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In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. Engstrom. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. plex arrangements of multielement systems.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Olson . the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. 1943 F. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Lorene E. Harry January. Olson. an electrical circuit. Research Director. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. in this project. W. E. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. engineer.

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A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.1 3. Mass.2 Introduction Resistance A. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.5 Representation of Electrical. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.2 4 II. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Electrical Capacitance B.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inertance 2. Inductance B.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .1 1 1. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.3 Inductance. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.3 3. Electrical Resistance B. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Acoustical Capacitance A. Mechanical Rectilineal. Acoustical Resistance 2. C.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Acoustical Capacitance 2. ELEMENTS 2. Moment of Inertia. ELECTRICAL.2 3.1 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Rectilineal Compliance C.

7 64 5.8 67 . MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4.5 Chapter 3.4 Dissipation 4.1 Introduction 37 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal...4 5.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.13 Electrical.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.2 Two Electrical. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.6 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .6 4. ELECTRICAL.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 4.3 5.1 Introduction 52 5. 60 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.7 The Electrical System .7 3. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.10 The Acoustical System 4.6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series... .

and Acoustical Analogies 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5..2 6.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.11 69 71 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 6.20 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .1 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.21 5.10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6.15 Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.

6 VIII.4 Ill 7.2 7.5 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . B. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.1 10. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.5 9. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 9. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. Unpolarized Armature B.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.2 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.4 8.4 9.X Chapter VII.1 8. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.2 8.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. THEOREMS 10.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.5 114 120 7. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. C. 1 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.

APPLICATIONS 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.2 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.5 184 185 11.8 1 1 .3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.CONTENTS Chapter E.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.7 11.6 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.4 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.

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mechanical and acoustical tems.1. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. Expressions for the kinetic energy. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. vibrating systems. as for example. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. However. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. In other words.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. 1 The acoustical . The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena.

Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. . In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. Of course. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. constituent parts of a circuit.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. induct- ance and capacitance. Electrical elements are resistance. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. various assemblies of masses. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. cal. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. as for example. ' The lished. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. springs and brakes. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. springs and friction. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. Elements are the meshes. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy.

— . circuit. every electrical. 4. Therefore. Institute of Radio Engineers. up the mechanical and electrical. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. However. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. SiemensKonzern. and ratio of pressure to displacement. Hanle {JViss. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. However. 4. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. In this book. In addition. in the past. all communication. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Vol. That is to say. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Amer. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity.. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force.1 of 1942. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. No. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. No. ratio of force to displacement. Therefore. Verojf a. Soc. Vol. I) and Firestone {Jour. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. For example. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. particularly electrical circuits. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. Finally. XI. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. d. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. mechanical and acoustical systems. Acous.

negative. Basic Frequency. a period of jy. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. + T). Octave. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. or which tity comprises a cycle. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. The remainder. Definitions ^ this section. Harmonic. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. . — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. a positive constant. period. a constant. equals 2x divided by the period T. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. reciprocal of the period. all is the frequency.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. Frequency. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. where T. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. Cycle. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. or zero. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. Periodic Quantity. This called a Fourier series. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. Terms not sections.2.

Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). stantaneous force at a point the dyne. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. The unit is the abvolt. mechanical or acoustical system. Subharmonic. Effective Electromotive Force. Wave. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). A wave is a propagated disturbance. The root unit the abvolt. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Electromotive Force. Mechanomotive Force). Wavelength. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). The unit is the dyne. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. — — Abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. . The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The unit the dyne. Dyne.

The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The the — Instantaneous Current. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. . the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. the abampere. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). force.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The unit is the dyne centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. An abampere is the unit of current. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. dyne per square centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. Abampere. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. Effective the total instantaneous torque. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle.

The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. The unit is the centimeter per second. Maximum Current. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Peak Current. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the abampere. is Radian per Second. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Effective Velocity. complete cycle at the point. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum Velocity. the abampere. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. velocity. is velocity in that interval.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Cubic Centimeter per Second. unit is the radian per second. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Instantaneous Velocity. the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter per second. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. is Centimeter per Second. current. The unit is the abampere. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. per second. Peak Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second.

—Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second.-W is impedance. times the frequency. when times the frequency. where both systems are considered concurrently. which. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. electrical Inductance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. the cubic centimeter per second. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. The unit the abohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. The unit is the abfarad. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second. for Peak Volume Current. Effective Volume Current. . gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. The unit the abohm. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. is Electrical Resistance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. Electrical Reactance. second. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is the abohm. Electrical Impedance.

Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the mechanical ohm. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mass. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. Acoustical Impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. rotational resistance ance. ' See footnote S. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. unit is the rotational ohm. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. — Compliance The unit is the gram. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. page I . The unit is the rotational ohm.

mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. when multiplied by times the frequency. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. moment of inertia. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Electrical System. .. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. Acoustical Reactance. Acoustical System. the fourth power. mass and compliance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. In the same way. The unit is the acoustical ohm. inductance and electrical capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. mass and compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. and rotational compliance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. the acoustical ohm. by "l-w times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational System. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Inertance.

The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . torque or pressure is electrical. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . — Transmission. velocity. Transmission Loss {or Gain).DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. voltage. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. mechanical rectilineal. current. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. pressures or such as forces or velocities. pressure or volume current. force. force. angular velocity. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. Either of these systems may be electrical. For example. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. torque. mechanical or acoustical. The bel is the Decibel. For For a gain the reference power is is greater.

t 2. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. In this procedure.1.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. in abamperes.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. inductor and capacitor. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. electrical. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. 5. Electrical Resistance. 2. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. As indicated in the preceding chapter. resistor. e. the vibrating systems.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. Electrical resistance rs. in abohms. A resistor. See footnote page 8. 12 . in abvolts. inductance and capacitance. and current through the resistance. e rs^-. An tinguished from the devices. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. is defined as A.2.' 2. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal.

Mechanical Rotational Resistance. Acoustical Resistance. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Equation 2. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. and velocity at the point of application of the force. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. . Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. in rotational ohms. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. in centi- meters per second.RESISTANCE B. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in dynes.3 where Jr d = = applied torque.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. D. Mechanical rotational energy is C. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. in dyne centimeters. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in radians per second. is defined as r^ — = y 2. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^.

1. in addition to the resistive component. a narrow and metal. 6pww 2.4 where p — pressure.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. However. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. in cubic centimeters per second. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. slit in the direction of flow. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in acoustical ohms. A tube of small diameter. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions." D.86 X 10"'* for air. and U= Equation resistance current. slit normal to the direction of flow. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. resistance. 2. volume current. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. New . in dynes per square centimeter. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. York. and frequency in cycles per second. in grams per cubic centimeter. 'Olson. in = width of the meters. in centimeters. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. a reaccomponent.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. 1940. d= / thickness of the centimeters.. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit.5 = viscosity coefficient. Van Nostrand Co. density. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. slit normal to the direction of flow.

— Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. in grams. in abhenries. = di Ldt ^ 2.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. MOMENT OF INERTIA. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. mass increases. Inertance A.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. that during angular acceleration. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is.3. Moment gram (centimeter)^. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in abamperes per second. Mass. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. It remains constant ance. Equation 2. is defined as 2. that during linear when the velocity decreases. and driving force. is remains a constant of inertia /.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Mass. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. which opposes a change of velocity. is Inductance L. Equation C. INERTANCE 2.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. Moment of Inertia. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Moment of Inertia. 2. in abvolts. It decreases when the current decreases.INDUCTANCE. in when the angular velocity a constant. MASS. B. 15 Inductance. in centimeters per second per second. given by dd . and rate of change of current. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. in dynes. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. Inductance. It It when is the angular velocity decreases.

is defined as p = where M—dt 2. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. 1940. in radians per second per second. New . in cubic centimeters per second per second. Equation 2. in centimeters. cross sectional area in square centimeters. D. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. effective length of the tube. volume current. in dyne centimeters. that tion. in dynes per square centimeter.. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in grams per (centimeter)*. inertance. is. Van Nostrand Co.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. decreases." D. in centimeters. Inertance. in grams. = length plus end correc- and in the tube.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.10 m = S = mass. in p = density of the meter. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. Inertance M. and driving pressure. in rate of change of 2. York.

when is spring remains immovably compressed.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Electrical capacitance Cg. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. in abcoulombs. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. in centimeters. Electrical 17 Capacitance. . Rectilineal Compliance. in dynes is Equation 2. in abfarads. electrical capacitance is Equation 2.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. It is a constant. and stored. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand.n Equation 2. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. and electromotive force. abvolts. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Rotational Com- pliance.14 = Jm = displacement.4. Rectilineal Compliance.13 states that the charge on an force. and applied force. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Electrical Capacitance.

cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. It is constant. and applied torque. D. in grams per cubic centimeter. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. in centimeters per second. Equation 2. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.16 p s — = = velocity.. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. Rotational compliance Cu-. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure.^ in dynes per square centimeter. Van Nostrand Co." p. in is The terms of the condensation. allowed to unwind. It is constant. D.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. in dyne centimeters. defined in equation 2. Acoustical Capacitance. density. New York. . and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. 9.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. p = where c c^ps 2. 1940. in radians per centimeter per dyne. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. and condensation. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas.17 s = * Olson. in radians. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.17. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. Rotational Compliance. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. C.

Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. electrical resistance. in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. mechanical rectilineal. and 2.X 2.18 X= volume displacement.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.17. 2.19 and 2. Equation 2.16. The electrical elements. From equations 2. 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.5. . From equations 2. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.21 F= volume. and volume displacement. equal to the volume displacement. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. . Representation of Electrical. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. in cubic centimeters. is 2. = ^ F 2.

20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. mechanical rectilineal. rE . is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel.1. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. ^ The Tables 8.1. Further.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. the standard modifiers for all four systems. Table 2.1 page and list and 2. .3. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.24 sions are mass. length L and time T. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. inertance and time.1. 1. ELEMENTS and time.2.1.1 and 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. length.3 uses mass M. 2. Tables 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. and time. self-inductance. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. The dimensions given in Table 2. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. mass. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L.1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. mechanical rotational or In other words. mechanical rotational. namely. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance.1. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. 3. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. From these definitions it is evident that friction. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . establish and solve the differential equations for electrical.

In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. mechanical rectilineal. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. Heat is a transient form of energy.1. C. 3. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Electrical.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. potential and heat energy. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. In the electrical. Cr = T. mechanical rotational. namely. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. kinetic. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. mechanical rectilineal.

potential. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in cubic centimeters per second.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. and velocity of the = mass m. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in grams. the inertance.2 m = X mass.3. cross-sectional area of the opening. in centimeters per second. in grams. and current through the inductance L. The sum of the kinetic. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. 3. in abamperes. in grams per (centimeter)*. in abhenries. X— X Sx = volume current. mechanical rectilineal.4 M= m = S — m/S^. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. mechanical rotational. electrical. in radians per second. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. by the principle of conservation of energy. It is assumed that same phase.3 = moment of inertia. equal to the system. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. and heat energy during an interval of time is. mass of air in the opening.

in centimeters. in radians.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. and <l> angular displacement. in dynes per centimeter.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in abcoulombs. in grams per cubic centimeter. s — stiffness of the spring. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in abfarads. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. = -. and X = displacement. . in centimeters per second. in cubic centimeters. ^ 3. in centimeters per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. and c = velocity of sound. and charge on the capacitance. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3..4. in cubic centimeters. p = density of air. dyne.

mechanical rotational. and acoustical systems.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . . Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.17 = = is electrical resistance.12 where We. and current. force.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. +— + XX 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. mechanical Wm.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.: 3. Wr. in abamperes.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.5.. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.18 .y- 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. in abohms. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.

6.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . in acoustical ohms.22 = acoustical resistance. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. and angular velocity.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. and X= 3. in mechanical ohms. and velocity. in centimeters per second. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. in radians per second. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in rotational ohms.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.

28 and 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3. 3.26.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3..31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.24.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.32 „.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.

7^ Ca 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. the angular velocity and torque.7. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.38 3. . the impedance is m and Cm.jo>I — — 3.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. the velocity and force. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. and Cr.

The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.8.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.42 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. mechanical rectilineal.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. .40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.Ce r^ 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.

1. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.1. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. 3. Equation 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. namely.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.49 „ . The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.24. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. 3.

52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. Equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.51 is the same as equation 3. 3.28.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. .58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.26. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.

43 to 3.59 is the same as equation 3. and acoustical systems.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. inclusively. mechanical rectilineal. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. 3.59. . Equations 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. mechanical rotational. Equation 3. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.30.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.1. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .2. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies.1. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4.1. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL Electrical. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. velocity.

and = h = current. in abamperes. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in branch 3.4 M = inertance. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.3. in abhenries. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in cubic centimeters per second. . Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. and velocity of the mass m. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in centimeters per second. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in grams.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^.2 where x^ m = = mass. in radians per second.1 93 L = inductance.

and <i>2 angular displacement. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in abcoulombs. in qz ohms. in abfarads. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in centimeters.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. and charge on the electrical capacitance. . in cubic centimeters. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.4.DISSIPATION 4. and displacement. per dyne. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in radians. in abamperes. and — current. 4.5.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring.

Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in acoustical ohms.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. mechanical ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. and velocity. in centimeters per second.6. in rotational ohms.i 4.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in cubic centimeters per second. and angular velocity. in radians per second.12 = acoustical resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. 2 d<t>n dcj). Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. and Xs = volume 4.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. current.

THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.23.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.18.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.20 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.22. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.17.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. e = = Lqz-[. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. at/jf. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.19 +k 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.25 .7.1 is h = H Equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. 4.rsqz 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. The linear displacement.8.21 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.14. 4.13.

