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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

1943 F. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. engineer. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Olson . As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. Olson. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Engstrom. W. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. in this project. E. plex arrangements of multielement systems. Research Director. Lorene E. Harry January.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. an electrical circuit.

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Inertance 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Electrical Resistance B. ELECTRICAL. Rectilineal Compliance C. A. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. C.1 2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 3. Moment of Inertia.CONTENTS Chapter I.3 Inductance.1 1 1. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal Compliance.3 3. ELEMENTS 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Acoustical Resistance 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.2 4 II. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Inductance B.5 Representation of Electrical.4 16 Electrical Capacitance.2 Introduction Resistance A. Mass.1 3. Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance B.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .7 The Electrical System ..5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 4.4 5.5 Chapter 3.8 67 .8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.7 64 5.4 Dissipation 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 Introduction 37 4.10 The Acoustical System 4.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.7 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .6 3.2 4.5 Equations of Motion 4. 60 5.6 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 5.1 Introduction 52 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.2 Two Electrical.6 62 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.13 Electrical.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

13 76 78 80 83 85 5.21 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5..15 Electrical Resistance.11 69 71 5. Mechanical Rotational.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .3 6.16 Electrical Resistance.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5.1 6. Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. WAVE FILTERS 6.. Mechanical Rotational.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.10 Series 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.4 6.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.

Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. Unpolarized Armature B.1 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.5 8.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.2 8.2 7. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.5 114 120 7.6 VIII.4 9.2 9.1 10.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. 1 7.1 9.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. THEOREMS 10. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. B.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 9. C.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.4 Ill 7.4 8.X Chapter VII. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.

APPLICATIONS 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.CONTENTS Chapter E.2 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.5 184 185 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.8 1 1 . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .7 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.6 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.4 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.

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the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. However. as for example. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. 1 The acoustical . the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. Expressions for the kinetic energy. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical tems.1. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. In other words. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. vibrating systems.

springs and brakes. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. cal. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. Electrical elements are resistance. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. .2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. various assemblies of masses. springs and friction. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. ' The lished. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. constituent parts of a circuit. Of course. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. Elements are the meshes. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. as for example. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. induct- ance and capacitance. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension.

Therefore. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. Institute of Radio Engineers. all communication. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. in the past. and ratio of pressure to displacement. particularly electrical circuits. Finally. No. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. Amer. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. Vol. I) and Firestone {Jour. No. SiemensKonzern. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits.. Every analogy possesses certain advantages.1 of 1942. — . 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. circuit. Hanle {JViss. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. That is to say. up the mechanical and electrical. d. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. every electrical. 4. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. In addition. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems. For example. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. ratio of force to displacement. Soc. Verojf a. 4. However. Therefore. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. Vol. XI. In this book. However. Acous.

which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. The remainder. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. Harmonic. . period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. negative. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. reciprocal of the period. a period of jy. or zero. Terms not sections. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. Octave. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. Basic Frequency. a constant. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. equals 2x divided by the period T. + T). a positive constant. Frequency. or which tity comprises a cycle.2. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. all is the frequency. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Cycle. Periodic Quantity. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. This called a Fourier series. where T. Definitions ^ this section.

is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Wave. Dyne. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Electromotive Force. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Effective Electromotive Force. The unit the dyne. mechanical or acoustical system. The unit is the abvolt. Mechanomotive Force).DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Subharmonic. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. . force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. The unit is the dyne. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Wavelength. — — Abvolt. the dyne. A wave is a propagated disturbance. The unit is the abvolt. The root unit the abvolt. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force.

the abampere. the dyne per square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Abampere. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). The the — Instantaneous Current. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. force. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. . Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. dyne per square centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The unit is the dyne centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. the dyne centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force).6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter.

Maximum Current. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. is Centimeter per Second. current. is velocity in that interval. Peak Velocity.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The unit is the centimeter per second. Maximum Velocity. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Effective Angular Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. unit is the radian per second. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Effective Velocity. per second. The unit is the abampere. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. Peak Current. the abampere. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The unit is the abampere. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. complete cycle at the point. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. is Radian per Second. velocity. the centimeter per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle.

times the frequency. where both systems are considered concurrently. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. is Electrical Resistance. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. The unit is the abfarad. the cubic centimeter per second. the cubic centimeter per second.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. Effective Volume Current. which. electrical Inductance. second. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. when times the frequency. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. The unit the abohm. is the abohm. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. Electrical Reactance. Electrical Impedance. for Peak Volume Current. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. The unit is the mechanical ohm. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. . The unit the abohm. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval.-W is impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance.

Compliance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the rotational ohm. Acoustical Impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. ' See footnote S. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). page I . The unit is the rotational ohm. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mass. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. rotational resistance ance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Rotational Compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance.

mass and compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inductance and electrical capacitance. moment of inertia. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. In the same way. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the acoustical ohm. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. Inertance. Electrical System. . moment of inertia and rotational compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical Reactance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. mass and compliance. by "l-w times the frequency.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational System. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. the acoustical ohm. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. Acoustical System. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. the fourth power. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. and rotational compliance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system.. inductance and electrical capacitance.

mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. current. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. For example. force. mechanical or acoustical. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. voltage. force. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. velocity. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. The bel is the Decibel. pressures or such as forces or velocities. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. — Transmission. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. Either of these systems may be electrical. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. pressure or volume current. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. torque or pressure is electrical. angular velocity. torque. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. Transmission Loss {or Gain). the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical.

inductor and capacitor. in abvolts. 12 . e. An tinguished from the devices. As indicated in the preceding chapter. In this procedure. the vibrating systems. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance.' 2. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements.1. e rs^-. in abamperes. resistor. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. See footnote page 8. Electrical resistance rs.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. and current through the resistance. A resistor. t 2. is defined as A. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. electrical. 5. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. inductance and capacitance. in abohms. Electrical Resistance.2. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. 2.

Mechanical rotational energy is C. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Acoustical Resistance. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. in dynes.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. and velocity at the point of application of the force. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. in rotational ohms. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is defined as r^ — = y 2. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. in centi- meters per second.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Equation 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis.RESISTANCE B. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. . 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. in dyne centimeters. D. in radians per second.

a reaccomponent. in cubic centimeters per second. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in = width of the meters.86 X 10"'* for air.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^.5 = viscosity coefficient. However. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. 2. density. in addition to the resistive component. volume current. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. New .4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. Van Nostrand Co. slit in the direction of flow. 6pww 2. 'Olson. and frequency in cycles per second." D. in dynes per square centimeter. A tube of small diameter. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. slit normal to the direction of flow. in grams per cubic centimeter. and U= Equation resistance current. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. York. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. 1940. in acoustical ohms. 1. slit normal to the direction of flow. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw .4 where p — pressure. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. resistance. a narrow and metal. in centimeters..

given by dd . is remains a constant of inertia /. in dynes. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. Inductance. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant.3. that during angular acceleration. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. Mass. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. mass increases. It decreases when the current decreases. and rate of change of current. in abhenries. in centimeters per second per second. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. in grams. Moment of Inertia.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. in abamperes per second. Moment of Inertia. It remains constant ance. in when the angular velocity a constant. which opposes a change of velocity. Mass. and driving force. Equation 2. MASS. is Inductance L. Equation C.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. that during linear when the velocity decreases. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. It It when is the angular velocity decreases.INDUCTANCE. in abvolts. Inertance A. 15 Inductance. B. Moment gram (centimeter)^. = di Ldt ^ 2. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. MOMENT OF INERTIA. 2. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. is defined as 2. INERTANCE 2.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration.

