9 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. 5.11.54. and again the transmission is small. and the transmission is small. 5.14.50.42 and 5.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.8.39 and 5.41 and 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. connected in with a line.10. 5.55. Equations 5. Equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.42 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and acoustical capacitance. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.40 and 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.

57.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. and compliance. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in grams.39 and 5.56.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.11 is - 5.40 and 5. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .11 is 2/22 = :. 5.11. The mechanical system of Fig. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abhenries. 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and electrical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.1/2 = 1 — S.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.

11 is -. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.39 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance. and = rotational compliance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.11.12 shows an electrical resistance.11 equation 5.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. 5.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. inductance and line. ance of Fig. . in radians per dyne per centimeter. Equations 5.58. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Equations 5. Equation 5. 2.59.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.12. and acoustical capacitance. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.41 The output angular 5.42 == 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.40 and 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. Electrical Resistance. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. 5. in grams (centimeter)^. 5.15. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.

61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . m = Cm = mass. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. inductance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.40 and 5. and capacitance.61. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. in abhenries.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. compliance.62 . inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. in abfarads.39 and 5. Electrical resistance. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. in mechanical ohms.12. 5. in grams.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.60. in abohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 T = rE + jwL + 5.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in acoustical ohms.12. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. 5.39 and 5.10.63. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. The output and 5. Therefore. and the transmission is small. The output volume 5.12.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.12 is 2. and again the transmission is small. in radians per dyne per centimeter. .62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. and Cr = rotational compliance. from equations 5. in rotational ohms. 5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. Therefore. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.coC.42 and 5.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. from equations 5.40 and 5. Therefore. from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in gram (centimeter)^.8.41 and 5. Fig. the acoustical reactance is zero. current can be obtained from equations 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.12. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. from equations 5. inertance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.62. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.4 -T-z^ 5. However. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. where vr / = moment of inertia. 5.12. in grams per (centimeter)*.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. 5. Fig.

5.13 is ZM2 = r. 5.16. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 shows an electrical resistance.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. inductance. Electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. 5. in abohms.13.65 . in abfarads. 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. inductance line. 5. in abhenries. 83 Parallel. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.39 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Electrical Resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.13.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.64.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.

the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.13. from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.66.40 and 5.39 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Therefore. Therefore. mass. The output volume 5. Fig. Fig. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.13. 5.9 and the attenuation is small. from . therefore. in centimeters per dyne.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne. Therefore. 5. ohms.41 and 5. from equations 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in where tm mechanical ohms.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.13 is = jo^rAM ~.65.8 and the attenuation is small. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. Fig. 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. from equations 5. inertance. and compliance.67. the acoustical reactance is infinite. in grams. in acoustical ohms. 5.13. 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. and Cr = rotational compliance. The output and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.

and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.13. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5. Referring to equation 5.17.42 and 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. Fig. 5. that of Fig.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .11.13. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.18. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.67 the attenuation ance. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.14 Mechanical Rotational. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 5.

5. Fig. 5. Equation 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. .42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. Equation 5.14 shows a system of made larger. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Referring to equation 5. 5. Equation 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. 5. 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. larger.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.15.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. rectilineal. 5.19.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. Electrical Rectilineal.

16.12.11. 5. and r^i and the input impedances.16. The mechanical rectilineal. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 5. rm. and r. "Zrz. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. 5. 5. 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.16.13 the mechanical rectihneal. mechani- and acoustical analogies.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. respectively. wherein zm\. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational. acoustical systems of Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. and Zmz.20. rui. 5. In the same way equations 5. Equation 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .41 and the output impedances. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.21. respectively. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. zri.17. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.

5.12. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. output impedance. rectihneal.14. .18.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.17. 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. Equation 5. 5. 5.13 and 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. ze2 is rE2. In this case zei is the input impedance.17. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.22. me- chanical rotational. Electrical. Electrical. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.

ei.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. Electrical. and zei represent the electromotive force. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ACOUSTICAL Fig. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. and of turns on the secondary. ii.18 the electromotive force.68 5. velocity and . current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. 5. The force. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.18.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal.

two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. of Fig. The pressure. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. 5.18.79 . <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. The torque. /mi. consists of a mass- gear train.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.18.71 = — xi 5. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. /ri. 5.77 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. The 5.