26. at/^j. The angular displacement. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.30. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. Jb /.42 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.32 ing piston. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. Fig.31.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.9.16.15.1. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. 4.10. in the acoustical system. p = MXa + vaXz 4.26 ^ The 4.27. = = /03 + rij^g 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.28 Differentiating equation 4. at p.29 4. 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. .

vm.1.33. given by ^3 JM is 4. and to acoustical resistance.19. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.1. 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.1 to 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. mass.11. to mechanical rotational resistance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. shows again that resistance. inclusive.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. Fig.29 and 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.25.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. inertance acoustical system. 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. Fig. inductance.

39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.X3 = pjccCa 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .1.. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. 4. is .45 . 4. 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. X2 = Xi .43 volume current Xi at given by X.1. 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. Fig. is given by k The = f". Fig.

see pages 53. 4.3. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.12. 4.1 of Chapter V. 4. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The electrical impedances z^i.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.2. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. 5. 1 tional systems of Figs. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. . 54.2 are as follows: 4. 55 and 56 and Fig.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.

Cm2i Cr2 inductance.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. compliance.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.55 jwLai 4. 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance. moment of inertia and inertance L2. 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.3 is the as that of Fig. mechanical rectilineal.— JwLmz Zb. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.60 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. mass. 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.59 4. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. Ce2.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. I2 and M2.2 4. 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .57 The system shunt in Fig. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. The shunt electrical.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.

The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.3.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.65 2^22^3 . An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. 4.

it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. I2. m2. Cb2 . Cei.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. 4.67 .48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .3.t 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . 4. 4.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. 4.412^3 + 4.«i.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. to /i. Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.\. Mechanical Rectilineal. Cm\.13.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. L2. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cri. L.4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Ca.

SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. 4>2. M2.88 4.78 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. Cai. nA where zei = .82 4. X3 rectilineal system.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.89 . The current to.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. the linear velocity Xq.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.84 4.76 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. i^ in show that /q.86 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.74 4. 4>i. Xi. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. 4. h. 4. X2.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. to 4>o.83 ZA2 4.80 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. (h and 04 X2. Xi. ^ zjji = .79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.

+ ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.{ZA3jrZA.90 4. 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. the linear velocity Xi.99 r^r^ . the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.97 The current i2.95 .98 . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . 02 = + Zr^ 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. 4.92 4. the linear velocity X2..94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. 01 4.93 Ha = The current ii. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.) Ha ^_^^j . ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.

the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.-riE . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.102 X3 4. ^^^ 4.„. = The equations cal. .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. J~iR X. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.107 . the linear velocity X4.105 current 4.106 .

electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. characteristics. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.2. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.1. 5.^ an inductance. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. mechanical rotational. 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. 52 . mechanical rectilineal. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.1.

5.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. Fig. branch is current flows in z^i.1. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.

infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. analogous to equation 5.1 with the same tions. 5. relations existing between//.3. SAA. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- .5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /.2 for the electrical system. consists of a system of gears. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. With these specifications the differential of Fig. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. 5. shown schematically in Fig. Z/jt. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. as for example. Equation 5. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. must be in parallel.4 That is.. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. respectively. That is. respectively. Fig. respectively. ^2. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. </>!. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. = = xx -\- X2 5. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Xt Differentiating equation 5. </)r. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.1. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. respectively.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

13 and 5. reactance .INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. equations 5. 5.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. mechanical and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. equations 5.2. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. ^^^^. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.12 relatively large 59 and 5. 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.

At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. in centimeters per dyne. . Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.20 where Cm = compliance. from equations 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.42 = joiM 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.14 and 5. 5. 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.2. in abfarads. Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Therefore.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.3.11 and 5. 5. 5.2. The acoustical system of Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Equations 5. 5.18 where M= inertance. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 is = T^ 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.5.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical the frequency. inversely proportional to the frequency.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.12 to the and 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. at Equa- tions 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.13 and 5.3. 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.21 show that at low frequencies . 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3 is 1 2fi2 5. Fig. 5.3. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.3.20 is shown in Fig. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.12 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.

At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. The shown in Fig. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. tional. 5.14 and 5. equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and electrical capacitance. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.11 and 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.13 and 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. 5.4.23 where L = Ce = inductance.3.6.4 in series across a line.12 = ^-^ 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. .22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abhenries. 5. in abfarads.23.

5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and Cu = rotational compliance. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.12 and 5.24 where m = mass.4. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. The output angular 5.24. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in centimeters per dyne.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.25 where / = moment of inertia. and compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.25. in gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and .

in Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne.26 where M= Ca = inertance.14 and 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.2 and there is very little attenuation. in grams per (centimeter)''. 5.13 and 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. acoustical capacitance. Equations 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.24 also is zero.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. 5.11 and 5.26. The output volume 5.7. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.12 and 5.5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. 5.4. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.5 parallel across a line. .

5. in grams.27 where L = Ce = inductance. 5.12 and 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.J^mCM 5. and compliance. in abfarads. in centimeters per dyne. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5. and electrical capacitance. in abhenries. 5. Cm = The output .28 where m = mass. 5.27. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.28. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . velocity can be obtained from equations 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.

The output volume 5.^MC. 5. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.13 and The output angular 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. Equations 5. Equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.2 and the transmission is small.13 and 5.3 and the transmission is again small. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. in grams per (centimeter)*.30. 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.12 and 5. and = rotational compliance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. in gram (centimeter)^.. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 1 - 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. .66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.5 is ZR2 = . current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.29.11 and 5.14 and 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.

5.6. 5. 5.11 and 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.8. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abohms.6. inductance. Electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. itance in series. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. and electrical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .min. Electrical Resistance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. in Fig. 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.5. in abfarads. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.31. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. 5. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. in shunt with a line.6 shows an electrical resistance.

13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. The output volume 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne.2 and there is very little attenuation. in grams. 5. from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 and 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. from equations 5. Therefore. The output and 5. Therefore. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3 and there is very little attenuation.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.12 and 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. and rotational compliance.32. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in mechanical ohms. in rotational ohms. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. in acoustical ohms. compliance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .33. mass.12 and 5. of inertia.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.34. current can be obtained from equations 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.

The mechanical network is rectihneal. in abhenries. in abohms. in Fig. 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.11 and 5. 5. Therefore.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.4.6. inductance. and compliance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. from equations 5. in grams. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.12 The output and 5. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. 5. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. and electrical capacitance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever.35.9. in Fig. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.7. in centimeters per dyne.14 and 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. in abfarads. .13 and 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Therefore.6. mass. in mechanical ohms. 5. 5.7 shows an electrical resistance.36. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.

14 Ca = 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. The output and 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. acoustical capacitance.38. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in rotational ohms. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. Electrical resistance. inertance. rotational compliance. of inertia.37. S. 5. = = mechanical rotational resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in grams per and 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.37 where ru Cb.7.

Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.7. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. Fig.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.10. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.3 and the transmission is again small.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. . 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances.13 and 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.14 and 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. inductance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. output electrical impedance. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. 5.7. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5. 5.11 and 5.2 and the transmission is small.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12 and 5.7. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.7. 5. However. 5.

