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# Dynamical Analogies

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. an electrical circuit. Lorene E. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. Olson. Harry January. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. W. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. plex arrangements of multielement systems. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. E. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. 1943 F. Olson . By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. engineer. Research Director. in this project. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Engstrom.

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4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Acoustical Capacitance 2.1 3.3 Inductance. Mass. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.1 1 1. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Rotational Compliance. Inertance 2.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Moment of Inertia.5 Representation of Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 Introduction Resistance A.CONTENTS Chapter I. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.2 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.1 2. Inductance B. ELECTRICAL. ELEMENTS 2.3 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.2 4 II. Electrical Resistance B. A. C. Electrical Capacitance B. Acoustical Capacitance A. Mechanical Rectilineal. Rectilineal Compliance C. Rectilineal Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Acoustical Resistance 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.

Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.1 Introduction 37 4.6 4. 4.4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. . MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Two Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.6 62 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. ELECTRICAL.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4..7 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. 60 5.10 The Acoustical System 4.8 67 .1 Introduction 52 5.7 The Electrical System .4 5. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.3 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.5 Equations of Motion 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .6 3. Mechanical Rectilineal..viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.2 4.5 Chapter 3.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4..13 Electrical.7 64 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal..6 6.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.CONTENTS Chapter 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.1 6. WAVE FILTERS 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6..17 5.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 69 71 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.20 5.. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.2 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.10 Series 5.15 Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.21 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.

stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.5 9. THEOREMS 10. C.6 VIII.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.4 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.2 8. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.5 8.1 8. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 9.2 9. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.X Chapter VII.1 10. 1 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. B.2 7. Unpolarized Armature B. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.4 Ill 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 114 120 7.4 9.

Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.CONTENTS Chapter E. APPLICATIONS 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.8 1 1 .5 184 185 11.2 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.4 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.7 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .6 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.

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time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. 1 The acoustical . mechanical and acoustical tems. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered.1. Expressions for the kinetic energy. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. as for example. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. However. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. In other words. vibrating systems. in the early days of electrical circuit theory.

as for example. Elements are the meshes. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. induct- ance and capacitance. springs and brakes. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. various assemblies of masses. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. springs and friction. The branches or meshes are composed of elements.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. . ' The lished.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. cal. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Electrical elements are resistance. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. constituent parts of a circuit. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Of course. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements.

circuit. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. XI. I) and Firestone {Jour. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems.1 of 1942. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. 4. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. No. Soc. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. That is to say. — . all communication. particularly electrical circuits. No. For example. SiemensKonzern. up the mechanical and electrical. d. Acous. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Institute of Radio Engineers. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. 4. Verojf a. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. However. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Hanle {JViss. In addition. Finally. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. Therefore. mechanical and acoustical systems. in the past.. and ratio of pressure to displacement. Vol. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. Therefore. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Vol. In this book. Amer. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. However. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. ratio of force to displacement. every electrical.

Octave. reciprocal of the period. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. all is the frequency. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. a period of jy. or which tity comprises a cycle. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. Cycle. . are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. Definitions ^ this section. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. negative. or zero. where T.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. Frequency. Basic Frequency. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy.2. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. a constant. This called a Fourier series. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. Terms not sections. The remainder. equals 2x divided by the period T. Periodic Quantity. + T). Harmonic. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. a positive constant. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable.

Subharmonic. force. the dyne. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Mechanomotive Force). Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Wavelength. Dyne. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The root unit the abvolt. The unit is the dyne. . Effective Electromotive Force. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. — — Abvolt. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The unit is the abvolt. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. Wave. A wave is a propagated disturbance. mechanical or acoustical system. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). The unit the dyne. Electromotive Force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. time interval The is unit is the abvolt.

. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The unit is the dyne centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The the — Instantaneous Current. Abampere. the dyne per square centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. the dyne centimeter. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). An abampere is the unit of current. the abampere. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). force. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. Effective the total instantaneous torque. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure.

velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. is Centimeter per Second. the centimeter per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. The unit is the centimeter per second. The unit is the abampere.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. the abampere. Peak Velocity. current. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Maximum Current. per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. complete cycle at the point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is Radian per Second. is velocity in that interval. Instantaneous Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. unit is the radian per second. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Maximum Velocity. Effective Angular Velocity. The unit is the abampere. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Effective Velocity. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Peak Current.

gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. times the frequency. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. The unit the abohm. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. Electrical Reactance. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. which. when times the frequency. Effective Volume Current. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval.-W is impedance. The unit the abohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. the cubic centimeter per second. is Electrical Resistance. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. electrical Inductance. for Peak Volume Current. Electrical Impedance. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the cubic centimeter per second. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. where both systems are considered concurrently.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. second. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. is the abohm. To avoid ambiguity in this book. The unit is the abfarad. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. . multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which.

Mass. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. rotational resistance ance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. page I . Acoustical Impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. ' See footnote S. unit is the rotational ohm. Compliance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). The unit is the acoustical ohm. — Compliance The unit is the gram. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Rotational Compliance.

an element in a mechanical rectilineal. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. Mechanical Rectilineal System. Inertance. and rotational compliance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. mass and compliance. Electrical System. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. . inertance and acoustical capacitance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. by "l-w times the frequency. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. when multiplied by times the frequency. the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Acoustical Reactance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Acoustical System. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia. mass and compliance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. In the same way. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Mechanical Rotational System. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance.

angular velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . power delivered to the load under some reference condition. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. mechanical or acoustical. torque. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . pressure or volume current. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. torque or pressure is electrical. For example. voltage. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. pressures or such as forces or velocities. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. force. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . Either of these systems may be electrical. velocity. The bel is the Decibel. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. current. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. force. mechanical rectilineal. — Transmission. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. Transmission Loss {or Gain). The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power.

See footnote page 8. As indicated in the preceding chapter. Electrical Resistance. e rs^-.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. inductance and capacitance. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. 12 .' 2. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. inductor and capacitor. electrical. t 2. 5. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. in abvolts. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. e.1. A resistor.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. and current through the resistance. the vibrating systems.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. resistor. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation.2. is defined as A. Electrical resistance rs. In this procedure. An tinguished from the devices. in abohms. in abamperes. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal.