The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. effective length of the tube. Inertance M. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. inertance. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. in centimeters. Inertance. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. volume current. in dyne centimeters. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. is." D. that tion. in rate of change of 2.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in grams per (centimeter)*. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. cross sectional area in square centimeters. = length plus end correc- and in the tube.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in cubic centimeters per second per second.10 m = S = mass.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases.. in dynes per square centimeter. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in grams. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. and driving pressure. in p = density of the meter. New . D. Equation 2.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in radians per second per second. decreases. York. in centimeters. 1940. Van Nostrand Co.

n Equation 2. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Electrical capacitance Cg. and stored.14 = Jm = displacement.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. in abfarads. It is a constant. in dynes is Equation 2. in centimeters.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. Rectilineal Compliance.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2.4. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Electrical 17 Capacitance. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. and electromotive force. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. and applied force. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. . Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. Electrical Capacitance.13 states that the charge on an force. Rectilineal Compliance. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Rotational Com- pliance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Acoustical Capacitance A. abvolts. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. in abcoulombs.

is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. Van Nostrand Co. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2.16 p s — = = velocity. in radians per centimeter per dyne. allowed to unwind. 1940. . D. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed." p. defined in equation 2.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure.. p = where c c^ps 2. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. It is constant. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. and applied torque.^ in dynes per square centimeter. C. It is constant. Rotational compliance Cu-.17 s = * Olson. Rotational Compliance. Acoustical Capacitance. D. in dyne centimeters. in centimeters per second. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.17. in radians. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. New York. in grams per cubic centimeter. in is The terms of the condensation. 9. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. density. Equation 2. and condensation.

1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.5.19 and 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. Mechanical Rectilineal.17. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. The electrical elements. .21 F= volume. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. Representation of Electrical. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. 2.X 2.18 X= volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2.16. Equation 2. and 2. = ^ F 2. is 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. equal to the volume displacement. and volume displacement. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. in cubic centimeters. . 2.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. 2. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.1. rE . mechanical rectilineal. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

^ The Tables 8. and time.1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. the standard modifiers for all four systems. . length L and time T.24 sions are mass. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. self-inductance.3 uses mass M. 2.1 and 2. 1.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical.2. Table 2.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. Tables 2.1 page and list and 2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. length. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.1. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.3. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.1. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. Further. ELEMENTS and time. inertance and time. The dimensions given in Table 2.

In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. namely. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. From these definitions it is evident that friction. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. 3.1. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rectilineal. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rotational or In other words.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. 3. mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit.2. mechanical rectilineal. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rotational. mass. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical.

FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational. velocity. kinetic. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. namely. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy.1. Cr = T. In the electrical. 3. Electrical. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. C. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. potential and heat energy. mechanical rectilineal.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. Heat is a transient form of energy.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation.

in abamperes. in grams. in centimeters per second. the inertance. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in radians per second. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. electrical.3 = moment of inertia. potential. The sum of the kinetic. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in centimeters per second. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. in grams per (centimeter)*. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. equal to the system. and current through the inductance L.4 M= m = S — m/S^. mass of air in the opening. It is assumed that same phase. all the air particles in the opening move with the . Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. X— X Sx = volume current. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in square centimeters. and velocity of the = mass m. 3. in cubic centimeters per second.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. cross-sectional area of the opening. in grams. by the principle of conservation of energy. in abhenries.2 m = X mass. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. the energy delivered to the system during that interval.3.

^ 3. in abfarads. p = density of air. in cubic centimeters.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in centimeters.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. . and charge on the capacitance. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and X = displacement. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters per second.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. s — stiffness of the spring. in radians. in centimeters per dyne. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. = -.. and <l> angular displacement. and c = velocity of sound. in abcoulombs. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v.4. dyne. in dynes per centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter.

18 . may be written ^^ = dt Z/.17 = = is electrical resistance. and current. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.12 where We. in abohms. mechanical rotational..9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. Wr.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.5. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.: 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. .y- 3. mechanical Wm. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. in abamperes. and acoustical systems. +— + XX 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. force.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.

30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. in mechanical ohms.22 = acoustical resistance. in radians per second.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . and X= 3.6. and velocity. and angular velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in rotational ohms. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. in acoustical ohms.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in centimeters per second. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.

25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.32 „. 3..24.28 and 3. — -—- JO^ Cm . q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.26.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.

33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. .jo>I — — 3.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.7.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. and Cr. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.7^ Ca 3.38 3. the impedance is m and Cm. the velocity and force. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. the angular velocity and torque.

mechanical rectilineal. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.Ce r^ 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.42 3.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. .39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.8. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.

The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. namely. 3.49 „ .51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .24. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1. 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. Equation 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.1. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.

57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. Equation 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.55 is the same as equation 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.26.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.28.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.51 is the same as equation 3. .

43 to 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. Equation 3. Equations 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. and acoustical systems. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. inclusively. 3.59 is the same as equation 3.30. mechanical rotational.59. . mechanical rectilineal.

mechanical rectilineal. 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. 4. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.1. MECHANICAL Electrical.2. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. velocity. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig.

38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. .4 M = inertance. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in grams. and velocity of the mass m. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. and = h = current. in centimeters per second.3. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in cubic centimeters per second. in abamperes.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in radians per second. in branch 3. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4.2 where x^ m = = mass. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in abhenries.1 93 L = inductance.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in qz ohms. in radians. and X2 = volume displacement. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.5.DISSIPATION 4. in abamperes. in abfarads.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. per dyne. in abcoulombs. and — current. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. 4.9 = 4 = electrical resistance.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. . in cubic centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. and displacement. and <i>2 angular displacement. in centimeters. and charge on the electrical capacitance.4.

in centimeters per second. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in radians per second.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. in cubic centimeters per second. and Xs = volume 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.i 4. and angular velocity. in acoustical ohms. current. mechanical ohms.12 = acoustical resistance.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates.6. and velocity. in rotational ohms. 2 d<t>n dcj).11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .

23. 4. at/jf. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.7.17. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. e = = Lqz-[.24 Differentiating equation 4.25 .rsqz 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.14.22. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.1 is h = H Equation 4.8.19 +k 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.20 4. The linear displacement.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. 4.13.21 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.18. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.

at p. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.29 4.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.42 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.26 ^ The 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4.31. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. . The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.30. in the acoustical system.26.27. The angular displacement.15. p = MXa + vaXz 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. Fig. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. Jb /.16.9.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.1. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.32 ing piston. at/^j.10. 4.

1. 4. inclusive. to mechanical rotational resistance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. vm. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.29 and 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. Fig.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. 4.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. given by ^3 JM is 4.1 to 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . shows again that resistance. inertance acoustical system. inductance. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.25.11. and to acoustical resistance.19.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.1.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.33. Fig. 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. mass.

45 .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. Fig. is . 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . Fig.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4.X3 = pjccCa 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. X2 = Xi . given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4..41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.1. is given by k The = f".44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.1. 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.

The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 4. . Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.2.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 55 and 56 and Fig. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. see pages 53. The electrical impedances z^i. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.1 of Chapter V.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. 4. 5.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 1 tional systems of Figs.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. 54.12.3.2 are as follows: 4. 4.

rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . Ce2.56 ZA2 -T-z. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. I2 and M2.50 + jwm2 + T-p.3 is the as that of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.59 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. 4.60 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. mechanical rectilineal.2 4. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.2 save that the electrical capacitance.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. compliance.— JwLmz Zb.55 jwLai 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. moment of inertia and inertance L2.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. mass. The shunt electrical. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.

65 2^22^3 .3. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.

13. mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Electrical. Cb2 . it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. m2. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. L2. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. 4. Cei. to /i.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . Cm\.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.412^3 + 4.t 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .3.\.4. Cri. 4.«i.67 . Ca.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.4. L. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. I2.

83 ZA2 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.78 4. M2.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. Xi. The current to.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.84 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . h. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. Ca2 in the acoustical system. X2. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.82 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.80 4. 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.74 4. to 4>o. 4>2.86 4. the linear velocity Xq.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.88 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. Xi. (h and 04 X2. nA where zei = .SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.76 4. X3 rectilineal system. 4>i.89 . i^ in show that /q. Cai. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. ^ zjji = . 4.

94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.92 4. the linear velocity Xi. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.97 The current i2.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4..93 Ha = The current ii. the linear velocity X2.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.) Ha ^_^^j . the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.{ZA3jrZA. 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.95 .91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . 01 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. 02 = + Zr^ 4.90 4.99 r^r^ .98 . 4.

Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. .109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.107 . = The equations cal. 4.102 X3 4. J~iR X.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.106 . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.105 current 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.„.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. the linear velocity X4. ^^^ 4.-riE .

2. characteristics.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. mechanical rotational. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.1. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. 5. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. 52 . impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.1. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.^ an inductance. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. 5.

consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . branch is current flows in z^i.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. Fig. 5. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.1.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.

diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. respectively.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4.2 for the electrical system. relations existing between//. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . consists of a system of gears. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. must be in parallel. analogous to equation 5. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. ^2. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. That is. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . shown schematically in Fig.3. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. SAA. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5.1 with the same tions. Xt Differentiating equation 5. Z/jt.1. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /.4 That is.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. </)r. respectively. 5. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. Equation 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. respectively. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. With these specifications the differential of Fig. Fig. </>!. = = xx -\- X2 5. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. 5.. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. respectively. as for example.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

^^^^.17 where / = moment of inertia.2.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. equations 5. 5. equations 5. 5. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies.12 relatively large 59 and 5.13 and 5. 5.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.2. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. reactance . Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.

in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.20 where Cm = compliance.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 is = T^ 5.2. 5.18 where M= inertance. The acoustical system of Fig. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2.14 and 5. Fig. from equations 5.11 and 5. 5. in abfarads. 5.5. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.42 = joiM 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Therefore. 5.3.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Equations 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. . The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. in centimeters per dyne.

ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. inversely proportional to the frequency.3 is 1 2fi2 5. 5.13 and 5.3.20 is shown in Fig.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.21 show that at low frequencies . velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.12 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Fig.3. at Equa- tions 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.12 to the and 5. 5.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. 5. 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.3. 5.

At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. .4 in series across a line. in abhenries. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. tional.13 and 5. 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.3.21 is The acoustical system of Fig.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. equations 5. in abfarads.23.12 = ^-^ 5.6.4. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.3.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.14 and 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5.11 and 5. 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.

The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in gram (centimeter)^.24. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. 5. The output angular 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.4. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24 where m = mass.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.12 and 5. and compliance.25.25 where / = moment of inertia. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and Cu = rotational compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 and . in grams.

At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.26 where M= Ca = inertance.11 and 5.24 also is zero.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.5. 5.7. in Fig. The output volume 5.26. .23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.2 and there is very little attenuation. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. acoustical capacitance. in grams per (centimeter)''.5 parallel across a line. in (centimeter)" per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. Equations 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.14 and 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.13 and 5.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.4. 5.

28 where m = mass. in abhenries. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.J^mCM 5.28.27. in grams. 5. in abfarads.5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. and compliance. Cm = The output .INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.27 where L = Ce = inductance. and electrical capacitance. 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5. 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.12 and 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.

At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. .27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.13 and The output angular 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter..3 and the transmission is again small. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5.11 and 5.14 and 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The output volume 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5 is ZR2 = .29. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.12 and 5. 1 - 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.30. and = rotational compliance.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. 5.^MC.2 and the transmission is small.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.13 and 5.

6 shows an electrical resistance. in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. 5.31.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. in abfarads. itance in series. in shunt with a line. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical Resistance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.11 and 5. 5. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. in abhenries. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6. 5.8. 5. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.min. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abohms.6. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. 5. inductance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Electrical resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.

in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. of inertia.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. The output volume 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. Therefore. The output and 5. and rotational compliance. 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .2 and there is very little attenuation. current can be obtained from equations 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.33. in mechanical ohms. mass. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5.3 and there is very little attenuation. in grams per (centimeter)*. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in rotational ohms.12 and 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + .32.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in grams. in radians per dyne per centimeter.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Therefore. inertance.12 and 5. in acoustical ohms. compliance.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.34.

Therefore. in Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Therefore.7. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. mass. 5. in abfarads. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in abohms.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.12 The output and 5.4.35. 5. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.14 and 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.9. in mechanical ohms.7 shows an electrical resistance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. in centimeters per dyne. . 5. quencies the same as that of Fig.11 and 5. in grams. from equations 5. in abhenries. inductance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. and compliance. in Fig. 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. and electrical capacitance.36. from equations 5.13 and 5. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6.6. The mechanical network is rectihneal. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.

7.38.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia.37 where ru Cb. 5. inertance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. S. rotational compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. acoustical capacitance. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. in grams per and 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.14 Ca = 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. Electrical resistance.37. The output and 5. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. = = mechanical rotational resistance.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.

However.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5.7.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.7.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. . 5. 5. 5. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.10. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.3 and the transmission is again small. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.13 and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5.2 and the transmission is small.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 and 5.7. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 and 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.7. output electrical impedance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. inductance.7. 5.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Fig.

ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.40 ZM2. 5. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.11. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. output acoustical impedance. in abhenries.43 = p = 2. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. 5. .43 where L = inductance.41 input acoustical impedance. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.42 Zas.

Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. in gram (centimeters)^. 5. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.8. 5. in grams. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.8 is = j^m 5.45 where / = moment of inertia.8. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8. characteristic. 5.8 equations 5.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. 5.44 where tn = mass.39 and 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. . with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8 is = jo)I 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.

The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. 5.12. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5.42 and 5.8. 5. 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. in abfarads.41 and 5.48. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. acoustical Equations 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5.46 where M= inertance. 5. Equation 5.8 equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.

5. 5.9 to the frequency. . is inversely proportional Equations 5.48 where Cm — compliance. in centimeters per dyne.9. 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. Fig.9. is ance relatively large to motion.l/2 Fig. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9. 5. frequency characteristic.9 = 5. 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.47.9 is ^R2 5. is 5.40 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.

5. 5. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.9. Equations 5. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. dyne.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. and per = area of the diaphragm.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. The mechanical rectilineal. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. Equation 5.42 and 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.10. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. . 5.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. in square centimeters. compliance of the suspension system.9.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.41 and 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.50. 5. analogous to an in Fig.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. Mechanical Rotational.13.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.9 is 2.

5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and C_if compliance.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical system of Fig. and = rotational compliance.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and electrical capacitance.53. in abhenries.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.10. rectilineal. 5.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance.52. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.40 and 5. in abfarads.53 where m = = mass. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. . in grams.

5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.8.11. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.42 and 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and the transmission is small.14.41 and 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.50. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. and again the transmission is small.54. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.10.9 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. Equations 5.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.55. connected in with a line.42 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. Equations 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.39 and 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. and acoustical capacitance. .41 and 5.

11. The mechanical system of Fig. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . and electrical capacitance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.11 is - 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. 5. 5.1/2 = 1 — S. and compliance.56.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in abfarads. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.40 and 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 is 2/22 = :.39 and 5. in centimeters per dyne.57. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. in grams. in abhenries.

and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.58. inductance and line.42 == 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.8 and the attenuation is small.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.41 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. .41 The output angular 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. Equation 5.40 and 5.11 equation 5.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. Equations 5.59. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.9 and again the attenuation is small. in grams (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.39 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. ance of Fig. Electrical Resistance. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. 2. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.11. 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and acoustical capacitance.11 is -. 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. 5. and = rotational compliance.15.

61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in abohms.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.40 and 5. in abhenries. in grams. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. 5.60. Electrical resistance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.61.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. m = Cm = mass. 5. compliance.12. in centimeters per dyne. in abfarads. inductance. 5.39 and 5.62 . and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and capacitance.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. 5.

Therefore.coC. from equations 5.12 is 2. 5. 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. inertance.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.42 and 5. Fig.12. where vr / = moment of inertia. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. . from equations 5.12. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. Fig. from equations 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. 5. However. 5. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero.12. and again the transmission is small.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. The output volume 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. The output and 5.8.10. 5.39 and 5.41 and 5. Therefore. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.4 -T-z^ 5. from equations 5. and the transmission is small.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms.63.62. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.12.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.40 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. current can be obtained from equations 5.12. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. in rotational ohms. Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.

inductance line. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.39 and 5. 5.64.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. 5. Electrical resistance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 83 Parallel.13.13 is ZM2 = r.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. in abohms.65 . 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. inductance.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.13 shows an electrical resistance.16.

in M= grams per (centimeter)*. in centimeters per dyne. in (centimeter)® per dyne.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Therefore. and Cr = rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.66. ohms. The output volume 5. from . Fig.13. from equations 5.67. mass. in grams. in where tm mechanical ohms.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. Fig.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. therefore.13.8 and the attenuation is small.9 and the attenuation is small. 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~. The output and 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. from equations 5. 5.40 and 5.40 and 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.65. and compliance. the acoustical reactance is infinite. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.13. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.39 and 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in acoustical ohms.41 and 5.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. 5. Therefore. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. inertance. 5. Therefore.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. from equations 5.

5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . Referring to equation 5.18.11. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.13. Fig.67 the attenuation ance. 5. that of Fig.42 and 5. 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.14 Mechanical Rotational. 5.17. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.13. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.

greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. Referring to equation 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.14 shows a system of made larger.19. . Electrical Rectilineal. larger. Equation 5. rectilineal.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. Equation 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. Equation 5. 5. 5. Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.15. 5.

20.41 and the output impedances. "Zrz. 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.11.16. In the same way equations 5. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. The mechanical rectilineal. Equation 5.21. and r. acoustical systems of Fig. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. respectively.17. respectively. zri. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. and r^i and the input impedances.12.13 the mechanical rectihneal.16.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. wherein zm\. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. 5. 5.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. mechanical rotational. rm. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. mechani- and acoustical analogies.16. 5. and Zmz. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 5. 5. rui.

Electrical.17.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.13 and 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. 5.17. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.18.12. me- chanical rotational. 5. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. ze2 is rE2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. Equation 5. In this case zei is the input impedance. 5. rectihneal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical. 5. output impedance. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.22.14.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. . 5.

ii.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. 5. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.18. ei. velocity and . current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. ACOUSTICAL Fig. and of turns on the secondary.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. Electrical.18 the electromotive force. and zei represent the electromotive force. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. The force.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.68 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.

79 .73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. /mi.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.18.71 = — xi 5. consists of a mass- gear train. The 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. of Fig. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. The pressure.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.77 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. The torque. 5.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18.18. /ri.

Xi and 2. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. 5..41 and p2. pi. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. 1940. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. New York. ^ Engineering. .ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure." D. two diaphragms. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. The acoustical transformer of Fig. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer.

Rev. 6. mechanical rectilineal. Bell System Tech. Phys. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. p. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters.. A. 1922. I. 92 .. Jour. W. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 6. Vol. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 1922. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. No. Vol.. Stewart. G. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. 20. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.1.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. No.. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. 2.2. 528. G. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell.

Shea. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities. respectively. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. velocities." D.3. velocities.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents.. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. Johnson. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. New York. velocities. Van New York. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. that is. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. 6. *' .. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. positive and when than four. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. ^ Nostrand Co. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range." D. Van Nostrand Co. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents.

2 6.1.1.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.4.6 ZR2 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.1 zmi zri 6. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.8 . RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.94 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.Ca 6. 6.

12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when uc = 6. coc = — 2Af2 V — . mechanical rotational.9 the constants of the systems. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. when coe 6. mechanical rectilineal. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. . 6. when coc 6.17.= From and . and the cutoff 6. linear velocities.= -4 6. when coc = . when ccc 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. 6. inclusive.10 and show that the systems of Fig.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.17 Equations 6. 2A2 VMC^ .10 — — 0.2. 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. when oip = = = = 6. 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .5.15 WC.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when .13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .27 .26 From the constants of the systems.= -4 22 6. 2£1 6.

