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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

an electrical circuit. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. engineer. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Lorene E. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. plex arrangements of multielement systems. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Olson . The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. W. Engstrom. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Research Director. 1943 F. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Harry January. E.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Olson. in this project. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system.

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4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . ELECTRICAL.2 3. Acoustical Resistance 2.2 Introduction Resistance A. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Moment of Inertia.1 1 1. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. C. Rectilineal Compliance.3 Inductance. Rotational Compliance. A. Mechanical Rectilineal. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Rectilineal Compliance C. ELEMENTS 2.5 Representation of Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.3 3. Mass. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.CONTENTS Chapter I.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Electrical Resistance B.1 3. Acoustical Capacitance A. Inductance B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.1 2. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Electrical Capacitance B. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.2 4 II. Inertance 2.

10 The Acoustical System 4..6 4..6 62 5.7 64 5. . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 Two Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. 60 5.5 Chapter 3.7 The Electrical System .. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Dissipation 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.6 3. 4.7 3.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.1 Introduction 52 5.8 67 .8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V..5 Equations of Motion 4.4 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rectilineal.13 Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.1 Introduction 37 4.3 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.3 6.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.1 6. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.6 6.4 6.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16 Electrical Resistance.CONTENTS Chapter 5.17 5.21 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. WAVE FILTERS 6. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. and Acoustical Analogies 5.11 69 71 5.10 Series 5.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.15 Electrical Resistance.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational.

Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. Unpolarized Armature B.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. 1 7. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.X Chapter VII.5 8.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.6 VIII. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.5 114 120 7.5 9.4 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 9.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.2 7. C.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. B.2 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.4 9. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 10. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. THEOREMS 10.1 9.4 Ill 7.1 8.

Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. APPLICATIONS 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .2 11.CONTENTS Chapter E.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.8 1 1 .4 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.6 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.7 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.

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at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. In other words. as for example. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. However. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason.1. 1 The acoustical . mechanical and acoustical tems. vibrating systems. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. Expressions for the kinetic energy. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities.

mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. as for example. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. Of course.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. various assemblies of masses. . induct- ance and capacitance. cal. ' The lished. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. Electrical elements are resistance. Elements are the meshes. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. springs and friction. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. springs and brakes. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. constituent parts of a circuit.

the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. — . However. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. I) and Firestone {Jour. particularly electrical circuits. all communication. Therefore.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. In addition. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. in the past. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. Hanle {JViss. SiemensKonzern. No. That is to say. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. d. Verojf a. Acous. Therefore. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. For example. up the mechanical and electrical. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. XI. Soc.. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. In this book. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. 4. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Institute of Radio Engineers. ratio of force to displacement. Vol. Vol. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. However. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. Finally. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. No. 4. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity.1 of 1942. Amer. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. every electrical. circuit. mechanical and acoustical systems. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. and ratio of pressure to displacement. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist.

. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. or zero. Frequency. a constant. all is the frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. reciprocal of the period. Terms not sections. + T). is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. equals 2x divided by the period T. The remainder. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. Octave.2. a positive constant. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. Harmonic. or which tity comprises a cycle. Periodic Quantity. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. negative. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. Cycle. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. a period of jy. This called a Fourier series. where T. Definitions ^ this section. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. period. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. Basic Frequency.

Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Instantaneous Electromotive Force. The unit the dyne. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. The root unit the abvolt. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). Wave. Wavelength. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. mechanical or acoustical system. — — Abvolt. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Mechanomotive Force). Subharmonic. The unit is the abvolt. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Electromotive Force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. The unit is the dyne. force. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. the dyne. Effective Electromotive Force. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The unit is the abvolt. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Dyne. .

