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In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. in this project. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. engineer. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. E. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Engstrom. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. W. plex arrangements of multielement systems. Olson. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. Research Director. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Olson . The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. an electrical circuit. Harry January. 1943 F. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Lorene E.

.

CONTENTS Chapter I.2 3. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.1 1 1.3 3. ELEMENTS 2. ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Mechanical Rectilineal. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Rotational Compliance.1 3. Inertance 2. Electrical Resistance B.1 2.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Moment of Inertia. Inductance B. Rectilineal Compliance. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Acoustical Resistance 2. Electrical Capacitance B. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.5 Representation of Electrical. A. Rectilineal Compliance C.2 Introduction Resistance A. C.2 4 II.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Mass. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.3 Inductance. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.3 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. .2 4. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.8 67 .7 The Electrical System . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.4 Dissipation 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.1 Introduction 37 4.10 The Acoustical System 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.6 62 5.6 3. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 52 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . ELECTRICAL. 60 5..13 Electrical.7 3.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4.7 64 5.2 Two Electrical.6 4... Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..5 Chapter 3.4 5.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. 4.

16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.3 6.1 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .6 6.17 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.11 69 71 5. Mechanical Rotational. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5. WAVE FILTERS 6.CONTENTS Chapter 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..15 Electrical Resistance.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.2 6.21 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.

124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.1 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . B.2 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.5 114 120 7.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.4 Ill 7. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.1 10. C.1 9.2 9. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.2 8. THEOREMS 10. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Unpolarized Armature B. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.4 9. 1 7.5 9.5 8.X Chapter VII. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.6 VIII.4 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.

6 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .8 1 1 . Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. APPLICATIONS 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.4 11.CONTENTS Chapter E. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.7 11.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.2 11. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.

.

Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. However. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems.1. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. In other words. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. vibrating systems. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. mechanical and acoustical tems. 1 The acoustical . Expressions for the kinetic energy. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. as for example.

as for example. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. Electrical elements are resistance. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. constituent parts of a circuit.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. Elements are the meshes. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. springs and friction. Of course. ' The lished. cal. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. springs and brakes. . In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. induct- ance and capacitance. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. various assemblies of masses.

Hanle {JViss. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. Therefore. Therefore. Institute of Radio Engineers. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. mechanical and acoustical systems. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. and ratio of pressure to displacement. particularly electrical circuits. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. That is to say. Verojf a. Acous. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. every electrical. Vol. No.1 of 1942. circuit. XI. up the mechanical and electrical. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. No. 4. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. I) and Firestone {Jour. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. However. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. For example. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force.. d. all communication. Vol. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. — . SiemensKonzern. 4. Soc. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. In this book. However. Amer. In addition. in the past. ratio of force to displacement. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. Finally.

a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. a positive constant. negative. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. or which tity comprises a cycle.2. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. Definitions ^ this section. Cycle. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Periodic Quantity. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. equals 2x divided by the period T. period. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. reciprocal of the period. Harmonic. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. This called a Fourier series. a period of jy. The remainder. a constant. Basic Frequency. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. .4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. Terms not sections. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. Octave. where T. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. or zero. Frequency. all is the frequency. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. + T).

The unit is the abvolt. force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Effective Electromotive Force. Wavelength. Mechanomotive Force). —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The unit is the abvolt. The unit is the dyne. The unit the dyne. Dyne. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force).DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Wave. the dyne. . A wave is a propagated disturbance. mechanical or acoustical system. Electromotive Force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). The root unit the abvolt. Subharmonic. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. — — Abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle.

The unit is the dyne centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. the abampere. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). . —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. force. An abampere is the unit of current. The the — Instantaneous Current. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). dyne per square centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. Abampere. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). the dyne per square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter.

is Centimeter per Second. Peak Current. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Effective Angular Velocity. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. Maximum Current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. is Radian per Second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. the abampere. complete cycle at the point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. per second. is velocity in that interval. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Effective Velocity. current. Peak Velocity. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. unit is the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. The unit is the abampere. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Instantaneous Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. the centimeter per second. velocity.

the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the cubic centimeter per second. when times the frequency. The unit is the abfarad. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. Effective Volume Current.-W is impedance. times the frequency. To avoid ambiguity in this book. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. The unit the abohm. second. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. the cubic centimeter per second. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. Electrical Impedance. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. electrical Inductance. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. The unit the abohm. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. is Electrical Resistance. Electrical Reactance. for Peak Volume Current. which. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. is the abohm. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. . — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. The unit is the mechanical ohm.

The unit is the rotational ohm. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Compliance. page I . rotational resistance ance. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Acoustical Impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. ' See footnote S. The unit is the acoustical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Rotational Compliance. when multiplied by times the frequency. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mass. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application.

Electrical System. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. and rotational compliance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical System. inductance and electrical capacitance. . inductance and electrical capacitance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. when multiplied by times the frequency. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. mass and compliance. mass and compliance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. the fourth power. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Acoustical Reactance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia.. In the same way. Inertance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. the acoustical ohm.

The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. Transmission Loss {or Gain). For example. velocity. mechanical rectilineal. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . force. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. current. pressure or volume current. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . Either of these systems may be electrical. torque. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. mechanical or acoustical. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . For For a gain the reference power is is greater. force. voltage. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. torque or pressure is electrical. pressures or such as forces or velocities. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. The bel is the Decibel. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. — Transmission. angular velocity.

the vibrating systems. and current through the resistance. 12 . mechanical rotational and acoustical elements.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. is defined as A. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. In this procedure. in abvolts. See footnote page 8. Electrical Resistance. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. electrical.' 2. resistor. As indicated in the preceding chapter. A resistor. t 2. e. inductance and capacitance.2. in abohms.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. 2. in abamperes. 5. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. e rs^-.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. inductor and capacitor. Electrical resistance rs. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. An tinguished from the devices.1.

Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. in dynes. in dyne centimeters. Mechanical rotational energy is C. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. .3 where Jr d = = applied torque.RESISTANCE B. D. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. Equation 2.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. in radians per second. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. and velocity at the point of application of the force. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. in centi- meters per second. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is defined as r^ — = y 2. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Acoustical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. in rotational ohms.

a reaccomponent.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. 1940. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. New . in acoustical ohms. York. and frequency in cycles per second. density. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. in cubic centimeters per second. slit normal to the direction of flow.5 = viscosity coefficient. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. A tube of small diameter. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. volume current. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . 'Olson. d= / thickness of the centimeters. 1. in dynes per square centimeter.. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. in grams per cubic centimeter. slit in the direction of flow. Van Nostrand Co. 6pww 2. and U= Equation resistance current. 2.4 where p — pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. a narrow and metal. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in addition to the resistive component. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. resistance. However.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. slit normal to the direction of flow. in centimeters.86 X 10"'* for air." D. in = width of the meters.

