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In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. Olson. Research Director. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Harry January. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. W. an electrical circuit. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Olson . Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. plex arrangements of multielement systems. in this project. Engstrom. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. E. 1943 F. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Lorene E.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. engineer. By means is of may be compared with one that better known.

.

1 3. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Inductance B. Rotational Compliance. Mass.5 Representation of Electrical.3 Inductance.2 Introduction Resistance A.2 3.3 3.1 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Mechanical Rectilineal. Inertance 2. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Rectilineal Compliance C. C.CONTENTS Chapter I. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Electrical Capacitance B. Electrical Resistance B. Acoustical Resistance 2. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Moment of Inertia.2 4 II. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. A. ELECTRICAL. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Rectilineal Compliance.4 16 Electrical Capacitance.1 1 1. ELEMENTS 2. Acoustical Capacitance A.

8 67 .3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.10 The Acoustical System 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 37 4.13 Electrical. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.5 Equations of Motion 4.4 5.2 Two Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rectilineal.7 3. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.6 3. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 52 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. . 4... MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.7 The Electrical System .6 4.2 4.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Chapter 3.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. 60 5.3 5. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.7 64 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies..6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.

Mechanical Rotational.11 69 71 5.1 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.20 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.CONTENTS Chapter 5.. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .4 6. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.16 Electrical Resistance.2 6.17 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5..6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.15 Electrical Resistance.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.21 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.3 6.10 Series 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .

2 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .X Chapter VII. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.5 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. C.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. THEOREMS 10.1 10. B.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.1 8. Unpolarized Armature B.5 114 120 7.6 VIII. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.1 9. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. 1 7.4 Ill 7.4 9.4 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 9.2 9. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.2 7.

5 184 185 11.CONTENTS Chapter E. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.4 11.7 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .2 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. APPLICATIONS 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.6 11.8 1 1 . Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.

.

In other words. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. 1 The acoustical .1. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. mechanical and acoustical tems. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. as for example. vibrating systems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. Expressions for the kinetic energy. However.

Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. . Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Of course. Elements are the meshes. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. springs and friction. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Electrical elements are resistance. as for example. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. cal. constituent parts of a circuit. various assemblies of masses. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. springs and brakes.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. ' The lished. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. induct- ance and capacitance. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path.

In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits.1 of 1942. Verojf a. and ratio of pressure to displacement. circuit. In this book. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. In addition. 4. Vol. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. No. Vol. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. all communication. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. Amer. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. However. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. For example. I) and Firestone {Jour. That is to say. Therefore.. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Acous. up the mechanical and electrical. XI. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. 4. No. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. mechanical and acoustical systems. Soc. d. Institute of Radio Engineers. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. Hanle {JViss. in the past. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. — . Finally. SiemensKonzern. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. every electrical. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. ratio of force to displacement. particularly electrical circuits. However. Therefore.

+ T). A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. negative. or which tity comprises a cycle. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. equals 2x divided by the period T. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. Cycle. The remainder. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. all is the frequency. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. .2. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. Frequency. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. Harmonic. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. where T. Definitions ^ this section. Basic Frequency. period. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. Terms not sections. Octave. a constant.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. or zero. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Periodic Quantity. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. This called a Fourier series. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. a period of jy. reciprocal of the period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. a positive constant.

A wave is a propagated disturbance. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Electromotive Force. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. The unit the dyne. — — Abvolt. Wave. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. mechanical or acoustical system. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. Effective Electromotive Force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The root unit the abvolt. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. Wavelength. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Mechanomotive Force). The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. The unit is the abvolt. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The unit is the dyne. the dyne. Subharmonic. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. . —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). force. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Dyne.

—The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). Effective the total instantaneous torque. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. The unit is the dyne centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Abampere. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). . the dyne per square centimeter. the dyne centimeter. force. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. dyne per square centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. the abampere. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). The the — Instantaneous Current.

complete cycle at the point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. is Centimeter per Second. per second. The unit is the abampere. Effective Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. Effective Angular Velocity. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Peak Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. the centimeter per second. Instantaneous Velocity.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. current. the abampere. velocity. Maximum Velocity. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. is velocity in that interval. unit is the radian per second. Peak Current. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. Cubic Centimeter per Second. is Radian per Second. Maximum Current. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume .

This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point.-W is impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. times the frequency. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. the cubic centimeter per second. electrical Inductance. is Electrical Resistance. Electrical Impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. second. Electrical Reactance. which. The unit the abohm. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. for Peak Volume Current. . Effective Volume Current. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. is the abohm. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. the cubic centimeter per second. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. The unit the abohm. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. The unit is the abfarad. when times the frequency.

the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. The unit is the acoustical ohm. page I . when multiplied by lir times the frequency. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. when multiplied by times the frequency. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Compliance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. — Compliance The unit is the gram. ' See footnote S. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). rotational resistance ance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the mechanical ohm. unit is the rotational ohm. Mass. Acoustical Impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. Rotational Compliance.

A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. inertance and acoustical capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. . unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. mass and compliance. moment of inertia. by "l-w times the frequency. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Inertance. inductance and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. mass and compliance. Acoustical Reactance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational System. The unit is the acoustical ohm. In the same way. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. and rotational compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance.. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Electrical System. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. Acoustical System. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance.

—Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. Either of these systems may be electrical. torque.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. The bel is the Decibel. mechanical or acoustical. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . Transmission Loss {or Gain). mechanical rectilineal. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. pressure or volume current. For example. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . velocity. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. force. angular velocity. pressures or such as forces or velocities. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. torque or pressure is electrical. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. — Transmission. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. voltage. force. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. current. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power.

inductor and capacitor. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. e.2.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. As indicated in the preceding chapter. in abvolts. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. the vibrating systems. electrical. e rs^-. An tinguished from the devices. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. Electrical Resistance. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. resistor. in abamperes. 12 . in abohms. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current.1.' 2. is defined as A. inductance and capacitance. t 2. See footnote page 8. 2. 5. Electrical resistance rs. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. In this procedure. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. and current through the resistance. A resistor. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation.

RESISTANCE B. Acoustical Resistance.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Mechanical Rotational Resistance.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. in centi- meters per second.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. . At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. D. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Mechanical rotational energy is C. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in dyne centimeters. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. is defined as r^ — = y 2. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. and velocity at the point of application of the force. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. in rotational ohms.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. in dynes. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Equation 2. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. in radians per second.

This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . 2. and U= Equation resistance current. in cubic centimeters per second. in centimeters.. a reaccomponent.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. is defined as VA P = ~ 2.5 = viscosity coefficient. 'Olson. slit normal to the direction of flow. d= / thickness of the centimeters. 6pww 2. slit normal to the direction of flow. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. However. in dynes per square centimeter. a narrow and metal.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. resistance. and frequency in cycles per second. York. density.4 where p — pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. slit in the direction of flow. in = width of the meters. in addition to the resistive component. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. 1940. 1. in acoustical ohms. volume current. Van Nostrand Co. New . in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.86 X 10"'* for air. in grams per cubic centimeter. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. A tube of small diameter. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /." D.

