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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Research Director. engineer. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Olson . E. This book deals with the analogies between electrical.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Lorene E. Harry January. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. plex arrangements of multielement systems. an electrical circuit. W. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. in this project. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. 1943 F. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Olson. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. Engstrom. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system.

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Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.3 Inductance.1 2.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .5 Representation of Electrical. Acoustical Resistance 2.1 1 1. Rectilineal Compliance C. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 3. ELEMENTS 2. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Electrical Capacitance B.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inductance B. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Mechanical Rectilineal. Rotational Compliance.2 4 II. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.1 3. C. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Moment of Inertia. Inertance 2. Acoustical Capacitance A. Mass. A. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Electrical Resistance B.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.3 3.2 Introduction Resistance A. Rectilineal Compliance.

Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.6 62 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.1 Introduction 37 4.7 64 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.. 4.6 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.13 Electrical.5 Equations of Motion 4.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3..2 4.1 Introduction 52 5.7 3. Mechanical Rectilineal. ELECTRICAL.2 Two Electrical.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 5. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. 60 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.7 The Electrical System .12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.6 3.4 Dissipation 4.8 67 . Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.10 The Acoustical System 4.5 Chapter 3. .

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.2 6.4 6. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.20 5...16 Electrical Resistance.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 Series 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.3 6. WAVE FILTERS 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.11 69 71 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .17 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.21 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 6.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 114 120 7.2 9.4 Ill 7. 1 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. THEOREMS 10. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 8. C. Unpolarized Armature B.4 9.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.X Chapter VII. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.5 8.6 VIII.1 10. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.1 9. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.4 8. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.2 8. B. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.2 7.5 9.

Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.7 11. APPLICATIONS 11.5 184 185 11.8 1 1 .CONTENTS Chapter E. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.4 11.2 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.6 11.

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an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. Expressions for the kinetic energy. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. mechanical and acoustical tems. as for example. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. In other words. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems.1. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. vibrating systems. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. 1 The acoustical . However. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason.

springs and brakes. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. Elements are the meshes. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. Electrical elements are resistance. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. ' The lished. . In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. constituent parts of a circuit. various assemblies of masses. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. springs and friction. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. Of course. cal. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. induct- ance and capacitance. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. as for example. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension.

Hanle {JViss. Therefore. For example. Verojf a. 4. mechanical and acoustical systems. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. 4. In this book. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. However. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations.. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. XI. circuit. Therefore. d. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. in the past. — . Soc. every electrical. Finally. However.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. Acous. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. Institute of Radio Engineers. Vol. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Amer. I) and Firestone {Jour. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. No.1 of 1942. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. all communication. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. No. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. up the mechanical and electrical. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. ratio of force to displacement. and ratio of pressure to displacement. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. SiemensKonzern. In addition. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. That is to say. Vol. particularly electrical circuits.

The remainder. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. Basic Frequency. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. . Definitions ^ this section. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. a positive constant. period. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. Periodic Quantity.2. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. Cycle. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. + T). a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. or which tity comprises a cycle. This called a Fourier series. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. where T. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. all is the frequency. Harmonic.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Terms not sections. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. equals 2x divided by the period T. Octave. a period of jy. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. reciprocal of the period. Frequency. or zero. negative. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. a constant.

The unit is the abvolt. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. The unit the dyne. Effective Electromotive Force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Wavelength. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). — — Abvolt. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. A wave is a propagated disturbance. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The unit is the abvolt. force. Electromotive Force. Mechanomotive Force). mechanical or acoustical system. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Wave. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Subharmonic. The root unit the abvolt. Dyne. the dyne. . The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. The unit is the dyne.

The the — Instantaneous Current. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. . —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. the dyne centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. Abampere. An abampere is the unit of current. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. force. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). the abampere. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Effective the total instantaneous torque. The unit is the dyne centimeter. the dyne per square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force).

—A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the abampere. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. Effective Angular Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. complete cycle at the point. unit is the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. Peak Current. per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Instantaneous Velocity. velocity. is velocity in that interval. is Radian per Second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Maximum Current. the abampere. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. is Centimeter per Second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. The unit is the abampere.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The unit is the centimeter per second. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. Peak Velocity. Effective Velocity. the centimeter per second. current. Maximum Velocity.

Effective Volume Current. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. the cubic centimeter per second. times the frequency. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. Electrical Reactance. is Electrical Resistance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. when times the frequency. The unit the abohm. To avoid ambiguity in this book. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. The unit the abohm. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which.-W is impedance. is the abohm. for Peak Volume Current. . —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. where both systems are considered concurrently. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. Electrical Impedance. which. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. The unit is the mechanical ohm. the cubic centimeter per second. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. The unit is the abfarad. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. electrical Inductance. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. second. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance.

— Compliance The unit is the gram. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. when multiplied by times the frequency. page I . Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Acoustical Impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mass. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. ' See footnote S. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Rotational Compliance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. unit is the rotational ohm. rotational resistance ance. Compliance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance.

Mechanical Rectilineal System. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. by "l-w times the frequency. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. Acoustical System. . An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. when multiplied by times the frequency. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. and rotational compliance. mass and compliance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. the acoustical ohm. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational System. Inertance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance. In the same way. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. moment of inertia. inertance and acoustical capacitance.. the fourth power. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. Electrical System. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. Acoustical Reactance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. mass and compliance.

power delivered to the load under some reference condition. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. mechanical or acoustical. force. current. The bel is the Decibel. Transmission Loss {or Gain). angular velocity.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . mechanical rectilineal. torque or pressure is electrical. For example. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . velocity. force. pressure or volume current. — Transmission. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. voltage. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. pressures or such as forces or velocities. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. Either of these systems may be electrical. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . torque. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force.

II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. See footnote page 8. 2. in abohms. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. In this procedure. and current through the resistance. inductance and capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. the vibrating systems. A resistor. Electrical Resistance. e.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. An tinguished from the devices. e rs^-. As indicated in the preceding chapter. 12 . Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. Electrical resistance rs. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. resistor. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit.2.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. is defined as A. t 2. in abamperes.' 2. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal.1. 5. inductor and capacitor. in abvolts. electrical. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance.

In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. is defined as r^ — = y 2. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Equation 2. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). and velocity at the point of application of the force. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. in dynes. in centi- meters per second. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. in radians per second.RESISTANCE B. Acoustical Resistance. Mechanical rotational energy is C. D. Energy is lost by the cal resistance.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. . Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms.