= di Ldt ^ 2. and rate of change of current. It decreases when the current decreases. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. mass increases. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. It It when is the angular velocity decreases.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. given by dd . Inductance. which opposes a change of velocity. MASS. INERTANCE 2. Moment of Inertia. and driving force. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. Moment gram (centimeter)^. is Inductance L. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. Inertance A. in when the angular velocity a constant. 2. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Moment of Inertia. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. B. in abhenries. that during angular acceleration. is defined as 2. in dynes. Mass.INDUCTANCE. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. Equation 2.3. in abvolts. in grams. that during linear when the velocity decreases. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. Mass. MOMENT OF INERTIA. in abamperes per second. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. It remains constant ance. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. in centimeters per second per second. Equation C.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. 15 Inductance. is remains a constant of inertia /.

inertance. 1940. in cubic centimeters per second per second. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. decreases. in grams per (centimeter)*.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. that tion. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in centimeters. volume current. in rate of change of 2." D. in dynes per square centimeter. and driving pressure. Inertance. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. New .10 m = S = mass. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. Inertance M.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. in radians per second per second.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in p = density of the meter. effective length of the tube. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. cross sectional area in square centimeters.. Equation 2. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. Van Nostrand Co. in dyne centimeters. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in grams. D. York. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. is. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in centimeters.

Electrical capacitance Cg. Electrical 17 Capacitance. in abfarads. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. and electromotive force.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. and applied force. when is spring remains immovably compressed. abvolts.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Electrical Capacitance.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.13 states that the charge on an force.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2.n Equation 2. Rectilineal Compliance. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. and stored. in centimeters. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in dynes is Equation 2. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. in abcoulombs. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed.4. Rotational Com- pliance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.14 = Jm = displacement. It is a constant. .

16 p s — = = velocity.17 s = * Olson. It is constant.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. It is constant. allowed to unwind. p = where c c^ps 2. Acoustical Capacitance. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. New York.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. . is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas.17. D. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. C. in grams per cubic centimeter.. 9. Van Nostrand Co. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2." p. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. Equation 2. Rotational compliance Cu-.^ in dynes per square centimeter. D. density. and applied torque. in radians per centimeter per dyne. and condensation. in centimeters per second. in is The terms of the condensation. 1940. in radians. Rotational Compliance. defined in equation 2. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. in dyne centimeters.

= ^ F 2. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. in cubic centimeters.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.19 and 2.17. From equations 2. electrical resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. and volume displacement. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. is 2. Representation of Electrical.18 X= volume displacement.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.X 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.5. . equal to the volume displacement. . The electrical elements.16. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.21 F= volume. Mechanical Rectilineal. and 2.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. in cubic centimeters. mechanical rectilineal.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. Equation 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.

1. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rectilineal. rE .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. Tables 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. Further. ^ The Tables 8.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. and time. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. the standard modifiers for all four systems.2.1.3. length L and time T. 1. 2. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. length.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical.1 and 2.24 sions are mass. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. The dimensions given in Table 2. self-inductance.3 uses mass M.1.1. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. ELEMENTS and time.1 page and list and 2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. inertance and time. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. . mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Table 2.

In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. mass. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. 3.1. From these definitions it is evident that friction. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined.2. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. mechanical rectilineal.1. mechanical rotational. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. namely. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rectilineal. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. 3. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational or In other words.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL.

The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Cr = T. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. velocity. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . namely. potential and heat energy. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.1. 3. kinetic. Electrical. C. Heat is a transient form of energy. In the electrical. mechanical rotational. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.

all the air particles in the opening move with the . Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3.3. in grams per (centimeter)*. cross-sectional area of the opening. by the principle of conservation of energy. in centimeters per second. The sum of the kinetic. electrical. in grams. mechanical rectilineal. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. X— X Sx = volume current. 3. It is assumed that same phase. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. and velocity of the = mass m. and current through the inductance L. in abhenries. and heat energy during an interval of time is. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in cubic centimeters per second. the inertance. in centimeters per second.2 m = X mass. mechanical rotational. equal to the system. potential. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in grams. in abamperes. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. in square centimeters. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3.4 M= m = S — m/S^. mass of air in the opening. in radians per second.3 = moment of inertia.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.

in cubic centimeters. in abcoulombs. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in abfarads.8 where X= Ca volume displacement.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and <l> angular displacement. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.. and charge on the capacitance. and X = displacement.4. in radians. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. . Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. s — stiffness of the spring. in centimeters per second. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. p = density of air. and c = velocity of sound. in centimeters. in cubic centimeters. ^ 3. in dynes per centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter. dyne. in centimeters per dyne. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. = -.

in abohms.y- 3.12 where We.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.5. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. Wr.18 . force. . +— + XX 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .: 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3..17 = = is electrical resistance. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. and acoustical systems.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. in abamperes. and current.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. mechanical rotational. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical Wm.

21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. in rotational ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. and angular velocity. and velocity. in centimeters per second.22 = acoustical resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in mechanical ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. and X= 3.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.6. in acoustical ohms.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .

32 „.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3. 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26. — -—- JO^ Cm .31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.28 and 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.24.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.

is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. .34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. the angular velocity and torque. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.jo>I — — 3. the impedance is m and Cm. and Cr.7.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the velocity and force.38 3. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.7^ Ca 3.

43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. . KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. mechanical rectilineal.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.42 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.Ce r^ 3.8. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.

principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. namely.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.24.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.49 „ .1.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3.

55 is the same as equation 3.51 is the same as equation 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. 3.26. . The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. Equation 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.28.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.

Equation 3. mechanical rectilineal. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. mechanical rotational. .43 to 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. Equations 3. 3. and acoustical systems. inclusively.59.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.30.59 is the same as equation 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.

Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. 4. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. mechanical rectilineal.1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. velocity. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .1.2. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. MECHANICAL Electrical. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. 4.

in grams. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. in radians per second. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.4 M = inertance. in centimeters per second. in abamperes.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. and = h = current. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in cubic centimeters per second. . in abhenries.3. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.2 where x^ m = = mass.1 93 L = inductance. and velocity of the mass m. in branch 3. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4.

in abfarads. in abcoulombs. and charge on the electrical capacitance. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. and — current. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.DISSIPATION 4. 4. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in centimeters. and <i>2 angular displacement. and displacement. in radians per dyne per centimeter. . per dyne.4. in abamperes. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in radians. in qz ohms.5. and X2 = volume displacement.

and velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. current. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. and angular velocity. in cubic centimeters per second. mechanical ohms.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. 2 d<t>n dcj). Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.6. in radians per second.i 4. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . and Xs = volume 4.12 = acoustical resistance. in centimeters per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.

The relation for the currents in Fig. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.25 . The linear displacement.18. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.7.13.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.14.22. e = = Lqz-[.8. 4. 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.1 is h = H Equation 4.rsqz 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. at/jf.21 4.20 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.17.19 +k 4.23. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.

torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. 4.31.30. 4. The angular displacement.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.9. at p.32 ing piston.1. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.10. p = MXa + vaXz 4.42 4.27.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.26 ^ The 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. Fig. = = /03 + rij^g 4. Jb /. in the acoustical system. . at/^j. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.29 4.26.28 Differentiating equation 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.16.15.

COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.1 to 4. 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. inertance acoustical system. mass.29 and 4.1.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. inductance. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.33. given by ^3 JM is 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. shows again that resistance. Fig. inclusive. 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.25. vm. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.1. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. and to acoustical resistance. 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. to mechanical rotational resistance.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.11. Fig. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.19.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .

44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. is given by k The = f".45 . X2 = Xi .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. Fig.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.1.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. is . 4.1. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. Fig. 4.X3 = pjccCa 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.

Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 54. . 4.12. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.1 of Chapter V. The electrical impedances z^i. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.2 are as follows: 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.2.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. 55 and 56 and Fig.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.3.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. see pages 53.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 5. 1 tional systems of Figs. 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

mechanical rectilineal.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 save that the electrical capacitance.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. Ce2. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. 4.59 4. mass.55 jwLai 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. moment of inertia and inertance L2.3 is the as that of Fig. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. ze2 = j^L2 4. I2 and M2.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.2 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .54 The acoustical impedances z^i.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.60 4. compliance. The shunt electrical.50 + jwm2 + T-p.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. 4. 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. 4. 4.— JwLmz Zb. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.

62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. 4.3.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.65 2^22^3 . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.

Cm\.4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Electrical.t 4. L.3. Cb2 .4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. 4. Ca.«i. Cei. Mechanical Rectilineal. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. 4.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . mechanical rectilineal.\. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. m2.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.67 . 4. L2.412^3 + 4. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Cri.13.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. to /i. 4. I2. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .

84 4. nA where zei = .74 4.86 4. X2. h. i^ in show that /q. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. Cai.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.78 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. Xi. 4>i.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. to 4>o.80 4.82 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.88 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. Ca2 in the acoustical system.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.83 ZA2 4. The current to. (h and 04 X2. Xi.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. the linear velocity Xq. 4.89 . 4>2. X3 rectilineal system.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. M2. ^ zjji = . the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .76 4.

ZM3 + ZMi) 4.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.92 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.93 Ha = The current ii. 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.) Ha ^_^^j .99 r^r^ .ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4. 4. 01 4.. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. 02 = + Zr^ 4. the linear velocity X2.97 The current i2.95 . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . the linear velocity Xi.90 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.98 .{ZA3jrZA.1UU ^^^ pZA. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.

J~iR X.107 .„.105 current 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the linear velocity X4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.106 . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.102 X3 4. . ^^^ 4. 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. = The equations cal.-riE .104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.

2.^ an inductance.1. characteristics. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. mechanical rotational. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. 52 . impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.1. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. 5. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. mechanical rectilineal. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.

consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . 5. branch is current flows in z^i.1. Fig.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.

Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. </>!. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. ^2. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. = = xx -\- X2 5. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .2 for the electrical system. 5. analogous to equation 5. SAA. Z/jt. respectively.1 with the same tions. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. consists of a system of gears. 5.3. respectively.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. relations existing between//. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Equation 5. </)r.1. must be in parallel.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. respectively.. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Xt Differentiating equation 5. respectively. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . With these specifications the differential of Fig. That is. shown schematically in Fig. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.4 That is. as for example. Fig. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. equations 5. 5.2. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. mechanical and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.12 relatively large 59 and 5. 5.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.17 where / = moment of inertia. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. equations 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and 5. reactance .2.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. ^^^^.

2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5. 5. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. in abfarads.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.14 and 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.18 where M= inertance. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5. 5.3. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. 5. in centimeters per dyne.20 where Cm = compliance. . The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.3 is = T^ 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.11 and 5. Fig.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. Therefore.42 = joiM 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. from equations 5.5.2.

The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. at Equa- tions 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Fig.12 to the and 5. 5.3. 5.13 and 5. 5. The mechanical the frequency.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. inversely proportional to the frequency.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. 5.12 and 5.21 show that at low frequencies . The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.20 is shown in Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.3 is 1 2fi2 5. 5.3.

in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 = ^-^ 5.3. . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.4.3. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. 5.23.6. in abfarads.14 and 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.23 where L = Ce = inductance. The shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. 5. tional. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. equations 5. in abhenries. 5.4 in series across a line. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.13 and 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance.11 and 5.

in gram (centimeter)^. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.24. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24 where m = mass. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25.12 and 5.13 and . and compliance.25 where / = moment of inertia.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and Cu = rotational compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output angular 5. in grams.

in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)" per dyne.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.14 and 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)''.11 and 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.7.13 and 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. 5.26.24 also is zero. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. Equations 5. The output volume 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. acoustical capacitance.4.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.2 and there is very little attenuation. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. 5. 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.5 parallel across a line. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. in Fig.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.

Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.J^mCM 5.5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . in abfarads. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. Cm = The output . depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. and compliance." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abhenries. in grams.28 where m = mass. 5. and electrical capacitance.27 where L = Ce = inductance.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. in centimeters per dyne.12 and 5.27. 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5.28.

29. The output volume 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. 1 - 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. 5.5 is ZR2 = . in gram (centimeter)^.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12 and 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . and acoustical capacitance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.2 and the transmission is small. Equations 5.14 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.30. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.. in radians per dyne per centimeter.13 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. 5.^MC. and = rotational compliance.13 and The output angular 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.11 and 5.3 and the transmission is again small.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. . 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

6. in abohms.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. Electrical Resistance.11 and 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.min. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical resistance.6 shows an electrical resistance. in abfarads.5. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. 5. 5. 5. 5. in shunt with a line. itance in series. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.31. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. .31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.8. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance.6. 5. in Fig. inductance.

68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in grams per (centimeter)*.2 and there is very little attenuation. in radians per dyne per centimeter.34. compliance. 5. in acoustical ohms.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. inertance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. mass.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. 5.33. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in mechanical ohms. of inertia. in grams.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.32. and rotational compliance. from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. The output and 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Therefore.12 and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore.3 and there is very little attenuation.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.11 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in rotational ohms.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. Therefore.13 and 5. inductance.6. and compliance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.6. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.7 shows an electrical resistance. in centimeters per dyne.36. in Fig.35.9. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.14 and 5. 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. from equations 5. mass.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.11 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. 5. in abfarads. 5. 5. in mechanical ohms. in grams. and electrical capacitance. The mechanical network is rectihneal.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Therefore. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. . nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. in Fig. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in abohms. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. quencies the same as that of Fig. in abhenries.12 The output and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.7. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. from equations 5.4.

37. in grams per and 5. in acoustical ohms.37 where ru Cb. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^.38. Electrical resistance. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. inertance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. = = mechanical rotational resistance. acoustical capacitance. rotational compliance. S. of inertia.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in rotational ohms. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.14 Ca = 5.7. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.

10. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. However. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. Fig.7.12 and 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. .7. Fig. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. 5. inductance.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.2 and the transmission is small.14 and 5. Fig. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.7.3 and the transmission is again small. 5. 5. output electrical impedance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5.13 and 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.7. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.11 and 5.7. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.

Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.43 where L = inductance.43 = p = 2.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.40 ZM2. 5. output acoustical impedance. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. in abhenries. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. 5.42 Zas. 5.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.11. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.41 input acoustical impedance. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. .8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.

8. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.39 and 5. 5.8. 5.8 is = jo)I 5. 5.8 is = j^m 5. in grams. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. characteristic.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.45 where / = moment of inertia.44 where tn = mass. . 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8 equations 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5.8. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. in gram (centimeters)^. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. 5. 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.

Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8 equations 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.8.46 where M= inertance. 5.48. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.41 and 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .42 and 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5. Equation 5. in abfarads. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. 5.12.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. acoustical Equations 5. The acoustical system of Fig.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.

is 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. is inversely proportional Equations 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. 5.9.47. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.l/2 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.48 where Cm — compliance. is ance relatively large to motion.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Fig. 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. frequency characteristic. 5.9. . in radians per dyne per centimeter. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.40 and 5.9 = 5. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.9 to the frequency.9 is ^R2 5.9.

5. The mechanical rectilineal. 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. 5. 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.41 and 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. dyne. . Equations 5. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.9 is 2. Equation 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.50. in square centimeters.42 and 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. compliance of the suspension system. in (centimeter)" per dyne.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. 5. analogous to an in Fig.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. 5.13.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Mechanical Rotational. and per = area of the diaphragm. The acoustical impedance of Fig.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.10.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current.

53.10. and electrical capacitance.52. in gram (centimeter)^.40 and 5. and C_if compliance.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. The mechanical system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. rectilineal.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in centimeters per dyne. . 5. 5. 5. in grams. in radians per dyne per centimeter.39 and 5.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries.53 where m = = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and = rotational compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abfarads.

and the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.55 where M= Ca = inertance. in grams per (centimeter)*.55.9 5.40 and 5. Equations 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.50.41 and 5.54. and again the transmission is small. 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.39 and 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. and acoustical capacitance.42 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.10. . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. 5. 5.11. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5.42 and 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.14.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.8. Equations 5.41 and 5. connected in with a line. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. Equations 5.

57.11 is 2/22 = :.11 is - 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.39 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical system of Fig. in abhenries. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.56.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. in centimeters per dyne. and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in grams.11. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and compliance.40 and 5.1/2 = 1 — S. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. 5. in abfarads.

15.40 and 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equation 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.41 The output angular 5. 5.41 and 5. 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.12 shows an electrical resistance.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. inductance and line. 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.58.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. in grams (centimeter)^. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. and = rotational compliance.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. 5. 5. 5.8 and the attenuation is small.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.42 == 5. Electrical Resistance.59. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.12. in radians per dyne per centimeter. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. ance of Fig. .11. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5.11 is -.9 and again the attenuation is small. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 2.11 equation 5. Equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. and acoustical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.39 and 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.40 and 5. 5. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. m = Cm = mass. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.62 .60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. compliance. in abfarads. 5.61. 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abohms. inductance. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. and capacitance. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. Electrical resistance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + .12.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in mechanical ohms.39 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.60.

and Cr = rotational compliance.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. in rotational ohms. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. from equations 5. . 5. from equations 5. 5. Fig.62. where vr / = moment of inertia. the acoustical reactance is zero. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.40 and 5. 5. from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.12. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. inertance. in grams per (centimeter)*. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. current can be obtained from equations 5. However.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. 5.41 and 5. and the transmission is small.12. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and again the transmission is small. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.10. 5. The output volume 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.39 and 5.12.4 -T-z^ 5. The output and 5.12. Therefore.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.12 is 2. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.42 and 5. Therefore. Therefore.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.12. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Fig.coC.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.63.8. 5. 5.

13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. inductance line. 5. Electrical Resistance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. and electrical capacitance. in abfarads. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.13 is ZM2 = r. 5.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.13.39 and 5. 83 Parallel. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.13 shows an electrical resistance. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.64. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in abohms.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13.65 . in abhenries. inductance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Electrical resistance.16. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5.

and Cr = rotational compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. in acoustical ohms. mass. therefore. in where tm mechanical ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. from equations 5. from equations 5. Therefore. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.40 and 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.65. the acoustical reactance is infinite. Fig.41 and 5.39 and 5.8 and the attenuation is small. and compliance. 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.9 and the attenuation is small. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Therefore. 5. from .84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in radians per dyne per centimeter. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in grams.13. Fig.13.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. The output and 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.40 and 5.66. Fig. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. from equations 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~. in (centimeter)® per dyne.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. Therefore. 5. in centimeters per dyne.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. ohms.67.

67 the attenuation ance.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. Fig. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. that of Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.42 and 5.18.13. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.17. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5. 5. 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .11. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. Referring to equation 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. 5.14 Mechanical Rotational. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.

5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. Equation 5. Electrical Rectilineal. rectilineal. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Equation 5. . 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.15. Referring to equation 5.19. 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. 5. 5.14 shows a system of made larger. Equation 5. larger. Fig.

The mechanical rectilineal. 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal. acoustical systems of Fig. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 5.41 and the output impedances. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. and r. respectively. In the same way equations 5. rui.16. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. rm.20. Equation 5.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .11.16. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational. and r^i and the input impedances.12. and Zmz. wherein zm\. 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. respectively. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. mechani- and acoustical analogies. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.21. 5. zri. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.16. 5.17.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. "Zrz.

output impedance. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. rectihneal.12. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.22. Mechanical Rectilineal. . Equation 5.18. Electrical.13 and 5. 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. 5.17.17.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. me- chanical rotational. In this case zei is the input impedance. 5.14. ze2 is rE2. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. Electrical. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.

ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. 5.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. and zei represent the electromotive force. 5. velocity and . 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.18.68 5. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. The force. ii. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. Electrical.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.18 the electromotive force. ei.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. and of turns on the secondary.

76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. 5.18. of Fig.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.77 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. The pressure.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. consists of a mass- gear train. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. The torque.18. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.18.18.79 . 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. /ri.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. The 5. /mi. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.71 = — xi 5. 5.

. pi. Xi and 2. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. . 5. The acoustical transformer of Fig.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. ^ Engineering.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss." D. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. two diaphragms. New York.41 and p2. 1940.

6. Vol. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems... Phys. Bell System Tech. No. W. Vol. 20. Rev. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. p. 6. 1922. G. 92 .1. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. mechanical rectilineal. 2. No. Jour.. 528. Stewart.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell..2. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. I. A. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. 1922. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. G.

angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. that is. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. ^ Nostrand Co. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. velocities. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. velocities. Van New York. velocities. velocities. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities.. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4." D. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. positive and when than four. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range." D. 6. velocities. velocities. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. Johnson. *' . Van Nostrand Co. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. The most important type of structure is the ladder type.. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. respectively. New York.3. Shea.

WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.6 ZR2 6. mechanical rectilineal.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.8 . RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .1 zmi zri 6.94 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. 6. mechanical rectilineal.1.1.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.2 6.4.Ca 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. Electrical.

-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. . 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. and the cutoff 6. 6.2.5. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.17 Equations 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. mechanical rotational. when coc 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. 6. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. inclusive. mechanical rectilineal.15 WC. 2A2 VMC^ . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.= From and . coc = — 2Af2 V — . when coc = .10 — — 0.17. 6. linear velocities.9 the constants of the systems. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.= -4 6. when coe 6. when oip = = = = 6. when uc = 6. when . when ccc 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

26 From the constants of the systems.27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.= 22 and .= -4 22 6.

36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. 5.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. .12.

„ when coci = .43 Let LiCei = 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .12 =0. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. — — / 1 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC.. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .46 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. = — 7= / 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. —7== VMiCai .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.51 VM2C42 = . when coci = = 6. when wci = — VLiCei . 2.lfi)^ ^ -. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .50 V/iGji 0.44 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. . UCe\ (1 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. —= Z£2 — 4. _ 4. 6. = 1 .

100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. —= 2.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . (1 . one greater than uci and Therefore.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. when . -4. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.v/2 1 6.41 .

64 CeiLi 6. 6.69 .61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. show that the systems of Fig.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.4. are 6. linear velocities.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. inclusive. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.63. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".56 to 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. mechanical rectilineal.7.

75 = I2CR2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. Electrical.74 6.76 . mechanical rectilineal.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.

.84 . or.83 —= Z^l 2.42 -4. when uci = and cca oo 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .82 . —= zei -4. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . 6. . when (1 . . when oici = and wa = =0 6. when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. —= Zr\ -4.-4.78 —= ZR2 0. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.77 —— = ZM2 0. when. M\Ca\) 4.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

2. velocity. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. . 7.2. unit force. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass. in centimeters per second. 7.5 where aE = Te/L.2. shown in Fig.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. The current is zero = 0. in grams. in dynes. rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit torque and unit pressure. The graph depicts the current.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. and driving force. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. respectively.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. 7.

10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. in gram (centimeter)^. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. in dyne centimeters. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.2.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. ohms. in radians per second.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.2. 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. in rotational = angular velocity.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). as shown in Fig.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. . = mechanical rotational resistance.12 = — - e"^') 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. 7. 1/riv/. and = torque. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.

is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.22 .16 7. as shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7. in dynes per square centimeter. = acoustical resistance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.20 where M= ta inertance.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.2. 7. in acoustical ohms.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. and p = sound pressure. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.2. 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. From is the tables of operational formulas. U = volume current. in cubic centimeters.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. in grams per (centimeter)*.

7.4. the solution of equation 7. current. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3. 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.24 JA{t) = " (1 . in abamperes.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. the solution of equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .e-^ in Fig. in abohms. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. in abfarads.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. in abvolts.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. electrical resistance series. and electromotive force.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.22 111 may be written. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. 7. electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.28 ve .23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. mechanical rectilineal resistance. shown in Fig. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. is The for / shown in Fig. velocity. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.3.y = l/rjfCv/. unit force.3. linear velocity. 7.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the current. force.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. in centimeters. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. respectively. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. From the tables of operational formulas. the solution of equation 7. in mechanical ohms. 7.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. 7 3.31 . unit torque and unit pressure. in centimeters per dyne.30 P)rM where a. in dynes.

angular velocity. 7.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. in dynes per square centimeter. in rotational ohms. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. 7. 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. acoustical resistance. mechanical rotational resistance. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in acoustical ohms.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.3. volume current. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in radians per second. as shown in Fig.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit.3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. is shown in Fig.33 where aR = IIvrCr.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. in dyne centimeters. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in cubic centimeters per second. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. and torque.3. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. . and sound pressure.

The volume current decreases for values of / limit. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. in abvolts. abamperes.4. abohms. as in Fig.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. in abohms. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 7.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = .39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . electrical resist- ance. (a + ^ Pfa . in abhenries.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. . 7. 7. 1 7.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.38 ^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. in current. electrical resistance.3. and electromotive force.5. in electrical capacitance. is shown 7.

The response sinusoid.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. unit force.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.45. The graph depicts the current. the solution of equation 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. series Response of an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.^.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. unit torque or unit pressure. 7. 7. velocity.4. respectively. .4.

in centimeters per second per second. in grams. 7. in centimeters per dyne. in centimeters per second. and driving force.47 .46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. Substituting equation 7. in dynes. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. v for x. rectilineal resistance. velocity. 1 AC. 1 A\ m = mass. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. acceleration. in centimeters. displacement.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.

It is a damped > '^in/Cu. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.4_S.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.si . 4> = angular acceleration. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. 7. in dyne centimeters. Cr = rotational compliance. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. = angular velocity. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.51 = moment of inertia. 7. and 4> Jr = driving torque.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. lAA. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in radians per second per second.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.48 The response sinusoid. in rotational ohms. in radians. = angular displacement. in radians per second. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams (centimeter). is of inertia. equation 7. 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.4.

then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. It is a damped sinusoid.56 ^PR = Jo. lAA.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. WR^ 2 1 7.4C. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. .. = '^I/Cr.45.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.

acoustical resistance. at equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. acoustical capacitance. in cubic centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. and pressure. in dynes per square centimeter. as in Fig. volume current. in grams per (centimeter)^. 7.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4. Substituting U for X.

120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. 7. Step function approximation.45. 7.5. cca^ = 4M/Ca. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.6. 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. . The value of the unit force t=o Fig.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.

The This proof. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. all being of the unit type. etc. an electromotive force ei is added.5. <?i at / = Ae. 7.u)du du 7. as shown in Fig. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.68 . The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces.5.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. «i. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. an electromotive force ^2 is added. integral.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. as in the case of the preceding sections. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. etc.. Therefore. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. a time «2 later. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. The indicial electrical admittance. tem.

70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. 7.72 . The velocity.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du 7.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . mechanical rotational rectilineal. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.69 fR{u) — AR{t .u)du du u)du 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.

.

the electrostatic.1. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. 8. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. the electromagnetic.CHAPTER 8.2.

developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. abohms. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . it is located. in abamperes.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.However. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). The force. in abvolts. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.2 where x = velocity. and current. L and Ce. in centimeters. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. The electromotive force. When there is only one path. in using analogies in actual practice. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. 8. in dynes. length of the conductor. due to motion.1 and 8. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.1 B = / = / = flux density. circuit will be used instead of network. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. field in which depicted in Fig. and Ca with vr. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. termed motional electrical impedance. in gausses.1. in centimeters per second. From equations 8.1.

4 8. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. in 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. that is. in the absence of motion. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.3.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. The dynamic direct radiator 8.1. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.3. Zen in abohms. The normal electrical impedance zek.6 The 8.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. in chanical ohms. 8. 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. in abohms. all of the conductor. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. which the mechanical There are three general types of . Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.