Moment gram (centimeter)^.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity.INDUCTANCE. It remains constant ance. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. is remains a constant of inertia /. in centimeters per second per second. is Inductance L. It decreases when the current decreases. 15 Inductance. = di Ldt ^ 2. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Mass. and driving force. Mass. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. in abhenries. Inertance A. 2. MOMENT OF INERTIA. in dynes. B. Moment of Inertia.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. in grams. that during linear when the velocity decreases. in when the angular velocity a constant. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. and rate of change of current. Equation C.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Equation 2.3. Inductance. mass increases. in abamperes per second. INERTANCE 2. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. in abvolts. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. MASS. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. given by dd . Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. is defined as 2. which opposes a change of velocity.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. that during angular acceleration. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Moment of Inertia. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases.

decreases. Inertance. effective length of the tube. 1940. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. is.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in centimeters. Van Nostrand Co." D. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. in dyne centimeters. New . Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. cross sectional area in square centimeters.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. in p = density of the meter. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.. in centimeters. York. in grams.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. Equation 2.10 m = S = mass. volume current. inertance. in rate of change of 2. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. in dynes per square centimeter. D. in radians per second per second. in grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance M. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in cubic centimeters per second per second. and driving pressure. that tion. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.

Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. Electrical Capacitance. Rotational Com- pliance.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. abvolts. Rectilineal Compliance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. in abcoulombs. and stored. and electromotive force.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.14 = Jm = displacement. . Rectilineal Compliance. in abfarads. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B.n Equation 2. in centimeters. and applied force. Electrical capacitance Cg. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Acoustical Capacitance A. in dynes is Equation 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. electrical capacitance is Equation 2.13 states that the charge on an force. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand.4. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. It is a constant.

Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. defined in equation 2. 9. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. Rotational Compliance.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in grams per cubic centimeter. density. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. p = where c c^ps 2. Equation 2.17 s = * Olson. in centimeters per second. Van Nostrand Co.16 p s — = = velocity. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. Acoustical Capacitance. It is constant. and applied torque. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. and condensation. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement." p. It is constant. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. C. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. D. Rotational compliance Cu-. D. allowed to unwind. in radians per centimeter per dyne. 1940.. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. in dyne centimeters. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. .17. in is The terms of the condensation. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas.^ in dynes per square centimeter. New York. in radians.

The electrical elements. . mechanical rectilineal. From equations 2. Representation of Electrical. = ^ F 2. and 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. is 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.21 F= volume.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.16.X 2. in cubic centimeters. and volume displacement. equal to the volume displacement. 2.19 and 2. electrical resistance.17. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. Equation 2.5.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2. Mechanical Rectilineal.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. From equations 2. in cubic centimeters. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. .

move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.1. mechanical rectilineal. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. rE . 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

1. length L and time T. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. self-inductance. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.1 and 2. the standard modifiers for all four systems. 1. Tables 2. Table 2. 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. and time. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.3 uses mass M. The dimensions given in Table 2.24 sions are mass. length.1 page and list and 2. ^ The Tables 8. . rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. Further. inertance and time.1.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. ELEMENTS and time. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical.3.

and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. namely. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rectilineal. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mass.1. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. 3. 3. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. From these definitions it is evident that friction. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. mechanical rotational or In other words. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rectilineal.1. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity.

velocity. kinetic. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. Heat is a transient form of energy. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. mechanical rotational. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. potential and heat energy. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. Electrical. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. C. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. Cr = T. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. namely. 3. In the electrical. mechanical rectilineal.1. mechanical rectilineal. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon .

all the air particles in the opening move with the . in radians per second. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. It is assumed that same phase.3 = moment of inertia. and current through the inductance L. 3. in grams. The sum of the kinetic. cross-sectional area of the opening.3. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. X— X Sx = volume current. mechanical rotational. equal to the system. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in abamperes. in cubic centimeters per second. by the principle of conservation of energy. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. mass of air in the opening. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. electrical. in abhenries. in centimeters per second. in grams per (centimeter)*.2 m = X mass. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. and heat energy during an interval of time is.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. the inertance. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. potential. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. and velocity of the = mass m.4 M= m = S — m/S^. in grams. mechanical rectilineal.

The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in abcoulombs. in abfarads. in centimeters.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in centimeters per second. and <l> angular displacement. in centimeters per dyne.. in grams per cubic centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter. dyne.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. s — stiffness of the spring. = -. in dynes per centimeter. and charge on the capacitance. and c = velocity of sound.4. p = density of air.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. in cubic centimeters. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. ^ 3. and X = displacement. . in radians. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.

Wr. mechanical Wm. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. force.12 where We.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. mechanical rotational.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. in abohms.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. in abamperes. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.17 = = is electrical resistance.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. +— + XX 3.y- 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.18 . and current. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. . and acoustical systems.: 3..+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .5. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.

Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.6. and angular velocity. in rotational ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. and X= 3. and velocity. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. in acoustical ohms. in mechanical ohms. in radians per second.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. in centimeters per second. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.22 = acoustical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.

26.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3..26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.32 „.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. — -—- JO^ Cm . Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.28 and 3.24.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.

. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. and Cr.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7.7^ Ca 3.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the angular velocity and torque.38 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the impedance is m and Cm.jo>I — — 3. the velocity and force.

mechanical rectilineal. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. .45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.8. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.42 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.Ce r^ 3.

3. 3.1.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. namely. Equation 3.49 „ .48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.1.24. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.

55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.26.55 is the same as equation 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.51 is the same as equation 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3. .28.

59 is the same as equation 3. mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. Equation 3. .36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.59. and acoustical systems. Equations 3.43 to 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. inclusively. 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.30.

the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. MECHANICAL Electrical.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL.1. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series.1.1. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . 4.2. 4. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. velocity. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. 4. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.

in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in abamperes.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in grams.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.4 M = inertance. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.3. and = h = current. in radians per second.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. and velocity of the mass m.2 where x^ m = = mass. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.1 93 L = inductance. . in cubic centimeters per second. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in centimeters per second. in abhenries. in branch 3.

in abfarads. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in centimeters. in radians. in abamperes. in abcoulombs. in qz ohms. and <i>2 angular displacement.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance.5. and — current.DISSIPATION 4. per dyne.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. . 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.4. in cubic centimeters. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 4. and displacement. and X2 = volume displacement.

VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in cubic centimeters per second. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . 2 d<t>n dcj). in rotational ohms. and velocity.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. in acoustical ohms. current.12 = acoustical resistance. mechanical ohms.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in radians per second. and angular velocity.6.i 4. and Xs = volume 4. in centimeters per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.

1 is h = H Equation 4.8.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.21 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.7.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. e = = Lqz-[. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.23.24 Differentiating equation 4.18.22.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.20 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.rsqz 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.17. at/jf. The linear displacement. 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.13.14.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.19 +k 4. 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. 4.25 .