The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). the dyne per square centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Abampere. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). force. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. An abampere is the unit of current. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force).6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The the — Instantaneous Current. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. The unit is the dyne centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. dyne per square centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. . the abampere. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. the dyne centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle.

per second. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. The unit is the abampere. unit is the radian per second. the centimeter per second. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. the abampere. Maximum Current. Peak Velocity. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. current. Effective Velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. The unit is the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. is Centimeter per Second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. The unit is the abampere. complete cycle at the point. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The unit is the centimeter per second. is Radian per Second. Maximum Velocity. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . is velocity in that interval. Cubic Centimeter per Second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Peak Current. Instantaneous Velocity. Effective Angular Velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle.

electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. The unit is the abfarad. The unit the abohm. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. which. where both systems are considered concurrently. the cubic centimeter per second. second. . This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. Effective Volume Current. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. times the frequency.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. is the abohm. Electrical Impedance. for Peak Volume Current. is Electrical Resistance. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. when times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Electrical Reactance. The unit the abohm. electrical Inductance.-W is impedance. the cubic centimeter per second.

tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. rotational resistance ance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Compliance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. — Compliance The unit is the gram. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mass. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. ' See footnote S. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Acoustical Impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. page I . unit is the rotational ohm. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. The unit is the rotational ohm.

Electrical System. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. moment of inertia. . when multiplied by times the frequency. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. Acoustical Reactance. mass and compliance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. inductance and electrical capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Inertance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. inertance and acoustical capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. and rotational compliance. the acoustical ohm. the fourth power. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. Acoustical System. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. In the same way. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. by "l-w times the frequency. inductance and electrical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance.. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. mass and compliance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance.

/1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . mechanical rectilineal. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. velocity. force. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . torque or pressure is electrical. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. For example. Transmission Loss {or Gain). voltage. The bel is the Decibel. angular velocity. pressure or volume current. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. pressures or such as forces or velocities. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. current. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . force. torque. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. — Transmission. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. Either of these systems may be electrical. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. mechanical or acoustical.

2. and current through the resistance.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. in abohms. See footnote page 8. resistor. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. in abamperes. inductance and capacitance. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements.' 2. Electrical resistance rs. e rs^-. A resistor.1.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. t 2. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. electrical.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. As indicated in the preceding chapter. Electrical Resistance. In this procedure. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation.2. An tinguished from the devices. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. is defined as A. inductor and capacitor. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. e. the vibrating systems. 12 . 5. in abvolts.

mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. in dyne centimeters. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in dynes.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Acoustical Resistance. Equation 2. in centi- meters per second.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Mechanical rotational energy is C. and velocity at the point of application of the force.RESISTANCE B. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in rotational ohms. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in radians per second. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. D. . Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. is defined as r^ — = y 2.

14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. 1. A tube of small diameter. density. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in addition to the resistive component. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. resistance. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in grams per cubic centimeter. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. in acoustical ohms. York. and U= Equation resistance current. 6pww 2. a narrow and metal. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. New . and frequency in cycles per second. 'Olson. slit in the direction of flow.. 2. in = width of the meters. in dynes per square centimeter.86 X 10"'* for air. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. in centimeters." D.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. a reaccomponent. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in cubic centimeters per second.5 = viscosity coefficient. However. slit normal to the direction of flow. 1940. d= / thickness of the centimeters.4 where p — pressure. volume current. slit normal to the direction of flow. Van Nostrand Co.

which opposes a change of velocity. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. that during linear when the velocity decreases. B. and driving force. is Inductance L. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. MASS. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. that during angular acceleration. in dynes.3. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. in abhenries. Moment gram (centimeter)^. MOMENT OF INERTIA.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. is remains a constant of inertia /. Equation 2. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. It remains constant ance. is defined as 2. It decreases when the current decreases. 15 Inductance. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. in centimeters per second per second. Moment of Inertia. Inductance.INDUCTANCE.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. = di Ldt ^ 2. in grams. and rate of change of current. mass increases. INERTANCE 2. in abamperes per second. given by dd . Moment of Inertia. Mass. in when the angular velocity a constant.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Inertance A. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. in abvolts. Equation C. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. 2. Mass.

1940.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. in grams." D. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. is. Inertance. Inertance M. effective length of the tube. in dyne centimeters. in cubic centimeters per second per second. inertance. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. decreases. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. New . where ddj dt and Ju = torque. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. in grams per (centimeter)*. that tion.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in radians per second per second. in dynes per square centimeter. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in centimeters. and driving pressure. volume current. is defined as p = where M—dt 2.10 m = S = mass. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. Van Nostrand Co. Equation 2. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in rate of change of 2. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. York.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. cross sectional area in square centimeters. D.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in p = density of the meter. in centimeters.