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.12.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6. .37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. 5.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.

lfi)^ ^ -. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . —7== VMiCai .12 =0.46 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .V/2 when WC2^WiC.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.50 V/iGji 0.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. —= Z£2 — 4.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.. when wci = — VLiCei . when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . when coci = = 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.51 VM2C42 = . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. 2. _ 4. 6. „ when coci = .45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. — — / 1 6. UCe\ (1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.44 6. . = — 7= / 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. = 1 .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.

-4.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.41 .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.v/2 1 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. one greater than uci and Therefore. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. when . —= 2.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . (1 .53 —= ZiJ2 -4.

61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. show that the systems of Fig. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. inclusive. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.63.64 CeiLi 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.69 . linear velocities.7.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. are 6.4. 6.56 to 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.

The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.74 6. Electrical. 6.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. mechanical rectilineal.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.76 .73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.

—= Zr\ -4.84 . .77 —— = ZM2 0.82 . .83 —= Z^l 2.42 -4. when uci = and cca oo 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. when.78 —= ZR2 0. or. M\Ca\) 4. when (1 .1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.-4. when (1 . 6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . 6. —= zei -4.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.79 ^— = ZA2 0. .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

unit torque and unit pressure.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. rectilineal resistance. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. shown in Fig.2.2. and driving force. 7.2. unit force.5 where aE = Te/L.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. 7. The current is zero = 0. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. velocity. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second. 7. in dynes. in grams.8 where m = = /m — V mass. . From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The graph depicts the current. respectively.

7. ohms.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. in dyne centimeters.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in rotational = angular velocity. and = torque. in radians per second. = mechanical rotational resistance.12 = — - e"^') 7. as shown in Fig. 1/riv/.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. . The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.2. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.2. in gram (centimeter)^.

in acoustical ohms.20 where M= ta inertance. 7. in dynes per square centimeter.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.2. and p = sound pressure. = acoustical resistance. as shown in Fig. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. the solution of equation 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.17 where aji — Vr/ I.2.16 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. 7.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. From is the tables of operational formulas.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. U = volume current. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). in cubic centimeters.22 . The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. in grams per (centimeter)*. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.

28 ve . 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. in abfarads. in abamperes. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. electrical resistance. in abohms. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. electrical resistance series. and electromotive force. 7.e-^ in Fig.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.4. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. current.24 JA{t) = " (1 . in abvolts. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.3.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. 7.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.22 111 may be written.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. the solution of equation 7. the solution of equation 7.

112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. in centimeters per dyne. the solution of equation 7.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. linear velocity. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters. in dynes. 7. unit force. From the tables of operational formulas. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.3. The graph depicts the current. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. shown in Fig. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7 3.y = l/rjfCv/.30 P)rM where a. velocity.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. force. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.3. unit torque and unit pressure. mechanical rectilineal resistance.31 . is The for / shown in Fig. respectively.

rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. acoustical resistance. 7. mechanical rotational resistance. is shown in Fig.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. is shown in Fig.3. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. volume current.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. in dynes per square centimeter. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.3.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. as shown in Fig.3. in rotational ohms. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. 7. . in cubic centimeters per second.33 where aR = IIvrCr. angular velocity. in radians per second. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in dyne centimeters. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. as shown in Fig. and sound pressure.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. and torque. 7. in acoustical ohms.3. 7. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.

electrical resistance. in abohms. (a + ^ Pfa . abamperes. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. .37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. electrical resist- ance. is shown 7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in abvolts. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. and electromotive force.4.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. 7. 1 7.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3.5. in electrical capacitance. as in Fig. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. 7. 7. in current.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . abohms. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.38 ^. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. in abhenries.

7. velocity. 7. unit force. 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. The graph depicts the current. unit torque or unit pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig.^. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. the solution of equation 7.4. series Response of an electrical resistance. The response sinusoid.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.4. .45.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. respectively.

acceleration. velocity. rectilineal resistance.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce.47 . mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in dynes. Substituting equation 7. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. in centimeters per second per second. in centimeters per second. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. displacement. and driving force. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. in centimeters per dyne. 1 AC. in grams.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. 1 A\ m = mass.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in centimeters. v for x. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. 7.

in radians. = angular velocity. and 4> Jr = driving torque. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. in rotational ohms.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.4.51 = moment of inertia. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.4_S. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. 7. in grams (centimeter). equation 7. in radians per second.si .48 The response sinusoid. = angular displacement. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in radians per second per second.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. 7. lAA. It is a damped > '^in/Cu.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. 4> = angular acceleration. in dyne centimeters. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. is of inertia. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. Cr = rotational compliance.

then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. lAA. 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.4C.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. WR^ 2 1 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. It is a damped sinusoid..54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.45. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .56 ^PR = Jo. = '^I/Cr.

4. as in Fig. in acoustical ohms. acoustical resistance.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in cubic centimeters per second. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical capacitance.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. Substituting U for X. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and pressure. at equation 7. in grams per (centimeter)^.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.

then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.45.5.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.6. 7. . solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. Step function approximation. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. cca^ = 4M/Ca.

Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. as in the case of the preceding sections.68 . an electromotive force ei is added. «i. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.u)du du 7. The This proof.5. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. etc. integral. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). as shown in Fig. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . <?i at / = Ae. 7.5.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. an electromotive force ^2 is added. tem.. etc. all being of the unit type. a time «2 later. Therefore.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. 7. The indicial electrical admittance.

72 . Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.69 fR{u) — AR{t . mechanical rotational rectilineal. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .u)du du u)du 7.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The velocity. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series.u)du 7.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. 7.

.

the electrostatic.CHAPTER 8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW .2. 8. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. the electromagnetic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.

8.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8.2 where x = velocity. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.1. in abvolts. in dynes. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. From equations 8. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. circuit will be used instead of network. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. in abamperes. The force.1 B = / = / = flux density. in centimeters. and Ca with vr. When there is only one path.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. it is located.However. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. L and Ce. termed motional electrical impedance. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. length of the conductor. in centimeters per second.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. and current. due to motion. abohms.1 and 8. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . The electromotive force. in using analogies in actual practice. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. in gausses.1. field in which depicted in Fig.

in 8. Zen in abohms. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. that is. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in abohms.3.4 8. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. in chanical ohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.1.3. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. The normal electrical impedance zek. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. in the absence of motion.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. which the mechanical There are three general types of . The dynamic direct radiator 8.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. 8.6 The 8. all of the conductor. in mechanical ohms.

Since there is no polarizing flux. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. 8. Assume that all the reluctance . The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.2. A. the unpolarized armature type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. namely. Consider the system shown in Fig. Unpolarized Armature Type. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems.