30. = = /03 + rij^g 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.27. in the acoustical system. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. . p = MXa + vaXz 4.42 4. Fig. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. at p. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.16.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. 4.10.31. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.9. The angular displacement. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. 4.29 4.32 ing piston.15. Jb /. at/^j.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.26.1.26 ^ The 4.

given by ^3 JM is 4.33. shows again that resistance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. 4. 4. to mechanical rotational resistance.29 and 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.1 to 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. Fig. and to acoustical resistance.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. inertance acoustical system. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. inclusive.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. 4.1. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. Fig.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .11. vm.19.1. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.25. mass. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. inductance.

given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. 4. is given by k The = f".44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.43 volume current Xi at given by X. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. Fig. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. X2 = Xi . Fig..45 . = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. 4.1.X3 = pjccCa 4. is .39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.1. 4. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.

47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. 54.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 55 and 56 and Fig. 4.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.1 of Chapter V.3. . A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The electrical impedances z^i. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.48 JwCe3 Cr. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 4. see pages 53.12.2 are as follows: 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 1 tional systems of Figs.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.2.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. 5. 4. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.

The shunt electrical. 4. 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. moment of inertia and inertance L2.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.— JwLmz Zb.57 The system shunt in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. 4. I2 and M2.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. mass. compliance. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.3 is the as that of Fig.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4.60 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.55 jwLai 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.59 4. 4. mechanical rectilineal. Ce2.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.

62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.65 2^22^3 . An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.3.

L.«i. 4. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.412^3 + 4. Ca. Cei. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.67 .t 4. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . I2.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Electrical. 4. 4. Cri. Cb2 .4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.\.4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. to /i. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Cm\. Mechanical Rectilineal. L2. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . mechanical rectilineal. m2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom.13.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. 4.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.3.

4.89 . (h and 04 X2. 4>i. the linear velocity Xq. Xi. nA where zei = .82 4. X2.84 4. i^ in show that /q. Cai. 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . M2. 4>2.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.80 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.86 4. The current to.74 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.83 ZA2 4.78 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. Xi.76 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. ^ zjji = . in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.88 4. X3 rectilineal system.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. h. to 4>o.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. 01 4.90 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.98 . 4.1UU ^^^ pZA. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.93 Ha = The current ii.{ZA3jrZA.92 4.. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . the linear velocity Xi.99 r^r^ .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.95 . the linear velocity X2.97 The current i2. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.) Ha ^_^^j .

Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. = The equations cal. the linear velocity X4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.107 .„.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. . ^^^ 4.102 X3 4.-riE . 4.105 current 4.106 . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. J~iR X.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.

electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. characteristics. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. 52 .1.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. termed the input and output electrical impedances. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. mechanical rotational. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. 5. mechanical rectilineal. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope.^ an inductance. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. 5.1. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.2.

that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. branch is current flows in z^i.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.1. 5.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. Fig. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .

5. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. = = xx -\- X2 5. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3.1. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. consists of a system of gears. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . ^2. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. respectively.1 with the same tions. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. With these specifications the differential of Fig. as for example. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. must be in parallel. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. SAA. respectively. Xt Differentiating equation 5. analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. Z/jt. That is. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. relations existing between//. shown schematically in Fig. respectively. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. Equation 5. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /.3.. </>!. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. </)r. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . 5. respectively. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. Fig. the differential used in automobiles and tractors.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4.4 That is.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

reactance .2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. mechanical and acoustical analogies.2.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. 5. equations 5. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.12 relatively large 59 and 5. 5. equations 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2. 5. ^^^^. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.17 where / = moment of inertia.13 and 5.

42 = joiM 5. 5. Equations 5. Fig. Therefore. 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.20 where Cm = compliance. The acoustical system of Fig.18 where M= inertance. in abfarads.3 is = T^ 5. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.2. 5.5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. in grams per (centimeter)*.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.3.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.11 and 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.14 and 5. . 5.2. from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne.

3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.13 and 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.3. inversely proportional to the frequency.3 is 1 2fi2 5.3. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.12 and 5. at Equa- tions 5. Fig. 5.21 show that at low frequencies . 5.12 to the and 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. The mechanical the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. 5.20 is shown in Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.3.

.3.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. in abhenries. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. equations 5. 5.14 and 5. 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance.4 in series across a line. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.4.11 and 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. tional. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. in abfarads. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6.23. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5. and electrical capacitance.3.13 and 5.12 = ^-^ 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The shown in Fig.

24. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output angular 5. in grams. in gram (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.4.24 where m = mass. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.25 where / = moment of inertia. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 and .INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. and Cu = rotational compliance. 5. and compliance. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.25. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.

Equations 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. The output volume 5. .26 where M= Ca = inertance. in Fig.2 and there is very little attenuation.5 parallel across a line. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. in grams per (centimeter)''.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. current can be obtained from equations 5.5.7. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.12 and 5. 5.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5.26.4. acoustical capacitance. 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.24 also is zero. 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.11 and 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne.

27. 5.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.28 where m = mass. 5. in centimeters per dyne. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.27 where L = Ce = inductance. and compliance.5 is jo}L -£2 5.28. 5.J^mCM 5.12 and 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in grams. Cm = The output . in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. and electrical capacitance. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in abhenries. in abfarads. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

1 - 5.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.13 and The output angular 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.11 and 5. Equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.3 and the transmission is again small. and = rotational compliance.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.^MC. and acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5.29. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.14 and 5.5 is ZR2 = . 5. in gram (centimeter)^. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 and 5. . Equations 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.13 and 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency..29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .2 and the transmission is small. in grams per (centimeter)*.30. 5. 5.

inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.min. in abhenries. 5.6 shows an electrical resistance. . The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. itance in series.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. in abfarads. in shunt with a line. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.11 and 5. 5. in abohms. 5. inductance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.31.6.8. and electrical capacitance. Electrical Resistance. 5. in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.6. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.3 and there is very little attenuation.32. 5.34. Therefore. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. of inertia. in grams per (centimeter)*. compliance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. in grams. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.2 and there is very little attenuation.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . inertance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. The output volume 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. The output and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 and 5. in rotational ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. mass.33. and rotational compliance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5. 5. in acoustical ohms. from equations 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Therefore.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.14 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5.7. 5.6. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. and electrical capacitance. in abfarads.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Therefore.35.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.9. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. Therefore. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.36. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in mechanical ohms.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. and compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. 5. from equations 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal. in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in Fig. mass. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.6.7 shows an electrical resistance. from equations 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in abhenries. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams.4. quencies the same as that of Fig. inductance. 5. in abohms. .12 The output and 5.11 and 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.

in radians per and dyne per centimeter. inertance. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in grams per and 5.14 Ca = 5.37 where ru Cb. rotational compliance.38. The output and 5.37.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. S. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.7. of inertia. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical resistance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. = = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. acoustical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''.

electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. Fig.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.7. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.2 and the transmission is small. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.7. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.3 and the transmission is again small. termed the input and output electrical impedances. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.12 and 5. 5.10. 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. Fig. However. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.14 and 5.5. output electrical impedance. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5.11 and 5. inductance. 5. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.13 and 5.7.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. .^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.7.7. 5. 5.