In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. Equation 2.RESISTANCE B. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Mechanical rotational energy is C. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Acoustical Resistance.3 where Jr d = = applied torque.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. and velocity at the point of application of the force. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction).2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. . is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. is defined as r^ — = y 2. D. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. in dynes. in radians per second. in centi- meters per second.

in grams per cubic centimeter. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. 'Olson. York. slit in the direction of flow. volume current.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. However. in acoustical ohms. and U= Equation resistance current. 1940. slit normal to the direction of flow.5 = viscosity coefficient.4 where p — pressure. a narrow and metal. 1. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. New . 6pww 2. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in centimeters. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit." D. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.86 X 10"'* for air. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. and frequency in cycles per second.. slit normal to the direction of flow. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. in addition to the resistive component. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. Van Nostrand Co. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. d= / thickness of the centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. density. in = width of the meters. 2. resistance. a reaccomponent. in cubic centimeters per second. A tube of small diameter. is defined as VA P = ~ 2.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.

in abamperes per second. Moment of Inertia. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Equation 2. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. is defined as 2. = di Ldt ^ 2.INDUCTANCE. MOMENT OF INERTIA. that during linear when the velocity decreases. in when the angular velocity a constant. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. 15 Inductance. in abvolts. 2. in centimeters per second per second. in abhenries. and driving force. given by dd .6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. mass increases.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. is Inductance L. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration.3. and rate of change of current. Moment of Inertia. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. MASS. Inductance. Inertance A. It decreases when the current decreases. Moment gram (centimeter)^. B.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. which opposes a change of velocity. Equation C. INERTANCE 2. is remains a constant of inertia /. in dynes.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. that during angular acceleration. Mass. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. It remains constant ance. Mass. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. in grams.

in dyne centimeters. volume current.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. New . Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. Equation 2. = length plus end correc- and in the tube.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance M. in centimeters.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass." D. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. is. decreases. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Inertance. and driving pressure. 1940. in centimeters. that tion. in cubic centimeters per second per second. inertance. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. Van Nostrand Co. in rate of change of 2. in dynes per square centimeter. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. in radians per second per second. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. in grams.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. effective length of the tube. in grams per (centimeter)*. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. in p = density of the meter.10 m = S = mass. cross sectional area in square centimeters. York.. D. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2.

It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Electrical capacitance Cg. and applied force. in abcoulombs. in dynes is Equation 2. Electrical Capacitance. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.4. It is a constant.n Equation 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Rectilineal Compliance.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Rotational Com- pliance.13 states that the charge on an force. and electromotive force. abvolts.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. and stored. in centimeters. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. . Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. in abfarads. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.14 = Jm = displacement. Acoustical Capacitance A. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.

in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. D. in is The terms of the condensation. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. Acoustical Capacitance. and applied torque. in radians. in grams per cubic centimeter. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. defined in equation 2. 9. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. and condensation. p = where c c^ps 2. . D. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. New York.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted.^ in dynes per square centimeter.. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. It is constant. Van Nostrand Co. 1940. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. density.16 p s — = = velocity. Equation 2. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. Rotational compliance Cu-. It is constant. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. allowed to unwind. in dyne centimeters.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force.17 s = * Olson." p. in centimeters per second. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Rotational Compliance.17. C.

. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections.17.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.18 X= volume displacement. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. Representation of Electrical. Equation 2. 2. is 2. in cubic centimeters. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. Mechanical Rectilineal. From equations 2.X 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.21 F= volume. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. The electrical elements.19 and 2. and volume displacement. 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance.16. = ^ F 2. electrical resistance. and 2. equal to the volume displacement.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. . in cubic centimeters.5.

is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel.1. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. mechanical rectilineal. rE . Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. 2. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

The dimensions given in Table 2.24 sions are mass. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.1.1 page and list and 2.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. self-inductance.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. the standard modifiers for all four systems. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. inertance and time.1 and 2. Table 2.1. 2. 1. length.3. ^ The Tables 8. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. Further. length L and time T. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. and time.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.3 uses mass M. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.1. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. . Tables 2. ELEMENTS and time.

mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical.2. From these definitions it is evident that friction. mechanical rotational. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit.1. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems.1. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. namely. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. 3. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or In other words. 3. mechanical rectilineal. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mechanical rectilineal.

The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rectilineal.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. namely. In the electrical. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. potential and heat energy. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. Electrical. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. Heat is a transient form of energy. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. C.1. kinetic. Cr = T. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. 3. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. velocity.

mechanical rotational. electrical.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in abamperes. in grams. mass of air in the opening. in grams per (centimeter)*. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in centimeters per second. in abhenries.3 = moment of inertia. equal to the system. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in square centimeters. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. mechanical rectilineal. cross-sectional area of the opening.3. It is assumed that same phase. by the principle of conservation of energy. all the air particles in the opening move with the . and current through the inductance L. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. in grams. the inertance. X— X Sx = volume current. in centimeters per second. and velocity of the = mass m. potential. 3. The sum of the kinetic. and heat energy during an interval of time is. in cubic centimeters per second.2 m = X mass. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in radians per second.4 M= m = S — m/S^.

The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. and charge on the capacitance.4. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in grams per cubic centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter. dyne. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in centimeters per second. s — stiffness of the spring.. and X = displacement. and <l> angular displacement. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in abfarads. . in cubic centimeters. in abcoulombs. ^ 3. p = density of air. = -. and c = velocity of sound.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in dynes per centimeter.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in centimeters per dyne. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters. in radians.

+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. in abohms. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.: 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .12 where We.y- 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. and acoustical systems. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.5.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.18 . and current. +— + XX 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. mechanical rotational. Wr. mechanical Wm.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. in abamperes. .11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. force..17 = = is electrical resistance.

in radians per second.6.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. in mechanical ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. in centimeters per second.22 = acoustical resistance. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. and velocity. in acoustical ohms. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. and angular velocity. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. and X= 3.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.

— -—- JO^ Cm . q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.32 „.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3. 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.28 and 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3..24.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.26.

4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. the impedance is m and Cm.7^ Ca 3. the velocity and force. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. the angular velocity and torque. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7.jo>I — — 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.38 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. .

KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.Ce r^ 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.42 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. mechanical rectilineal. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.8. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. . ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.

48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.24. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. 3. 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.49 „ .51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.1.1.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. namely. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.

The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.55 is the same as equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.51 is the same as equation 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. .54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.28. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.26. Equation 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.

and acoustical systems.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. inclusively. 3.30. .59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.59. Equation 3. Equations 3.43 to 3.59 is the same as equation 3.

In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. MECHANICAL Electrical. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. 4. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. velocity.1. 4.1.2.1. 4. mechanical rectilineal.

2 where x^ m = = mass. in abhenries. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in radians per second.3. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in grams. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in branch 3. and velocity of the mass m.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in centimeters per second.1 93 L = inductance. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.4 M = inertance. . in cubic centimeters per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in abamperes. and = h = current. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.

per dyne. in centimeters. and — current. and <i>2 angular displacement. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 4. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in radians. .5.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in qz ohms.4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and charge on the electrical capacitance.DISSIPATION 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in abcoulombs. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in cubic centimeters. in abamperes. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. and displacement.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance.

and velocity. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. current. and Xs = volume 4. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.i 4. 2 d<t>n dcj).6.12 = acoustical resistance. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. and angular velocity. mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . in cubic centimeters per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in centimeters per second. in radians per second.

21 4.1 is h = H Equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. The linear displacement. The relation for the currents in Fig. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.18.19 +k 4.14.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.17. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.13. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.7.rsqz 4. 4.25 .17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. at/jf.23. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.20 4. 4.22. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. 4.8. e = = Lqz-[.

SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.1. = = /03 + rij^g 4.42 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.32 ing piston.10.26. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. at p.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. The angular displacement. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.30. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. 4. p = MXa + vaXz 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.16. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.15. Jb /. 4.9.26 ^ The 4. Fig.28 Differentiating equation 4.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.27. . in the acoustical system.29 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.31. at/^j.

29 and 4.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. and to acoustical resistance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. inclusive.19.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.1. 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. Fig.1 to 4. given by ^3 JM is 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.25. vm.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . 4.1. to mechanical rotational resistance.33. Fig. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. 4. 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. inertance acoustical system. shows again that resistance. inductance. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. mass.11.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.

X3 = pjccCa 4. 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. X2 = Xi .1.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4.45 . Fig. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . Fig. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4. 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. is given by k The = f". is . the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.1.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.

Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. The electrical impedances z^i. 4.12.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 1 tional systems of Figs.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.1 of Chapter V. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 54. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. 4. 5. .^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.3.2 are as follows: 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.2. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. 4. see pages 53. 55 and 56 and Fig. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.

49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .2 save that the electrical capacitance. 4.3 is the as that of Fig.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.59 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.56 ZA2 -T-z.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. Ce2.2 4.60 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. compliance. 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.57 The system shunt in Fig.55 jwLai 4. mechanical rectilineal.50 + jwm2 + T-p. I2 and M2. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.— JwLmz Zb. ze2 = j^L2 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. The shunt electrical. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. 4. mass. 4.

mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.65 2^22^3 . 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.3. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.

Cb2 . L2. m2.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .«i. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. Ca.67 . is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Electrical. 4. mechanical rectilineal. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . Mechanical Rectilineal. 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.\. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.t 4.13. to /i. Cri. Cm\. I2.3.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.412^3 + 4. Cei. 4.4. L.

79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.78 4. to 4>o.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. (h and 04 X2. ^ zjji = .81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. the linear velocity Xq. nA where zei = . 4>i.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. M2.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.74 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. 4. X3 rectilineal system.89 . i^ in show that /q. 4>2. 4.80 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. Xi.76 4.82 4. The current to.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. X2.88 4. Xi.84 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. Cai.86 4.83 ZA2 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. h.

98 .93 Ha = The current ii..91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. the linear velocity Xi.1UU ^^^ pZA.) Ha ^_^^j .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. 01 4.99 r^r^ .90 4. the linear velocity X2. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . 4.95 .97 The current i2. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.{ZA3jrZA.92 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4.

the linear velocity X4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.106 . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.102 X3 4.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.-riE .105 current 4. 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.107 . ^^^ 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.„. = The equations cal. J~iR X. .

prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.2. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which.1. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. 5.^ an inductance. 52 . mechanical rotational. 5.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.1. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. characteristics. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.

consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. Fig. 5. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. branch is current flows in z^i.1.

The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. </)r. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. as for example.4 That is.3. 5. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. With these specifications the differential of Fig.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. consists of a system of gears.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. respectively. must be in parallel. relations existing between//. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3.1. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .1 with the same tions. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. respectively. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. Fig. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. SAA. respectively. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. </>!. respectively. That is. 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. Equation 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5. analogous to equation 5. Z/jt. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. = = xx -\- X2 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. shown schematically in Fig.2 for the electrical system. ^2. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. equations 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. 5.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. reactance .INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 and 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.2. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. equations 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5.12 relatively large 59 and 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. ^^^^. 5.2. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.

At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.2. Therefore. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.18 where M= inertance.2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.11 and 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5. Fig. in abfarads.20 where Cm = compliance.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. from equations 5. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. in centimeters per dyne. .3 is = T^ 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.14 and 5. Equations 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 5. The acoustical system of Fig.3.5. 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.42 = joiM 5.

5. The mechanical the frequency.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5.3. 5.21 show that at low frequencies . The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.12 to the and 5. at Equa- tions 5.13 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3 is 1 2fi2 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. 5.12 and 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency.3. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.20 is shown in Fig.3.

Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.6.13 and 5. The shown in Fig.3.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. tional. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 and 5. .23 where L = Ce = inductance. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.12 = ^-^ 5. in abhenries.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. 5.23. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.11 and 5.4. 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. in abfarads. 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. 5. and electrical capacitance.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. equations 5.4 in series across a line. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.

and compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in radians per dyne per centimeter.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.13 and .4. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Cu = rotational compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.25 where / = moment of inertia.24.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5.12 and 5.24 where m = mass. in gram (centimeter)^. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output angular 5. 5.25.

4.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.5 parallel across a line. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.2 and there is very little attenuation.14 and 5.12 and 5. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in grams per (centimeter)''. . The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.26 where M= Ca = inertance. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. Equations 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. in Fig.7. 5.24 also is zero. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.11 and 5.13 and 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5.26. 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.

mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. Cm = The output .27. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. in abfarads. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and electrical capacitance. 5.28 where m = mass.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.J^mCM 5. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.5.27 where L = Ce = inductance.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in abhenries.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5 is jo}L -£2 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and compliance.28.

27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*..66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. The output volume 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.12 and 5. 5. 5.13 and 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. current can be obtained from equations 5. 1 - 5. .5 is ZR2 = . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.11 and 5. Equations 5.^MC.2 and the transmission is small.14 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . in (centimeter)^ per dyne.29.3 and the transmission is again small.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. in gram (centimeter)^.30.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.13 and The output angular 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. and = rotational compliance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. . 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. in abhenries.6.11 and 5.8. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. Electrical resistance. in Fig. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.min.6 shows an electrical resistance. 5. 5.31. itance in series.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. in shunt with a line. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in abohms. in abfarads. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical Resistance.6.5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. inductance.

34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. The output volume 5. in mechanical ohms. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. and rotational compliance. compliance.12 and 5.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. in centimeters per dyne.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.3 and there is very little attenuation.11 and 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. from equations 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. inertance. of inertia. 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output and 5. in grams. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. Therefore. 5. Therefore.34.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.33.2 and there is very little attenuation. mass. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.32. current can be obtained from equations 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in grams per (centimeter)*.

Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.35. in centimeters per dyne.7.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. and electrical capacitance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Therefore. in grams.9. in abfarads. 5.13 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mass. 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. from equations 5. in abohms. Therefore. and compliance. in Fig. 5. from equations 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne.11 and 5. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.6. in mechanical ohms. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. inductance.14 and 5. The mechanical network is rectihneal. .THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.12 The output and 5.6. in Fig. 5. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2.7 shows an electrical resistance.4.36. 5.

38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.7.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.38.14 Ca = 5. 5. acoustical capacitance. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^.37 where ru Cb. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inertance. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. in acoustical ohms.37. of inertia. rotational compliance. Electrical resistance. The output and 5. S. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in grams per and 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. = = mechanical rotational resistance.