The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. 8. Since there is no polarizing flux. A. Assume that all the reluctance . Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. namely.2. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Unpolarized Armature Type.

in dynes. A = area of the center pole. is where / = current in the coil. then from equations 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. C = l-^nA.13 and 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in abamperes.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. in square centimeters. . centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. and a = normal spacing. in abvolts. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. n = number of turns.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. in centimeters.14 \i Ax is small compared to a.14 e = ^r 8.15 The force on the armature.

From the mechanical circuit of Fig.15 and 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. 4TrJa*/M . 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.2.21 .16. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. nC^P 8.18 Equation 8.20 — X From equations 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. 8. in mechanical ohms.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.17 for the current in 8. Substituting equation 8. mechanical ohms. in seconds. the force on the armature is Im = '. and time.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. in mechanical ohms.

and impedance of the coil. for the reproduction of sound. filing — as in Fig.3. ^ = area of center pole.2. 8. from the poles of a permanent magnet. / = current. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.22 = motional electrical impedance. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. for converting electrical variations into however. a = spacing. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.20 and 8. in centimeters. in abohms.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. in oersteds. in mechanical ohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. 8. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. B. Therefore. this system cannot be used It is. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.19. .23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in square centimeters. = number of turns. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in abohms. in abohms. vibrators and clippers.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. saws. in abamperes. in gilberts. 8. in maxwells. Zen in abohms. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8.

in 131 oit maxwells. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. frequency. in oersteds. in abamperes. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. and time. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .axsin wt n coil. 27r/.

in abvolts.^ . through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. in square centimeters. __ . spacing between the armature and pole. and area of the pole.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . the flux will now be 4>x + A.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. in centimeters. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. the flux.32 „ .28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.^1 = fl MA — A* 8..30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. due to the steady field. sidered. in maxwells. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. in gilberts. Ax -\- Ax .

38 a Zm .32 and e i = — X 8. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. 8. ~ 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8..26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. fu = MNi ~r — . in mechanical ohms.37. From equations 8.24 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.3.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. ZAfi.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in me- chanical ohms.35 8.33. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.34.35 and 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. in abohms.

in abohms.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.3. C.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. in abohms. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. Equation 8. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.38 is similar to equation 8. in abohms. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. ARMATURE MAGNET .38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. and impedance of the coil. 8.

in maxwells. in abamperes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. which the coil energizes. in square centimeters. i?2 = = coil. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . 8. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. The flux. in dynes.4. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. at the poles (Fig. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in maxwells. in oersteds. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. at each pole magnet. The . The steady magnetic field is force. and yf effective area. The sum of the forces. of the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in dynes. 8. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.

in mechanical ohms. in abvolts. and zm2 impedance of the load. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. and effective area of a pole piece. in gilberts.136 flux. of the steady field. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in square centimeters. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in merectilineal chanical ohms.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. through the armature to the right and upward. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.44 A. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. NMA —^x a^ 8.45.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. in centimeters. rectilineal impedance of the armature. .4.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. 8.

43 =-^ 8.50 and 8. .50.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. Zm\. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.

motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. 8. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. Therefore. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. This driving system is used for loud speakers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. galvanometers.4. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. system of Fig.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.

in statcoulombs.59 and 8. in dynes. The useful force. is The current.60 From equations 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. in statvolts.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. = CeCq 8. on the condenser is q considered. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. in statfarads. ^o^max sin wt .62 . generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.57 numerator of equation 8. the fourth term will be negligible. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. The force. in statamperes. motive Cq is large . ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in dynes. and capacity per unit area. in statfarads.

. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. Ax) 8.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. 47r(a — 8.61.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . ohms. 4ir(<2 + . in Zm2 mechanical ohms. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. . in stat- amperes.5.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. in mechanical ohms. the generated current.69 .(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.66 in 8.

Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. statohms.68. adding a large stiffness.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.69 and 8. at the same time.58 and 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. electrical network in Fig. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. electrical impedance of the condenser.5. 8. + . in statohms. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.5.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. 8. 8.

Consider the system shown in Fig. 8. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m . The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.6.

in gausses. 8. in abamperes. coil.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. current. and area of the rod.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. and time. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.74 and ehminating the steady force. in square centimeters.73 Combining equations and 8. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in centimeters. in current in the abamperes.X JR 8. The electromotive force. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in square centimeters.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. due to is the Villari effect. turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. induced in the winding. induction is of the nickel rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in cycles per second. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. in abvolts. in seconds. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . . CO/ 8. e = MJ^ dt 8. frequency.

82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.78 From equation 8. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms. in square centimeters. in abvolts. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical to one . in mechanical ohms. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.6. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. and Young's modulus. in centimeters.

in abohms. as shown by equation 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod." D. 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. 1942. in abohms — equation 8.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. .84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. 8. 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.83 From equations 8. New York.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.79. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. 8. is assumed to be a In general. The mass mi in Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. Van Nos- trand Co.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.84. 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.6).82 and 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.6.86 Mason. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. in mechanical ohms.. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. = motional impedance. total in abohms.

in square centimeters. and Young's modulus.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.7. and cross section of the rod. length of the rod.80. in Fig. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in centimeters. in square centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. in centimeters. 8. length of the rod. is where p The compliance Cmi. 8.

pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. is The deformation per unit length. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. due to a force. air load and support resistance. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance.7.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.7C A and B given in Fig.8.7.84. A= E = area.8. 8. in dynes. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. 8. . Young's modulus. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. EA and 8. that is. 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.88 where Jm = total force. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. in square centimeters. X = 4^. 8.

B = A= From and area.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.. in square centimeters.6.89 K = magnetostriction constant. flux density.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.88 and 8. c„ . the data of Fig. 8.8 and Young's modulus. equations 8. . 8.

equations 8.4 force.93 . E = Young's modulus. in square centimeters. in dynes. X to 10~* for quartz.92 X From = 8. and A = cross-sectional area. and The displacement. q is 149 = KJu 8. due to the application of a force. 6. in centimeters. in centimeters.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. in dynes.91 and 8. 4 = length of the crystal. due an applied force.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. is . in statcoulombs.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.

mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. in square = length of the crystal. / centimeters. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.9. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in centimeters. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. zmi and z. in statohms. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.101 From equations 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.97. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.100 and 8.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. 8. and E = Young's modulus. . in mechanical ohms. 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.3.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. 9. 9.1. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. namely. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.

9. force. through the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in centimeters per second. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.6 ze = = = = = total flux. in abohms. area of the pole. in centimeters. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole.2. . in centimeters per second. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. spacing between the armature and pole. 9. is The velocity of the armature. 9.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. and + ZE2. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in gilberts. due to the steady field. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. in centimeters.2. in maxwells. in abohms. and impedance of the external load. coil. and velocity of the armature. in square centimeters. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9.

ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.3. Balanced Armature Generating System. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature. 9. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. r~ .