Van Nostrand Co. A tube of small diameter. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. slit in the direction of flow.86 X 10"'* for air. in addition to the resistive component. 'Olson. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. 1940. resistance.4 where p — pressure. a reaccomponent. in acoustical ohms. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. in = width of the meters. York. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. 1.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. 2. and U= Equation resistance current. slit normal to the direction of flow. However. in grams per cubic centimeter. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. a narrow and metal. in cubic centimeters per second. 6pww 2." D.5 = viscosity coefficient. and frequency in cycles per second. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in centimeters. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering..14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. in dynes per square centimeter. slit normal to the direction of flow. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. d= / thickness of the centimeters. density. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. volume current. New .

increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Inductance. is remains a constant of inertia /. Equation 2.3. in dynes. 2. MASS. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. is Inductance L. in grams. that during angular acceleration. in abhenries. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Inertance A. which opposes a change of velocity. INERTANCE 2. in centimeters per second per second. MOMENT OF INERTIA.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. in abvolts. = di Ldt ^ 2. Moment of Inertia. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. Mass.INDUCTANCE. Moment of Inertia. is defined as 2. B. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. in abamperes per second. given by dd . mass increases. Equation C. Mass. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. 15 Inductance.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. It remains constant ance. Moment gram (centimeter)^. and driving force. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. and rate of change of current. It decreases when the current decreases. in when the angular velocity a constant.

9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. New . in grams per (centimeter)*. effective length of the tube. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. D. Equation 2. Inertance M. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. Van Nostrand Co. in dyne centimeters. cross sectional area in square centimeters. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in centimeters. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. in radians per second per second. inertance. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. is. in centimeters. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.10 m = S = mass. in p = density of the meter. volume current. in cubic centimeters per second per second.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. and driving pressure. that tion.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance.. decreases. in dynes per square centimeter. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. in grams. in rate of change of 2. York." D. 1940. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system.

is defined as fM = jr where x 2. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. in dynes is Equation 2. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Electrical capacitance Cg. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. in centimeters. Electrical Capacitance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released.14 = Jm = displacement. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. Acoustical Capacitance A.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. and stored.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Electrical 17 Capacitance. and electromotive force. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element.13 states that the charge on an force. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal Compliance. and applied force.n Equation 2.4. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. abvolts. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. It is a constant. in abcoulombs. . in abfarads. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.

allowed to unwind. Equation 2. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. .17 s = * Olson. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. in dyne centimeters. Van Nostrand Co. D.16 p s — = = velocity.^ in dynes per square centimeter. density. in radians per centimeter per dyne. in radians. defined in equation 2. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. Acoustical Capacitance. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.. It is constant. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. C. Rotational compliance Cu-. New York. in centimeters per second. Rotational Compliance. p = where c c^ps 2. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering." p. 1940. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. and applied torque. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed.17. D. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. 9. It is constant. in is The terms of the condensation. in grams per cubic centimeter. and condensation.

20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. in cubic centimeters. electrical resistance. 2. The electrical elements. in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Representation of Electrical. . Equation 2. . mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. and 2. equal to the volume displacement. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. in cubic centimeters. and volume displacement. From equations 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.16. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.X 2. is 2. mechanical rectilineal. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.21 F= volume.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2.5.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. = ^ F 2.17.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.19 and 2. Mechanical Rectilineal. From equations 2.

—^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.1. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. rE . is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.1 and 2. Tables 2.1. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. length.3 uses mass M.1 page and list and 2.2. . inertance and time. ^ The Tables 8.1.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. and time. Table 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.3.24 sions are mass. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. Further.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. ELEMENTS and time. 1.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. length L and time T. 2. The dimensions given in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. self-inductance. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. the standard modifiers for all four systems. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia.1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.

CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. mechanical rotational or In other words.1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rectilineal. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal. 3. namely. mass. mechanical rotational.1.2. From these definitions it is evident that friction. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. 3. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig.

Cr = T.1. potential and heat energy. C. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. Heat is a transient form of energy. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. mechanical rectilineal. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. kinetic. namely. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In the electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. mechanical rotational. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 3. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . mechanical rectilineal. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. velocity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. Electrical.

3.2 m = X mass. in radians per second. X— X Sx = volume current. in abhenries.3 = moment of inertia. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. equal to the system. in grams per (centimeter)*. It is assumed that same phase. in square centimeters. mechanical rectilineal. electrical.4 M= m = S — m/S^. and heat energy during an interval of time is.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in grams. and velocity of the = mass m. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. all the air particles in the opening move with the . potential. in centimeters per second. in grams. mechanical rotational. cross-sectional area of the opening. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. and current through the inductance L. in centimeters per second.3. in cubic centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. mass of air in the opening. The sum of the kinetic. in abamperes. by the principle of conservation of energy. the inertance.

Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in grams per cubic centimeter. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. p = density of air. and c = velocity of sound. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring.4. = -. in abfarads. . ^ 3.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and charge on the capacitance. and <l> angular displacement. in centimeters. in cubic centimeters. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3.. in abcoulombs. in radians. s — stiffness of the spring. in centimeters per dyne. dyne. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters per second. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in dynes per centimeter. and X = displacement. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity.

Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. +— + XX 3.17 = = is electrical resistance.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. mechanical rotational. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. force.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Wr. mechanical Wm. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .5. in abohms.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.18 . and acoustical systems.y- 3. .10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3..12 where We. and current. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. in abamperes.: 3.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.

and X= 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in acoustical ohms. and velocity. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . in radians per second.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. and angular velocity. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. in rotational ohms. in centimeters per second. in mechanical ohms.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.22 = acoustical resistance.

25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.26.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.24.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3..32 „.28 and 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3. — -—- JO^ Cm . q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. 3.

33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.7^ Ca 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.38 3. . At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the velocity and force. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the impedance is m and Cm.jo>I — — 3. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. the angular velocity and torque.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and Cr.

42 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. mechanical rectilineal. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.8.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.Ce r^ 3. . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.

The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. Equation 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.24.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. namely. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1.1. 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.49 „ .34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .

52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.51 is the same as equation 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3. Equation 3. .26. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.28.

inclusively. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.59 is the same as equation 3. and acoustical systems. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.43 to 3.30.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. 3.59. . Equations 3. Equation 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.

1. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. velocity.1. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. 4. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. MECHANICAL Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. 4.1. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.

in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.1 93 L = inductance. in grams. in radians per second. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. . in cubic centimeters per second. in branch 3. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. and = h = current. in abhenries.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.4 M = inertance. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4.2 where x^ m = = mass. and velocity of the mass m. in centimeters per second.3. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in abamperes.

Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in qz ohms. and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. . in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians. 4. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. and — current.4. and displacement. in abcoulombs.5. in centimeters. and <i>2 angular displacement. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in abamperes. per dyne.DISSIPATION 4. in abfarads.9 = 4 = electrical resistance.

The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in rotational ohms. in acoustical ohms. in centimeters per second.i 4. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.6. and angular velocity. mechanical ohms.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. and velocity. in cubic centimeters per second. in radians per second.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. and Xs = volume 4. current. 2 d<t>n dcj). VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 = acoustical resistance. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates.

The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.1 is h = H Equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. 4.20 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. The relation for the currents in Fig.13.rsqz 4.18.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.17. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.22.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4. e = = Lqz-[.21 4.23.7. at/jf. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 +k 4.14.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. 4.25 .1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. The linear displacement.8.

. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.26. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. The angular displacement. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. Fig.16. p = MXa + vaXz 4. Jb /.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.42 4.15. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.1.32 ing piston. at p. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.30.27.9.26 ^ The 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.10. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.31.29 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. 4. at/^j. in the acoustical system. = = /03 + rij^g 4. 4.

+ Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.1. and to acoustical resistance. Fig. vm.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . given by ^3 JM is 4. mass.19.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. Fig. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. 4. 4. to mechanical rotational resistance.29 and 4.25.11. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. inclusive. inductance.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.1. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.33.1 to 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance acoustical system. 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. shows again that resistance.

given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.1.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. is given by k The = f". 4.X3 = pjccCa 4. 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. Fig. X2 = Xi .1. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. Fig.45 . is . is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.

Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.12.48 JwCe3 Cr. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. . 4. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 54.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.3.2. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2 are as follows: 4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. The electrical impedances z^i. 55 and 56 and Fig. 1 tional systems of Figs.1 of Chapter V. 4. 4.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. see pages 53. 5.

3 is the as that of Fig. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. moment of inertia and inertance L2. 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance. mass.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. The shunt electrical.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.59 4. 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.55 jwLai 4. 4.60 4. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4. compliance.56 ZA2 -T-z. mechanical rectilineal.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. Ce2.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.2 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p. I2 and M2.— JwLmz Zb.57 The system shunt in Fig.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.

62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3. 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.65 2^22^3 .63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

= ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.67 .2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.412^3 + 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. Ca. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Cb2 .^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. I2.\. mechanical rectilineal.t 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. L. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .13. to /i.«i. 4. Cri. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.3. 4. 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Cm\. Cei.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. 4. m2. L2.4. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.

89 .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. 4>2. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.83 ZA2 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.82 4. Xi. the linear velocity Xq.78 4. M2. nA where zei = .SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.80 4. 4.74 4. i^ in show that /q.88 4. X2. 4>i.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.86 4.84 4.76 4. h. ^ zjji = . Xi.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. The current to. to 4>o. Cai.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . X3 rectilineal system. 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. (h and 04 X2. Ca2 in the acoustical system. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.92 4.97 The current i2.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.) Ha ^_^^j .1UU ^^^ pZA. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.93 Ha = The current ii.90 4.95 .98 . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. the linear velocity X2. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. 01 4.. 4.{ZA3jrZA. the linear velocity Xi.99 r^r^ . the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. 4.

„.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. J~iR X. . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. ^^^ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.105 current 4. the linear velocity X4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.102 X3 4.106 . = The equations cal. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.107 .-riE .103 4>z = —— 7} 4.

It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.^ an inductance. mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. 52 . impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.2. mechanical rotational. 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances.1. characteristics. 5.1.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.

branch is current flows in z^i. Fig.1. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. 5.

1 with the same tions. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Equation 5. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. </>!.1. ^2. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal.3. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. 5. </)r. analogous to equation 5. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. as for example.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. SAA. 5. = = xx -\- X2 5. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. respectively. Fig.4 That is. respectively.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. must be in parallel. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. shown schematically in Fig. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. Xt Differentiating equation 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. Z/jt. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . With these specifications the differential of Fig. That is. consists of a system of gears.. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. respectively. respectively. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. relations existing between//. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3.2 for the electrical system.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.2. mechanical and acoustical analogies. 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. equations 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. equations 5. 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.12 relatively large 59 and 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. 5. ^^^^. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.13 and 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. reactance .2. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.

Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.20 where Cm = compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. in centimeters per dyne.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.5.3 is = T^ 5.42 = joiM 5. Fig. The acoustical system of Fig.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.3. 5. 5. 5. Therefore.14 and 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. in abfarads. 5. Equations 5. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.18 where M= inertance. 5. from equations 5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.2.11 and 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. . The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2.

5. Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.12 to the and 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. 5.20 is shown in Fig.13 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.21 show that at low frequencies . velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical the frequency. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. inversely proportional to the frequency.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. at Equa- tions 5.3. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.12 and 5.3.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. 5.

13 and 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4 in series across a line. .6. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. 5.3. in abhenries.3. equations 5. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.12 = ^-^ 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. and electrical capacitance.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.14 and 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.4. The shown in Fig. 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. tional.23 where L = Ce = inductance. in abfarads.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.11 and 5.23. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5.

24. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in gram (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.25 where / = moment of inertia. and Cu = rotational compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in grams. in radians per dyne per centimeter.4.12 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.13 and .24 where m = mass. 5. The output angular 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5.25.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.

5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. in (centimeter)" per dyne.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. 5. in Fig.7. 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 and 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.14 and 5.24 also is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.13 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.4.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.26. . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. acoustical capacitance.12 and 5.5 parallel across a line. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.5.2 and there is very little attenuation.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in grams per (centimeter)''.

28.5 is jo}L -£2 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in grams.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.27. 5. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. and compliance.12 and 5. in abhenries. in abfarads.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .J^mCM 5.5. in centimeters per dyne.27 where L = Ce = inductance.28 where m = mass. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 5. and electrical capacitance. Cm = The output . ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and The output angular 5.14 and 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.. The output volume 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . Equations 5.^MC.5 is ZR2 = . in (centimeter)^ per dyne.13 and 5.12 and 5. Equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.3 and the transmission is again small.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. and acoustical capacitance. 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. . in gram (centimeter)^. 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and = rotational compliance.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.29.2 and the transmission is small. 1 - 5.30. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.

8. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.31. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. 5.6. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. in shunt with a line.min.6 shows an electrical resistance. .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. 5. in abfarads.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. Electrical Resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. in abhenries. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. 5.5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6. in abohms. inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series.11 and 5. itance in series. Electrical resistance. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.

from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. from equations 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.12 and 5. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per dyne.3 and there is very little attenuation. 5. and rotational compliance. inertance. of inertia. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. 5. compliance.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The output volume 5. Therefore. The output and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Therefore.32.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.33.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in rotational ohms. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.34. in radians per dyne per centimeter. mass.11 and 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12 and 5.2 and there is very little attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in grams. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

9. . from equations 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. and compliance.14 and 5. mass. Therefore. Therefore. from equations 5.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.36. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.7 shows an electrical resistance. in Fig. and electrical capacitance.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.7. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in abohms. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in abfarads. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.12 The output and 5.35. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. in grams. 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. in Fig. in abhenries. 5. inductance. quencies the same as that of Fig.4.13 and 5.6. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.11 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in mechanical ohms.

38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. inertance. of inertia.37. rotational compliance. = = mechanical rotational resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. 5. acoustical capacitance. in grams per and 5. S. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in rotational ohms. The output and 5. Electrical resistance.38. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.7.37 where ru Cb.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.14 Ca = 5. in acoustical ohms.

° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.14 and 5. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. Fig.11 and 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5.7. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. .13 and 5.3 and the transmission is again small.12 and 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. However.7. termed the input and output electrical impedances. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.7.7.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. Fig.10. Fig. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.2 and the transmission is small. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. inductance.5. output electrical impedance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.7.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. 5.

ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.42 Zas. 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. 5.43 where L = inductance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. output acoustical impedance. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.41 input acoustical impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.40 ZM2.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances.11. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. in abhenries.43 = p = 2. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. 5.

INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.44 where tn = mass.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.8. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8 is = jo)I 5. 5. 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5. 5. characteristic.39 and 5. 5.8. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8 equations 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. .8 is = j^m 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. 5. in grams. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. in gram (centimeters)^.

39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. acoustical Equations 5.41 and 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. Equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.8. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.46 where M= inertance.42 and 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. 5.12. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.8 equations 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.48. in abfarads. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .

5. is ance relatively large to motion.40 and 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. . line and the mechanical rectihneal.9 to the frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9. is inversely proportional Equations 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Fig.48 where Cm — compliance. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. in centimeters per dyne.47. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5.9 = 5. 5.9. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.l/2 Fig. frequency characteristic. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. is 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. 5. 5.9 is ^R2 5.9. 5.

9.42 and 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. 5. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. in square centimeters. 5. Equation 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal.10.13. 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. Equations 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. .51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. 5.9 is 2. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. and per = area of the diaphragm. compliance of the suspension system. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. analogous to an in Fig.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. dyne. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)" per dyne. acoustical capacitance tions 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.50.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.41 and 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.9. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational.

5.52. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in abhenries. . and = rotational compliance. in gram (centimeter)^. 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.10. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. and electrical capacitance. in grams. and C_if compliance. The mechanical system of Fig.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. in centimeters per dyne.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5.40 and 5. rectilineal.53.53 where m = = mass. in abfarads.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.14. 5.41 and 5. and acoustical capacitance.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. Equations 5. 5.40 and 5.39 and 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.11. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.10.55 where M= Ca = inertance. and again the transmission is small. and the transmission is small. in grams per (centimeter)*. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5. 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5.54.8.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.50.9 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.41 and 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.55. connected in with a line. 5.

56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.57. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical system of Fig.11. and electrical capacitance.11 is 2/22 = :. in grams. in abhenries. in abfarads. 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in centimeters per dyne.56.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.1/2 = 1 — S. 5. and compliance. 5. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .11 is - 5.40 and 5.

11 equation 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5.58. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. 5. 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.59. 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. 2.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.41 The output angular 5. and acoustical capacitance.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5.15. Electrical Resistance.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.59 where M= Ca = inertance.42 == 5. 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. and = rotational compliance.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. Equations 5. in grams (centimeter)^. .56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inductance and line. 5.41 and 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.40 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.11 is -. ance of Fig.11.12 shows an electrical resistance.12. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. Equation 5.39 and 5. 5.8 and the attenuation is small. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.

and capacitance. in abohms.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. inductance. in mechanical ohms.60. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. m = Cm = mass. in abhenries.12. 5. 5.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. 5.39 and 5. compliance. 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. in grams. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.61.62 . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. in abfarads.40 and 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per dyne.12 T = rE + jwL + 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

in acoustical ohms. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.12. and again the transmission is small. and the transmission is small. Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. from equations 5.12 is 2.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. . 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.8. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Therefore. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Therefore. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. The output and 5.63. Fig.40 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. Fig.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. current can be obtained from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.42 and 5. Therefore.4 -T-z^ 5.62. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12. from equations 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. and Cr = rotational compliance.12. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.39 and 5.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Therefore.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.coC. from equations 5. 5.12.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. However. 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.41 and 5. The output volume 5. inertance. in rotational ohms.10.12. in grams per (centimeter)*.

5. 5.39 and 5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.13. 83 Parallel. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. inductance.13 is ZM2 = r. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. in abhenries. in abfarads. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Electrical resistance. Electrical Resistance.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. and electrical capacitance.13. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.65 .13 shows an electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. in abohms. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.16.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. inductance line. 5. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.64.

current can be obtained from equations 5. Fig.67.13 is = jo^rAM ~. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.65. The output volume 5.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Fig.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. mass. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The output and 5. 5. ohms.8 and the attenuation is small.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. Therefore. and compliance.9 and the attenuation is small.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. in grams.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inertance. in acoustical ohms. from . in M= grams per (centimeter)*. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. and Cr = rotational compliance. in (centimeter)® per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Therefore. 5. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.41 and 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. Fig.39 and 5. from equations 5.13. in where tm mechanical ohms. 5.13.66. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.13.40 and 5. therefore. from equations 5. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.40 and 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.

13. 5. 5.67 the attenuation ance. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.18.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .42 and 5. 5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.14 Mechanical Rotational. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. that of Fig.13.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.11. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. Fig. 5. Referring to equation 5.17. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.

larger.14 shows a system of made larger. Referring to equation 5. 5. Equation 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. 5. Equation 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. rectilineal. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.15. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. .15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. Equation 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. Fig.19. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. 5. 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Electrical Rectilineal.

and Zmz. mechani- and acoustical analogies. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. rm. In the same way equations 5. mechanical rotational. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig.11.13 the mechanical rectihneal. rui.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5.21. 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. 5. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. Equation 5.12. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.16.16.41 and the output impedances. "Zrz. acoustical systems of Fig. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .16. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.17. wherein zm\. respectively. 5. 5. and r.20. and r^i and the input impedances. zri. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal. respectively. 5. 5.

.17. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical.12. output impedance. Electrical. Equation 5.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. rectihneal.17. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. In this case zei is the input impedance. me- chanical rotational.13 and 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. 5. 5.18. ze2 is rE2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.22.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.14. 5.

velocity and . 5. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. 5. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. ei.68 5. Electrical.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. and of turns on the secondary. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.18. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. ii. The force. and zei represent the electromotive force.18 the electromotive force.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ACOUSTICAL Fig.

/mi. 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. consists of a mass- gear train. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.18. The torque.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.18.71 = — xi 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.77 5.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. of Fig.79 . The 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. /ri. The pressure. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.

^ Engineering. The acoustical transformer of Fig. two diaphragms. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. ..18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.41 and p2. Xi and 2. New York. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss." D. pi. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. 1940. 5.

Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. mechanical rectilineal. 1922. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Bell System Tech. No. p. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. 2.. I. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. G. 92 .CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. 6. A. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters.. 20. G. Vol. 528. Jour. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. No. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different.. Rev. Vol.1. W. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. 6.. Stewart. 1922.2. Phys.

rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van Nostrand Co. respectively. *' . velocities." D. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. The most important type of structure is the ladder type.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. New York. 6. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. Van New York. Johnson. positive and when than four. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four.. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication." D.. velocities. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. Shea. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents.3. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. that is. velocities. ^ Nostrand Co. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies.

MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.4. Electrical.1. 6.94 6.1. mechanical rectilineal.Ca 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.2 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.1 zmi zri 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.8 .6 ZR2 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.

angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. coc = — 2Af2 V — .= -4 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. 6.17 Equations 6. when coe 6. and the cutoff 6. when ccc 6. 6. when oip = = = = 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.= From and .10 and show that the systems of Fig. .15 WC.9 the constants of the systems.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. 6. mechanical rotational.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. inclusive. when uc = 6. when .2.5.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. linear velocities.17. mechanical rectilineal. 6. 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. 2A2 VMC^ . when coc = .HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. when coc 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.10 — — 0.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems. 2£1 6.= -4 22 6.= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .27 .

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6. 5.12.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. .38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.

49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. when coci = = 6. when wci = — VLiCei . 6. _ 4.50 V/iGji 0.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. —= Z£2 — 4. UCe\ (1 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. 2. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . —7== VMiCai . — — / 1 6.51 VM2C42 = . V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . = 1 .46 6. = — 7= / 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. .lfi)^ ^ -.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.48 VL2CJS2 = 0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.12 =0.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.43 Let LiCei = 6.44 6. „ when coci = .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6..

the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. (1 . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. -4. —= 2.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.41 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.v/2 1 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. when . one greater than uci and Therefore.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .

62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. are 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.63.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.56 to 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. mechanical rectilineal. inclusive. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. show that the systems of Fig. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.64 CeiLi 6.7.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. linear velocities. 6. 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.69 .4.

76 .102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rectilineal.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.74 6.4.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical.

78 —= ZR2 0.42 -4.77 —— = ZM2 0. when. .84 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0.82 . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. when oici = and wa = =0 6. —= Zr\ -4. . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.-4. 6. M\Ca\) 4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . —= zei -4. when (1 .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . 6.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. or. when uci = and cca oo 6. .83 —= Z^l 2. when (1 .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

4 = (ajj + p)L 7. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. unit torque and unit pressure. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. .8 where m = = /m — V mass.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.2.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.2.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. 7. rectilineal resistance. in dynes. respectively. in grams.2. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force. in centimeters per second. shown in Fig. 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. The graph depicts the current. The current is zero = 0. velocity. and driving force. 7.5 where aE = Te/L.

value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. = mechanical rotational resistance. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. 1/riv/.2.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.2.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in radians per second. and = torque. in dyne centimeters. 7. in gram (centimeter)^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. ohms. 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.12 = — - e"^') 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. . as shown in Fig.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in rotational = angular velocity.

2. in grams per (centimeter)*.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. in cubic centimeters. 7. U = volume current. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.20 where M= ta inertance. as shown in Fig. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. 7.2.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. From is the tables of operational formulas. in acoustical ohms. and p = sound pressure. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. in dynes per square centimeter.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.16 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. = acoustical resistance.22 . the solution of equation 7.

7. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. electrical resistance series.2. From is the tables of operational formulas. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.e-^ in Fig. in abohms. in abvolts. electrical resistance.22 111 may be written. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. in abamperes.4. in abfarads. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.3.24 JA{t) = " (1 . and electromotive force.28 ve . the solution of equation 7. the solution of equation 7. current. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. 7. 7.

velocity. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. unit force.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. 7 3.31 . 7. is The for / shown in Fig. From the tables of operational formulas. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The graph depicts the current. respectively. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. in dynes. shown in Fig. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. mechanical rectilineal resistance. the solution of equation 7. in centimeters per dyne. 7.3. force. unit torque and unit pressure.30 P)rM where a. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7.y = l/rjfCv/. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.3. in mechanical ohms. linear velocity.

7. in acoustical ohms. as shown in Fig. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. 7. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dynes per square centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter.3. mechanical rotational resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. in radians per second.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. . angular velocity. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in rotational ohms. volume current. 7.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. is shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters. acoustical resistance. in cubic centimeters per second. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. is shown in Fig. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.3. and torque. 7. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. and sound pressure.33 where aR = IIvrCr. as shown in Fig.

7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in electrical capacitance. abamperes. in abohms. as in Fig. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. 7. electrical resist- ance.5. in abhenries. in abvolts.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.38 ^. in current. and electromotive force.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.3. 1 7. 7. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. electrical resistance. is shown 7.4. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. (a + ^ Pfa . The volume current decreases for values of / limit.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. .36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. abohms.

45.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.^. unit torque or unit pressure.4. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. unit force.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. series Response of an electrical resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. The response sinusoid.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.4. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. velocity. respectively. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7. 7. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. The graph depicts the current. the solution of equation 7. .

Substituting equation 7.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. velocity.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. 7. displacement. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. in grams. in centimeters per dyne.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. and driving force.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters. v for x. in centimeters per second per second. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.47 . rectilineal resistance. 1 AC. 1 A\ m = mass. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in dynes.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. acceleration.

If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. and 4> Jr = driving torque. in radians per second. in dyne centimeters. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. Cr = rotational compliance. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. lAA. in radians per second per second. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. in radians.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in grams (centimeter).4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. in rotational ohms. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. equation 7. is of inertia. = angular velocity. 4> = angular acceleration. = angular displacement. in radians per dyne per centimeter.si . 7.51 = moment of inertia.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig.4.4_S.48 The response sinusoid.

118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . 7. = '^I/Cr.45.56 ^PR = Jo.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig..4C. lAA. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. WR^ 2 1 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. It is a damped sinusoid. .

and pressure.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. volume current. 7.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. at equation 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in cubic centimeters per second. in dynes per square centimeter. as in Fig.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in grams per (centimeter)^.4. in acoustical ohms. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. acoustical resistance. acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. Substituting U for X.

Step function approximation.5. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. 7. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.6.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.45. . The value of the unit force t=o Fig.

67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. an electromotive force ^2 is added. integral. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . 7. 7. tem.5. etc.u)du du 7.68 . Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. etc. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. as in the case of the preceding sections. <?i at / = Ae. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. an electromotive force ei is added. all being of the unit type.. The This proof. The indicial electrical admittance.5. «i. a time «2 later.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. Therefore. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. as shown in Fig. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.

angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. mechanical rotational rectilineal. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.u)du 7. The velocity. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.72 . Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .u)du du u)du 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. 7.69 fR{u) — AR{t . The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.

.

CHAPTER 8.1. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the electromagnetic. the electrostatic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.2.

The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1 and 8. The force. in abamperes.2 where x = velocity. 8. in using analogies in actual practice. in dynes.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. termed motional electrical impedance.1. length of the conductor. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). When there is only one path. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in centimeters per second.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. From equations 8.1. it is located. The electromotive force. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. circuit will be used instead of network.However. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. and current. field in which depicted in Fig. in centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. abohms.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in gausses.1 B = / = / = flux density. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . and Ca with vr. L and Ce. due to motion. in abvolts.

The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. Zen in abohms.6 The 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.4 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.3. that is. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.1. 8. in the absence of motion. The normal electrical impedance zek. The dynamic direct radiator 8. which the mechanical There are three general types of . all of the conductor.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in 8. in abohms. in chanical ohms. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. 8.3. in mechanical ohms.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.