5. output electrical impedance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. Fig.7. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. inductance. However. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.3 and the transmission is again small. 5. 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.14 and 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.2 and the transmission is small.10. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. 5.5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.11 and 5.7.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.7.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.7. . ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5.12 and 5.

The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. 5.43 where L = inductance. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.11.42 Zas. . mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.43 = p = 2. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. 5. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. in abhenries. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. output acoustical impedance.41 input acoustical impedance. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.40 ZM2. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^.

8 is = jo)I 5.8. 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.8 equations 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. 5. characteristic.45 where / = moment of inertia.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5.8. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.44 where tn = mass.39 and 5. in grams. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. in gram (centimeters)^. 5. 5. 5. 5.8 is = j^m 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8. .

At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.48. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.12. The acoustical system of Fig. acoustical Equations 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. Equation 5.46 where M= inertance. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. 5. 5. 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.41 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.42 and 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.8 equations 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. 5.

47. 5.48 where Cm — compliance. in centimeters per dyne.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. Fig.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. 5. is ance relatively large to motion.9 is ^R2 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. .48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.40 and 5. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.9. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.9 = 5.9 to the frequency. is inversely proportional Equations 5. frequency characteristic. in radians per dyne per centimeter.l/2 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5. 5.9. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.9. is 5. 5.

The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. 5.41 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal.10.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5. dyne. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.50.42 and 5. .49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. in (centimeter)" per dyne.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. analogous to an in Fig. Mechanical Rotational.9. 5. Equation 5. in square centimeters. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig.13. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. compliance of the suspension system.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. and per = area of the diaphragm.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.9 is 2. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Equations 5.9.

52.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5.53. The mechanical system of Fig. and C_if compliance. in grams. and electrical capacitance. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.53 where m = = mass.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads.40 and 5. and = rotational compliance.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.39 and 5.10. .

55. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5. 5.42 and 5. and acoustical capacitance. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. Equations 5.54. . in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10.11.9 5.14.39 and 5. 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.50. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. Equations 5. Equations 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.42 and 5. and again the transmission is small.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance. in grams per (centimeter)*.41 and 5. and the transmission is small. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5.8. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. connected in with a line. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5.40 and 5.

5. in abfarads. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.40 and 5.39 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abhenries.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. The mechanical system of Fig.1/2 = 1 — S.11 is - 5. 5.56.11 is 2/22 = :. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . and compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.57.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. in grams.11.

5. and = rotational compliance. in grams (centimeter)^. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.11.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. . 5.40 and 5. 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. 2. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.15. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. ance of Fig. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.11 is -. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. inductance and line. 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.11 equation 5.41 The output angular 5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.59. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.42 == 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.39 and 5.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.58. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. Equations 5.41 and 5. Equations 5.12.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.9 and again the attenuation is small.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equation 5.12 shows an electrical resistance.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.

inductance.39 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.40 and 5.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. Electrical resistance. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . in abohms. and capacitance.62 . in centimeters per dyne. m = Cm = mass. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.60.61. 5. 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12. in abfarads. compliance. 5. in grams. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. in abhenries. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. in mechanical ohms.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. 5.

12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12.coC. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.39 and 5. from equations 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Therefore.12. The output volume 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Fig. the acoustical reactance is zero.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.8. Fig. from equations 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. and the transmission is small. inertance. Therefore.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.4 -T-z^ 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms. 5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Therefore. in gram (centimeter)^.41 and 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. from equations 5.12.42 and 5. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.40 and 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.12 is 2. Therefore. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. However. and Cr = rotational compliance. 5. Fig. The output and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in rotational ohms.12.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. from equations 5.62.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. where vr / = moment of inertia. 5. 5. . and again the transmission is small. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.63.10. current can be obtained from equations 5.

16. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. in abhenries. inductance.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13.13 shows an electrical resistance.13 is ZM2 = r. in abfarads. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.64.65 . Electrical resistance. 5.13. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 83 Parallel. 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. and electrical capacitance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abohms. inductance line. Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

Fig.39 and 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite.13. The output volume 5. ohms. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. mass. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. The output and 5. 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.9 and the attenuation is small. from equations 5. 5.13. and compliance. and Cr = rotational compliance. 5.41 and 5. 5.65. in acoustical ohms. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.40 and 5.40 and 5. from .67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. Fig. in grams. therefore.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. from equations 5. Therefore. 5. 5. Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^.66.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. Therefore.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. in where tm mechanical ohms.13. Therefore. in (centimeter)® per dyne. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. from equations 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~.67.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.

5. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. 5.13. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. that of Fig. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.11. Referring to equation 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . the low and high frequencies is the same as However.17.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5.67 the attenuation ance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5.18. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. 5.13.42 and 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. 5. Fig.14 Mechanical Rotational.

15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.19.15. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. . The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5. 5. Fig. Equation 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. Equation 5. Referring to equation 5. 5. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. rectilineal.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Equation 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical Rectilineal.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.14 shows a system of made larger. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. larger.

rm.17. wherein zm\. 5. rui.12. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. acoustical systems of Fig. and r.41 and the output impedances. 5. mechanical rotational. "Zrz. The mechanical rectilineal. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. In the same way equations 5.16. respectively. 5. 5. Equation 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. respectively. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.16. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. 5.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .20.16.11. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.13 the mechanical rectihneal. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and r^i and the input impedances. and Zmz. zri. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. 5.21.

13 and 5. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. 5. In this case zei is the input impedance. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Equation 5.17. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. 5. Electrical. output impedance. 5.17. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.22. Electrical. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.18.14. . ze2 is rE2.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. 5. me- chanical rotational.12. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. rectihneal. Mechanical Rectilineal.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.

mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.68 5. Electrical. 5. and zei represent the electromotive force. and of turns on the secondary. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ACOUSTICAL Fig. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. velocity and .18. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ei. The force. 5. ii.18 the electromotive force. 5.

77 5. The torque.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.71 = — xi 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The 5. The pressure. /ri. 5. of Fig. consists of a mass- gear train. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.79 .76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. /mi. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18. 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.18.18.18. 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.

ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. . In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. two diaphragms.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. New York. Xi and 2. ^ Engineering. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. 5. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer.41 and p2. The acoustical transformer of Fig. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. pi. 1940." D.

. I. Vol.. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 528. p. G. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Bell System Tech. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. 92 . Jour.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6.2. 2. No. 1922. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. 6.. No. Stewart. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. W. Phys. mechanical rectilineal. 6. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. 20. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Rev.1. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Vol.. 1922. G. A. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.

A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. that is. velocities. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents." D. velocities. Shea.. *' . respectively. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. ^ Nostrand Co. positive and when than four." D. velocities. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. Johnson. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line.. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters.3. New York. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. Van New York.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. 6. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. Van Nostrand Co. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies.

Ca 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.4. 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.2 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.8 . mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.1.1. Electrical.1 zmi zri 6. 6.94 6.