The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in gilberts.9 and 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. of the magnet. as depicted 9. in maxwells. in statamperes. in centimeters per second.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in oersteds. in centimeters.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. The current. i?2 = reluctance. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 zme From equations 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. M.3. in abohms. 9. is The /m Zm + 9.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. a = spacing between armature and pole. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. velocity of the armature.4.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. 9.3. in A . in abohms. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. = magnetomotive force.

in statvolts. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. ^= a area of the plate. The current. in centimeters. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in square centimeters. spacing between the plates. in statamperes.stationary "plate .14 where e = electromotive force. in statohms.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. electrical and impedance of the external load.4 e is t2 9. in statfarads. 9. in statvolts. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in centimeters per second. and velocity of the X movable plate.

in statohms.18 Zme) . The vibrating system is shown in Fig. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.17 zme e From equations 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.4. in statfarads.15 and 9. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. is The velocity of the movable plate.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. in statvolts.71 of the chapter on ZME = . electrical and 9.4. is Ze2 in parallel. in centimeters. electrical impedance of the external load. in square centimeters.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. = Zm /^^ + 9. e. a spacing between plates. area of the plates.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. X in centimeters per second.

23 in 9.21 in 9. = — a CnX 9.23 Substituting equation 9. .ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.25.26 .24 and fi 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.21 Substituting equation 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.25 Comparing equations 9.E1 = -r—.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.22.19.

In the mechanical circuit: zm.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. coil. L\ and rE\. zei. Magnetostriction generating system. In the electrical circuit: e. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. from equation 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in abvolts. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zme. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. The volt- age. 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.27 . shown in Fig. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. The magnetostriction magnetic generator.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. ZEi. However.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9.5. coil.5. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. is ^tNK 9. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. 9. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif.26 and an internal impedance zei. Equation 9.5.

. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Young's modulus. and impedance of the external circuit. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. in centimeters per second. length of the rod. in abohms.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. electrical electrical wavelength. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. force. 9. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in square centimeters. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. - £ 9.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters.79 or 8. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.5.

164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. equations 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.27 and 9. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 9.32 the generated electromotive force.6. are given by equations 8. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. ohms. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.28. to be a In general.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.6. 9. in Fig. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.5. in centimeters per second.86 and 8. in mechanical ohms. . in mechanical = ohms. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.32 From abvolts.

the driving force. E= 4 = Young's modulus.4 X 10~* for quartz. length of the crystal. A. 2_bi j<^Li. 9. mi and Cmi. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. 9. Li and tei. the effective Zjv/i. zei. and velocity of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the other. cross-sectional area of the crystal.7.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. generated The h = —. in centimeters. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. zei. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. where KEJ — •* 9. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. 6. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.6. in centimeters per second. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.6.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load.27 and the velocity. in statamperes. the damped electrical impedance of the coil.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. in square centimeters. + 9. 9. mass and compliance of the rod. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. In the mechanical networks: /m. = = length of the crystal. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. . zme. in centimeters. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. ZMi. In the electrical circuits: e.6 can be obtained from equation 9. in Fig.

due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9.7. 9. z^'i zei. From equations 9. in statohms. in statvolts. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. 2_b2. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in statfarads. Ce\. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. electrical and impedance of the external load.34 force e. circuit: e. crystal. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. In the Piezoelectric generating system. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. in statamperes. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. electrical and 9.

The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 4 = length of the crystal. length of the crystal. in centimeters. in square centimeters. the crystal. E = Young's modulus. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in statfarads.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in statohms.41 . and „ „„ 9. and E= Young's modulus.97 or 8. 9. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in centimeters. A = area of the electrode.7. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.4 X 10~* for quartz. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. electrical impedance of the external load.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in centimeters.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. length of in centimeters.

The velocity at the end of crystal.7.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. is . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. zm2 in mechanical ohms. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel.36 and 9.= where i. depicted equations 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.47 . in centimeters per second. in mechanical ohms. in mechantotal ical ohms.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.45 .

= _^i^_ ZEI + 9.48.45.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. However. e.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. == -^ AwKEx 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. 9.49 Substituting 9.104 and 8.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.8. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. Equation 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. 9. in Fig.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.51. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.50 and 9.47 in 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .49 in 9.

In the electrical circuits: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the electrical impedance of the external load. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.8.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.45 and the velocity. Piezoelectric generating systems. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the other.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. electrical network of Fig. zei. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the driving force. ze\. . effective mass and compliance of the crystal. zme. 9.37. crystal. Zm2.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. 9. A.

. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . 6. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. Vol. i^' . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. .. and superposition theorems to electrical." 171 . in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . e^" .CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. p.E. 1 Ballentine. 1929. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. No.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. produce a current distribution z'l'.1. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. A number cal systems.2. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . Proc. Reciprocity Theorems A. 17. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. Then 10. z„". I.. e^' .R. the elements. /s" . S. 929. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. ' 10.

2 = /'/' where e' .1. o e .1 becomes 10.1. /" are the electromotive forces 10. equation 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. as illustrated in the electrical 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. e" and /'. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.

/m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. ^2'. C. produce a rotational velocity — .3 becomes fu'x" . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. let a set of torques/iji'. and provided the applied forces /mi. D. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities." Vol.. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". New . 10..4 where /^f'. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.1. '4>^" .1. and provided the applied torques /iji. York./m3 all of the same frequency." D. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. II./ij2. . 1926.6 velocities depicted . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. 10. =/a/V 10.1.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. London.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. . as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig./ij„ are all of the same . equation 10. frequency. 1940. 10. 4>2" . 145./fl3 . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device./b' and (J)'. fB2" . p. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. mechanical rotational system of Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig./7j2'.7 p Rayleigh. . ^ Olson. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. MacMillan and Co.1. equation 10. Van Nostrand Co. /ji/2. . fli" are the torques and angular 10.fRi" • 4>2. "Theory of Sound. • distribution ^i'.

10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.174 THEOREMS .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.—. 10.+ dv' .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.12 is for a point. .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.9 and 10. 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. p"v' 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".1. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. 10. v' grad po „ = 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. . equation 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . y" .8.11 From equations 10. - p 1 . . 1 ..10 From neering" equations 1.1.9 and 1.15 v' . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . equation 10.13 If. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.4 by the p and v of the other set..5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. dv" — . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.

. . pi. . . pz same frequency. 10. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. E. . X^ X^. . .1. . . ." a second volume current distribution Xi". .16 becomes . Then — . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. However. pressures and volume currents. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. produce pn.19 . X^" Xn" Then . which there are only two pressures. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.1. . and let a second set of pressures ^i". produce a volume current distribution Xi. . X2. 10. equation 10. let also.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . X2". . .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first./".RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. velocities. 10. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . . . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .

F.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. C. Electrical-mechanical.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. .21 . . . The 10. . P"X' i" L. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. L. px L. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. let also. . D.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. forces n and velocities. B. E.. . — In . .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. 10. . an interconnected e\ . en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.2^.2. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. P"X' tn\ B M . n Then 10. Mechanical-acoustical. i" .S. currents. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. HX* E p"X D Fig.S.