43 = p = 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.41 input acoustical impedance. 5. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.11. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. output acoustical impedance.43 where L = inductance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. . 5. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.40 ZM2.42 Zas. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. 5. in abhenries. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.39 and 5.8 is = j^m 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5.8 equations 5.8. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. . Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.8. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in gram (centimeters)^.8 is = jo)I 5.45 where / = moment of inertia.44 where tn = mass. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. characteristic. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. in grams. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. 5. 5.

Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5.48. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.46 where M= inertance. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.8 equations 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. The acoustical system of Fig.8.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Equation 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. acoustical Equations 5. 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . in abfarads.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.42 and 5.41 and 5.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12.

5.l/2 Fig.9. 5. 5. . frequency characteristic.47. in centimeters per dyne. is 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.9.40 and 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. is ance relatively large to motion. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.48 where Cm — compliance.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 = 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. line and the mechanical rectihneal. Fig. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.9.9 to the frequency. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.9 is ^R2 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. is inversely proportional Equations 5.

76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. 5.13. in (centimeter)" per dyne. Mechanical Rotational. 5. and per = area of the diaphragm. 5.9 is 2. in square centimeters. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. acoustical capacitance tions 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. dyne. 5.9. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. analogous to an in Fig. Equation 5.9.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5. 5. . There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. The mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.50.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.41 and 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. 5. Equations 5.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.42 and 5.10.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. 5. compliance of the suspension system.

10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and = rotational compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.40 and 5. in abhenries. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and C_if compliance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in grams. The mechanical system of Fig.53 where m = = mass. .INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and electrical capacitance.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.53. in abfarads. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.52. in gram (centimeter)^.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. in centimeters per dyne.39 and 5. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. 5. rectilineal. 5.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.10.

55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. and the transmission is small. 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.9 5. Equations 5. 5. .10. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. and acoustical capacitance.8.55. 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.54. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.40 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.39 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.55 where M= Ca = inertance.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.42 and 5. connected in with a line. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.41 and 5. and again the transmission is small.50. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.14.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.

11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. and electrical capacitance.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.39 and 5. 5. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.57. in abhenries. 5. The mechanical system of Fig. in abfarads. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams.11 is 2/22 = :. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.1/2 = 1 — S.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.40 and 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.11. in centimeters per dyne.56.11 is - 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.

in grams (centimeter)^.12 shows an electrical resistance.42 == 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.15. . in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5.39 and 5. and = rotational compliance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 5. Electrical Resistance. and acoustical capacitance.59 where M= Ca = inertance. in grams per (centimeter)*.41 The output angular 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.40 and 5. 5. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. ance of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.11. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.12. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.11 is -. 5. Equation 5.59. inductance and line.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. Equations 5. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 5.11 equation 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.9 and again the attenuation is small.58.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 2.41 and 5.

40 and 5. m = Cm = mass.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. in abfarads.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + .39 and 5. compliance.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.60. in centimeters per dyne. 5.62 .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. and capacitance. 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. inductance.61. in abhenries. Electrical resistance. in mechanical ohms. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. in abohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.

in acoustical ohms. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.4 -T-z^ 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Therefore.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.63. from equations 5. . 5. inertance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.12.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.12. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. The output and 5. and the transmission is small. from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Therefore. The output volume 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. the acoustical reactance is zero.8.40 and 5. Therefore.39 and 5. Fig.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. in gram (centimeter)^.62.12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12. However. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in rotational ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. Therefore.12.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. and again the transmission is small. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.coC. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.10.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. Fig.41 and 5. from equations 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5.12 is 2.42 and 5.

inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.64. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.13 is ZM2 = r.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. Electrical Resistance.13. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.16. in abhenries. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. inductance line.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.39 and 5.13.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. in abohms. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Electrical resistance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. inductance. 83 Parallel.13 shows an electrical resistance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. and electrical capacitance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. in abfarads. 5.65 .

40 and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Fig.41 and 5. Therefore. 5. in where tm mechanical ohms.65. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in centimeters per dyne.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.13 is = jo^rAM ~. Fig.67. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. Therefore. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. in (centimeter)® per dyne. 5.13. ohms. from equations 5. therefore. the acoustical reactance is infinite.8 and the attenuation is small.13. from .39 and 5.9 and the attenuation is small.40 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. 5.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. in grams. and compliance. Therefore. 5.66. Fig. The output volume 5. mass. 5. The output and 5. from equations 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. in acoustical ohms. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.

17. 5. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5.14 Mechanical Rotational.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . the low and high frequencies is the same as However. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. Fig.13. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. that of Fig.13. 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5. 5.11.67 the attenuation ance. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. 5. Referring to equation 5. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.18.42 and 5.

greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Electrical Rectilineal.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5. 5. Referring to equation 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. .14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.19. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Equation 5. 5. 5.15. 5. Fig. rectilineal.14 shows a system of made larger.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. larger. Equation 5. Equation 5. 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.

A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. 5. acoustical systems of Fig. and r.21. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. mechanical rotational. 5. "Zrz.16. respectively. 5.17. and r^i and the input impedances. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. The mechanical rectilineal.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. and Zmz.13 the mechanical rectihneal.11.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.20. 5. rui. wherein zm\. Equation 5. respectively. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. rm.12.16. mechani- and acoustical analogies.16. 5. In the same way equations 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. zri. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig.41 and the output impedances.

5. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.17.22.17. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. rectihneal. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. Equation 5. Electrical. me- chanical rotational.12. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.18.14. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. . 5. output impedance.13 and 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. In this case zei is the input impedance. ze2 is rE2.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. Electrical. 5. 5. 5.

^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. and of turns on the secondary. 5. velocity and .TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. The force.68 5. 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. and zei represent the electromotive force. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.18 the electromotive force. ii. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. ei.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.18. Electrical. 5.

74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. /mi. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.18.79 .77 5. The torque. /ri. 5. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.71 = — xi 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18. consists of a mass- gear train. The 5. of Fig.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. The pressure. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. 5.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.

1940. Xi and 2. The acoustical transformer of Fig. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. 5. . volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. ^ Engineering. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. pi.. two diaphragms. New York.41 and p2." D. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure.

. No. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. W. Vol. No.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. p. Phys. Jour. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 1922.. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 6. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. 1922. 20. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. 6.2. 92 . Bell System Tech. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Vol. G. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure.. Stewart.. A. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Rev.1. G. 2. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. 528. I. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system.

New York. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. respectively. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities.. velocities. positive and when than four. Van New York." D.3. ^ Nostrand Co. velocities. velocities. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. that is. Johnson.. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. 6. The most important type of structure is the ladder type." D. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. *' . A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. Van Nostrand Co. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. velocities. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. Shea.

Ca 6.8 .4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.4. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.6 ZR2 6.2 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. 6.94 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . Electrical. 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.1.1.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. mechanical rectilineal.1 zmi zri 6.