As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer." D. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. Xi and 2.. 1940. ^ Engineering. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. The acoustical transformer of Fig. two diaphragms.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. . transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.41 and p2. New York. pi. 5. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss.

Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 2.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6.. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. A. 1922. 20.2. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. 92 . the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. 6. 6. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. W. Rev.. No. 1922. 528. I. Vol. p. Phys. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. Bell System Tech. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Stewart. G. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. mechanical rectilineal. G. No.. Vol. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical.1.. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Jour.

" D. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. velocities. New York. that is.." D. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. Van New York. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. 6. ^ Nostrand Co. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. *' . a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. respectively.. Shea. velocities. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. Van Nostrand Co. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. Johnson. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. velocities. velocities. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. positive and when than four. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4.3. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters.

4. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.1.1 zmi zri 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.8 .6 ZR2 6.94 6.Ca 6. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. Electrical.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.2 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. 6. mechanical rectilineal.1. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .

coc = — 2Af2 V — . when uc = 6.= From and . when ccc 6. 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . when . when coc = . . — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.17. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. when coe 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. and the cutoff 6.2. inclusive. 6. 6. when oip = = = = 6. mechanical rotational.15 WC. 6.5. mechanical rectilineal.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when coc 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. 2A2 VMC^ .-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.9 the constants of the systems.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.17 Equations 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.= -4 6. linear velocities.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.10 — — 0.10 and show that the systems of Fig.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.27 .= -4 22 6.= 22 and .

35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6. .12.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.

44 6. = 1 . _ 4.46 6. . „ when coci = .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.. UCe\ (1 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.lfi)^ ^ -.51 VM2C42 = .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. when wci = — VLiCei .48 VL2CJS2 = 0.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.V/2 when WC2^WiC. 6.50 V/iGji 0. —7== VMiCai .43 Let LiCei = 6. — — / 1 6. when coci = = 6. 2. = — 7= / 6.12 =0. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . —= Z£2 — 4.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.

55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. (1 .53 —= ZiJ2 -4. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .v/2 1 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. -4.41 . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. —= 2.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. one greater than uci and Therefore.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. when .

mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.63. show that the systems of Fig.56 to 6. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.69 . mechanical rectilineal.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. linear velocities.7.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.4. 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.64 CeiLi 6. inclusive. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. are 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.

70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. Electrical.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.76 .ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6. mechanical rectilineal.4. 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.75 = I2CR2 6.74 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.

78 —= ZR2 0. when (1 .79 ^— = ZA2 0.77 —— = ZM2 0. —= Zr\ -4.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. when uci = and cca oo 6.-4. 6. . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. . 6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. .83 —= Z^l 2. when (1 . when. M\Ca\) 4.84 . —= zei -4.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.82 . MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . or.42 -4. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. respectively.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. velocity. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. in centimeters per second. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. shown in Fig. in grams.2. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The current is zero = 0. . unit force.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. The graph depicts the current.5 where aE = Te/L.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass.2. unit torque and unit pressure. in dynes. 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass. 7.2. rectilineal resistance. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. and driving force. 7.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. in gram (centimeter)^. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. in dyne centimeters.2. = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). ohms. and = torque.2. .j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. in rotational = angular velocity. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. as shown in Fig. 7.12 = — - e"^') 7. 1/riv/. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.

7.17 where aji — Vr/ I.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. in acoustical ohms.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. and p = sound pressure.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. as shown in Fig. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.16 7. the solution of equation 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. in dynes per square centimeter. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.22 . then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). = acoustical resistance.20 where M= ta inertance. in cubic centimeters.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. U = volume current. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. 7.2.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.2. From is the tables of operational formulas.

25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. and electromotive force. in abvolts.2. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. electrical resistance series.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.e-^ in Fig. the solution of equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.4. in abfarads.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 7. 7.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.24 JA{t) = " (1 .22 111 may be written. the solution of equation 7. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.3. current.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. in abohms. 7. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. electrical resistance. in abamperes.28 ve . 7.