Rectilineal Compliance. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. in abfarads. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. abvolts.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. in abcoulombs. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. . electrical capacitance is Equation 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. Electrical Capacitance. and electromotive force. Acoustical Capacitance A. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. and applied force. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.n Equation 2. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. It is a constant. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. when is spring remains immovably compressed. and stored. in centimeters. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.4.13 states that the charge on an force. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Electrical capacitance Cg. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Rotational Com- pliance.14 = Jm = displacement. in dynes is Equation 2.

p = where c c^ps 2.16 p s — = = velocity. Acoustical Capacitance. allowed to unwind. It is constant. D. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. in radians. in grams per cubic centimeter. defined in equation 2. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. 1940.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance.17. and condensation.17 s = * Olson. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. D. Van Nostrand Co. and applied torque. 9. in is The terms of the condensation. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. density. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. New York. It is constant.^ in dynes per square centimeter. Rotational compliance Cu-. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. in dyne centimeters. . in radians per centimeter per dyne. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. Rotational Compliance. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. in centimeters per second. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure." p. C. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering..15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. Equation 2.

and 2. .20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. electrical resistance. From equations 2. 2.X 2.19 and 2. = ^ F 2.18 X= volume displacement.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. Representation of Electrical.16. in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.17. The electrical elements. is 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.21 F= volume. 2. mechanical rectilineal. in cubic centimeters. Mechanical Rectilineal. equal to the volume displacement.5. From equations 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. in cubic centimeters. . Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. and volume displacement. Equation 2.

ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. rE . Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.1. mechanical rectilineal. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

the standard modifiers for all four systems. inertance and time.1. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. ELEMENTS and time.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. length. Further.1 and 2. Tables 2.1. 1. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. 2.1 page and list and 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. . ^ The Tables 8. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. length L and time T. Table 2.3 uses mass M.3.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.2. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. The dimensions given in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. self-inductance.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.1.24 sions are mass. and time.

mechanical rectilineal. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational.1. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal.2. 3. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. 3. namely. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mass. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rotational or In other words. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mechanical rectilineal. From these definitions it is evident that friction. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance.1. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . In the electrical. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. potential and heat energy. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. namely. C. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series.1. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. mechanical rectilineal. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. Heat is a transient form of energy. Cr = T. kinetic. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. mechanical rectilineal. 3. mechanical rotational. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. velocity.

cross-sectional area of the opening. in cubic centimeters per second. in centimeters per second. and current through the inductance L. in square centimeters. by the principle of conservation of energy. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. the inertance.3.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. in abhenries.2 m = X mass. 3. in radians per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in grams per (centimeter)*. It is assumed that same phase. and heat energy during an interval of time is. potential. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in abamperes. in grams. mechanical rotational. all the air particles in the opening move with the . and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. The sum of the kinetic. and velocity of the = mass m. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. electrical. mechanical rectilineal. equal to the system. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. mass of air in the opening. in centimeters per second. X— X Sx = volume current.3 = moment of inertia. in grams.4 M= m = S — m/S^.

in abfarads. in radians.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters per dyne. and charge on the capacitance.. ^ 3. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. in cubic centimeters. and c = velocity of sound. in centimeters.4. in grams per cubic centimeter. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. = -. and <l> angular displacement. in centimeters per second. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in dynes per centimeter. p = density of air. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. dyne. s — stiffness of the spring. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. and X = displacement. . The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in abcoulombs.

10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. and current.12 where We. Wr. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . .DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. force.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.y- 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.18 .5.17 = = is electrical resistance. in abamperes.: 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. and acoustical systems.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. mechanical rotational. mechanical Wm.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. in abohms. +— + XX 3.

in centimeters per second. in radians per second. in acoustical ohms.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. and X= 3. and velocity. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. and angular velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.22 = acoustical resistance. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. in mechanical ohms.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. in rotational ohms.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.