2A2 VMC^ .-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. 6. when coe 6.10 — — 0. when uc = 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . and the cutoff 6. . coc = — 2Af2 V — . when ccc 6.= From and .17 Equations 6.= -4 6. when . linear velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.9 the constants of the systems.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.5.17. 6. inclusive.2. when coc = .15 WC. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.10 and show that the systems of Fig.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. 6. when coc 6. mechanical rectilineal.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when oip = = = = 6. 6. mechanical rotational. 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= -4 22 6.= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.27 .26 From the constants of the systems.

5.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12. .98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.

a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . — — / 1 6.43 Let LiCei = 6.51 VM2C42 = . = — 7= / 6. UCe\ (1 6. _ 4. „ when coci = .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.. when coci = = 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.50 V/iGji 0. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . = 1 .48 VL2CJS2 = 0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.V/2 when WC2^WiC.44 6. 6.46 6. —7== VMiCai .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. —= Z£2 — 4.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. 2.lfi)^ ^ -.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. when wci = — VLiCei .12 =0.

when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. when . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. one greater than uci and Therefore.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.41 .v/2 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. (1 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. —= 2. -4.

mechanical rectilineal.4.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.56 to 6. show that the systems of Fig.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.7. 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. linear velocities.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.69 . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".64 CeiLi 6.63. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. are 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. inclusive.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.

mechanical rectilineal.75 = I2CR2 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6. Electrical.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.74 6.76 .73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 6.

when (1 . .79 ^— = ZA2 0. .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. .42 -4. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. when. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . or.77 —— = ZM2 0. when oici = and wa = =0 6. 6. M\Ca\) 4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . when (1 .78 —= ZR2 0.84 . —= Zr\ -4.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.-4.83 —= Z^l 2.82 . —= zei -4. when uci = and cca oo 6. 6.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

in dynes.2. unit torque and unit pressure. in centimeters per second.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. respectively. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. unit force.5 where aE = Te/L. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. rectilineal resistance.8 where m = = /m — V mass. 7. in grams. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. shown in Fig. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.2.2. 7.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. .108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. The graph depicts the current. and driving force. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The current is zero = 0. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity. 7.

7. 7. and = torque. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in rotational = angular velocity. as shown in Fig.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. in gram (centimeter)^. in radians per second.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.2.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.12 = — - e"^') 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. . = mechanical rotational resistance.2. 1/riv/. ohms.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.

18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. = acoustical resistance. and p = sound pressure.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. in grams per (centimeter)*. 7. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). From is the tables of operational formulas. in dynes per square centimeter. in acoustical ohms. U = volume current.16 7. as shown in Fig. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. the solution of equation 7.2.20 where M= ta inertance.22 .16 may be written ^B{t)=-.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. 7.

From is the tables of operational formulas. 7. in abamperes.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. 7. electrical resistance.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . in abvolts. 7. and electromotive force.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. electrical resistance series. the solution of equation 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.e-^ in Fig. the solution of equation 7.24 JA{t) = " (1 .22 111 may be written. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. in abfarads. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. current.4.3.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. in abohms.28 ve .27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.2.

linear velocity. in dynes. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. respectively. velocity.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. 7 3. 7. 7. is The for / shown in Fig.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance.y = l/rjfCv/. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in centimeters. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.3.30 P)rM where a. From the tables of operational formulas. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.3. shown in Fig.31 . ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in mechanical ohms. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. in centimeters per dyne. unit torque and unit pressure. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. force. unit force. mechanical rectilineal resistance. The graph depicts the current. the solution of equation 7.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in cubic centimeters per second. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. 7. angular velocity.3. mechanical rotational resistance. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.33 where aR = IIvrCr. 7. in acoustical ohms. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in dyne centimeters. as shown in Fig. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical resistance. volume current.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. in rotational ohms.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7.3. in radians per second. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. . 7.3.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.3. is shown in Fig.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. as shown in Fig. and sound pressure.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. is shown in Fig. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. and torque. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.

114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. and electromotive force. electrical resistance. in current. in abohms. 7. (a + ^ Pfa . as in Fig.4. in abhenries.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.5. is shown 7. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. in abvolts. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.38 ^. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. in electrical capacitance.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3. . 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . 7. electrical resist- ance. abohms. 1 7. abamperes. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.45.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. velocity. unit force. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. The graph depicts the current. the solution of equation 7. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. series Response of an electrical resistance. 7. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. respectively.4. .40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. unit torque or unit pressure.^. The response sinusoid.4.

in centimeters per second.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. Substituting equation 7. in centimeters. in grams. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. 1 A\ m = mass. v for x.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. displacement. acceleration. 7.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters per second per second. rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. velocity. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7.47 . 1 AC. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. and driving force. in dynes.

Cr = rotational compliance. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.51 = moment of inertia. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in radians per second. is of inertia. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. 7. 4> = angular acceleration.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.4. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in rotational ohms. 7. = angular velocity. lAA. 7. = angular displacement. in radians per second per second.si . and 4> Jr = driving torque.4_S. equation 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig.48 The response sinusoid.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. in dyne centimeters.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. in grams (centimeter). rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in radians. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7.

If rR^ > AI/Cr.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. 7. lAA. . then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.56 ^PR = Jo.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig..53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.4C. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.45. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . 7. It is a damped sinusoid.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. = '^I/Cr. WR^ 2 1 7.

is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in acoustical ohms. acoustical capacitance. volume current. Substituting U for X.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. 7. in dynes per square centimeter.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in cubic centimeters per second.4.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)^. acoustical resistance. and pressure. at equation 7. as in Fig.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.

7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. Step function approximation.45.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.6. . 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. cca^ = 4M/Ca.5.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.

65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. etc.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. The This proof. a time «2 later. as shown in Fig. 7. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. etc.u)du du 7.68 . current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. integral.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. tem.5. The indicial electrical admittance. <?i at / = Ae.5. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. an electromotive force ^2 is added. Therefore. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later.. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . all being of the unit type. an electromotive force ei is added. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. as in the case of the preceding sections. 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. «i.

70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.u)du 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.72 .3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.69 fR{u) — AR{t . The velocity. mechanical rotational rectilineal. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.u)du du u)du 7. 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.

.

2. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . 8.1. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.CHAPTER 8. the electrostatic. the electromagnetic.

m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in abamperes. 8. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . and current.1. abohms.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. When there is only one path. termed motional electrical impedance. in dynes. L and Ce. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. From equations 8. circuit will be used instead of network. in centimeters per second. The electromotive force. length of the conductor. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. in abvolts. it is located. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. in gausses. due to motion. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.1 and 8. field in which depicted in Fig. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).2 where x = velocity.1 B = / = / = flux density. in centimeters. and Ca with vr. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. The force. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.However. in using analogies in actual practice.1.

driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.4 8. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. The normal electrical impedance zek. in the absence of motion. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.3. in 8.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Zen in abohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . 8.3. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.6 The 8.1. The dynamic direct radiator 8. in chanical ohms. that is. all of the conductor. in mechanical ohms. 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. in abohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.

2. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. Unpolarized Armature Type. A. 8. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. the unpolarized armature type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Since there is no polarizing flux. Assume that all the reluctance . Consider the system shown in Fig. namely.

13 and 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.14 e = ^r 8. then from equations 8. in dynes. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. C = l-^nA.14 \i Ax is small compared to a.15 The force on the armature.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. in square centimeters. in abamperes. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in centimeters. and a = normal spacing. n = number of turns. A = area of the center pole.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. . is where / = current in the coil. the total flux is <f>T Aa.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. in abvolts.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. in seconds.17 for the current in 8. mechanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.21 .16 e 1 X ^ 4 . From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.15 and 8. the force on the armature is Im = '.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. and time. 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.20 — X From equations 8.18 Equation 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. nC^P 8.2. Substituting equation 8.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.16. 4TrJa*/M . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.

in square centimeters. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in abohms. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. Polarized Reed Armature Type. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. in abohms. in maxwells. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. a = spacing. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. Zen in abohms. in centimeters. vibrators and clippers.22 = motional electrical impedance.2. saws. = number of turns. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. Therefore. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. for the reproduction of sound.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. and impedance of the coil.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8.3. 8. in abohms. this system cannot be used It is. in abamperes. in mechanical ohms. .19. filing — as in Fig. from the poles of a permanent magnet.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 8.20 and 8. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. B. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. for converting electrical variations into however. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. / = current. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. ^ = area of center pole. 8. in gilberts. in oersteds.

reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in 131 oit maxwells. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. in abamperes. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .axsin wt n coil. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. in oersteds. and time. frequency. 27r/.

i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. __ . generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in centimeters. sidered. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.. in maxwells.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. in gilberts. the flux will now be 4>x + A. the flux. due to the steady field.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. spacing between the armature and pole.32 „ .Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. Ax -\- Ax . in square centimeters. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. in abvolts.^ . = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. and area of the pole. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.

total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. in me- chanical ohms. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.24 and 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. ~ 8. in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.34.3. ZAfi.33.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.37.. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.35 and 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. fu = MNi ~r — .35 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. in abohms. 8.38 a Zm . assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. From equations 8.32 and e i = — X 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.

The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 8. ARMATURE MAGNET .134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms.3. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. Equation 8. in abohms.38 is similar to equation 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. C. and impedance of the coil. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. in abohms.

at the poles (Fig. i?2 = = coil. at each pole magnet. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. of the pole piece. in square centimeters. in dynes. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. 8. The sum of the forces.4. The steady magnetic field is force.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in dynes. in maxwells.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in maxwells. The flux. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. and yf effective area. which the coil energizes. in oersteds. The . 8. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in abamperes.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered.

A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. and effective area of a pole piece. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. through the armature to the right and upward. in mechanical ohms.44 A. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. of the steady field. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms.136 flux. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.45. rectilineal impedance of the armature. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in merectilineal chanical ohms. .4. in centimeters.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. NMA —^x a^ 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. in gilberts.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.

50. . and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.50 and 8. Zm\. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.43 =-^ 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.

8.4. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. This driving system is used for loud speakers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . galvanometers.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. system of Fig. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. Therefore. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.

The useful force.60 From equations 8.57 numerator of equation 8.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. on the condenser is q considered.62 . = CeCq 8. ^o^max sin wt . If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. The force. in statcoulombs. motive Cq is large . The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . in statfarads. the fourth term will be negligible. in dynes. in statfarads. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. in statamperes. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.59 and 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. in statvolts. and capacity per unit area.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. in dynes. is The current. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.

in stat- amperes. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. the generated current.66 in 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. Ax) 8.5.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. ohms. in mechanical ohms. 47r(a — 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. .65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.69 . . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.61. 4ir(<2 + . 8. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.

67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. at the same time.5.69 and 8. electrical network in Fig. 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. adding a large stiffness. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.68. in statohms. 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. + . The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.58 and 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. electrical impedance of the condenser.5.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. statohms.

The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. 8. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.6. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .

in centimeters. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . coil. in abamperes.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and area of the rod. in current in the abamperes.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. due to is the Villari effect. in square centimeters. in square centimeters. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. e = MJ^ dt 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. induced in the winding. CO/ 8. in cycles per second. is If the rod allowed to vibrate.74 and ehminating the steady force. frequency.X JR 8. induction is of the nickel rod.73 Combining equations and 8. turns in the coil. 8.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in abvolts. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and time. in seconds. current. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. this stress may be considered to be the driving force.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in gausses. The electromotive force. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. . B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.

is The induced e = —K X -— 8.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.78 From equation 8. in abvolts. length of the rod. 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.6. The mechanical to one .81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. and Young's modulus.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in square centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. in centimeters.

The mass mi in Fig. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. Van Nos- trand Co.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. New York. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. in abohms. 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. as shown by equation 8. .79. total in abohms.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.82 and 8.. 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.6).6.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. in abohms — equation 8.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.83 From equations 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.86 Mason. 8. = motional impedance. is assumed to be a In general." D. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. 1942. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.84.

length of the rod.80. in centimeters.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. in square centimeters. 8. is where p The compliance Cmi. in Fig. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . and cross section of the rod. and Young's modulus. 8.7. in square centimeters. length of the rod. in centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.

5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. 8. 8. 8. in square centimeters. 8. EA and 8. Young's modulus.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. air load and support resistance. in dynes. 8.8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. The vibrating system of Fig.7C A and B given in Fig. due to a force.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. 8. . 8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.88 where Jm = total force. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. A= E = area.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. is The deformation per unit length. X = 4^.7.7. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. that is.8.84. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.

6. 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. the data of Fig.8 and Young's modulus. flux density. in square centimeters. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.89 K = magnetostriction constant. B = A= From and area.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. equations 8. c„ .89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.88 and 8. . 8..

91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. q is 149 = KJu 8. in statcoulombs. is . equations 8. in centimeters.92 X From = 8. and A = cross-sectional area. in dynes.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. in centimeters. due to the application of a force. 6.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. 4 = length of the crystal.4 force. and The displacement.93 . due an applied force. X to 10~* for quartz. in dynes. in square centimeters. E = Young's modulus.91 and 8.

in mechanical ohms. 8. / centimeters. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.101 From equations 8. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. . in centimeters.9. in mechanical ohms. zmi and z.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in square = length of the crystal. in statohms.97.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.100 and 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. and E = Young's modulus.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. 8. 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

9. namely.3.1. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. 9. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.

2. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in abohms. is The velocity of the armature.6 ze = = = = = total flux. in centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. and velocity of the armature. in maxwells.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. coil. . fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. and + ZE2. in centimeters per second. force. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. due to the steady field.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. through the armature. in abohms.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.2. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. and impedance of the external load. in gilberts. 9. area of the pole. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 9.

ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.3. 9. r~ . Balanced Armature Generating System. flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature.