10 — — 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — . linear velocities.= -4 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. mechanical rectilineal.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. inclusive.17. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. when . and the cutoff 6. when oip = = = = 6. 6.15 WC. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.9 the constants of the systems. when coc = .17 Equations 6. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. when ccc 6. 6. when uc = 6. 6.= From and .5. .1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig. when coc 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.2. mechanical rotational. 2A2 VMC^ . 6. when coe 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= -4 22 6.= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.27 .

36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6. .38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.12.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.

when coci = = 6. —= Z£2 — 4.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.12 =0. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.lfi)^ ^ -. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . — — / 1 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . when wci = — VLiCei .49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.V/2 when WC2^WiC. = 1 .45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. 6.50 V/iGji 0.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. UCe\ (1 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. = — 7= / 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. 2.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.46 6. —7== VMiCai .47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. „ when coci = .44 6..51 VM2C42 = . _ 4.

when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. one greater than uci and Therefore. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. —= 2.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. when . -4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. (1 .41 .100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.v/2 1 6.

6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. linear velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".69 .7. show that the systems of Fig.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.64 CeiLi 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.63. are 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.56 to 6. mechanical rectilineal.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.4. inclusive.

mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.76 .102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.74 6.4. 6. Electrical.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rectilineal.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.

when (1 . —= Zr\ -4. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.42 -4.-4. when uci = and cca oo 6.82 . .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. M\Ca\) 4. when (1 .84 . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0. —= zei -4. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.78 —= ZR2 0. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. 6. .83 —= Z^l 2. when oici = and wa = =0 6. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when. . or.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. 6.77 —— = ZM2 0.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.2. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. respectively. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. unit force. in centimeters per second. The current is zero = 0. 7. 7. unit torque and unit pressure. shown in Fig. .2. in dynes. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 7.5 where aE = Te/L.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.8 where m = = /m — V mass. rectilineal resistance.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. and driving force. The graph depicts the current. in grams. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass.2.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig.

as shown in Fig. in radians per second. in rotational = angular velocity. = mechanical rotational resistance.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in dyne centimeters.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.12 = — - e"^') 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.2.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. 7.2. 1/riv/. in gram (centimeter)^.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. .10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. ohms. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. and = torque. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.

as shown in Fig.2.20 where M= ta inertance.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. and p = sound pressure. the solution of equation 7. 7. in cubic centimeters. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).22 .21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.16 7. in grams per (centimeter)*. in acoustical ohms.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. = acoustical resistance. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. U = volume current. in dynes per square centimeter. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.17 where aji — Vr/ I.

electrical resistance. 7. electrical resistance series. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .4.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. and electromotive force. in abamperes.2.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. in abfarads. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. 7. current. From is the tables of operational formulas. the solution of equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. in abohms.22 111 may be written. the solution of equation 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. 7.e-^ in Fig. 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.3. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.24 JA{t) = " (1 . in abvolts.28 ve . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.

30 P)rM where a. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. linear velocity. The graph depicts the current. in centimeters. in centimeters per dyne. unit torque and unit pressure. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. velocity. is The for / shown in Fig.3. in mechanical ohms. in dynes. the solution of equation 7. 7 3. mechanical rectilineal resistance. 7.3. 7.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. force.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7.31 . and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. respectively. shown in Fig.y = l/rjfCv/. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. unit force. From the tables of operational formulas.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.

in radians per second. 7. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in radians per dyne per centimeter. acoustical resistance.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. .3. in dynes per square centimeter.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. volume current.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in rotational ohms. is shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters per second. and torque.3. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. as shown in Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7. as shown in Fig. 7. mechanical rotational resistance. in dyne centimeters. in acoustical ohms. is shown in Fig.3. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. angular velocity. and sound pressure.3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.

38 ^.5. in current. . J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. abohms. in abohms. 7. 1 7. and electromotive force. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. as in Fig. in abvolts. 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 7.3. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in abhenries. in electrical capacitance. (a + ^ Pfa . electrical resist- ance. abamperes.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.4.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . The volume current decreases for values of / limit.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . electrical resistance. is shown 7.

42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. respectively.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.45. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.4.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. . The response sinusoid. unit force. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. 7. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. velocity.^. series Response of an electrical resistance. The graph depicts the current. unit torque or unit pressure.4.

Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. 1 A\ m = mass. in grams. in centimeters per dyne. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.47 . 1 AC. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. v for x. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. Substituting equation 7. velocity. and driving force. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. acceleration. 7. rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per second per second.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. displacement. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. in dynes.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.

It is a damped > '^in/Cu. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. equation 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. 7.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. lAA. in rotational ohms.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. in radians per second. and 4> Jr = driving torque.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. in dyne centimeters. in radians per second per second. = angular displacement. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.4_S. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.51 = moment of inertia. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians. is of inertia.4. 7. in grams (centimeter). in radians per dyne per centimeter.48 The response sinusoid.si . 4> = angular acceleration. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. = angular velocity. Cr = rotational compliance.

. 7. It is a damped sinusoid. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. = '^I/Cr..56 ^PR = Jo.45.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. lAA.4C. WR^ 2 1 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.

at equation 7. in acoustical ohms. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. as in Fig. acoustical resistance. Substituting U for X.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. 7. and pressure.4. in cubic centimeters per second. volume current. in dynes per square centimeter.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in grams per (centimeter)^.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.

then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. 7. . then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation.6. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca.5.45.

a time «2 later.u)du du 7.68 . as shown in Fig. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. tem. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. etc. 7..5. integral. an electromotive force ei is added. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). all being of the unit type.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. Therefore. «i. 7. as in the case of the preceding sections. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. The indicial electrical admittance.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. an electromotive force ^2 is added. <?i at / = Ae.5.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. etc. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . The This proof.

u)du 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The velocity.69 fR{u) — AR{t . The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. 7. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.u)du du u)du 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.72 . mechanical rotational rectilineal.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.

.

8. the electrostatic.CHAPTER 8. the electromagnetic. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.2.1. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW .

and current. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). and Ca with vr. in using analogies in actual practice. The force. L and Ce. in centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. due to motion. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.However.2 where x = velocity.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in centimeters per second. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1 and 8. 8. circuit will be used instead of network. From equations 8. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. in abamperes.1 B = / = / = flux density. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. in abvolts.1. field in which depicted in Fig. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. length of the conductor. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. termed motional electrical impedance. abohms. in gausses. When there is only one path. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . The electromotive force.1.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. in dynes. it is located. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.

The dynamic direct radiator 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms.6 The 8.3. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. that is. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. in chanical ohms.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. The normal electrical impedance zek.1. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in 8. in the absence of motion. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. which the mechanical There are three general types of . The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. all of the conductor. 8. in abohms. in mechanical ohms.3. 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.4 8. Zen in abohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.

Unpolarized Armature Type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. namely. the unpolarized armature type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. Consider the system shown in Fig. Since there is no polarizing flux. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems.2. Assume that all the reluctance . A. 8.