32 „.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .24.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy. 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.28 and 3..25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.26.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.

and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. .35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. the impedance is m and Cm.jo>I — — 3. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. and Cr.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.7. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. the angular velocity and torque.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.7^ Ca 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the velocity and force. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.38 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.

40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.8.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.42 3. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.Ce r^ 3.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. . mechanical rectilineal.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.

48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.24.1. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. 3. Equation 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. namely. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. 3.49 „ . mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.1.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.

51 is the same as equation 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. .54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.26.28. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. Equation 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. 3.55 is the same as equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.

30.59 is the same as equation 3. Equation 3. . the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. and acoustical systems.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.43 to 3. inclusively.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. Equations 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. mechanical rotational. 3.59. mechanical rectilineal.

L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .2. mechanical rectilineal.1. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. 4. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. MECHANICAL Electrical. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. velocity. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. 4.1.1.

in abhenries.1 93 L = inductance. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in centimeters per second.2 where x^ m = = mass.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in cubic centimeters per second. in abamperes.4 M = inertance. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. . in grams. in branch 3. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.3. and = h = current. and velocity of the mass m. in radians per second.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.

The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.DISSIPATION 4. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. and X2 = volume displacement. in centimeters. in abfarads.5. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. . The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.4. and charge on the electrical capacitance.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abamperes.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in radians. in abcoulombs. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 4. in cubic centimeters. and displacement. and <i>2 angular displacement. and — current. per dyne.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in qz ohms.

2 d<t>n dcj).10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. current. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in cubic centimeters per second. in rotational ohms. and Xs = volume 4. and velocity. and angular velocity.i 4. in centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. mechanical ohms. in acoustical ohms.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. in radians per second.6.12 = acoustical resistance.

The relation for the currents in Fig. at/jf. 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.18.1 is h = H Equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.25 .17.14.23. 4.21 4. 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.22.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.13. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. e = = Lqz-[. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.rsqz 4.7.20 4. The linear displacement. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.19 +k 4.8. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.

at/^j. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.29 4.10. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.32 ing piston. 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.42 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.31.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.1.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.9.30. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. 4.26 ^ The 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4. . SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.16.26. Fig. p = MXa + vaXz 4.28 Differentiating equation 4. at p. Jb /. in the acoustical system. The angular displacement. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.15.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.27. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4.

to mechanical rotational resistance.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .25. and to acoustical resistance. shows again that resistance.1. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.29 and 4. inertance acoustical system.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. Fig.1. given by ^3 JM is 4. Fig. mass. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. 4. inclusive. 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.11.19.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. vm.1 to 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.33. 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. inductance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.

45 . is given by k The = f".. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. Fig.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.43 volume current Xi at given by X. X2 = Xi . 4. 4. is .1. 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.1.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.X3 = pjccCa 4. Fig.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.

The electrical impedances z^i. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2 are as follows: 4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 55 and 56 and Fig.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 4. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. see pages 53. . 1 tional systems of Figs. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.48 JwCe3 Cr.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.1 of Chapter V. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.12. 54.2.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.3.

2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .2 save that the electrical capacitance. ze2 = j^L2 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.57 The system shunt in Fig. 4. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. mechanical rectilineal. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. mass. compliance.59 4. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.50 + jwm2 + T-p. 4.60 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.3 is the as that of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.2 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. The shunt electrical. I2 and M2.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. 4.— JwLmz Zb.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. 4. Ce2.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.55 jwLai 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.

65 2^22^3 . The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.3.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.

t 4.4. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Electrical.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Mechanical Rectilineal. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. mechanical rectilineal.«i. 4. I2. Cb2 .3.4. Cm\. Ca. to /i. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . Cri.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. L2.13. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. 4. m2. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.67 .\. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. L. Cei. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. 4.412^3 + 4.