8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. the unpolarized armature type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. A. Assume that all the reluctance . Unpolarized Armature Type. Since there is no polarizing flux. Consider the system shown in Fig. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type.2. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. namely. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.

in abvolts.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. . n = number of turns. then from equations 8.15 The force on the armature.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.14 e = ^r 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. in abamperes. C = l-^nA. is where / = current in the coil. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. and a = normal spacing. in square centimeters. A = area of the center pole. in centimeters. the total flux is <f>T Aa.13 and 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in dynes.

in seconds. nC^P 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. Substituting equation 8.18 Equation 8.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. 4TrJa*/M .17 for the current in 8. mechanical ohms.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . in mechanical ohms. the force on the armature is Im = '.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.15 and 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.2. in mechanical ohms.16. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.20 — X From equations 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. and time. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.21 .

in gilberts. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in maxwells. in centimeters.3. Zen in abohms. a = spacing.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. 8. in mechanical ohms.19. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. Polarized Reed Armature Type. saws. ^ = area of center pole.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in abamperes. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. .20 and 8.22 = motional electrical impedance. for converting electrical variations into however. in abohms. and impedance of the coil. in square centimeters. in abohms. = number of turns. Therefore. this system cannot be used It is. in oersteds. vibrators and clippers. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. from the poles of a permanent magnet. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8.2. filing — as in Fig. in abohms. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. 8. for the reproduction of sound. B. / = current.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.

in 131 oit maxwells. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. 27r/.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. in oersteds. and time.axsin wt n coil. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. in abamperes. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.

26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.32 „ . generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. spacing between the armature and pole. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. in maxwells.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. __ .^1 = fl MA — A* 8. and area of the pole.^ . in centimeters. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. in abvolts.. in square centimeters.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. in gilberts. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. the flux will now be 4>x + A. sidered. Ax -\- Ax . due to the steady field. the flux.

and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.35 and 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.37.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.38 a Zm .3. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. in abohms.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.24 and 8.35 8.34. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.32 and e i = — X 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.33. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. 8. 8. in mechanical ohms. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. in me- chanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature..26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. ZAfi. From equations 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. fu = MNi ~r — . ~ 8.

of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.3. C.38 is similar to equation 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. in abohms. ARMATURE MAGNET . Equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. and impedance of the coil. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.

of the pole piece. 8. in maxwells. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. 8. in square centimeters. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in dynes. which the coil energizes.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. i?2 = = coil. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The flux. in oersteds. in maxwells.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The steady magnetic field is force. at each pole magnet. The . Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. in abamperes. in dynes. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces.4. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. The sum of the forces.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. and yf effective area. at the poles (Fig.

136 flux.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. in abvolts.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. and effective area of a pole piece.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.4.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. 8. NMA —^x a^ 8. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 impedance of the load.45. in gilberts. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in square centimeters. . in centimeters.44 A. of the steady field. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. through the armature to the right and upward. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in mechanical ohms. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms.

. Zm\. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.43 =-^ 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50.50 and 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.

galvanometers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.4.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. 8. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. Therefore. This driving system is used for loud speakers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. system of Fig. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.

in statcoulombs. The useful force. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. in statfarads. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. in dynes.60 From equations 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.57 numerator of equation 8. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. the fourth term will be negligible. on the condenser is q considered. in statfarads. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. ^o^max sin wt . eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. The force.62 . in dynes.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. in statvolts.59 and 8. = CeCq 8. is The current. motive Cq is large . and capacity per unit area. in statamperes. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.

64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. .68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. the generated current. 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 4ir(<2 + . 47r(a — 8.66 in 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.5. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.61. Ax) 8. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . in mechanical ohms. in stat- amperes.69 . is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. . ohms.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.

+ .67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.58 and 8. adding a large stiffness. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. electrical impedance of the condenser.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. in statohms.5.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.69 and 8.5. 8. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . electrical network in Fig. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. at the same time. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.68. statohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. Consider the system shown in Fig. current is applied to 2m . The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.6. 8.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.

and time. e = MJ^ dt 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in cycles per second. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. due to is the Villari effect. in gausses. frequency. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . CO/ 8.74 and ehminating the steady force. The electromotive force. in abvolts. turns in the coil. in square centimeters. . coil. induced in the winding. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. in seconds. induction is of the nickel rod.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. current.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. and area of the rod.73 Combining equations and 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 8.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. this stress may be considered to be the driving force.X JR 8. in current in the abamperes. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters. in centimeters. in abamperes.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.

length of the rod. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. rectilineal impedances zm. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. The mechanical to one . in centimeters. in square centimeters. and Young's modulus.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.78 From equation 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.6. in mechanical ohms. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in abvolts. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. in mechanical ohms.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.

is assumed to be a In general. .MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. in mechanical ohms. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. as shown by equation 8.83 From equations 8. New York.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance." D.86 Mason. in abohms — equation 8. = motional impedance.. The mass mi in Fig. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. 8. 8. 1942.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 8.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. total in abohms. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.6.79. 8.6).84. in abohms. Van Nos- trand Co. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.82 and 8.

in square centimeters. 8. in centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. and cross section of the rod.7. in Fig. in square centimeters. and Young's modulus. length of the rod.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. is where p The compliance Cmi. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .80. in centimeters. 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. length of the rod.

8.8. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.8.84. due to a force. 8. A= E = area. .7. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. EA and 8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. X = 4^. 8. Young's modulus. in square centimeters.7C A and B given in Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The vibrating system of Fig.88 where Jm = total force. air load and support resistance. 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8.7.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. is The deformation per unit length. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. that is. in dynes.

6. flux density.. B = A= From and area.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. 8. in square centimeters. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. the data of Fig.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. c„ .89 K = magnetostriction constant.88 and 8. 8. .90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.8 and Young's modulus. equations 8.

V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. 6. in dynes. in centimeters. due an applied force. is . in dynes. and The displacement. due to the application of a force. E = Young's modulus.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.4 force.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. in square centimeters.91 and 8. in statcoulombs. X to 10~* for quartz.93 . in centimeters. q is 149 = KJu 8. equations 8. and A = cross-sectional area.92 X From = 8. 4 = length of the crystal.

100 and 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. / centimeters. zmi and z. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. in statohms. 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. in mechanical ohms.97. in centimeters. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. 8.9. in square = length of the crystal.101 From equations 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. in mechanical ohms. and E = Young's modulus. in mechanical ohms. .

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

3. namely.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.1. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.

and velocity of the armature.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. coil. in square centimeters. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and impedance of the external load. in gilberts. is The velocity of the armature.2. through the armature. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in maxwells. area of the pole. in abohms.2. spacing between the armature and pole. in abohms. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. and + ZE2. in centimeters per second. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 9. force. in centimeters. .6 ze = = = = = total flux. 9. in centimeters per second. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. due to the steady field. 9.

r~ . flows through the armature. 9. due to the deflection of the armature. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Balanced Armature Generating System.3. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.