7 3. linear velocity.3. shown in Fig. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. respectively.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. force. the solution of equation 7. in centimeters per dyne. in mechanical ohms. velocity.3. From the tables of operational formulas. is The for / shown in Fig. 7. unit torque and unit pressure.30 P)rM where a.31 . in centimeters. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit force. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the current. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in dynes. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.y = l/rjfCv/.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. 7.

is shown in Fig. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in cubic centimeters per second. and sound pressure. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. as shown in Fig. 7. in acoustical ohms. 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. is shown in Fig. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in dynes per square centimeter.3. and torque.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. volume current.3. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. angular velocity.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. as shown in Fig. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. acoustical resistance.3. mechanical rotational resistance.33 where aR = IIvrCr. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. 7.3. . in radians per second.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.

36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. and electromotive force.3.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . abohms. electrical resist- ance.38 ^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. in electrical capacitance.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. . in current. electrical resistance. 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. 7.4.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. is shown 7. in abhenries. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. 7. (a + ^ Pfa .5. abamperes. in abohms. as in Fig. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. 1 7. in abvolts.

4. The response sinusoid. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit force. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. 7.^. unit torque or unit pressure. velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. respectively. . 7. the solution of equation 7.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.4. series Response of an electrical resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.45. 7. The graph depicts the current. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.

1 A\ m = mass. 7. in dynes. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. and driving force.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. 1 AC. rectilineal resistance. Substituting equation 7. velocity. in centimeters per second per second. in centimeters.47 .43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. in centimeters per dyne. displacement. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in grams. in centimeters per second.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. acceleration. v for x.

7. in grams (centimeter). 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. in dyne centimeters. 4> = angular acceleration. in radians per dyne per centimeter.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. and 4> Jr = driving torque. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. equation 7.48 The response sinusoid. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. = angular displacement. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig.51 = moment of inertia.4.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in radians per second per second. 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. in radians. in rotational ohms.si . lAA.4_S. = angular velocity. is of inertia. in radians per second. Cr = rotational compliance. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.

56 ^PR = Jo. WR^ 2 1 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. . Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . lAA.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. It is a damped sinusoid. If rR^ > AI/Cr.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.45. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. = '^I/Cr. 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7..^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7.4C.

60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. as in Fig.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms. volume current. in grams per (centimeter)^.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. acoustical resistance. Substituting U for X. in dynes per square centimeter. at equation 7. 7.4. acoustical capacitance. and pressure. in cubic centimeters per second.

The value of the unit force t=o Fig. Step function approximation.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.5.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. 7.6. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. 7. . solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. cca^ = 4M/Ca. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.45. 7.

a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . integral. etc. an electromotive force ^2 is added. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. Therefore. all being of the unit type. <?i at / = Ae. 7.5. tem.. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.5. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. as shown in Fig. etc. a time «2 later. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system.68 . UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. The This proof. an electromotive force ei is added. 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. as in the case of the preceding sections.u)du du 7. The indicial electrical admittance. «i. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7.

The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.69 fR{u) — AR{t .3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. The velocity. mechanical rotational rectilineal. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .72 .68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.u)du du u)du 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.u)du 7.

.

the electrostatic.1. the electromagnetic. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.CHAPTER 8.2. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.

L and Ce.However. abohms. and current. due to motion.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. and Ca with vr. in dynes. termed motional electrical impedance. in centimeters per second. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in using analogies in actual practice. in abamperes. circuit will be used instead of network. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.1 B = / = / = flux density. length of the conductor. From equations 8. in centimeters. in gausses. in abvolts.1. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.1. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. When there is only one path. it is located. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. 8. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. field in which depicted in Fig. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . The electromotive force. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.2 where x = velocity.1 and 8.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. The force. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.

in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.6 The 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. 8.3.1.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. in mechanical ohms. 8. in the absence of motion.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8.3. The normal electrical impedance zek. Zen in abohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in abohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. that is. in 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. which the mechanical There are three general types of . in chanical ohms.4 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. all of the conductor. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.

the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type. Consider the system shown in Fig. A. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil.2. Unpolarized Armature Type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Since there is no polarizing flux. namely. 8. Assume that all the reluctance .

then from equations 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. in centimeters. the total flux is <f>T Aa. n = number of turns. and a = normal spacing.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in abamperes. A = area of the center pole. .14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in abvolts.15 The force on the armature.14 e = ^r 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in dynes.13 and 8. C = l-^nA. in square centimeters. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. is where / = current in the coil.

nC^P 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .20 — X From equations 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.18 Equation 8. Substituting equation 8. 4TrJa*/M .16.21 . the force on the armature is Im = '. mechanical ohms. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.17 for the current in 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.15 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. and time. in seconds.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. in mechanical ohms. 8. in mechanical ohms. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.2.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.