12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. in centimeters per second. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. The current. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in gilberts. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in abohms. in A . The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. is The /m Zm + 9.3. a = spacing between armature and pole. 9.11 zme From equations 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. ZE = Zei + Ze2. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. in statamperes. i?2 = reluctance. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. of the magnet. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 9. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.9 and 9.3. M. in abohms. in centimeters.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig.4. in maxwells. velocity of the armature. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. = magnetomotive force. as depicted 9. in oersteds.

in centimeters per second.stationary "plate . in statohms.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. spacing between the plates. in centimeters. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statfarads. 9. ^= a area of the plate. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in statvolts.14 where e = electromotive force. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. The current. in statamperes. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in square centimeters. electrical and impedance of the external load.4 e is t2 9.

is Ze2 in parallel. area of the plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. 9. in centimeters.4. = Zm /^^ + 9. electrical impedance of the external load. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.18 Zme) . X in centimeters per second.71 of the chapter on ZME = . a spacing between plates.15 and 9.4. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in square centimeters. in statfarads. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.17 zme e From equations 9. electrical and 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in statohms.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. e. is The velocity of the movable plate. in statvolts.

.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.E1 = -r—.24 and fi 9.23 Substituting equation 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.25 Comparing equations 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.21 in 9.19.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.21 Substituting equation 9.25.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8. = — a CnX 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.23 in 9.26 .62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.22. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.

zei. coil. from equation 8.26 and an internal impedance zei. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. However. Magnetostriction generating system.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. 9.27 . shown in Fig. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. zme.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. coil. In the mechanical circuit: zm. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. In the electrical circuit: e. is ^tNK 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil.5.5.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. ZEi. The volt- age. L\ and rE\. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. Equation 9.5. in abvolts.

and impedance of the external circuit. in square centimeters. electrical electrical wavelength. in centimeters per second.5. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. . 9. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. in centimeters. force. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. length of the rod. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.79 or 8.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Young's modulus. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in abohms. - £ 9. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil.

in centimeters per second. .87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.6. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.27 and 9.6. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in mechanical ohms. equations 9.86 and 8. ohms. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. 9. to be a In general.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.32 the generated electromotive force. in mechanical = ohms.32 From abvolts.5. in Fig. 9.28. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. are given by equations 8.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.

4 X 10~* for quartz. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. = = length of the crystal. the effective Zjv/i. 9. the driving force. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. Li and tei. mass and compliance of the rod. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. .6 can be obtained from equation 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. 2_bi j<^Li. In the electrical circuits: e.7. where KEJ — •* 9. A. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. in centimeters. zei. zme. + 9. generated The h = —.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. length of the crystal. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in centimeters per second. in Fig.6. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the other. in square centimeters. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. In the mechanical networks: /m. ZMi. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. and velocity of the crystal. cross-sectional area of the crystal. in statamperes. in centimeters. 6. 9. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. 9.27 and the velocity. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. mi and Cmi.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. E= 4 = Young's modulus. zei. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig.

z^'i zei. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. In the Piezoelectric generating system.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. in statfarads. electrical and impedance of the external load. Ce\.34 force e. 9. circuit: e. in statvolts. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.7. 2_b2. in statohms. From equations 9. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statamperes. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. electrical and 9.

9. and „ „„ 9. in square centimeters.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. 4 = length of the crystal. length of the crystal. in centimeters. the crystal. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. length of in centimeters.7. in centimeters.41 . Cmi where = ^ EA 9. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. E = Young's modulus.97 or 8. in centimeters. electrical impedance of the external load. in statohms. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.4 X 10~* for quartz. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. A = area of the electrode.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in statfarads. and E= Young's modulus.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.

in mechantotal ical ohms.7.36 and 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. depicted equations 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. in mechanical ohms. is . and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The velocity at the end of crystal.45 . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.47 . zm2 in mechanical ohms.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. in centimeters per second. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.= where i.

49 in 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.8.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.50 and 9.45.47 in 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . in Fig. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.48.104 and 8.51.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. Equation 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. However.49 Substituting 9. 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. e.

zme. Zm2. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. In the mechanical networks: Jm. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. electrical network of Fig.37. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. ze\. the electrical impedance of the external load. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Piezoelectric generating systems. 9.8 can be obtained from equation 9.8. zei. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.45 and the velocity. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. A. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. crystal. the driving force. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the electrical circuits: e. . the other.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. 9.

Then 10..E.. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". . and superposition theorems to electrical. Proc. 6. the elements.2. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. 1 Ballentine. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . Vol. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as .R. No. 929. i^' . z„". S. produce a current distribution z'l'. /s" . Reciprocity Theorems A. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. . I. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. ' 10.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . . e^" . p." 171 . A number cal systems.1. 17.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. e^' . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. 1929.

/" are the electromotive forces 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10. equation 10.1. o e .1.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10.2 = /'/' where e' . e" and /'.

^ Olson.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. fB2" . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.4 where /^f'. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . frequency. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. '4>^" . and provided the applied torques /iji.6 velocities depicted .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. • distribution ^i'. 1940. II. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering." D. fli" are the torques and angular 10. ^2'. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1.1. Van Nostrand Co. "Theory of Sound.. produce a rotational velocity — ./ij„ are all of the same . equation 10./ij2. C.7 p Rayleigh. 1926.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. and provided the applied forces /mi./fl3 .1. York. 10. New . 145.1. 4>2" . .. /ji/2. equation 10. =/a/V 10. ./b' and (J)'./m3 all of the same frequency. 10.fRi" • 4>2. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. mechanical rotational system of Fig. London. D." Vol. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. MacMillan and Co. p. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. ./7j2'.3 becomes fu'x" . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. 10. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. let a set of torques/iji'. . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia.

- p 1 . 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.. 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. . y" . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . dv" — .1.9 and 10. .—. .9 and 1.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.1.12 is for a point. v' grad po „ = 10. equation 10.+ dv' . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.10 From neering" equations 1. 1 .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .8. 10.13 If. equation 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.174 THEOREMS .11 From equations 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.4 by the p and v of the other set. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. p"v' 10..15 v' . p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.