23 states that a if. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.2C. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. me- chanical.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. e"i' 10. as shown in Fig. is H.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. G.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker.23 .2fi. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. mechanical. 10. electrical transducer. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. 10. . then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. acoustical. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Electrical-Mechanical. acoustical transducer.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. 2D. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. e'i" = e"i' 10. field. Theorem. Electrical-Mechanical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. mechanical.

Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. = p"X' 10. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. D. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze .Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical.178 I. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. as shown in Fig.2£. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- .3. 10.

velocity. forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. velocities. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. forces. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. force.4. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. current. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. . mechanical rectilineal. Each source.

Convert the answer into the original system.1. by acoustical capacitances. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. However. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Introduction The fundamental lineal. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. muffler is quite effective.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. An exhaust back pressure. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . However. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. principles relating to electrical. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. 11. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.2.

In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.u. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.1. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. with rft. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. 11. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.1.However. The system of Fig. 11. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. . In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. 11. circuit will be used instead of network. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). Therefore. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. When there is only one path. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. in the audible frequency range. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe.M and Ca for an acoustical system. in Fig.

sate for approximations. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. . 11.182 APPLICATIONS In general. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.3.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.2. 11.

the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. rMi and Ci. radiator tube. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. .3. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. in dynes. in mechanical Jm = driving force. teg." I"*.7.4.3. The mechanical driving from equation 8. 11.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. 11. In the mechanical circuit: m\. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. zem.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. the mass of the cone. and . electrical dynamic loud speal<er.3. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. nii and r. 11. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. force can be determined /m 11. 11.w2.1.. 11.

SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. In the mechanical network: A.. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . m. Van Nostrand Co.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. FX. These systems include microphones. velocity of the cone. New York. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation.4. and the shaft. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. .4.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. comphance of the damper. in centimeters per second. given by 11. The simple vibration fly- damper." D. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds.YWHEEL I. 1940. telephone receivers. 11. etc. F. Olson.5. in mechanical ohms. 11. the moment Cg. 11. phonograph pickups. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is The sound power output. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. loud speakers. of inertia of the flywheel. shown ^ in Fig. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. measuring cal systems.

the mass of the machine.5. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. B. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring.6. A. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The shunt mechanical vibration. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. z. 11.SA. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. W. the mass of the machine. Jm.vF. W. ciple of the device. The driving force/i. Cm /4 and 4rM . Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm./ is due to the . isolator.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.SA. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. /jf. zmf. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? .

The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. 11. the compliance and mechanical mi. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .6.6. .r„2 BACK VIEW Fig.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. pressor.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. isolating mechanical network. 11. these values springs. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. mi. 11. 11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. only isolation in the system of Fig. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. Jm. consists of the following elements: nii. shown in Fig.7. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. the mass of the case. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.

the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. zmf. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4.v/i/4. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. 11.7. the mass of the case. 11. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. Of course. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. The mechanical network of Fig. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. 187 Cmi and rui. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2.8. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the system in Fig. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. . The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 11.

the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. m-i. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. the mass of the tire. the mass of the frame. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the compliance of the spring suspension. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. the combined driving force at the four legs. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. r. etc. body. 11.7.v/2. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. Cm2. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line.u 11. tmi. Cmi and tires. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. both rectilineal and rotational. in general. 11. Cms a-nd r. Cm2.9. the compliance of the spring. engine. 11. mum. Cif i/4 and 4rM i.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the driving force at each tire. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. m2. wheel and axle. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the mass of the instrument and carriage.8.v/3. 11. This system has many degrees of freedom.

the mass of the passenger. m^. 4:rM2. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the driving force. view. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the mass of the four tires. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. However. fn2.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Cms. mi. Cms and r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .8. 4?ni. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. wheels. body and engine. 4rif 2. Cji/2/4. the mass of the passenger. the combined driving force at the four tires. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. .\f 1. the compliance of the four springs. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/./ifi the comtires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. Cmi/4 and 4r. Since there are four tires. springs and shock absorbers. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small.i/a. 189 m^. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the mass of the frame. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. 11. the compliance of the springs. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones.

The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. developed at the tires. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. Acoustical Ohm. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical abohm. mechanical rotational resistance. pitching or swaying motion.6. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. an automobile has several modes of vibration. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. Rotational Ohm. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. that is. — — —A — . For example. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Supplementary Note: Electrical. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. Mechanical Ohm. An electrical resistance. Most of the forces. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. 11. As already indicated. which controls the oscillations. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. An acoustical resistance.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

6 Static pressure. 6 peak. 171 Resonant frequency. 10. 88 electrical. 6 maximum. compliance. 9. 88 Transient response. ohm. 42 inductance and series coupled. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 9. 6 maximum. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 32 Rotational. 23 23. 178 mechanical rotational. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 6 peak. 171 acoustical. acoustical. 184 Rotatomotive force. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 5 Transformer. 178 electrical. 61. 37 and analogies. 6. 10. impedance. 9. reciprocity. 107 Transients. 178 acoustical. 85 rotational. 9. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 21. 9. 9. 6 Transducer. 177 reactance. 23 maximum. 13. 6 14 pressure. acoustical.) 195 Table. 9. 22 mechanical rotational. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 179 Thevenin's. 10. 23 Theorems. 6 instantaneous. 6 Stiffness. 18. 178 electrical. 172 mechanical rotational. 111 electrical resistance. 17. 6. 21. 25 three degrees of freedom. 35 effective. automobile. 10. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 21. 18. 188 Systems. 41 mechanical rotational. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 13. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 22. 22 networlcs. 9. 173 superposition. 122 . 6. peak. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 120 Duhamel's integral. 187 Torque. 22. 48 two degrees of freedom. electrical Superposition theorem. 105 arbitrary force. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 45 electrical. 88 mechanical rotational. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 23 mechanical. 13. 28 Subharmonic. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 21. electrical-mechanical.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 37. 23. 179 Suspension systems. (see cor- effective. 11 instantaneous. 9 resistance. 42 one degree of freedom. 45 instantaneous. 6 Sound effective. 13.

146. 144. 37. 163. peak. 101 instantaneous. 8 8 "T" type network. band pass. 165. 106 unit function. 22. 8 maximum. 92. 151. 7. 5 maximum. 167 . 92. 97 93. 7 Wave. 148 machine isolator. gain. 149. 8 instantaneous. 184 186 Young's modulus. magnetostriction. 92. 7 linear. 24 Velocity. 93. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 94 response characteristics. 23 Transmission. 147. 143. 45 Unit function. 22 angular.196 Transients (Cont. Heaviside's Calculus. 95 low pass. 106 Units. 7. 7 Vibration. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 23.) INDEX Villari effect. "X" isolator. 11 loss. 92. 11 effective. cut quartz crystal. 93. 23 effective. 7. 21. 93. 5 filters. peak. 20. 8. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 106 163 Volume current. high pass. 150. Wave band elimination.

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