3. in centimeters. . this system cannot be used It is. = number of turns. vibrators and clippers. in maxwells. 8.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. in oersteds. 8. saws. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. Zen in abohms. and impedance of the coil. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in abohms. from the poles of a permanent magnet. Therefore. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in abohms.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.2.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil.22 = motional electrical impedance. in abamperes. for converting electrical variations into however. in mechanical ohms. / = current. filing — as in Fig. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. in gilberts. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit.20 and 8. Polarized Reed Armature Type. in abohms. a = spacing. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. B. in square centimeters.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. ^ = area of center pole.19. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. for the reproduction of sound. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.

frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . in 131 oit maxwells. in oersteds. in abamperes.axsin wt n coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. 27r/. and time. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux.

in gilberts. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. and area of the pole. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. in abvolts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. in square centimeters.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. in maxwells. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. sidered. in centimeters. Ax -\- Ax . Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. the flux.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. due to the steady field.^ .29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . __ .32 „ .27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. spacing between the armature and pole. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8..28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. the flux will now be 4>x + A.

36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. 8.24 and 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. in me- chanical ohms. in abohms. 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.38 a Zm . and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. ZAfi. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.34.37. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. fu = MNi ~r — .35 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.35 and 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. ~ 8.33. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.32 and e i = — X 8.. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. From equations 8.3. in mechanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.

8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.3. Equation 8.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. ARMATURE MAGNET .39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. and impedance of the coil. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.38 is similar to equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. in abohms. C. in abohms.

at each pole magnet. The flux. of the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. in abamperes. i?2 = = coil. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in dynes. The sum of the forces. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. 8.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in maxwells. in dynes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in square centimeters. The . The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . at the poles (Fig. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. 8.4. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. and yf effective area. in maxwells. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in oersteds. The steady magnetic field is force. which the coil energizes.

136 flux. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in abvolts. in merectilineal chanical ohms.4.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in centimeters.44 A. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. through the armature to the right and upward. of the steady field. in gilberts. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. in mechanical ohms.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. NMA —^x a^ 8. and effective area of a pole piece. in square centimeters. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in mechanical ohms.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. . generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. and zm2 impedance of the load.45. 8. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.

rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50 and 8.50. . Zm\.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.43 =-^ 8.

the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. This driving system is used for loud speakers. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.4. 8. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. Therefore.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. system of Fig. galvanometers.

57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. The useful force. motive Cq is large . ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. in statcoulombs. on the condenser is q considered. in statfarads.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. the fourth term will be negligible. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. = CeCq 8. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statamperes. in statvolts. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force.59 and 8.62 . ^o^max sin wt . eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. in statfarads. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . and capacity per unit area. in dynes. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. The force.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. is The current.57 numerator of equation 8.60 From equations 8. in dynes.

x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. in mechanical ohms.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.5. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. in stat- amperes.69 . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. the generated current. 4ir(<2 + . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. Ax) 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.61.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 47r(a — 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. ohms.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . 8. . . rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.66 in 8.

Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.69 and 8.68. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. at the same time.5.58 and 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. adding a large stiffness. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. in statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.5. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. + .MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. electrical network in Fig. electrical impedance of the condenser. statohms. 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. 8. 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. current is applied to 2m . Consider the system shown in Fig.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.6. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. 8.

and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. and time. in current in the abamperes. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. coil.73 Combining equations and 8. in abamperes. e = MJ^ dt 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in square centimeters. in cycles per second. induction is of the nickel rod.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. in gausses.X JR 8. induced in the winding. frequency. and area of the rod. in centimeters. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. . current.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. in abvolts. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. turns in the coil. 8. CO/ 8. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. The electromotive force. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.74 and ehminating the steady force. due to is the Villari effect. in seconds.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. in square centimeters. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm .77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.

is The induced e = —K X -— 8.6. and Young's modulus. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. in abvolts. The mechanical to one .75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in square centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms. length of the rod.78 From equation 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. 8.