14 e = ^r 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. is where / = current in the coil.13 and 8. .128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in dynes.15 The force on the armature. A = area of the center pole. in abamperes. in abvolts.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. then from equations 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. in centimeters. and a = normal spacing. the total flux is <f>T Aa. n = number of turns.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. C = l-^nA. in square centimeters.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.

V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. in mechanical ohms.16.21 .20 — X From equations 8.15 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.18 Equation 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and time. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. in seconds. 4TrJa*/M .19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.2. in mechanical ohms.17 for the current in 8. nC^P 8. the force on the armature is Im = '. mechanical ohms. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 8. Substituting equation 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.

/ = current. B. in square centimeters.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. Therefore. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.3. vibrators and clippers. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. a = spacing. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. . electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.20 and 8. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. 8. in mechanical ohms. in abohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. in oersteds. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in gilberts. ^ = area of center pole. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in centimeters. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. for converting electrical variations into however. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. = number of turns. 8.22 = motional electrical impedance. in abohms. and impedance of the coil.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in abohms. Zen in abohms. for the reproduction of sound. in abamperes. in maxwells. 8.2. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. this system cannot be used It is. filing — as in Fig. saws. from the poles of a permanent magnet.19.

frequency. in oersteds. in 131 oit maxwells. and time. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.axsin wt n coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. 27r/. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in abamperes.

the flux. sidered. the flux will now be 4>x + A. in square centimeters.^ .Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. in maxwells. in abvolts. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.32 „ .30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. in gilberts. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. in centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. and area of the pole.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.. due to the steady field.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. __ . Ax -\- Ax . through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.

in abohms. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. in me- chanical ohms.32 and e i = — X 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.33.. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.35 and 8. From equations 8. ZAfi.35 8.38 a Zm .34.24 and 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. in mechanical ohms.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. fu = MNi ~r — .37.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. ~ 8. 8.3.

in abohms. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. C.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. Equation 8. ARMATURE MAGNET . in abohms.38 is similar to equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. and impedance of the coil.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. in abohms.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.

in oersteds. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . The flux. 8. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in maxwells. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. at each pole magnet. in dynes.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in maxwells. 8. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces.4.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. which the coil energizes. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in square centimeters. The steady magnetic field is force. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. of the pole piece. and yf effective area. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. The . The sum of the forces.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. i?2 = = coil. in abamperes. in dynes. at the poles (Fig. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.

in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di.136 flux. in centimeters. rectilineal impedance of the armature. .44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in square centimeters. NMA —^x a^ 8.45. and zm2 impedance of the load.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in gilberts. in merectilineal chanical ohms. through the armature to the right and upward. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. of the steady field. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in mechanical ohms. in abvolts. and effective area of a pole piece. 8. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8.4. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.44 A.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. in mechanical ohms.

43 =-^ 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8. .50. Zm\. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.50 and 8.

galvanometers. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. 8. system of Fig. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.4. This driving system is used for loud speakers. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. Therefore.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces.

eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces.57 numerator of equation 8. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. = CeCq 8. in dynes. in statfarads.60 From equations 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .59 and 8. motive Cq is large . The force.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.62 . The useful force.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. in dynes. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. on the condenser is q considered. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in statamperes.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. ^o^max sin wt .ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statcoulombs. the fourth term will be negligible. in statfarads. and capacity per unit area. in statvolts. is The current.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. . the generated current.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. ohms.5. Ax) 8. . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. 47r(a — 8.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. in mechanical ohms.66 in 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.61. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .69 . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. 4ir(<2 + . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. in stat- amperes. 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.

70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. + .67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. statohms. 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. electrical network in Fig.5. adding a large stiffness. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.5.58 and 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. in statohms. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. 8.69 and 8.68. electrical impedance of the condenser. 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. at the same time.

current is applied to 2m . 8. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.6.

in gausses.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. turns in the coil. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. frequency. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . and area of the rod. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in centimeters. The electromotive force. current. induced in the winding. in abamperes.76 where A'^ A = number of turns.74 and ehminating the steady force. . in square centimeters. in cycles per second. in current in the abamperes. and time.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. 8.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.X JR 8. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. CO/ 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. induction is of the nickel rod. in seconds. e = MJ^ dt 8. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.73 Combining equations and 8. in abvolts. in square centimeters. due to is the Villari effect. coil. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.

144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. rectilineal impedances zm. The mechanical to one . and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.78 From equation 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms.6. and Young's modulus.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. length of the rod.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.

1942. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.82 and 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. total in abohms. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. = motional impedance. 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig." D. in abohms — equation 8.6.83 From equations 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. in mechanical ohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. 8.84. . in abohms. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. as shown by equation 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. Van Nos- trand Co.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.86 Mason.6).7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.79. 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. 8. New York. The mass mi in Fig. is assumed to be a In general.. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.

in grams per cubic centimeter. is where p The compliance Cmi. and cross section of the rod.80.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod. in square centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . and Young's modulus. in centimeters.7. in centimeters. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. 8. in square centimeters. length of the rod. 8. in Fig.

in dynes.7C A and B given in Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic.7. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The vibrating system of Fig. 8.7. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. that is. 8. . This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. in square centimeters. 8.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.8. 8. Young's modulus. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. 8. EA and 8. air load and support resistance.8.84. A= E = area. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. is The deformation per unit length. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.88 where Jm = total force. 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. X = 4^. due to a force.

the data of Fig. in square centimeters.. flux density.8 and Young's modulus.6. .148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant. equations 8. 8.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. 8. c„ . Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.88 and 8. B = A= From and area.

equations 8. X to 10~* for quartz. E = Young's modulus. 4 = length of the crystal.4 force.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. in square centimeters.91 and 8.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. in dynes. and A = cross-sectional area.92 X From = 8. due to the application of a force. is .93 . 6. in centimeters. and The displacement. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. q is 149 = KJu 8. in dynes. due an applied force. in statcoulombs.

100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. . and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. 8.97. zmi and z. in statohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.101 From equations 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. and E = Young's modulus. in square = length of the crystal. 8.100 and 8.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. in centimeters. / centimeters. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.9.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

namely. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.3. 9.1. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.

in gilberts. coil. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. is The velocity of the armature. 9. in abohms. . and impedance of the external load.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. spacing between the armature and pole. 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. 9. in centimeters. area of the pole.2. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9.2. in maxwells. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in centimeters per second. and velocity of the armature.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. due to the steady field. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. and + ZE2.6 ze = = = = = total flux. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. force. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in square centimeters. through the armature. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in abohms.

r~ .ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.3. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. Balanced Armature Generating System. 9. flows through the armature.

of the magnet. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in A .9 and 9. in statamperes. in gilberts. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. velocity of the armature. = magnetomotive force.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. in abohms. 9. in maxwells.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. i?2 = reluctance. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.11 zme From equations 9. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.3.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in abohms. in centimeters per second.4. is The /m Zm + 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in oersteds. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.3. in centimeters.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. M. 9. a = spacing between armature and pole. as depicted 9. The current. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. ZE = Zei + Ze2.