13 and 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in abamperes. in dynes. n = number of turns. C = l-^nA. A = area of the center pole. in centimeters.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. and a = normal spacing. then from equations 8.14 e = ^r 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. .128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. is where / = current in the coil. the total flux is <f>T Aa.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. in square centimeters. in abvolts. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.15 The force on the armature.

Substituting equation 8.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.21 . mechanical ohms.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.20 — X From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. in seconds.15 and 8. 4TrJa*/M . 8.18 Equation 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. nC^P 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. in mechanical ohms. and time. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .2.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.16. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.17 for the current in 8.

in centimeters. in abamperes.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. 8. in mechanical ohms. and impedance of the coil. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. vibrators and clippers.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.22 = motional electrical impedance. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. . this system cannot be used It is. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. B. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. for converting electrical variations into however. in abohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. 8. in square centimeters. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. for the reproduction of sound. 8. filing — as in Fig. in abohms. ^ = area of center pole.2. Zen in abohms. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature.3. = number of turns. in oersteds. saws. from the poles of a permanent magnet. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. in maxwells.19. in gilberts.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. Therefore. a = spacing.20 and 8.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. in abohms. / = current. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.

axsin wt n coil. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in abamperes. in oersteds. and time.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. 27r/. frequency. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in 131 oit maxwells. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .

26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. Ax -\- Ax . = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8.32 „ . in maxwells.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. spacing between the armature and pole. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. the flux. due to the steady field.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. in gilberts. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. in square centimeters.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . and area of the pole.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.. sidered. __ . the flux will now be 4>x + A. in centimeters. in abvolts.^ . generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8.

in me- chanical ohms. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. in abohms. ~ 8. 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.37. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. ZAfi.38 a Zm .35 and 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. fu = MNi ~r — .35 8.3. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.33.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.34. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.24 and 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. 8. From equations 8.32 and e i = — X 8.

Equation 8. ARMATURE MAGNET . and impedance of the coil.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. C. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.38 is similar to equation 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. in abohms.3. 8.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. in abohms.

which the coil energizes. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in square centimeters.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in dynes.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. The . The flux. The steady magnetic field is force. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. at each pole magnet.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. of the pole piece. in maxwells. in abamperes. 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. in dynes. in maxwells. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. at the poles (Fig.4. The sum of the forces. and yf effective area. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in oersteds. i?2 = = coil. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. 8. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit.

flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. NMA —^x a^ 8. rectilineal impedance of the armature.44 A. 8. in mechanical ohms. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in mechanical ohms. in gilberts. in abvolts. in merectilineal chanical ohms. . of the steady field.136 flux. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. through the armature to the right and upward. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in square centimeters. and effective area of a pole piece.4.45. in centimeters.

43 =-^ 8.50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. . Zm\.50. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.

galvanometers. 8. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM .4. Therefore. system of Fig. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. This driving system is used for loud speakers. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.

57 numerator of equation 8. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. and capacity per unit area.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.62 . in statcoulombs. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. in statamperes. The force. in statfarads. motive Cq is large . generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. is The current. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. on the condenser is q considered.59 and 8.60 From equations 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. = CeCq 8. in dynes. ^o^max sin wt . If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. in statvolts. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. in dynes. The useful force. in statfarads.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. the fourth term will be negligible.

in Zm2 mechanical ohms.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. .66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. ohms. 4ir(<2 + . Ax) 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.5. 47r(a — 8.66 in 8. . the generated current. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. in stat- amperes. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. in mechanical ohms.69 .(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .61.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.

Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.68. electrical network in Fig. at the same time. 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.69 and 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. statohms. 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. electrical impedance of the condenser. in statohms. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .58 and 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.5. adding a large stiffness. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. + .67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.5.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.

142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.6. current is applied to 2m . The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. 8. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. Consider the system shown in Fig.

current. in square centimeters. in abamperes. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. induction is of the nickel rod. .75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. turns in the coil. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . and area of the rod. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in gausses. e = MJ^ dt 8.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.74 and ehminating the steady force. coil.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in abvolts. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. CO/ 8. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.73 Combining equations and 8. due to is the Villari effect. in cycles per second. in square centimeters. induced in the winding.X JR 8. in current in the abamperes. frequency.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. and time. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in seconds. 8. in centimeters. The electromotive force.

in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. and Young's modulus. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. in centimeters. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.6.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. rectilineal impedances zm. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. The mechanical to one .82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8.78 From equation 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in square centimeters. in abvolts. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. length of the rod.

7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.79.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. total in abohms." D. in abohms.6). The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. The mass mi in Fig. Van Nos- trand Co. as shown by equation 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.. New York. 1942. 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. . 8. is assumed to be a In general. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. in abohms — equation 8. in mechanical ohms. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.83 From equations 8.84. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. = motional impedance. 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. 8.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 8.82 and 8.6.86 Mason.

is where p The compliance Cmi. 8. 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. in Fig. in square centimeters. and Young's modulus. and cross section of the rod. length of the rod. in centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. in grams per cubic centimeter.7. in square centimeters.80. in centimeters. length of the rod.

7.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. in dynes. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. is The deformation per unit length. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. 8.84. 8.8. EA and 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. 8. air load and support resistance. due to a force. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.8.88 where Jm = total force.7C A and B given in Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. in square centimeters.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. A= E = area. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. that is. 8. . For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.7. X = 4^. 8. Young's modulus. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.

c„ . Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. in square centimeters.88 and 8. . 8. the data of Fig. equations 8..90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.8 and Young's modulus. flux density. B = A= From and area.89 K = magnetostriction constant.6.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. 8.

in centimeters. X to 10~* for quartz.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. 6. in centimeters. is . in statcoulombs. in square centimeters. and The displacement. q is 149 = KJu 8. E = Young's modulus.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. equations 8. and A = cross-sectional area. in dynes. due an applied force. due to the application of a force.91 and 8. in dynes.93 .92 X From = 8.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.4 force. 4 = length of the crystal.

impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. in square = length of the crystal. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. in statohms. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in centimeters.97. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. in mechanical ohms.100 and 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. and E = Young's modulus.9. in mechanical ohms. zmi and z.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.101 From equations 8.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. / centimeters. in mechanical ohms. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. 8. .

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. 9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.1. namely. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.3. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9.

.2. area of the pole.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. in centimeters. in square centimeters.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. is The velocity of the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in abohms. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and impedance of the external load. force. in centimeters. and + ZE2. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. due to the steady field.6 ze = = = = = total flux. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. in abohms. in centimeters per second. in maxwells. and velocity of the armature. through the armature.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in gilberts. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. spacing between the armature and pole. 9. 9. 9. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in centimeters per second. coil.2.

Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. 9.3. due to the deflection of the armature. flows through the armature. r~ . In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Balanced Armature Generating System.

in A . The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. The current. in gilberts. in oersteds. ZE = Zei + Ze2. velocity of the armature. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles.9 and 9.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. in abohms. of the magnet. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. in centimeters per second. as depicted 9. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. = magnetomotive force. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. of the alternating magnetic circuit. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 zme From equations 9. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. is The /m Zm + 9. i?2 = reluctance. 9.3.3. 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. in maxwells. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. a = spacing between armature and pole.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. in statamperes. in abohms. M.4.

in centimeters. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . spacing between the plates. in statohms. in statvolts.4 e is t2 9. and velocity of the X movable plate. ^= a area of the plate. in square centimeters. 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. in centimeters per second. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in statamperes.14 where e = electromotive force. in statfarads. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. The current.stationary "plate . electrical and impedance of the external load.

The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. is Ze2 in parallel.4. a spacing between plates.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. electrical impedance of the external load.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in statvolts. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. is The velocity of the movable plate. in statohms. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. electrical and 9. in centimeters. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. X in centimeters per second. e.4. in square centimeters.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.18 Zme) . area of the plates. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.15 and 9.17 zme e From equations 9. in statfarads.

= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.24 and fi 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.E1 = -r—.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.22.23 Substituting equation 9.26 .24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.21 in 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. = — a CnX 9.23 in 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.21 Substituting equation 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.25 Comparing equations 9.19. .25.

The volt- age. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.27 . developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. However. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. In the mechanical circuit: zm. is ^tNK 9.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. ZEi.5. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. from equation 8. In the electrical circuit: e. The magnetostriction magnetic generator.5. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. 9. 9. L\ and rE\. shown in Fig. coil.5. Magnetostriction generating system.26 and an internal impedance zei. zei. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. in abvolts. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. coil. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zme. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. Equation 9.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. electrical electrical wavelength. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. in centimeters per second. and impedance of the external circuit. force. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. .5. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. in square centimeters.79 or 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. - £ 9. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. and Young's modulus. 9. in abohms. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. length of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil.

5.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. in mechanical = ohms. ohms. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.28. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. .164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.27 and 9. are given by equations 8. 9. to be a In general. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.6. equations 9.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 9. in mechanical ohms.32 From abvolts. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. in centimeters per second. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.6. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.32 the generated electromotive force.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.86 and 8. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in Fig. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.

^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 6. 9. the damped electrical impedance of the coil.6. ZMi. 9. E= 4 = Young's modulus.6 can be obtained from equation 9. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B.7. = = length of the crystal. where KEJ — •* 9. In the electrical circuits: e. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8.4 X 10~* for quartz. + 9. zei. generated The h = —. in Fig. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. zme. zei. Li and tei. the driving force. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. . 2_bi j<^Li. length of the crystal. In the mechanical networks: /m. cross-sectional area of the crystal. in statamperes. the other. in square centimeters. mass and compliance of the rod. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. in centimeters. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. 9. the effective Zjv/i. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. and velocity of the crystal. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. mi and Cmi. A.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current.6. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.27 and the velocity. in centimeters. in centimeters per second.

in statvolts. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statamperes. circuit: e. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. 9. crystal.7.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force.34 force e. in statohms. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statfarads. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. electrical and 9. Ce\.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. From equations 9. z^'i zei. 2_b2. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9.

4 = length of the crystal.7. in centimeters. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.97 or 8.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. and E= Young's modulus. length of the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. the crystal. A = area of the electrode. length of in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in statfarads.4 X 10~* for quartz. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. and „ „„ 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in centimeters.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. electrical impedance of the external load.41 . rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. in statohms. E = Young's modulus. in centimeters. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.

depicted equations 9. 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. is .= where i.45 .168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.7.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.43 From Ze2 in parallel. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. in mechanical ohms.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. in mechantotal ical ohms.36 and 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.47 . zm2 in mechanical ohms. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in centimeters per second. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.

However.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . in Fig. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.45. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. == -^ AwKEx 9. e. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .8. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.50 and 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.49 in 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. Equation 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.47 in 9.104 and 8.48.51.49 Substituting 9. 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.

the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the driving force. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.8 can be obtained from equation 9. zme. ze\. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. crystal. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. zei. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. 9. Zm2. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. 9. . electrical network of Fig. In the electrical circuits: e. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the other. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Piezoelectric generating systems.8. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.37. the electrical impedance of the external load. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.45 and the velocity. A.

2.R. . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal.E. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . . . e^" . Proc. 6. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. Reciprocity Theorems A. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. /s" . Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. produce a current distribution z'l'. 929. the elements. z„". e^' . A number cal systems. 1929. Vol. 1 Ballentine. and superposition theorems to electrical.1. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems.. i^' . ' 10. 17. p.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. S.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. Then 10. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. I. No." 171 . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity.

1. as illustrated in the electrical 10. equation 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. o e . e" and /'.1.1 becomes 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. /" are the electromotive forces 10.2 = /'/' where e' .172 THEOREMS system of Fig.

Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.6 velocities depicted . 1926. /ji/2. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. frequency. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. 4>2" ./7j2'./fl3 . 10. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. . fB2" . //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. ^ Olson. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.1. =/a/V 10. '4>^" . . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities.3 becomes fu'x" . London. p..RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements.1. "Theory of Sound.7 p Rayleigh.1. 145. 1940. II. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. fli" are the torques and angular 10. .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. MacMillan and Co. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques./m3 all of the same frequency./ij2. . and provided the applied forces /mi.1. Van Nostrand Co. mechanical rotational system of Fig." Vol. D. ^2'../ij„ are all of the same . C. 10. produce a rotational velocity — . • distribution ^i'./b' and (J)'. equation 10. 10.4 where /^f'.fRi" • 4>2." D. let a set of torques/iji'.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. New . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". York. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. equation 10. and provided the applied torques /iji. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.

10. . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . 1 .4 by the p and v of the other set. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. 10. .15 v' .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.9 and 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.9 and 1. 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. y" .8.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. - p 1 . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. dv" — .10 From neering" equations 1. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.174 THEOREMS .12 is for a point. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.11 From equations 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .—.1. equation 10.13 If. p"v' 10. 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10..8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.+ dv' . equation 10..1. v' grad po „ = 10.

. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .1. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. 10. 10. produce pn. . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. . velocities. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. produce a volume current distribution Xi. X^ X^. X2." a second volume current distribution Xi". . . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces.19 . and let a second set of pressures ^i". . . . X^" Xn" Then . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . equation 10. E. pi. .1. X2". which there are only two pressures./". .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. .16 becomes . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. . 10. . . .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. let also. .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . However. . pressures and volume currents. pz same frequency. . Then — .

mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. C. E.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. B. forces n and velocities. an interconnected e\ . . . let also. n Then 10. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. Mechanical-acoustical.S. i" .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. L. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system.S. F. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.. The 10. P"X' i" L. . D. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. . Electrical-mechanical.21 . P"X' tn\ B M .S. — In . currents. .2. HX* E p"X D Fig.2^. . . px L.