" D.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.. 8.6). in abohms — equation 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. total in abohms. = motional impedance. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. 8. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. 8.82 and 8.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. 1942. . New York. is assumed to be a In general. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.84.83 From equations 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. Van Nos- trand Co. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. in mechanical ohms. The mass mi in Fig. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.79. in abohms. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.6. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. as shown by equation 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.86 Mason.

in Fig. in centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. length of the rod.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. in centimeters.80.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod. and Young's modulus. in square centimeters. 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. and cross section of the rod. is where p The compliance Cmi. in square centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8.7.

is The deformation per unit length.8. 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The vibrating system of Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.7. 8. that is. Young's modulus.7. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. . X = 4^. due to a force. 8. in dynes. 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. 8. 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. A= E = area. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.7C A and B given in Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.88 where Jm = total force.8.84. air load and support resistance. in square centimeters. EA and 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. 8.

88 and 8. the data of Fig.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. 8.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. flux density.8 and Young's modulus. . 8.6. equations 8. in square centimeters. B = A= From and area. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.. c„ .89 K = magnetostriction constant.

91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal.91 and 8. due an applied force. 4 = length of the crystal. in centimeters. due to the application of a force. X to 10~* for quartz.92 X From = 8. in square centimeters.93 . and The displacement. and A = cross-sectional area.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. q is 149 = KJu 8. in centimeters. is . E = Young's modulus. 6.4 force. in dynes. in dynes. in statcoulombs.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. equations 8.

zmi and z. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. / centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. 8. and E = Young's modulus. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.101 From equations 8. in statohms. 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.97. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. in square = length of the crystal.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.100 and 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. . The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.9.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. 9.3. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9.1.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. namely. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.

area of the pole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. force.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in square centimeters. .2.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in maxwells. and + ZE2. through the armature. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. coil. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. and impedance of the external load. 9. in centimeters per second. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.2. in abohms. in centimeters. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. is The velocity of the armature. in gilberts.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. 9. spacing between the armature and pole.6 ze = = = = = total flux. and velocity of the armature. in abohms. 9. due to the steady field.

9. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Balanced Armature Generating System. due to the deflection of the armature. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. r~ . flows through the armature.3.

generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. 9.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in centimeters. ZE = Zei + Ze2. The current.3. M. in oersteds. 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. a = spacing between armature and pole. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in abohms.11 zme From equations 9. as depicted 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. in maxwells. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. is The /m Zm + 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. of the magnet. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. i?2 = reluctance. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. in statamperes.4. in abohms. in centimeters per second. velocity of the armature.9 and 9. in A . in gilberts. = magnetomotive force.

in statohms. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. The current. in statamperes.14 where e = electromotive force. 9. electrical and impedance of the external load. spacing between the plates. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . ^= a area of the plate.4 e is t2 9. in statvolts. in statfarads. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in statvolts. in square centimeters.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. and velocity of the X movable plate. in centimeters per second. in centimeters.stationary "plate .

electrical impedance of the external load. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.4.4. 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.15 and 9. a spacing between plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. in statvolts. X in centimeters per second. in statohms. is The velocity of the movable plate. is Ze2 in parallel.17 zme e From equations 9.71 of the chapter on ZME = . area of the plates.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. in statfarads. in square centimeters. e.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. in centimeters.18 Zme) . electrical and 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate.

22.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.25.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.E1 = -r—.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.26 .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.25 Comparing equations 9.21 Substituting equation 9.19.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. .24 and fi 9.21 in 9. = — a CnX 9.23 in 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.23 Substituting equation 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.

coil. coil. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. ZEi.27 .26 and an internal impedance zei. zme. zei. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. in abvolts. is ^tNK 9.5. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. from equation 8. L\ and rE\.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. In the electrical circuit: e. In the mechanical circuit: zm.5. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. The volt- age. However. Magnetostriction generating system. 9. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif.5. 9. Equation 9. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. shown in Fig.

5. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical electrical wavelength. in abohms. and impedance of the external circuit.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.79 or 8. in centimeters. in square centimeters. in abohms. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. force.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. . in centimeters per second. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. length of the rod. 9.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. and Young's modulus. - £ 9. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.

28.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. to be a In general. in mechanical ohms. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.32 From abvolts. 9. .6. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in centimeters per second.5. ohms. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. are given by equations 8. 9.6.86 and 8. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. equations 9.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.27 and 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical = ohms. in Fig.32 the generated electromotive force.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.

z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. length of the crystal. 9. E= 4 = Young's modulus.6.6 can be obtained from equation 9. In the electrical circuits: e. . A. zei. in centimeters per second.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. zme.27 and the velocity. in centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. in statamperes. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. generated The h = —. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. mass and compliance of the rod. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. and velocity of the crystal. 9. 6.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 2_bi j<^Li. the driving force. zei. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load.7. the other. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. + 9. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. In the mechanical networks: /m. = = length of the crystal. where KEJ — •* 9.4 X 10~* for quartz. ZMi. the effective Zjv/i. 9. cross-sectional area of the crystal. in square centimeters. in centimeters. mi and Cmi. in Fig. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system.6. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. Li and tei. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.

electrical and 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9.34 force e. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statfarads. in statohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. crystal. in statvolts. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. in statamperes.7. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. In the Piezoelectric generating system. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.35 Ze where e = electromotive force.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. 2_b2. 9. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. circuit: e. From equations 9. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. z^'i zei. Ce\. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .

length of in centimeters. in centimeters. in statfarads. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in statohms. and „ „„ 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. and E= Young's modulus. in centimeters.41 . the crystal. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. A = area of the electrode. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. 4 = length of the crystal.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. in square centimeters. in centimeters. E = Young's modulus.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.7. length of the crystal. electrical impedance of the external load.4 X 10~* for quartz. 9. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.97 or 8.

e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. depicted equations 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. The velocity at the end of crystal.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.36 and 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms.45 .42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. in mechantotal ical ohms. 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. in mechanical ohms.47 . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in centimeters per second.43 From Ze2 in parallel.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. is .7.= where i.

50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. However.45.51. Equation 9.8. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.48.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.50 and 9.104 and 8. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .47 in 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.49 Substituting 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. in Fig.49 in 9. e.

The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.45 and the velocity. the electrical impedance of the external load.8. zei. zme. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the driving force. In the electrical circuits: e. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.37. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.8 can be obtained from equation 9.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. ze\. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. electrical network of Fig. 9. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. . r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. Zm2. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. crystal. the other. A. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Piezoelectric generating systems. 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /.

e^' .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. 1929. No.R. i^' . ' 10. produce a current distribution z'l'. . /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . /s" . z„". mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.2. Reciprocity Theorems A. Vol. I.. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. Then 10. 929. the elements. 6.. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. S. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. p. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . 17. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as .E. e^" . . 1 Ballentine. ." 171 .1. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Proc. A number cal systems. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . . and superposition theorems to electrical.

equation 10. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. o e . e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. e" and /'.1 becomes 10.1. /" are the electromotive forces 10.2 = /'/' where e' .172 THEOREMS system of Fig.

/7j2'.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. New . as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. equation 10. • distribution ^i'. . and provided the applied torques /iji.3 becomes fu'x" . /ji/2.. ^ Olson.fRi" • 4>2. fB2" .1. . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. 1926. let a set of torques/iji'." Vol./ij„ are all of the same .4 where /^f'. "Theory of Sound.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. produce a rotational velocity — . 10. II. mechanical rotational system of Fig. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 1940.. Van Nostrand Co. 4>2" . '4>^" ./fl3 . 10. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. York. London. equation 10.6 velocities depicted . C. and provided the applied forces /mi./m3 all of the same frequency. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. ./b' and (J)'. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. MacMillan and Co./ij2.1.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements.1. D.1. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. fli" are the torques and angular 10. 145." D. =/a/V 10. ^2'. 10. p. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. frequency. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia.7 p Rayleigh. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques.

ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. v' grad po „ = 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. y" . dv" — .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. p"v' 10. equation 10.9 and 10.—.12 is for a point.. 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.174 THEOREMS .13 If.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and ..8. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.1. 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.1. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. - p 1 .12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". 1 . . 0' dt dt p v" grad po .+ dv' .15 v' . 10. .10 From neering" equations 1. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.4 by the p and v of the other set. equation 10.9 and 1.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.11 From equations 10.

as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. X2". linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10." a second volume current distribution Xi". . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10.1. X2. . let also. equation 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems.16 becomes . . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.1. . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. Then — . . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . . 10. . . E. X^ X^. X^" Xn" Then ./".19 . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . . . pz same frequency. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . pi. . . However. . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. pressures and volume currents. and let a second set of pressures ^i". . which there are only two pressures. 10. . . velocities. 10.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. produce pn. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. produce a volume current distribution Xi. .

px L. n Then 10. P"X' i" L. . currents. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. C. Mechanical-acoustical.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. — In . in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . . D.. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. . 10. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . .2^. E. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-mechanical.S. P"X' tn\ B M . . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. F. . .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. an interconnected e\ . let also. i" . then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system.S.2. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. B. L. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. forces n and velocities. HX* E p"X D Fig.21 .S. The 10. .

22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.2C. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. 2D.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. acoustical. electrical transducer. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. e"i' 10. Theorem.23 states that a if. is H. Electrical-Mechanical.2fi. mechanical.23 . . For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. as shown in Fig. 10. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. me- chanical. Electrical-Mechanical. 10. field. acoustical transducer. e'i" = e"i' 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. G. mechanical.

tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.178 I. D.3.2£.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. as shown in Fig. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. = p"X' 10. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.

force. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. velocities.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. save the one being considered. Each source. velocity. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.4. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. forces. forces. current. . torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents.

The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. 11. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . An exhaust back pressure. Introduction The fundamental lineal. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book.1. by acoustical capacitances.2. However. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. However. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Convert the answer into the original system. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. principles relating to electrical. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. muffler is quite effective.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11.

AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. 11. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. in the audible frequency range. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. in Fig. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. circuit will be used instead of network.M and Ca for an acoustical system. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). 11. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.1. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. When there is only one path. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.u. Therefore. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe.1. . with rft.However. The system of Fig. 11. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.

182 APPLICATIONS In general. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. sate for approximations. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.3. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11.2. 11. . The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.3.

zem.7. nii and r. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.. 11. . impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. in dynes.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. electrical dynamic loud speal<er." I"*.4.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. rMi and Ci.3. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. teg. 11.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. the mass of the cone. 11. in mechanical Jm = driving force. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. force can be determined /m 11. In the mechanical circuit: m\. 11. radiator tube.w2.3. 11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .1. and . The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical driving from equation 8.

loud speakers. These systems include microphones.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. etc. 11. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. . velocity of the cone. New York. Van Nostrand Co. telephone receivers. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. is The sound power output. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation." D.YWHEEL I. in centimeters per second. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 11. 1940. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. shown ^ in Fig.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.5.4. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. and the shaft. the moment Cg. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. phonograph pickups.. in mechanical ohms. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . comphance of the damper.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range.4. In the mechanical network: A. FX. m. Olson. given by 11. 11. The simple vibration fly- damper. measuring cal systems. F. of inertia of the flywheel. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system.

SA. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. The shunt mechanical vibration. B. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. the mass of the machine.SA. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. W. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. zmf. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the mass of the machine. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. Cm /4 and 4rM . 11. A. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. /jf.vF. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. z. isolator. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. W. ciple of the device. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable.5. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. Jm. The driving force/i. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor./ is due to the .6.

the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. mi.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. the mass of the case. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . only isolation in the system of Fig. . Cui/'i and 4rii/2.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. 11.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the compliance and mechanical mi. these values springs. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.6.6. Jm. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. pressor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 11. consists of the following elements: nii. isolating mechanical network. shown in Fig. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.7. 11. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 11. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.

. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. 187 Cmi and rui. 11. zmf. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. Cm2 and ^1-/2.v/i/4. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. the system in Fig. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor.8. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. 11. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. The mechanical network of Fig. the mass of the case. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Of course.7. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. 11.

7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. m2. the mass of the frame. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. body. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. both rectilineal and rotational. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. mum. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. engine. 11. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. r. Cmi and tires.v/2. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. the compliance of the spring suspension.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. 11. the driving force at each tire. This system has many degrees of freedom. the combined driving force at the four legs. Cms a-nd r.7.9. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. tmi. Cm2. Cm2.8. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the mass of the tire. wheel and axle. 11. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. the compliance of the spring.v/3. the mass of the instrument and carriage.u 11. in general. etc. 11. m-i. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig.

189 m^. the mass of the frame. view. the mass of the passenger. . I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. Cmi/4 and 4r. 4rif 2. Cms. m^.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. wheels. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. springs and shock absorbers. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. mi. However. 4?ni. the compliance of the four springs. the compliance of the springs. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. 4:rM2. Since there are four tires. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the mass of the passenger. fn2. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. Cms and r. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. the combined driving force at the four tires. the driving force. 11.\f 1. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. the mass of the four tires.i/a. Cji/2/4./ifi the comtires.8. body and engine. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r.

An acoustical resistance. Supplementary Note: Electrical. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. developed at the tires.6. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. Rotational Ohm. that is. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rotational resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. As already indicated. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. — — —A — . For example.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. Most of the forces. mechanical rectilineal. 11. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. Acoustical Ohm. an automobile has several modes of vibration. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. Mechanical Ohm. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. Electrical abohm. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. An electrical resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. which controls the oscillations. pitching or swaying motion. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

23 mechanical. 22 mechanical rotational. 9 resistance. 6. 5 Transformer. 6 Stiffness. 13. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 6 maximum. 111 electrical resistance.) 195 Table. 178 electrical. 171 Resonant frequency. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 17. 88 Transient response. 45 instantaneous. 6. 9. 42 inductance and series coupled. 6 peak. 10. 6 maximum. 10. 21. 172 mechanical rotational. 48 two degrees of freedom. ohm. 6 peak. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 23 23. 23 maximum. 9. 179 Thevenin's. 21. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 178 electrical. acoustical. 188 Systems. 22. 45 electrical. 9. 178 mechanical rotational. 10. 6 Static pressure. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 9. automobile. 6. 6 instantaneous. 23 Theorems. electrical-mechanical. 9. 18. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 173 superposition. 171 acoustical. 178 mechanical rectilineal. reciprocity. electrical Superposition theorem. 42 one degree of freedom. 13. compliance. impedance. 35 effective. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 122 . acoustical. 6 Transducer. 13. (see cor- effective. 37 and analogies. 32 Rotational. 13. 18. 22. 23. 187 Torque. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 28 Subharmonic. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. peak. 179 Suspension systems. 184 Rotatomotive force. 9. 11 instantaneous. 6 Sound effective. 21. 88 electrical. 9. 107 Transients. 6 14 pressure. 21. 9. 85 rotational. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 41 mechanical rotational. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 25 three degrees of freedom. 120 Duhamel's integral. 178 acoustical. 37. 10. 105 arbitrary force. 61.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 177 reactance. 22 networlcs. 88 mechanical rotational.

149. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 22 angular. 92. 23 effective. 146. 97 93. "X" isolator. cut quartz crystal. 106 163 Volume current. 45 Unit function. 22. 23 Transmission. high pass. 7. 8. 37. 167 . 21. 93. 143. 11 effective. 94 response characteristics. band pass. 106 Units. gain. Wave band elimination. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 7 linear. 150. 93. 106 unit function. 148 machine isolator. 92. 92. 5 maximum. 147.196 Transients (Cont. 95 low pass. Heaviside's Calculus. 101 instantaneous. 20. 8 8 "T" type network. peak. 8 maximum. 5 filters. 7. 144. 11 loss. 165. 7 Vibration. 163. 23.) INDEX Villari effect. 184 186 Young's modulus. 7. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 8 instantaneous. 151. peak. 93. 92. magnetostriction. 7 Wave. 24 Velocity.

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