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.40 ZM2.11. 5. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.43 = p = 2. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. output acoustical impedance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. .8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. in abhenries.41 input acoustical impedance. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.42 Zas.43 where L = inductance.

44 where tn = mass.8 equations 5. characteristic.8. in grams. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. in gram (centimeters)^. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.45 where / = moment of inertia.8 is = jo)I 5. 5.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.8 is = j^m 5. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. . If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.8. 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5.8. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.39 and 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.

8.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . 5. 5. 5.46 where M= inertance.48.42 and 5. The acoustical system of Fig. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5. acoustical Equations 5. in abfarads. Equation 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.8 equations 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.41 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.12. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.

At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. frequency characteristic.9.40 and 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.48 where Cm — compliance. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne. 5. 5. is ance relatively large to motion.9.9 to the frequency. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. .9.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.9 is ^R2 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. is inversely proportional Equations 5. is 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.9 = 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. Fig. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.l/2 Fig.47.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.

be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. compliance of the suspension system. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. analogous to an in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. Equations 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. 5. 5. in square centimeters.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.50.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and per = area of the diaphragm.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm.9.10. dyne. .50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.13.41 and 5.42 and 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.9 is 2. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. 5. Equation 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.9.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. 5.

rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. 5. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and C_if compliance. in grams.52. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.53 where m = = mass. in radians per dyne per centimeter.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in centimeters per dyne. in abhenries. and = rotational compliance.39 and 5. in abfarads.53.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in gram (centimeter)^.40 and 5.10.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The mechanical system of Fig. 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. and electrical capacitance. .10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. and again the transmission is small. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5.41 and 5.8. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.10. in grams per (centimeter)*. and the transmission is small.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. and acoustical capacitance. 5. 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.54. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. .50.55.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.42 and 5.9 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.14. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Equations 5.42 and 5.11. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.39 and 5.41 and 5. connected in with a line.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.40 and 5. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. 5.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. and compliance. in grams.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.56. in abfarads. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in centimeters per dyne. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 5.11 is 2/22 = :. The mechanical system of Fig. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 5.1/2 = 1 — S. 5.57.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. and electrical capacitance.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.40 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.11 is - 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.

5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.42 == 5. in grams (centimeter)^. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. . 5. Electrical Resistance.39 and 5.41 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.59 where M= Ca = inertance.9 and again the attenuation is small. inductance and line. 5.41 The output angular 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 is -. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. ance of Fig.12. 2. 5. and acoustical capacitance. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. Equation 5.11. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.58. Equations 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.40 and 5.15. and = rotational compliance.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.59. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 equation 5. 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5.

5. in mechanical ohms. in abfarads. m = Cm = mass.40 and 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.61. compliance.12. 5. 5. in grams.60.62 . in abhenries.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in centimeters per dyne. in abohms.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . inductance.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance. and capacitance. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.39 and 5.

60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.12. Therefore. The output and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. However.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.12. and Cr = rotational compliance. in rotational ohms. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. the acoustical reactance is zero. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. 5. and the transmission is small.63. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.42 and 5.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. Fig. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. current can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. Therefore. 5. .42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.12. Therefore.40 and 5.12 is 2. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.coC.41 and 5. Therefore.12. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. and again the transmission is small. Fig. from equations 5. in acoustical ohms.39 and 5. 5. where vr / = moment of inertia.10. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.62. 5.8. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in gram (centimeter)^. from equations 5. 5.12.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. 5. Fig.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.4 -T-z^ 5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. 5.

5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.65 .THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. in abhenries.13.13. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. 5.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 is ZM2 = r. inductance line. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abohms.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. Electrical Resistance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.39 and 5. 83 Parallel.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.13 shows an electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.64. Electrical resistance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. and electrical capacitance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. inductance. 5. in abfarads.16.

therefore. from equations 5.40 and 5.39 and 5.40 and 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. and compliance. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in where tm mechanical ohms.13.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in acoustical ohms. 5. 5.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. 5.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. current can be obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5. in grams. The output and 5. 5. from equations 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.13.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. Therefore. mass.9 and the attenuation is small. and Cr = rotational compliance. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.8 and the attenuation is small.67. ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. inertance. Fig. The output volume 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.65.13 is = jo^rAM ~.41 and 5.13. Therefore. 5. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. the acoustical reactance is infinite. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. from . Fig.66.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. Therefore. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.

39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .13. 5.18. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.13.17. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.67 the attenuation ance. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. Referring to equation 5.11. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. that of Fig. 5. Fig. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.42 and 5.14 Mechanical Rotational. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5. 5. 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.

Fig.14 shows a system of made larger. Electrical Rectilineal. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. rectilineal.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5. Equation 5. Equation 5. . 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.15.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Referring to equation 5. Equation 5. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. 5.19.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. larger.

"Zrz. wherein zm\. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. In the same way equations 5. 5. 5. respectively. rm.11.16.17. 5.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. Equation 5. and r. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. rui.21. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. acoustical systems of Fig. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .41 and the output impedances. and r^i and the input impedances. The mechanical rectilineal. 5. mechanical rotational. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. 5. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal.12. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. and Zmz.20. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.16. zri.16. respectively.

14. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.13 and 5. output impedance.18.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. ze2 is rE2. Electrical. 5. Equation 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. In this case zei is the input impedance. 5.17. . This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. 5.17. 5. me- chanical rotational. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Electrical. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.12. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. rectihneal.22.

current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. and of turns on the secondary. ei. 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. velocity and . The force.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. 5.18. Electrical.68 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.18 the electromotive force. and zei represent the electromotive force.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. ACOUSTICAL Fig. ii. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.

78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. of Fig.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. consists of a mass- gear train.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.18. The pressure. /ri. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.18. 5.18.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. 5. 5.77 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. The torque. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.71 = — xi 5.79 . •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. The 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. /mi.

"Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. New York. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. two diaphragms.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. 5. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. ^ Engineering. Xi and 2. . 1940. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer." D. The acoustical transformer of Fig.. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. pi.41 and p2.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.

An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure.. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. 2. 20. 6. A. 1922. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6.. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. G. 528. 92 . mechanical rectilineal. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. I. G. Bell System Tech.. W. Jour. Rev. Vol. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different.1. 1922. 6. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Stewart. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. No. Phys. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. No. p.2. Vol. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell..

Shea. New York. Van New York. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents." D. velocities. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22.. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. velocities. ^ Nostrand Co. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. *' . all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. respectively. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters." D. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies.. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Johnson. Van Nostrand Co. positive and when than four.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. that is. velocities. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies.3. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. 6. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities.

MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.1.2 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.94 6.Ca 6. 6. mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6.4. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.1 zmi zri 6. Electrical.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.8 .1.