G. acoustical transducer. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. 10. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.23 . This may be expressed as If both connecting medium.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. field. as shown in Fig. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.23 states that a if. 2D. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. Theorem. mechanical. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. is H. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. e'i" = e"i' 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. Electrical-Mechanical.2C. .2fi. e"i' 10. mechanical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. me- chanical. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. Electrical-Mechanical. acoustical. 10.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. electrical transducer.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker.

24 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. = p"X' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. D.178 I. 10. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.2£. as shown in Fig. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem.3. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.

current.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. forces. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. forces. save the one being considered. mechanical rectilineal. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. . Each source. force. velocity. velocities. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately.4. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.

by acoustical capacitances. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters.2. However. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Introduction The fundamental lineal. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . 11. However. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. An exhaust back pressure. muffler is quite effective. Convert the answer into the original system. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method.1.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. principles relating to electrical. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.

However. in Fig. 11. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. in the audible frequency range.1. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. 11. . The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.M and Ca for an acoustical system. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. The system of Fig. circuit will be used instead of network.u. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.1. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. 11. When there is only one path. with rft.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. Therefore.

2. . Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. 11.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.182 APPLICATIONS In general.3. 11. sate for approximations.

Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. radiator tube. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil.4. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. . MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. 11.7. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. In the mechanical circuit: m\. rMi and Ci.w2. The mechanical driving from equation 8. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig.3. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit.3.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. zem. and . in dynes.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. force can be determined /m 11.3. in mechanical Jm = driving force.. 11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. 11. the mass of the cone. nii and r. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8." I"*. 11.1.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. teg.

is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. FX. loud speakers. 11. in mechanical ohms. phonograph pickups. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. measuring cal systems.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. . the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system." D. The simple vibration fly- damper. 11. Olson. These systems include microphones.4. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.4. is The sound power output. 1940. in centimeters per second. In the mechanical network: A. shown ^ in Fig. m. F. given by 11. of inertia of the flywheel.. 11.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. the moment Cg. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. and the shaft. etc.5.YWHEEL I. Van Nostrand Co. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. velocity of the cone. telephone receivers.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. comphance of the damper. New York. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig.

Machine mounted upon an isolating system.6. zmf. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. W.SA. /jf. A. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . the mass of the machine. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. ciple of the device. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. B. z. The driving force/i. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. 11.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.5. Jm. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig.SA. The shunt mechanical vibration. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. W. isolator.vF. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Cm /4 and 4rM . where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. the mass of the machine./ is due to the . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.

4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. pressor. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. isolating mechanical network.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. 11.7. Cui/'i and 4rii/2.6.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. 11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. Jm. the mass of the case. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. mi. consists of the following elements: nii.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 11. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. only isolation in the system of Fig. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. shown in Fig. the compliance and mechanical mi. these values springs. 11.6. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine.

8. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.7. zmf. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. . Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor.v/i/4. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 11.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. 11. 187 Cmi and rui. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. The mechanical network of Fig. the mass of the case. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the system in Fig. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Cm2 and ^1-/2. Of course.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. 11. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports.

in general. 11. the driving force at each tire. tmi. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Cm2. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. This system has many degrees of freedom. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line.8. Cif i/4 and 4rM i.u 11. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration.9. the compliance of the spring suspension. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels.v/2. the mass of the frame. r. mum. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. m-i. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. Cmi and tires. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the mass of the tire. 11. etc. the combined driving force at the four legs.v/3.7. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. m2. the compliance of the spring. body. 11. wheel and axle. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. engine. Cm2. both rectilineal and rotational. Cms a-nd r. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome.

AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. wheels./ifi the comtires. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the mass of the four tires. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the mass of the passenger. 4rif 2. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. 4:rM2. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. Cmi/4 and 4r. . and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. Since there are four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the compliance of the springs. body and engine. mi. m^.\f 1. Cms and r. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/.i/a. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. Cms. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. the mass of the passenger. fn2.8. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. However. the driving force. Cji/2/4. view. the mass of the frame. 11. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. 189 m^. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. springs and shock absorbers. the combined driving force at the four tires. the compliance of the four springs. 4?ni. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .

An acoustical resistance. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. which controls the oscillations. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. pitching or swaying motion. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. Most of the forces. mechanical rectilineal. Rotational Ohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. 11. Mechanical Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. — — —A — . For example. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. an automobile has several modes of vibration. Acoustical Ohm.6. mechanical rotational resistance. that is. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. developed at the tires. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. As already indicated. An electrical resistance. Supplementary Note: Electrical. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. Electrical abohm.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

172 mechanical rotational. 23. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 179 Suspension systems. 9. 88 Transient response. 9. 42 inductance and series coupled. 6 peak. impedance. 13. 122 . electrical-mechanical. 28 Subharmonic.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 6. 9. 21. 13. 13. 88 mechanical rectilineal. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 111 electrical resistance. 105 arbitrary force. 21. 184 Rotatomotive force. 5 Transformer. 41 mechanical rotational. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 35 effective. acoustical. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 88 electrical. (see cor- effective. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 173 superposition. 10. 18. 6 maximum. 177 reactance. 22 mechanical rotational.) 195 Table. 32 Rotational. 120 Duhamel's integral. 37. 37 and analogies. 45 instantaneous. 171 Resonant frequency. acoustical. 9 resistance. 107 Transients. 22 networlcs. 22. compliance. 6 Stiffness. peak. 178 electrical. reciprocity. 6 maximum. 9. 11 instantaneous. 9. 88 mechanical rotational. 10. 23 23. 179 Thevenin's. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 45 electrical. 178 electrical. 178 mechanical rotational. 23 Theorems. 22. 42 one degree of freedom. 18. 6. 187 Torque. automobile. 61. 23 mechanical. 25 three degrees of freedom. 6 Transducer. 85 rotational. 23 maximum. 6 peak. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 21. 9. 17. 178 acoustical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 6. 6 Static pressure. 9. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 171 acoustical. ohm. 13. electrical Superposition theorem. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 48 two degrees of freedom. 6 Sound effective. 6 14 pressure. 13. 10. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 6 instantaneous. 10. 188 Systems. 21. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies.

cut quartz crystal. 184 186 Young's modulus. 8. 146. 150. 23. 94 response characteristics. 167 . 97 93. 23 Transmission. 7. 92. peak. 22 angular. 7 Wave. Wave band elimination. magnetostriction. Heaviside's Calculus. 20. 148 machine isolator. 37. 21. 163. 147. 165. 93. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 93. 8 8 "T" type network. 7. 45 Unit function. 11 effective. 149. 5 maximum. 7 linear. 23 effective. gain. 93. 11 loss. 143. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper.) INDEX Villari effect. "X" isolator. peak. 106 unit function.196 Transients (Cont. 92. 144. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 106 Units. high pass. 8 instantaneous. 22. 7. 92. 5 filters. 95 low pass. 24 Velocity. 92. 7 Vibration. band pass. 101 instantaneous. 8 maximum. 151. 106 163 Volume current.

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