70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. nA where zei = . 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.89 .76 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. i^ in show that /q. ^ zjji = . 4>i. to 4>o. Cai. The current to. (h and 04 X2. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.74 4. 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . h. X2.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.88 4. M2. Xi. Xi.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.83 ZA2 4. 4>2.78 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.84 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. the linear velocity Xq.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.82 4.80 4.86 4. X3 rectilineal system.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the linear velocity X2. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.) Ha ^_^^j .99 r^r^ .97 The current i2. the linear velocity Xi.1UU ^^^ pZA. 4.93 Ha = The current ii.92 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .95 . 02 = + Zr^ 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.98 .90 4..50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. 01 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.{ZA3jrZA.

the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. J~iR X. the linear velocity X4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. 4. .106 . ^^^ 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.105 current 4. = The equations cal. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.-riE . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.107 .102 X3 4.„.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.

52 .2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.1.^ an inductance.2. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. characteristics. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.1. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. mechanical rectilineal. 5.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. 5. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. mechanical rotational.

that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.1.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. branch is current flows in z^i. Fig. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. 5.

In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . as for example. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. must be in parallel. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . Equation 5. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. With these specifications the differential of Fig. respectively. Xt Differentiating equation 5. SAA. Fig.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. relations existing between//. shown schematically in Fig.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.1. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. </>!.4 That is. = = xx -\- X2 5. </)r. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. That is. respectively. 5. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. respectively. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5.2 for the electrical system.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. 5. respectively. Z/jt.3. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. consists of a system of gears. analogous to equation 5. ^2.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig..1 with the same tions.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

5.17 where / = moment of inertia. mechanical and acoustical analogies.12 relatively large 59 and 5.2.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. equations 5. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. reactance .2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5. equations 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.2. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.13 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. ^^^^.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. in abfarads.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.14 and 5.11 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.5. Therefore. 5. 5.20 where Cm = compliance. Equations 5. . 5.2. in centimeters per dyne. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.42 = joiM 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 is = T^ 5. from equations 5.3.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.2. 5. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.18 where M= inertance. Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.

inversely proportional to the frequency.3. Fig. at Equa- tions 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.12 to the and 5.3. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. The mechanical the frequency. 5.3.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.21 show that at low frequencies . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and 5.20 is shown in Fig.12 and 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.

5. 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.3. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. The shown in Fig. 5. in abfarads. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.13 and 5.12 = ^-^ 5. 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. . transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.14 and 5. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.6.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. tional.4 in series across a line. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.23.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abhenries.3.11 and 5.4.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and electrical capacitance. equations 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.

13 and .4. and Cu = rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24. The output angular 5. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.25. in grams.12 and 5. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in gram (centimeter)^. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.24 where m = mass.25 where / = moment of inertia. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.

14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. The output volume 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.13 and 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.14 and 5. 5. 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.26 where M= Ca = inertance. 5.5.4. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. . mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.2 and there is very little attenuation.24 also is zero. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.11 and 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Equations 5. acoustical capacitance.5 parallel across a line. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. in grams per (centimeter)''.12 and 5.7.26.

5 is jo}L -£2 5.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.28 where m = mass. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5. 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abfarads. Cm = The output .12 and 5. 5.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in abhenries.J^mCM 5. and electrical capacitance.27. and compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.28. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance. in centimeters per dyne. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

and = rotational compliance..5 is ZR2 = . in gram (centimeter)^. 1 - 5.29. current can be obtained from equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.11 and 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.14 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.^MC.13 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.2 and the transmission is small. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. The output volume 5. 5. Equations 5.13 and The output angular 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and acoustical capacitance.30.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .3 and the transmission is again small.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. Equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. 5. .12 and 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5.min. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. 5. in shunt with a line. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. inductance.6 shows an electrical resistance.31. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.11 and 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. 5.6.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.5. and electrical capacitance.6. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. itance in series. in abfarads. 5. . 5. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abohms. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. Electrical resistance.8.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . compliance.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in grams per (centimeter)*.3 and there is very little attenuation. Therefore. mass. 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.11 and 5. The output volume 5.32. Therefore.2 and there is very little attenuation. in rotational ohms. in grams.12 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. inertance.12 and 5.34. in mechanical ohms. of inertia.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. and rotational compliance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.33. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The output and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. 5. from equations 5.