15 WC. when uc = 6.17 Equations 6. 6. and the cutoff 6.17. when oip = = = = 6. mechanical rectilineal. when coe 6.2.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. 6.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . when .9 the constants of the systems.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.= -4 6. . inclusive.10 — — 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. linear velocities.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. 6.5. when coc 6. mechanical rotational.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. 2A2 VMC^ . — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.= From and . when coc = .10 and show that the systems of Fig.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when ccc 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

2£1 6.= -4 22 6.= 22 and .27 .26 From the constants of the systems.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .

35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6. .38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.12.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. 5.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . _ 4.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0.44 6. —= Z£2 — 4.lfi)^ ^ -. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . „ when coci = .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. when coci = = 6. —7== VMiCai .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. = — 7= / 6. — — / 1 6. 2.50 V/iGji 0. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.V/2 when WC2^WiC.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.51 VM2C42 = . when wci = — VLiCei . V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .43 Let LiCei = 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. UCe\ (1 6. .. = 1 .46 6.12 =0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.

1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. (1 . -4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.41 .53 —= ZiJ2 -4. one greater than uci and Therefore.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . when .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . —= 2. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.v/2 1 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.

mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. show that the systems of Fig. 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.64 CeiLi 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. are 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.69 . mechanical rectilineal. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. inclusive. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.63.56 to 6.4.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. linear velocities.7. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.

ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6. 6.76 .73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. Electrical.4.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.74 6.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. mechanical rectilineal. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.

6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .78 —= ZR2 0.83 —= Z^l 2.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when. . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. 6. M\Ca\) 4. when uci = and cca oo 6. —= Zr\ -4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. —= zei -4. when (1 .82 .42 -4. when (1 .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . .79 ^— = ZA2 0.77 —— = ZM2 0.-4. when oici = and wa = =0 6. . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. or. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.84 .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

8 where m = = /m — V mass. in dynes. velocity.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.5 where aE = Te/L. in centimeters per second. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. rectilineal resistance. in grams.2. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7. unit torque and unit pressure. 7. respectively.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. .5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. and driving force.2.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. The current is zero = 0. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. unit force. shown in Fig. 7.2. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. The graph depicts the current. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7.

1/riv/.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.12 = — - e"^') 7. = mechanical rotational resistance. in gram (centimeter)^.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. ohms. in radians per second. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. 7. and = torque.2.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). as shown in Fig. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. in dyne centimeters. 7. in rotational = angular velocity. .2.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.

in cubic centimeters.22 . The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. in dynes per square centimeter.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. as shown in Fig.2. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).2. in grams per (centimeter)*.17 where aji — Vr/ I. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. the solution of equation 7.20 where M= ta inertance. 7. in acoustical ohms.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.16 7. and p = sound pressure. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. = acoustical resistance. U = volume current.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. From is the tables of operational formulas.

electrical resistance series.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. 7. in abohms. and electromotive force. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . From is the tables of operational formulas. the solution of equation 7.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. current.28 ve . The electrical indicial admittance is ^. 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. in abamperes. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.3.22 111 may be written.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.2.e-^ in Fig.4.24 JA{t) = " (1 .27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. electrical resistance. the solution of equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. 7. 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. in abvolts.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.

/ The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.30 P)rM where a. unit force.y = l/rjfCv/. respectively. unit torque and unit pressure. force. From the tables of operational formulas. in dynes. is The for / shown in Fig.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7 3. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.3. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. shown in Fig. velocity. in centimeters.31 . in mechanical ohms. 7. in centimeters per dyne. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance.3.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. mechanical rectilineal resistance. linear velocity.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. the solution of equation 7. The graph depicts the current.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.3.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. as shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters per second.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.33 where aR = IIvrCr. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.3. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. acoustical resistance.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance.3. as shown in Fig. .3. in dyne centimeters. 7.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. angular velocity. 7. in dynes per square centimeter. and torque. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. is shown in Fig. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. and sound pressure. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational resistance. volume current. 7. in radians per second. in acoustical ohms. 7. is shown in Fig. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.

7. (a + ^ Pfa . > and approaches the value zero as a 7. is shown 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. in current. abohms. in abvolts. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. in abhenries. abamperes.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical resist- ance. electrical resistance.5.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . and electromotive force. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.3.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.38 ^. as in Fig. in abohms.4. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. in electrical capacitance. 1 7. . inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.

for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. . respectively. the solution of equation 7. velocity.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. unit force.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. The response sinusoid. unit torque or unit pressure.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.45. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. The graph depicts the current. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. series Response of an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7. 7.^.4. 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.4.

mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. 1 A\ m = mass. in centimeters.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. 1 AC. and driving force. in dynes. in centimeters per second. v for x. 7. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in centimeters per dyne. velocity.47 . displacement. in grams. in centimeters per second per second.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. Substituting equation 7. acceleration. rectilineal resistance. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.

si . It is a damped > '^in/Cu. 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. Cr = rotational compliance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.48 The response sinusoid.4. in dyne centimeters. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. in grams (centimeter).51 = moment of inertia.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in rotational ohms. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. 4> = angular acceleration. and 4> Jr = driving torque. 7. is of inertia. equation 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. = angular displacement.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. in radians per second. = angular velocity. in radians. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second per second. lAA. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. 7.4_S. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.

7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. WR^ 2 1 7.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . It is a damped sinusoid. = '^I/Cr.. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. .118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.45.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.4C.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. lAA.56 ^PR = Jo.

Substituting U for X. acoustical capacitance. at equation 7. acoustical resistance.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms. in dynes per square centimeter.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. as in Fig. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.4. 7. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per (centimeter)^. and pressure.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.

6. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.5.45.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation. . 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. 7. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. cca^ = 4M/Ca.

The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. etc. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. 7.u)du du 7. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. etc. «i. 7.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. <?i at / = Ae.5. Therefore. an electromotive force ei is added. The indicial electrical admittance.68 . all being of the unit type. an electromotive force ^2 is added.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . The This proof. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. a time «2 later. tem. integral. as in the case of the preceding sections.5. as shown in Fig.. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.

u)du 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.72 .3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . mechanical rotational rectilineal.69 fR{u) — AR{t .u)du du u)du 7.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. The velocity.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. 7.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.

.

It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. the electrostatic. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . 8. the electromagnetic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.2. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.1.

ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. field in which depicted in Fig. in abvolts.2 where x = velocity. The force. termed motional electrical impedance.However. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. When there is only one path. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. length of the conductor. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. L and Ce. From equations 8.1 and 8. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. it is located. due to motion. in gausses. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. The electromotive force.1.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. abohms. 8. circuit will be used instead of network. in using analogies in actual practice. in dynes. in centimeters.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in abamperes. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1 B = / = / = flux density.1. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in centimeters per second. and Ca with vr. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. and current.