. . let also. . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. X^ X^. velocities. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. .19 . pz same frequency. X2". which there are only two pressures.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. 10. pi. . 10. 10. . . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. E. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. and let a second set of pressures ^i". Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10.16 becomes .1. produce a volume current distribution Xi. . However.1." a second volume current distribution Xi". pressures and volume currents. . .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . . . . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. X^" Xn" Then . . Then — ./". . . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. produce pn.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . . . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. X2. . equation 10. . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .

an interconnected e\ . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. L. forces n and velocities. B. Electrical-mechanical. . currents. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . . C. D.S.2^.S.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. let also. .. P"X' i" L. HX* E p"X D Fig. F. . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. 10. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. px L. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Mechanical-acoustical. E. — In . n Then 10.21 .2. . in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . P"X' tn\ B M . .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. The 10. i" .S.

a generator of electromotive force e" produces. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. is H. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium.2fi. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. Electrical-Mechanical. me- chanical.23 . mechanical. electrical transducer. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.23 states that a if. G. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. . e'i" = e"i' 10. field. Electrical-Mechanical. 10. as shown in Fig. acoustical transducer. Theorem. acoustical. 10. mechanical. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. e"i' 10.2C. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. 2D.

lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. 10. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. D. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. = p"X' 10. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. This may be expressed as p'X" 10.24 Thevenin's Theorems A.178 I. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- .2£. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. as shown in Fig. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.3. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone.

mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. velocities. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. forces. Each source.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. force. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. forces. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical.4. save the one being considered. velocity. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. . torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. current. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.

muffler is quite effective. 11. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. However. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output.1. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. by acoustical capacitances. Introduction The fundamental lineal. Convert the answer into the original system. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. principles relating to electrical. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. However. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. An exhaust back pressure. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method.2.

in Fig. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).However. with rft.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. 11. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. 11. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. 11. The system of Fig. in the audible frequency range. . The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.u. Therefore. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.1.M and Ca for an acoustical system. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. When there is only one path. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.1. circuit will be used instead of network. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.

11. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.2.3. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. sate for approximations.3.182 APPLICATIONS In general. 11. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. . The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.

force can be determined /m 11. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.. teg.7. 11. . and . the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. in mechanical Jm = driving force. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig.3. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . the mass of the cone. radiator tube. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig." I"*.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. The mechanical driving from equation 8.w2.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. 11. rMi and Ci.1. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. in dynes. In the mechanical circuit: m\. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. nii and r.3. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. 11.4. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. zem. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. 11.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil.3.

11. measuring cal systems. telephone receivers.YWHEEL I. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. velocity of the cone.. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. shown ^ in Fig. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. is The sound power output. given by 11. the moment Cg.4. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. Van Nostrand Co. in mechanical ohms.4. FX. m. In the mechanical network: A. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. in centimeters per second." D. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . F. New York. The simple vibration fly- damper. 11. loud speakers. of inertia of the flywheel. 11. These systems include microphones. . comphance of the damper. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. phonograph pickups. etc. Olson. and the shaft.5. 1940. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system.

zmf.vF. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. z. The driving force/i.SA. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. W. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. the mass of the machine. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. W. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.6.5. Jm. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. 11. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. Cm /4 and 4rM . B. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. ciple of the device./ is due to the . A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. The shunt mechanical vibration. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. the mass of the machine. isolator. /jf. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. A. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig.SA.

mi. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.6. Jm. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. 11. isolating mechanical network. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. 11. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.7. the compliance and mechanical mi. pressor. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. the mass of the case.5^ is due to the mass of the machine.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 11. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. only isolation in the system of Fig. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.6. 11. . Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. these values springs. consists of the following elements: nii.

SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator.8. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.7. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. 11. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Of course. 187 Cmi and rui. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. 11. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating.v/i/4. the system in Fig. . 11. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the mass of the case. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The mechanical network of Fig. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. Cm2 and ^1-/2. zmf.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor.

the mass of the frame. Cmi and tires. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi.9. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot.v/2. engine.7. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M.v/3.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. etc. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the mass of the instrument and carriage. r. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. 11. wheel and axle.u 11. m2. the combined driving force at the four legs. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. 11. both rectilineal and rotational. mum. 11. This system has many degrees of freedom. the compliance of the spring suspension. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. Cms a-nd r. the compliance of the spring. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. tmi. in general.8. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Cm2. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. m-i. the driving force at each tire. Cm2. the mass of the tire. body.

Since there are four tires. the mass of the four tires. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. m^. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the mass of the passenger. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. . 4?ni. mi. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . 11. view. body and engine. However. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. Cms and r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion.8. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. Cmi/4 and 4r. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. 4rif 2. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the compliance of the four springs. 4:rM2. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. wheels. the mass of the frame.i/a.\f 1. the compliance of the springs. 189 m^. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. springs and shock absorbers./ifi the comtires. the driving force. Cji/2/4. the combined driving force at the four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. Cms. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the mass of the passenger. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. fn2.

It has been found that by the use of such damping means. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. An electrical resistance. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances.6. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. Mechanical Ohm. pitching or swaying motion. 11. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. Acoustical Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. mechanical rotational resistance. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. developed at the tires. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. For example. Most of the forces. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. Rotational Ohm. mechanical rectilineal. an automobile has several modes of vibration. As already indicated. Electrical abohm. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. An acoustical resistance. which controls the oscillations. — — —A — . that is. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. Supplementary Note: Electrical. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

23 Theorems. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 120 Duhamel's integral. 5 Transformer. 187 Torque. 23 maximum. 6 Transducer. electrical Superposition theorem. 13. 9. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 21. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 28 Subharmonic. 111 electrical resistance. 88 mechanical rectilineal. reciprocity. 10. 88 mechanical rotational. ohm. (see cor- effective. 42 inductance and series coupled. 23 mechanical. 10. 6. 23. 61. 6. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 11 instantaneous. 9. 35 effective. automobile. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 22. 17. 18. 173 superposition. 88 Transient response. 6. 41 mechanical rotational. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 6 14 pressure. 45 electrical. 32 Rotational. 172 mechanical rotational. electrical-mechanical. 178 acoustical. 179 Suspension systems. 21. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 13. 9 resistance. 178 electrical. 107 Transients. 9. 9. 6 Static pressure. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. acoustical. 184 Rotatomotive force. acoustical. 188 Systems. 6 maximum. 9. 85 rotational. 13. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 105 arbitrary force. 6 peak. 178 mechanical rotational. 178 electrical. 9. 22 networlcs. 6 peak. 6 maximum. 9. 6 Sound effective. 45 instantaneous. 21. 48 two degrees of freedom. 10. 21. 6 Stiffness. 22 mechanical rotational. impedance. 13. 10. 13. 37 and analogies. 23 23. 88 electrical. 22. 37. 18.) 195 Table. 179 Thevenin's. 6 instantaneous. peak. 9. compliance. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 171 acoustical. 25 three degrees of freedom. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 171 Resonant frequency. 42 one degree of freedom. 177 reactance. 122 .

11 loss. Heaviside's Calculus. 144. 93. 7 linear. 11 effective. 92. peak. 92. 7 Vibration. 45 Unit function. gain. 8 8 "T" type network. 7. 97 93. 20. 8 maximum. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 7. "X" isolator. high pass. 94 response characteristics. 92. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 143. 146. 92. 8 instantaneous. 165. 93. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 22. 5 maximum. 163. magnetostriction. 8. 93. 167 . 150. 7. 7 Wave. 22 angular. 21. 24 Velocity. 151. 184 186 Young's modulus. 23. cut quartz crystal. 95 low pass. 5 filters. 106 unit function. 37. 106 Units. band pass.) INDEX Villari effect. 148 machine isolator. peak. 147. 106 163 Volume current. 23 effective. Wave band elimination.196 Transients (Cont. 101 instantaneous. 23 Transmission. 149.

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