14 where e = electromotive force. ^= a area of the plate.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. The current. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. 9. in statohms. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in square centimeters. in statvolts.stationary "plate . and velocity of the X movable plate. in statvolts. in statfarads.4 e is t2 9. in statamperes. spacing between the plates. electrical and impedance of the external load.

is The velocity of the movable plate.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. a spacing between plates. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. 9.18 Zme) . X in centimeters per second. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. electrical impedance of the external load. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.4. is Ze2 in parallel. in statohms. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.71 of the chapter on ZME = . in centimeters.17 zme e From equations 9. in square centimeters. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.15 and 9. electrical and 9.4.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. in statfarads. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. e. in statvolts. area of the plates. = Zm /^^ + 9.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.

15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.23 in 9.24 and fi 9.21 Substituting equation 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9. .21 in 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.E1 = -r—.25 Comparing equations 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.22.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.23 Substituting equation 9.25.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.26 . epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9. = — a CnX 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.19.

the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zei. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. zme. 9. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. The volt- age.26 and an internal impedance zei. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.5. However. in abvolts. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. coil.27 . is ^tNK 9.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. 9. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. L\ and rE\. coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the mechanical circuit: zm.5.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9.5. ZEi. Equation 9. from equation 8. shown in Fig. Magnetostriction generating system. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. In the electrical circuit: e.

electrical electrical wavelength. in square centimeters. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Young's modulus.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. . 9.5. in centimeters per second. in abohms. and impedance of the external circuit. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. in centimeters. - £ 9. force. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in abohms. length of the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant.79 or 8. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.

9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.86 and 8. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. . to be a In general. in Fig. ohms. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 9. in centimeters per second.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.27 and 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.6. are given by equations 8.32 the generated electromotive force.32 From abvolts. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. in mechanical ohms.5.28. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. in mechanical = ohms.6. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. equations 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.

7. zei. the driving force. mass and compliance of the rod. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. In the electrical circuits: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.27 and the velocity. and velocity of the crystal. 9.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. E= 4 = Young's modulus.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. in centimeters per second. . A. + 9.6. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. the effective Zjv/i. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. 2_bi j<^Li. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. zme.6 can be obtained from equation 9. in centimeters.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. in centimeters. in statamperes. Li and tei. 9. generated The h = —. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. In the mechanical networks: /m. where KEJ — •* 9. ZMi. the other. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. = = length of the crystal. in square centimeters. in Fig. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. mi and Cmi. cross-sectional area of the crystal.6. 6. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. zei. 9. length of the crystal.4 X 10~* for quartz.

In the Piezoelectric generating system.34 force e.7. From equations 9. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. in statamperes. 9. electrical and 9. in statohms. Ce\. electrical and impedance of the external load. 2_b2. z^'i zei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statvolts.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in statfarads. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. circuit: e.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. crystal. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.

A = area of the electrode. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. in centimeters.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. and „ „„ 9.7. in statfarads.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. length of in centimeters. the crystal. length of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in centimeters.41 . 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.4 X 10~* for quartz. electrical impedance of the external load. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. 4 = length of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. in statohms.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. and E= Young's modulus. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. in centimeters.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in square centimeters. E = Young's modulus.97 or 8.

36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. in mechanical ohms. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.7. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. 9. is .= where i. in centimeters per second.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.36 and 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. depicted equations 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.47 . is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.45 . e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. in mechantotal ical ohms. zm2 in mechanical ohms.

are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. 9. 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.48.49 Substituting 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.47 in 9.8. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.50 and 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency. e. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. Equation 9. in Fig.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. However.45.49 in 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.51.104 and 8.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.

the driving force. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal.8. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. A. the other. Zm2. In the mechanical networks: Jm. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.8 can be obtained from equation 9. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. zei. 9. . Crystal free on one end and driven on the other.45 and the velocity. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. In the electrical circuits: e. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the electrical impedance of the external load.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. ze\.37. 9. zme. electrical network of Fig.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. Piezoelectric generating systems. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.

" 171 . Then 10. 1 Ballentine. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work.E. 17. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. e^' . A number cal systems. Reciprocity Theorems A.R. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. 1929. .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. i^' . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. I. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. 6. . and superposition theorems to electrical. e^" . . Vol. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . 929.1. the elements. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. ' 10..2. No. . linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . z„". /s" . Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. Proc.. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. S. p. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . produce a current distribution z'l'.

o e . /" are the electromotive forces 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1.2 = /'/' where e' . equation 10.1 becomes 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. e" and /'.1. as illustrated in the electrical 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.

II.1./7j2'. let a set of torques/iji'.3 becomes fu'x" . . 145. fB2" . /ji/2. Van Nostrand Co./ij„ are all of the same . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i".6 velocities depicted . . 1940. 4>2" . C.fRi" • 4>2. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities." Vol. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. "Theory of Sound. frequency. p. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. equation 10. • distribution ^i'. 10. 1926./m3 all of the same frequency.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering./b' and (J)'. =/a/V 10. fli" are the torques and angular 10. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. and provided the applied forces /mi./ij2. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. MacMillan and Co. . <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable." D. D.7 p Rayleigh. 10. and provided the applied torques /iji. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. London. equation 10. . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. ^ Olson. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. mechanical rotational system of Fig.1. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements.4 where /^f'. New ./fl3 . produce a rotational velocity — .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system.. York.1. ^2'..1. '4>^" . 10.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10.

11 From equations 10. .8. 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. .. 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. equation 10.—. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.15 v' . 0' dt dt p v" grad po .1. y" .9 and 10.4 by the p and v of the other set. v' grad po „ = 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. dv" — .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.10 From neering" equations 1. 1 .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. 10.9 and 1.174 THEOREMS . equation 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. 10.12 is for a point.1.13 If. - p 1 . p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.+ dv' . p"v' 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .

. . . pressures and volume currents. X^ X^. X2. .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. pz same frequency. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . . let also. produce a volume current distribution Xi. produce pn. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance.19 . . However. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . 10. . . . 10. . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. which there are only two pressures. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. X2". . velocities.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . Then — .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. ." a second volume current distribution Xi". . 10./". equation 10.1.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . E. . .16 becomes . pi. and let a second set of pressures ^i". and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. X^" Xn" Then .1. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. . . . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces.

Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. — In .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. D. E. F.2. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. L.. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. . 10. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . . Electrical-mechanical. n Then 10. currents. B.2^. .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.21 . . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. P"X' tn\ B M . fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. The 10. HX* E p"X D Fig. . electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. . forces n and velocities. i" . C. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.S. let also.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. px L. an interconnected e\ . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . Mechanical-acoustical.S. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. P"X' i" L.