8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. in mechanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance zek.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. all of the conductor. Zen in abohms. in the absence of motion. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8. that is.3. which the mechanical There are three general types of . in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.3. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in abohms. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in 8.6 The 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.1. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in chanical ohms.4 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.

The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. A. the unpolarized armature type. Unpolarized Armature Type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Assume that all the reluctance . namely. Consider the system shown in Fig.2. Since there is no polarizing flux.

v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. in dynes.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. in centimeters. the total flux is <f>T Aa. .13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in abvolts. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. in square centimeters. and a = normal spacing. A = area of the center pole.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. then from equations 8. n = number of turns. C = l-^nA. in abamperes.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. is where / = current in the coil. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.15 The force on the armature.13 and 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.14 e = ^r 8.

8.20 — X From equations 8. 4TrJa*/M .15 and 8. nC^P 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in seconds.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. the force on the armature is Im = '. Substituting equation 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. in mechanical ohms. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms.18 Equation 8.2. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.17 for the current in 8.21 .16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 2irA frequency in cycles per second.16. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. and time.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. mechanical ohms.

2. in oersteds. ^ = area of center pole. from the poles of a permanent magnet. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. this system cannot be used It is. 8. and impedance of the coil. filing — as in Fig.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. a = spacing. Zen in abohms. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. . The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators.19. for converting electrical variations into however. = number of turns. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. B.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in maxwells. 8. in centimeters. Polarized Reed Armature Type.3. in abohms. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. for the reproduction of sound. in abamperes. in gilberts. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. in abohms. Therefore. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. vibrators and clippers. 8. in square centimeters. saws. in abohms.22 = motional electrical impedance. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in mechanical ohms. / = current.20 and 8. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.

o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. in 131 oit maxwells. and time. in abamperes. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit.axsin wt n coil. frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. 27r/. in oersteds.

through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. in maxwells. in square centimeters. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. sidered. in abvolts. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.. the flux will now be 4>x + A. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. due to the steady field. and area of the pole. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in centimeters. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. Ax -\- Ax . __ .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. spacing between the armature and pole. in gilberts.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.^ .30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. the flux.32 „ .

.33. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. ZAfi. in mechanical ohms. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. in abohms.32 and e i = — X 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.34.35 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. 8.38 a Zm .35 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.24 and 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. From equations 8. 8.37. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. fu = MNi ~r — .34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. ~ 8.3. in me- chanical ohms. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.

38 is similar to equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. ARMATURE MAGNET . 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. C. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. Equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. and impedance of the coil.3. in abohms. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.

in abamperes.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. in dynes.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in oersteds. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in maxwells. in maxwells. The . which the coil energizes. 8. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. i?2 = = coil. 8. in dynes. The steady magnetic field is force. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. and yf effective area.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. of the pole piece. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. The flux. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. at each pole magnet. in square centimeters. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. The sum of the forces. at the poles (Fig. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current .4.

<^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. in mechanical ohms.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in centimeters.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in merectilineal chanical ohms. through the armature to the right and upward. and effective area of a pole piece. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. of the steady field.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in mechanical ohms. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in gilberts.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. and zm2 impedance of the load.45. in abvolts. .136 flux.44 A. in square centimeters. rectilineal impedance of the armature. 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. NMA —^x a^ 8.4.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.

rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50 and 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.43 =-^ 8.50.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. Zm\. .

galvanometers. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.4. system of Fig. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. This driving system is used for loud speakers. 8. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. Therefore.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM .

If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. The force. the fourth term will be negligible.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. The useful force.60 From equations 8. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statfarads. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. in dynes. on the condenser is q considered.57 numerator of equation 8. is The current. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge.59 and 8. in statcoulombs. ^o^max sin wt . in statvolts. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. and capacity per unit area.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statfarads. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. in dynes. = CeCq 8.62 .57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. in statamperes. motive Cq is large .

4ir(<2 + .68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.66 in 8. . is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .69 . in mechanical ohms. Ax) 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.5. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.61. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. ohms. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 47r(a — 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. the generated current. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. . in stat- amperes.

72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. adding a large stiffness.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. + . driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.58 and 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.5. electrical network in Fig. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.68. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. in statohms. 8. 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. at the same time. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.69 and 8.5.

8. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. current is applied to 2m .6. Consider the system shown in Fig.

The electromotive force. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. due to is the Villari effect. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. induced in the winding. in centimeters. in abamperes. . turns in the coil. and area of the rod. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.X JR 8. in gausses. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. CO/ 8. in seconds. in square centimeters.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. in cycles per second. in current in the abamperes.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. induction is of the nickel rod. coil. e = MJ^ dt 8. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. current. frequency.74 and ehminating the steady force. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in square centimeters. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm .77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. 8.73 Combining equations and 8. and time.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in abvolts.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.

in square centimeters. and Young's modulus. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. The mechanical to one . in abvolts. rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms.78 From equation 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. 8. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.6. in mechanical ohms. length of the rod.

"Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. in abohms. New York. . The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. total in abohms.. as shown by equation 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. The mass mi in Fig.6). Van Nos- trand Co. 1942.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. = motional impedance. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8." D.82 and 8. in abohms — equation 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 8.6. is assumed to be a In general. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.86 Mason. in mechanical ohms.84. 8.79. 8.83 From equations 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.

and Young's modulus.7. length of the rod. in centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. in Fig. in centimeters. in square centimeters.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in square centimeters. and cross section of the rod. 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. 8.80. length of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.

MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. that is. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.84. 8. 8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. A= E = area. The vibrating system of Fig. 8.8. .7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. in square centimeters. 8. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. 8. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.7. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. Young's modulus. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. in dynes.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.7.88 where Jm = total force.7C A and B given in Fig. EA and 8. due to a force. X = 4^. is The deformation per unit length. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. 8. air load and support resistance.8.

8.88 and 8.. equations 8. 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. . c„ .8 and Young's modulus. the data of Fig. B = A= From and area. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. in square centimeters.6.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. flux density.89 K = magnetostriction constant.

in square centimeters. in statcoulombs.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. due to the application of a force. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.91 and 8. is . and The displacement. 4 = length of the crystal. and A = cross-sectional area.92 X From = 8. due an applied force.4 force. in dynes. E = Young's modulus. q is 149 = KJu 8. equations 8.93 . X to 10~* for quartz. in dynes. in centimeters.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. 6.

101 From equations 8. 8.100 and 8.97.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. zmi and z.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. in mechanical ohms. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. . 8. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. in mechanical ohms.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.9. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. and E = Young's modulus. / centimeters. in centimeters. in square = length of the crystal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. in statohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . namely. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.1.3. 9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.

9. . is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. spacing between the armature and pole.2. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9. in abohms.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. area of the pole. and velocity of the armature. in abohms.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. and impedance of the external load. in maxwells. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in square centimeters.2. in gilberts. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. force. 9.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. is The velocity of the armature.6 ze = = = = = total flux. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. due to the steady field. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. through the armature. and + ZE2. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in centimeters. in centimeters per second. coil. in centimeters.

Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. 9. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.3. flows through the armature. r~ .

In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. i?2 = reluctance. in abohms.3. is The /m Zm + 9. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in abohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. as depicted 9.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. in maxwells.3. M. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in oersteds. The current.11 zme From equations 9. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. of the magnet.4. velocity of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in statamperes. = magnetomotive force. in centimeters. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.9 and 9. in A .67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9. in centimeters per second. in gilberts. a = spacing between armature and pole. 9.

in statohms. in centimeters. in statfarads. The current.4 e is t2 9. in statamperes. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. in statvolts.14 where e = electromotive force. and velocity of the X movable plate. 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. ^= a area of the plate. in statvolts. spacing between the plates.stationary "plate . Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. electrical and impedance of the external load. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.

across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. in statfarads. in statvolts.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. is Ze2 in parallel. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. a spacing between plates.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. in centimeters.18 Zme) . area of the plates.17 zme e From equations 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. 9. electrical impedance of the external load.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. X in centimeters per second. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in square centimeters. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. is The velocity of the movable plate.4. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. = Zm /^^ + 9. e. electrical and 9.15 and 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.4.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in statohms.

= — a CnX 9.24 and fi 9. . = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.E1 = -r—.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.19. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.25 Comparing equations 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.23 Substituting equation 9.21 Substituting equation 9.26 .= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.23 in 9.22.25.21 in 9.

the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. coil. shown in Fig. The volt- age. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil.5. is ^tNK 9. In the mechanical circuit: zm. However. The magnetostriction magnetic generator.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. ZEi.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. in abvolts.5. 9. 9. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. zme. zei. Equation 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.27 . In the electrical circuit: e. from equation 8. L\ and rE\. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. coil. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. Magnetostriction generating system.26 and an internal impedance zei.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.

where A'^ = number of turns in the coil.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod.79 or 8. . and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. in centimeters. 9. in centimeters per second.5. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. length of the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. electrical electrical wavelength. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. in abohms. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. force. and impedance of the external circuit. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. - £ 9. in abohms. and Young's modulus. in square centimeters. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.

in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. in Fig.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.86 and 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.27 and 9. to be a In general.6. are given by equations 8. 9. ohms. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.32 From abvolts. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.28. equations 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. .31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6.32 the generated electromotive force. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in mechanical = ohms.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.5.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. 9.

z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. 9. mass and compliance of the rod.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. ZMi.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. 6. generated The h = —. A. zei. zei. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.6 can be obtained from equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. cross-sectional area of the crystal. in Fig. where KEJ — •* 9. In the mechanical networks: /m. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. . the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. in statamperes. + 9. in centimeters. the driving force.6. 9. = = length of the crystal. the effective Zjv/i. 2_bi j<^Li.4 X 10~* for quartz.6. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. in centimeters per second. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. and velocity of the crystal. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B.7. the other. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. zme. mi and Cmi. Li and tei. in square centimeters. E= 4 = Young's modulus. In the electrical circuits: e. in centimeters. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.27 and the velocity. 9. length of the crystal.

in statohms.35 Ze where e = electromotive force.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. crystal. 9.34 force e. electrical and impedance of the external load. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. Ce\. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.7. electrical and 9. z^'i zei. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 2_b2.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statvolts.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. circuit: e. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . From equations 9. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. in statfarads. in statamperes.

the crystal. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.4 X 10~* for quartz.97 or 8.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. A = area of the electrode. in statfarads. and „ „„ 9. in statohms. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in centimeters.7.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. 4 = length of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. 9. E = Young's modulus. in centimeters.41 .40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. length of the crystal. electrical impedance of the external load. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. length of in centimeters.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. and E= Young's modulus. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in square centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.

9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel.47 . in centimeters per second.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. zm2 in mechanical ohms. in mechantotal ical ohms.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. in mechanical ohms.7. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.= where i. is . depicted equations 9.45 .36 and 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.

The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.48. in Fig. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.49 Substituting 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . 9.49 in 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.45.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. Equation 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. However.50 and 9.104 and 8.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.8.47 in 9.51.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. e.

OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. Piezoelectric generating systems. Zm2. In the mechanical networks: Jm. zme. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the driving force. In the electrical circuits: e.37. ze\.45 and the velocity. A. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /.8 can be obtained from equation 9. the electrical impedance of the external load. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. 9. crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the other. . the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 9. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.8. zei. electrical network of Fig.

Vol. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. Reciprocity Theorems A. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . Then 10. .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable." 171 . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. . z„". 1929. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance.2. e^" . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". produce a current distribution z'l'. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. e^' . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . ' 10. i^' . and superposition theorems to electrical. 6. A number cal systems. /s" . /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . 17. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. No.E. Proc.1. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . 1 Ballentine. the elements.. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. p. 929. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. S.R. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. . . I.

and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.1. /" are the electromotive forces 10. o e . e" and /'.2 = /'/' where e' .1 becomes 10. equation 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.

fB2" . 145. New .3 becomes fu'x" .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. 1940.6 velocities depicted . and provided the applied forces /mi.1. . produce a rotational velocity — .5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10./fl3 . . London. '4>^" . as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. II. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. 4>2" . Van Nostrand Co. 1926. ^ Olson. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. C. D. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces./b' and (J)'. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. MacMillan and Co. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques./ij2. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia.4 where /^f'.fRi" • 4>2./7j2'." D. =/a/V 10.1. p. and provided the applied torques /iji. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. frequency. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. equation 10. mechanical rotational system of Fig. ^2'. 10. equation 10. • distribution ^i'.1..' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . 10. let a set of torques/iji'. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.1.7 p Rayleigh. /ji/2." Vol. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance./ij„ are all of the same . ../m3 all of the same frequency. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. "Theory of Sound. 10. York. fli" are the torques and angular 10. .

5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. 10. 10. 10. - p 1 ..9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. ..+ dv' .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.9 and 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. p"v' 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. equation 10. equation 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.1. . .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. y" .8.9 and 1. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.4 by the p and v of the other set.12 is for a point. 10. v' grad po „ = 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .1.—. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.11 From equations 10.10 From neering" equations 1. 1 . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.174 THEOREMS . dv" — .15 v' .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".13 If.

Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. equation 10. .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . . . . which there are only two pressures. 10.1. pressures and volume currents. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. let also. However. . X2"./". X^ X^. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. velocities. pi. Then — ." a second volume current distribution Xi". . . produce a volume current distribution Xi. . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.19 . produce pn.1. X2. . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. . . 10. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. pz same frequency. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements.16 becomes . and let a second set of pressures ^i". .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . . . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. E. X^" Xn" Then . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. 10. . . . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10.

C. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.21 . . n Then 10. Mechanical-acoustical.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. . px L.S. P"X' tn\ B M . Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. D.2^. HX* E p"X D Fig. — In . forces n and velocities.S. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. Electrical-mechanical. . P"X' i" L. L. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. currents.S. an interconnected e\ . .2.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. 10. let also. E. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. F. . The 10. i" . B. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. . .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .

acoustical. acoustical transducer. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. field.23 states that a if. . The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. 10. electrical transducer. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. mechanical. e'i" = e"i' 10. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. 2D. e"i' 10. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. mechanical.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.23 . G. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. Electrical-Mechanical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. me- chanical. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. is H. Electrical-Mechanical. Theorem.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.2C. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. 10.2fi.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. as shown in Fig.

lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. 10. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. = p"X' 10. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. as shown in Fig. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB.24 Thevenin's Theorems A.178 I.2£. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. D. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.3. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .

force. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. velocity. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. Each source. forces. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. velocities. .4. forces. current.

analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Convert the answer into the original system. by acoustical capacitances. muffler is quite effective.1.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. Introduction The fundamental lineal. An exhaust back pressure. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. However. principles relating to electrical. However. 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 .2.

Therefore.1. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. The system of Fig. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.However. with rft.M and Ca for an acoustical system. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. When there is only one path. . circuit will be used instead of network. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. 11. 11. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. 11. in Fig.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. in the audible frequency range.u.

The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. sate for approximations. 11.3. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.3.182 APPLICATIONS In general. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. 11. . system the unpolarized type described in section 8. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.2.

11. 11.w2. .1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. nii and r. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. in dynes. 11. 11.4. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. zem. radiator tube. rMi and Ci. In the mechanical circuit: m\. and . the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. force can be determined /m 11.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit..3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. in mechanical Jm = driving force.3. the mass of the cone.3.3." I"*. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. The mechanical driving from equation 8. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. 11.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . teg.1. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.7. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.

loud speakers. in mechanical ohms.. comphance of the damper. phonograph pickups.4. Olson. etc. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. These systems include microphones. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation." D. is The sound power output. 11. velocity of the cone. .2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.YWHEEL I. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. In the mechanical network: A. 11. m. New York. Van Nostrand Co. 11. measuring cal systems. 1940. of inertia of the flywheel. The simple vibration fly- damper. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. FX.5. in centimeters per second. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. telephone receivers. given by 11. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 .184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. F. the moment Cg. and the shaft. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig.4. shown ^ in Fig. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system.

vF. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. B. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. z. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring./ is due to the . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.5. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig.SA. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.SA. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. the mass of the machine. the mass of the machine. A. Cm /4 and 4rM . 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. W. W. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.6. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. ciple of the device. The driving force/i. 11. Jm. /jf. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. isolator. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The shunt mechanical vibration. zmf.

the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. 11. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Jm.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. these values springs. only isolation in the system of Fig. 11. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. the compliance and mechanical mi. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. consists of the following elements: nii. 11.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.7. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system.6. isolating mechanical network.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. 11. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. pressor. mi. . shown in Fig. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. the mass of the case. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig.

7. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. zmf. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. 11. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 11. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Cm2 and ^1-/2. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The mechanical network of Fig. the system in Fig. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. Of course. the mass of the case. 11. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor.8.v/i/4. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. . shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 187 Cmi and rui. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.

in general. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. r. the mass of the frame. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome.8. 11. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. tmi.9.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. 11. Cmi and tires. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. Cm2. Cm2.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/.u 11. the mass of the tire. the mass of the instrument and carriage. m2. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. engine. the compliance of the spring suspension. body. the combined driving force at the four legs. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. mum. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. 11. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. Cms a-nd r. m-i.v/3. etc. 11. the driving force at each tire. both rectilineal and rotational.7.v/2. the compliance of the spring. This system has many degrees of freedom. wheel and axle.

4rif 2.8. 4?ni. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. 189 m^. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. 11. the mass of the frame.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Cji/2/4. the mass of the passenger. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. the combined driving force at the four tires. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. . the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. Cms and r. the compliance of the four springs. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. body and engine. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr ./ifi the comtires. mi. the compliance of the springs. However. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. m^. 4:rM2. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4.i/a. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the driving force.\f 1. view. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. Since there are four tires. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. Cms. the mass of the passenger. wheels. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mass of the four tires. fn2. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. springs and shock absorbers. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small.

— — —A — . A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. 11. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. Most of the forces. which controls the oscillations. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. An electrical resistance. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. Acoustical Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. Supplementary Note: Electrical. Mechanical Ohm. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. Electrical abohm. As already indicated. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. For example. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. that is. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. Rotational Ohm. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. mechanical rectilineal. developed at the tires. an automobile has several modes of vibration. pitching or swaying motion. mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical resistance.6. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

13. 23 mechanical. 107 Transients. 5 Transformer. 11 instantaneous. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 10. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. ohm. 178 acoustical. 21. 13. 187 Torque. 22 networlcs. 41 mechanical rotational. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 6 Stiffness. 21. 28 Subharmonic. 178 electrical. 6 Sound effective. 32 Rotational. 13. 178 mechanical rotational. 21. compliance. 88 mechanical rotational. 6 Transducer. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 23 maximum. peak. 9. 105 arbitrary force. 22 mechanical rotational. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 171 acoustical. 6 Static pressure. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 184 Rotatomotive force. 61. 85 rotational. 188 Systems. 9 resistance. 9. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 mechanical rectilineal. electrical-mechanical. reciprocity. 111 electrical resistance. 177 reactance. 18. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 6. acoustical. 9. 37 and analogies. 6 maximum. 45 instantaneous. 10. 9. 21.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 25 three degrees of freedom. 42 inductance and series coupled. 6 instantaneous. acoustical. 6 14 pressure. 10. 22. 9. 6. 13. (see cor- effective. 23 Theorems. 6 peak. automobile. 48 two degrees of freedom. 88 electrical. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 171 Resonant frequency. electrical Superposition theorem. 6 peak. 37. 179 Thevenin's. 122 . 178 electrical. 88 Transient response. 172 mechanical rotational. 45 electrical. 23 23. 6 maximum. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 9. 13. 23. 9. 17.) 195 Table. 179 Suspension systems. impedance. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 35 effective. 22. 10. 18. 120 Duhamel's integral. 6. 42 one degree of freedom. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 173 superposition.

165. 146. 92. cut quartz crystal. 8 instantaneous. 37. 148 machine isolator. high pass. 106 163 Volume current. 93. 7 Vibration. 94 response characteristics. 5 maximum. peak. 106 unit function. 149. 5 filters. 92. 45 Unit function. band pass. 92. 7. 101 instantaneous. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 20. 22 angular. 23 effective. 93.196 Transients (Cont. 97 93. 21. 23. 143. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 147. 11 loss. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 7 linear. 24 Velocity. 8.) INDEX Villari effect. 95 low pass. Heaviside's Calculus. 184 186 Young's modulus. 163. 144. 8 8 "T" type network. 22. 151. 92. 167 . peak. magnetostriction. "X" isolator. 93. gain. 7. 150. 23 Transmission. 7 Wave. 106 Units. 8 maximum. 11 effective. 7. Wave band elimination.

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