in abhenries. from equations 5. from equations 5. 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. 5. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2.11 and 5.13 and 5.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.7.12 The output and 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.14 and 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.35. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. in Fig. quencies the same as that of Fig. The mechanical network is rectihneal.4.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in grams. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. . in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. and compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. Therefore.9. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.6.36.6. inductance. in Fig. in abfarads.7 shows an electrical resistance. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. 5. in abohms. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in mechanical ohms. 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Therefore. mass.

inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. S.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance.37 where ru Cb.38. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. of inertia. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. Electrical resistance. in acoustical ohms.37.14 Ca = 5. The output and 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in rotational ohms. 5. rotational compliance.7. inertance. acoustical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . = = mechanical rotational resistance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in grams per and 5.

This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. However. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.5. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. inductance. 5. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.10.7.13 and 5.7. 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.7.2 and the transmission is small. .3 and the transmission is again small. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.12 and 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.11 and 5. Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance.14 and 5. 5. Fig.7. 5. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. output electrical impedance.7. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.

Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance.43 = p = 2. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.43 where L = inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.40 ZM2.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. in abhenries. 5. . acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. output acoustical impedance. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.11.41 input acoustical impedance. 5.42 Zas.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.

Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. characteristic. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.39 and 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.8.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.8 equations 5. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8 is = j^m 5.8 is = jo)I 5.8. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. in grams.44 where tn = mass. 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. 5. 5. in gram (centimeters)^. 5.8. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. . the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.

8 is za2 = jo^M 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.8. 5. in abfarads. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8 equations 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The acoustical system of Fig. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5. 5.41 and 5. 5.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.48.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. Equation 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.46 where M= inertance.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12. 5. acoustical Equations 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . 5. 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.42 and 5.

Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. is 5.9 = 5. 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne. . is inversely proportional Equations 5. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.9. Fig. 5. is ance relatively large to motion.47.40 and 5.9.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.9 to the frequency. 5.48 where Cm — compliance. frequency characteristic.9 is ^R2 5.l/2 Fig. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

and per = area of the diaphragm.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. Mechanical Rotational.9. The mechanical rectilineal.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. 5.42 and 5. in square centimeters.13. 5. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5. Equation 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.9.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. in (centimeter)" per dyne.10.41 and 5.9 is 2.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. dyne. 5.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. analogous to an in Fig. .50. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. compliance of the suspension system.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. Equations 5.

1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. in abfarads. 5. in abhenries. in centimeters per dyne. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.53. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. rectilineal. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in gram (centimeter)^.40 and 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. and = rotational compliance.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and electrical capacitance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and C_if compliance.39 and 5. .52. The mechanical system of Fig.10. 5. in grams. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.53 where m = = mass.

5. and again the transmission is small. 5.8.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.55 where M= Ca = inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.14. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.54. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. and acoustical capacitance. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5.50.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.40 and 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.55.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. connected in with a line.39 and 5. 5.42 and 5.10.42 and 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Equations 5.41 and 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.11.9 5.41 and 5. and the transmission is small. . At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.

11 is - 5.11 is 2/22 = :. in centimeters per dyne. 5.11. in abhenries. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.57. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . in abfarads. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.56.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. and electrical capacitance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 5. and compliance.1/2 = 1 — S. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. in grams.40 and 5. The mechanical system of Fig.39 and 5.

At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. 5.58.59 where M= Ca = inertance.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. Electrical Resistance.11.41 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 2.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.12 shows an electrical resistance. Equations 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. . velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.15. Equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. and acoustical capacitance. 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.39 and 5. 5. 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.59.42 == 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. in grams (centimeter)^.11 equation 5. 5. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. ance of Fig. 5.41 The output angular 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. and = rotational compliance. 5. 5.11 is -. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. inductance and line.40 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. Equations 5.

The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. 5.60.40 and 5. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. in mechanical ohms. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. in grams. in abhenries. m = Cm = mass.12. inductance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . in abfarads. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig.61. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.39 and 5. 5. compliance.62 . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne. 5. and capacitance.