The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. mechanical.23 . Theorem. 2D. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. Electrical-Mechanical.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.2fi. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. acoustical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. acoustical transducer. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. . 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. e"i' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. as shown in Fig. e'i" = e"i' 10. 10. mechanical. field. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. electrical transducer.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. Electrical-Mechanical. G. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.23 states that a if. me- chanical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.2C. is H.

THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical.178 I. 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.2£.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB.3.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . = p"X' 10. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. as shown in Fig. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. D.

Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. . forces. Each source. save the one being considered. forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical.4. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. velocity. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. current. velocities. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. force. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.

higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. muffler is quite effective. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. by acoustical capacitances. 11. Introduction The fundamental lineal. principles relating to electrical.2.1. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. However. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. However. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. An exhaust back pressure. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Convert the answer into the original system.

. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.M and Ca for an acoustical system. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. in Fig. 11. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. 11. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The system of Fig. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. circuit will be used instead of network. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. with rft.1. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.1.However. in the audible frequency range. When there is only one path. 11.u. Therefore.

system the unpolarized type described in section 8. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.3.3. 11.2. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. 11. sate for approximations. .182 APPLICATIONS In general.

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. teg. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.7. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.w2. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. 11. 11. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig." I"*.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. electrical dynamic loud speal<er.. in mechanical Jm = driving force. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. In the mechanical circuit: m\. . the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. nii and r. 11. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.3. zem.3. 11.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11.4. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. and . Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8.3. rMi and Ci. force can be determined /m 11. The mechanical driving from equation 8. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. in dynes.1. 11. the mass of the cone. radiator tube. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.

184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. The simple vibration fly- damper. in centimeters per second. In the mechanical network: A. phonograph pickups. m. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. Olson. and the shaft. 11. F. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. These systems include microphones.4.5.4. Van Nostrand Co. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. 11. measuring cal systems. velocity of the cone. telephone receivers. in mechanical ohms.YWHEEL I. of inertia of the flywheel. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. is The sound power output. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system." D. New York. . comphance of the damper.. given by 11. FX. 11. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. loud speakers. shown ^ in Fig. the moment Cg. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. etc. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. 1940.

A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. The shunt mechanical vibration. ciple of the device. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. z.vF.SA. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11. B. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations.6. W. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. /jf. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies.SA. isolator./ is due to the . is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. the mass of the machine. The driving force/i. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. zmf. the mass of the machine. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Cm /4 and 4rM . Jm.5. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. W. A.

the compliance and mechanical mi. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. 11.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. shown in Fig.6. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. . important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. 11. Cui/'i and 4rii/2.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations.7. these values springs. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. only isolation in the system of Fig. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. isolating mechanical network.6. Jm. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. consists of the following elements: nii. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. the mass of the case. pressor. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . 11. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. 11.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. mi. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine.

rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. zmf.8. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. the system in Fig. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports.v/i/4. 11. 187 Cmi and rui. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Of course.7. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. . the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. 11. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. The mechanical network of Fig. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Cm2 and ^1-/2. the mass of the case. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. 11.

the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. body. the mass of the frame. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. Cms a-nd r.8. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. 11. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot.v/2.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. engine. both rectilineal and rotational. etc. tmi. r. 11. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. the driving force at each tire. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.9. the mass of the instrument and carriage.7. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. Cm2.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. Cm2. in general. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the combined driving force at the four legs. the compliance of the spring suspension. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . Cmi and tires. the compliance of the spring. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. This system has many degrees of freedom. 11. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. m2. the mass of the tire. 11.v/3. m-i. mum. wheel and axle. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig.u 11.

Since there are four tires. . view. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. m^. the compliance of the four springs. 4:rM2. fn2. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the mass of the frame. the compliance of the springs. the mass of the four tires. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the mass of the passenger. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. the driving force. 11. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. body and engine. 4rif 2. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .8. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. Cms. the combined driving force at the four tires.i/a. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. wheels. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. 4?ni. mi./ifi the comtires. However. the mass of the passenger. 189 m^. Cmi/4 and 4r.\f 1. springs and shock absorbers.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Cms and r. Cji/2/4. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4.

Acoustical Ohm. An acoustical resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. As already indicated. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. developed at the tires. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. pitching or swaying motion. an automobile has several modes of vibration. An electrical resistance. For example. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. 11. Electrical abohm. Mechanical Ohm. Rotational Ohm. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. It has been found that by the use of such damping means.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. mechanical rotational resistance. Supplementary Note: Electrical. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. Most of the forces. which controls the oscillations. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^.6. that is. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. mechanical rectilineal. — — —A — . reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

22 mechanical rotational. 6. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 13. 111 electrical resistance. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 9. 9 resistance. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 23 mechanical. 13. compliance. 6 peak. 184 Rotatomotive force. 120 Duhamel's integral. 11 instantaneous. 6. 6. 172 mechanical rotational. 21.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 10. 175 Rotational vibration damper. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 23 maximum. 6 maximum. 35 effective. 188 Systems. 10. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 42 one degree of freedom. 32 Rotational. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 88 mechanical rotational. 23. 6 Sound effective. 88 Transient response. acoustical. 37. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 21. automobile. 187 Torque. 22. 173 superposition. 178 electrical. 6 maximum. 5 Transformer. 9. 48 two degrees of freedom. 85 rotational. ohm. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 105 arbitrary force. 107 Transients. 6 14 pressure. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 23 Theorems. (see cor- effective. 37 and analogies. 88 electrical. 179 Thevenin's. 21. 6 Transducer. 9. 122 . 41 mechanical rotational. acoustical. 9. 178 mechanical rotational. 45 instantaneous. 9. 178 electrical. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 6 instantaneous. 17. 22 networlcs. reciprocity. electrical-mechanical. 9. 9. 171 acoustical. 6 Stiffness. impedance. 25 three degrees of freedom. 171 Resonant frequency. 6 peak. 9. 6 Static pressure. 61. 13. 18. 10. 22. 42 inductance and series coupled. 23 23. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 28 Subharmonic. 10. 179 Suspension systems. 177 reactance. 13. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 178 acoustical.) 195 Table. 45 electrical. electrical Superposition theorem. 21. 18. peak.

93. 7. 146. 92. 144. 22. 94 response characteristics. peak. 5 maximum. Heaviside's Calculus. 8. high pass. 7 Vibration. magnetostriction. band pass. 101 instantaneous. Wave band elimination. 7. 149. 92. 5 filters. 184 186 Young's modulus. gain. 167 . 37. 8 8 "T" type network. 95 low pass. peak. 11 effective. 8 instantaneous. 22 angular. 8 maximum. 163. 24 Velocity. 93. 45 Unit function. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 97 93. 20.196 Transients (Cont. 151. 21. 165. 143.) INDEX Villari effect. 23 Transmission. 148 machine isolator. 92. 106 163 Volume current. 7 linear. 92. 147. 150. 23 effective. "X" isolator. cut quartz crystal. 106 unit function. 7. 7 Wave. 106 Units. 93. 23. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 11 loss.