= magnetomotive force. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2.11 zme From equations 9.9 and 9. velocity of the armature. 9. in oersteds.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.3. a = spacing between armature and pole. in gilberts. is The /m Zm + 9. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. M. 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. The current. in centimeters. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. as depicted 9.4. of the magnet. in abohms.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters per second. in abohms. i?2 = reluctance.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. in A . in statamperes. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in maxwells.3.

in statvolts. in centimeters per second.14 where e = electromotive force. and velocity of the X movable plate. electrical and impedance of the external load. The current. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. spacing between the plates.stationary "plate . in statamperes. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in centimeters. in statvolts. in statohms. in square centimeters.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statfarads. ^= a area of the plate.4 e is t2 9. 9.

in statvolts. area of the plates. a spacing between plates. is Ze2 in parallel. e.4.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. = Zm /^^ + 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. is The velocity of the movable plate. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.17 zme e From equations 9.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. X in centimeters per second. in square centimeters.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. 9. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. in statohms.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in statfarads. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.4. electrical and 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. electrical impedance of the external load.15 and 9. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.18 Zme) . in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.

= ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.21 in 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.19.22.23 in 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.24 and fi 9.26 .23 Substituting equation 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. .25.25 Comparing equations 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.E1 = -r—.21 Substituting equation 9. = — a CnX 9.

zei. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. In the electrical circuit: e. 9. L\ and rE\. in abvolts.5.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.5.5. In the mechanical circuit: zm. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. coil. However. coil. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. The volt- age. zme. Equation 9. from equation 8. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 and an internal impedance zei. Magnetostriction generating system. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.27 . ZEi. shown in Fig. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. is ^tNK 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. 9.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. The magnetostriction magnetic generator.

84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. - £ 9. in square centimeters. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in abohms. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. force.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. . K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. electrical electrical wavelength.79 or 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. length of the rod. in centimeters. and impedance of the external circuit. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in centimeters per second. 9. and Young's modulus. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig.5. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.28. to be a In general.32 the generated electromotive force.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. ohms. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. in mechanical ohms.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in mechanical = ohms. are given by equations 8. in Fig.27 and 9. equations 9. 9.6.6.5. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in centimeters per second.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.86 and 8. 9.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. .32 From abvolts. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.

Li and tei.27 and the velocity. generated The h = —.7. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. + 9. In the electrical circuits: e. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. In the mechanical networks: /m. 9. in Fig. the driving force. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. and velocity of the crystal. 2_bi j<^Li. . 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. mass and compliance of the rod. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load.6 can be obtained from equation 9. zei. mi and Cmi. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. A. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. in centimeters. zei. 6. cross-sectional area of the crystal. where KEJ — •* 9. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.6. in centimeters per second. = = length of the crystal.4 X 10~* for quartz.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. in statamperes. 9. length of the crystal. zme. ZMi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. the effective Zjv/i. in square centimeters. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. the other. 9. E= 4 = Young's modulus.6.

the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. Ce\. z^'i zei. 9. In the Piezoelectric generating system. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. electrical and 9. electrical and impedance of the external load.7. From equations 9. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. crystal. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statvolts.34 force e.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. in statamperes. 2_b2. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. circuit: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . in statfarads. in statohms.

electrical impedance of the external load. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.4 X 10~* for quartz. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.97 or 8. length of in centimeters. the crystal. in statohms.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. in statfarads. in centimeters. length of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. E = Young's modulus. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.41 . A = area of the electrode.7. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. and E= Young's modulus. 4 = length of the crystal. in square centimeters. and „ „„ 9.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. 9.

depicted equations 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel.36 and 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.45 . in centimeters per second. is . The velocity at the end of crystal.47 . zm2 in mechanical ohms. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. in mechantotal ical ohms.7. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. in mechanical ohms.= where i. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.

= _^i^_ ZEI + 9.47 in 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.49 in 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.8.45. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.104 and 8.49 Substituting 9. 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . 9. in Fig.48. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.51. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. e. Equation 9.50 and 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. However.

In the electrical circuits: e. electrical network of Fig. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. A. zme. the driving force. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig.45 and the velocity. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. zei. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the other.37.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined.8. 9. . the electrical impedance of the external load. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. 9. Piezoelectric generating systems. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. ze\. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. Zm2.

. . ' 10. z„". Then 10.E. . S. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance.. 17. A number cal systems. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. I. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. e^' . Reciprocity Theorems A. p. the elements." 171 . 1929. 1 Ballentine. produce a current distribution z'l'. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . Vol. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. 929. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. i^' . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. Proc. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. and superposition theorems to electrical. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. 6.1.. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" .2. . No. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". e^" .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. /s" . electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book.R. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.

/" are the electromotive forces 10.1 becomes 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1.1.2 = /'/' where e' . as illustrated in the electrical 10. e" and /'. equation 10. o e . e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.

• • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces.6 velocities depicted . • distribution ^i'. C./ij2. =/a/V 10. p. equation 10.7 p Rayleigh./fl3 .4 where /^f'. /ji/2.1. 4>2" . 1926." Vol. London.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". 145. MacMillan and Co. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable./7j2'.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10.1.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. mechanical rotational system of Fig. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. and provided the applied forces /mi../ij„ are all of the same . equation 10.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. ^2'.fRi" • 4>2. 10. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. "Theory of Sound./b' and (J)'. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. . York. 10. II./m3 all of the same frequency. New .3 becomes fu'x" . as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. 1940. let a set of torques/iji'. ^ Olson. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.1. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. . and provided the applied torques /iji. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. produce a rotational velocity — . '4>^" . 10. D. . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. frequency. fB2" ." D.1. Van Nostrand Co.. . fli" are the torques and angular 10. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.

.1. equation 10. 10. .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . dv" — . equation 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.10 From neering" equations 1.13 If.1. - p 1 .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.15 v' . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.9 and 10.4 by the p and v of the other set.+ dv' ..9 and 1. .12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.11 From equations 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.—.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.12 is for a point.174 THEOREMS . 1 .8..8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. v' grad po „ = 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. 10. 10. y" . p"v' 10.

n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. E. equation 10. pressures and volume currents. let also. produce pn. . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. X2". . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . 10. 10." a second volume current distribution Xi"./". . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. pz same frequency. .19 . velocities. X^ X^. X^" Xn" Then . which there are only two pressures. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements.1. However. . .1. .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. Then — . X2. . 10. and let a second set of pressures ^i". produce a volume current distribution Xi. . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . .16 becomes . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. . . pi. . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . . . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.

in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . n Then 10. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A.. E. L. D. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. Electrical-mechanical. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. HX* E p"X D Fig.21 . then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. forces n and velocities. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. 10. — In . P"X' tn\ B M . en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . Mechanical-acoustical. C. . . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical.2^. .S.S. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. i" . . px L. .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. an interconnected e\ . F. P"X' i" L. .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. The 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. . B. let also.176 THEOREMS Equation 10.2. currents. .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system.

acoustical transducer. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.2fi. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. Electrical-Mechanical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. acoustical. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. electrical transducer. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. Electrical-Mechanical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. e'i" = e"i' 10. as shown in Fig. 2D. is H. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.23 states that a if. field. mechanical. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.2C. mechanical. G. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. Theorem.23 . 10. me- chanical. 10.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. e"i' 10.