However. The output and 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. Therefore.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms.8.12 is 2.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.10. in gram (centimeter)^. where vr / = moment of inertia. from equations 5. from equations 5. and the transmission is small.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. 5.41 and 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.4 -T-z^ 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.12.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. from equations 5. 5. inertance.coC. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. and Cr = rotational compliance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12. . rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.40 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.63. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. The output volume 5. Therefore. 5. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.62. Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.12. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.39 and 5. 5. Fig. from equations 5.42 and 5.12.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. Therefore. and again the transmission is small.12.

13. and electrical capacitance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. inductance. 83 Parallel. 5.39 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. in abohms. inductance line. Electrical resistance. 5.13 is ZM2 = r. in abfarads. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5.13. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16.65 .64. 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5.13 shows an electrical resistance.

the acoustical reactance is infinite. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. therefore.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. from . Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. 5. 5. 5.13. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.67.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.41 and 5. Therefore. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.40 and 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne. ohms. Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. mass. in centimeters per dyne.40 and 5.65.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. current can be obtained from equations 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small. in grams. from equations 5. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and Cr = rotational compliance.13. 5. The output and 5. from equations 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. 5.66. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Fig. 5. Therefore. 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~. and compliance. 5. from equations 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in acoustical ohms.9 and the attenuation is small. Therefore. in where tm mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.39 and 5.13. The output volume 5.

Fig. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. Referring to equation 5.13. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5. 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances.14 Mechanical Rotational.42 and 5.17. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . 5. 5.18. that of Fig. 5. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.67 the attenuation ance. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.13.11. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.

5. Fig. 5. Electrical Rectilineal. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. 5. larger.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Referring to equation 5. . Equation 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. rectilineal. 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.19.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.14 shows a system of made larger. Equation 5. Equation 5. 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.15.

5. 5. In the same way equations 5. wherein zm\. 5.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. rui.41 and the output impedances. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. "Zrz. 5. rm. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.16. mechani- and acoustical analogies.13 the mechanical rectihneal.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. zri. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. acoustical systems of Fig. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 5. mechanical rotational. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. Equation 5.16.12.17. 5. respectively.11. and r.21. and Zmz. and r^i and the input impedances.20. The mechanical rectilineal. respectively.16. and 2^3 is the sum of rui.

5. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.17. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. output impedance.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. In this case zei is the input impedance. Equation 5. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.13 and 5.22. Electrical.14. 5.18. Electrical.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. 5. . and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. me- chanical rotational. 5. 5. ze2 is rE2.12.17. rectihneal.

TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. and of turns on the secondary. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. ACOUSTICAL Fig. Electrical. 5.68 5.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.18 the electromotive force. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. 5. The force. ei. and zei represent the electromotive force.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. velocity and . ii.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.18.

5. /mi.18. 5.18. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The pressure.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.77 5.18. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. /ri. consists of a mass- gear train.71 = — xi 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.79 . •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. The torque.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. The 5. of Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.

two diaphragms. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. . volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. 5. ^ Engineering. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss.41 and p2. 1940. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process." D. New York.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure.. Xi and 2. pi. The acoustical transformer of Fig.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer.

The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. No. W.1. 1922.. Stewart. 528. Jour. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Phys.. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. 6. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. 20. A. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. I. Rev.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. No.. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. 92 . Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others.. 6. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different.2. G. G. 2. Bell System Tech. Vol. 1922. p. mechanical rectilineal. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Vol.

Johnson. positive and when than four.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. Shea. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line.. New York. ^ Nostrand Co. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. that is. velocities. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. Van Nostrand Co. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. *' ." D. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. velocities. respectively. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range.." D. Van New York. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. velocities.3. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. 6. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. velocities. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. velocities.

pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.6 ZR2 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.4.94 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.1.8 .Ca 6.2 6.1 zmi zri 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6. Electrical.1.

5.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .= -4 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. when .1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. mechanical rotational. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. inclusive. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. 6.10 — — 0.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. when coe 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when coc 6.9 the constants of the systems. when coc = .-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. mechanical rectilineal.= From and .13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.17 Equations 6. when uc = 6. 2A2 VMC^ . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. and the cutoff 6. 6.15 WC. . when oip = = = = 6.17. 6. coc = — 2Af2 V — . when ccc 6. 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.10 and show that the systems of Fig.2. linear velocities.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= -4 22 6.= 22 and . 2£1 6.27 .26 From the constants of the systems.