24 Thevenin's Theorems A. 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. as shown in Fig. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.178 I. D. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. = p"X' 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.2£. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB.3.

mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. current. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. force. . Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces.4. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. velocities. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. Each source. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. mechanical rectilineal. forces. velocity. save the one being considered. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately.

mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. by acoustical capacitances. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. However. muffler is quite effective. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. 11. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. However.1. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. An exhaust back pressure. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . principles relating to electrical. Introduction The fundamental lineal. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Convert the answer into the original system. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book.2.

It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. in the audible frequency range. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. The system of Fig. 11. Therefore. with rft.1.However. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.1. 11. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. circuit will be used instead of network. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. When there is only one path. 11. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe.M and Ca for an acoustical system.u. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. . In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. in Fig.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.

11. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.182 APPLICATIONS In general.3. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. 11. sate for approximations. . changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.3.2.

impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. . Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . electrical dynamic loud speal<er. nii and r. 11. The mechanical driving from equation 8. force can be determined /m 11. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig.3. in mechanical Jm = driving force. radiator tube.3. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.4. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. zem.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. and .1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. 11. the mass of the cone. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. teg..w2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. 11.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11." I"*. In the mechanical circuit: m\. 11. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. rMi and Ci.3. in dynes. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.7. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.1.

is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. in mechanical ohms. The simple vibration fly- damper. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. Van Nostrand Co.4. New York. 1940. telephone receivers. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. etc. In the mechanical network: A.4.YWHEEL I. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. F. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . These systems include microphones. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. 11. measuring cal systems.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.5. m. loud speakers. shown ^ in Fig.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs." D. the moment Cg. is The sound power output. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. in centimeters per second. FX. phonograph pickups. 11. 11. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. . given by 11. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. comphance of the damper. of inertia of the flywheel. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations.. and the shaft. velocity of the cone. Olson.

/ is due to the . the mass of the machine. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.SA. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Jm.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. B. isolator. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.SA. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. 11. z.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. ciple of the device. zmf. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. W. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. A. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. /jf. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. W. the mass of the machine. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure.vF.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? .5. The driving force/i. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Cm /4 and 4rM . In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. The shunt mechanical vibration.

the mass of the case. isolating mechanical network.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. 11.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.6. Jm. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. the compliance and mechanical mi. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. mi.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. 11.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. these values springs.7. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. shown in Fig. pressor. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. . In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.6. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. consists of the following elements: nii. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. only isolation in the system of Fig. 11.

the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. zmf. . The mechanical network of Fig. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. 11. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Cm2 and ^1-/2. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Of course. the mass of the case. 11. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.v/i/4. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor.8. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the system in Fig. 11.7. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. 187 Cmi and rui. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic.

u 11. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. m-i. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. etc. 11.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. wheel and axle. tmi. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- .v/3. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.7. m2. the combined driving force at the four legs. engine. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. mum. This system has many degrees of freedom. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. Cms a-nd r. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. Cm2. body. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. Cm2. the mass of the instrument and carriage. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the compliance of the spring. 11. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. the mass of the frame. in general. the compliance of the spring suspension. both rectilineal and rotational.8. the mass of the tire. r.v/2. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the driving force at each tire.9. Cmi and tires.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. 11.

view. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. fn2. However. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. Cmi/4 and 4r.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small.i/a. m^. springs and shock absorbers. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. the compliance of the four springs. body and engine./ifi the comtires. Cms and r. mi. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the mass of the passenger. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . the mass of the passenger.8. wheels.\f 1. the mass of the four tires. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. 4:rM2. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the driving force. Cms. 11. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. . 4?ni. Since there are four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. Cji/2/4. the mass of the frame. the compliance of the springs. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. 189 m^. the combined driving force at the four tires. 4rif 2. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion.

both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. Rotational Ohm. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. An acoustical resistance. Supplementary Note: Electrical. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. pitching or swaying motion. Most of the forces. For example. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. Mechanical Ohm. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. an automobile has several modes of vibration. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. developed at the tires. that is. As already indicated.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. — — —A — . mechanical rotational resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. Electrical abohm. 11. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies.6. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. An electrical resistance. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rectilineal. Acoustical Ohm. which controls the oscillations.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 6 Static pressure. 6 peak. 171 acoustical. 42 one degree of freedom. 23 mechanical. 45 instantaneous. 35 effective.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 6 Sound effective. 177 reactance. 23 Theorems. 13. 13. 23 maximum. 17. 85 rotational. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. acoustical. 25 three degrees of freedom. 187 Torque. automobile. 48 two degrees of freedom. 23 mechanical-acoustical. acoustical. 37 and analogies. 172 mechanical rotational. 23. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 22. 32 Rotational. 6 14 pressure. 105 arbitrary force. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 9. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 maximum. 10. peak. electrical-mechanical. 9 resistance. 179 Thevenin's. 28 Subharmonic. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 21. 42 inductance and series coupled. reciprocity. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 10. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 9. 173 superposition. 22 mechanical rotational. 18. (see cor- effective. 23 23. 10. 6 peak. compliance. 88 Transient response. 9. 9. 6. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 107 Transients. electrical Superposition theorem. 111 electrical resistance. 88 electrical. 179 Suspension systems. 6 maximum. 9. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 21. ohm. 178 mechanical rotational. 9. 61. 6. 21. 184 Rotatomotive force. 178 electrical. 178 acoustical. 18. 6 Stiffness. 178 electrical. 11 instantaneous. 6 Transducer. 9. 22 networlcs. impedance. 122 .) 195 Table. 22. 120 Duhamel's integral. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 45 electrical. 13. 21. 41 mechanical rotational. 6. 5 Transformer. 13. 188 Systems. 6 instantaneous. 37. 171 Resonant frequency. 10. 88 mechanical rotational. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 9.

37. gain. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 7. Wave band elimination. 93. 5 maximum. 92. 163. Heaviside's Calculus. 5 filters. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 23. 148 machine isolator. 8 instantaneous. 8 maximum. magnetostriction. "X" isolator. 7. peak. 93. 144. 20. 106 Units. 8 8 "T" type network. 93. 97 93. 94 response characteristics. 23 effective. 23 Transmission. 22. 165. 147. 150. cut quartz crystal. 151. 92. high pass. 22 angular. band pass. 106 unit function. 8. 92. 146. 24 Velocity. 95 low pass. 45 Unit function.196 Transients (Cont. 101 instantaneous. 149. 7 linear. 143. 92. 21. 7 Wave. 11 effective.) INDEX Villari effect. 167 . 184 186 Young's modulus. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 11 loss. 7. peak. 106 163 Volume current. 7 Vibration.

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