37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12. .98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6. 5.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.

a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . when wci = — VLiCei . UCe\ (1 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.44 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — .42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC.12 =0. —= Z£2 — 4.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. 6. 2. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. when coci = = 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2..lfi)^ ^ -. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .43 Let LiCei = 6. —7== VMiCai . = 1 .50 V/iGji 0.51 VM2C42 = . . „ when coci = . = — 7= / 6. _ 4.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. — — / 1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.46 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.

57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. (1 . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . when . —= 2.v/2 1 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. -4.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.41 .53 —= ZiJ2 -4.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. one greater than uci and Therefore.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.

68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.69 .7. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2". inclusive. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.56 to 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.64 CeiLi 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. are 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6.63.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. linear velocities. show that the systems of Fig.4.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.

74 6. mechanical rectilineal.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.76 . The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.4. 6. Electrical.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.

when uci = and cca oo 6.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .42 -4.84 . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. . M\Ca\) 4. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. or. when oici = and wa = =0 6. 6. .-4. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.82 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. —= Zr\ -4.79 ^— = ZA2 0. .78 —= ZR2 0. when. when (1 .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0.77 —— = ZM2 0.83 —= Z^l 2. —= zei -4. 6. when (1 .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

7. respectively.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. in centimeters per second. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. . 7. shown in Fig. and driving force. 7.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.2. The current is zero = 0. velocity. The graph depicts the current. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass. in dynes.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. rectilineal resistance.2.5 where aE = Te/L. unit torque and unit pressure. in grams. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. unit force. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. 7.

= mechanical rotational resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. 7. as shown in Fig. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. in gram (centimeter)^.12 = — - e"^') 7.2.2. in radians per second. .13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. in dyne centimeters.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. 1/riv/. and = torque.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in rotational = angular velocity. ohms.

17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.16 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). and p = sound pressure. in cubic centimeters.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. in grams per (centimeter)*. in dynes per square centimeter.22 . From is the tables of operational formulas. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. in acoustical ohms.2. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.17 where aji — Vr/ I. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.20 where M= ta inertance.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2. 7. as shown in Fig. U = volume current. = acoustical resistance.

{(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. 7.3. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. the solution of equation 7. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. in abvolts.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.22 111 may be written. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .28 ve . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.24 JA{t) = " (1 .25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. electrical resistance series. in abamperes. and electromotive force.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.4.2. in abohms.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. electrical resistance. 7.e-^ in Fig. 7.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. in abfarads. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. the solution of equation 7. current.

30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. unit force. The graph depicts the current.3.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. 7.31 . in centimeters per dyne. linear velocity. respectively. unit torque and unit pressure. shown in Fig.30 P)rM where a.3. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. is The for / shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal resistance. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. the solution of equation 7. in mechanical ohms. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. From the tables of operational formulas.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. force. 7 3.y = l/rjfCv/. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. velocity. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. in centimeters. in dynes.

The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.3.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. mechanical rotational resistance. volume current.3. and sound pressure. in dyne centimeters. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. in radians per second. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. 7. is shown in Fig. in acoustical ohms. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr.3. in dynes per square centimeter.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. as shown in Fig. angular velocity. and torque. in cubic centimeters per second. 7. in rotational ohms. acoustical resistance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. .TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. 7. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.3.

4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abhenries. (a + ^ Pfa . abohms. electrical resistance.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. in current. 1 7.38 ^. abamperes. is shown 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. in abvolts. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. and electromotive force. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force.3.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . . electrical resist- ance. in abohms. 7.5. as in Fig. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. in electrical capacitance.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.

velocity. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. unit torque or unit pressure.4. 7. 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. the solution of equation 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.4. .40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the current. The response sinusoid.^.45. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. respectively. unit force. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. series Response of an electrical resistance.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7.

Substituting equation 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. 1 AC.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. displacement. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in centimeters per dyne. 1 A\ m = mass. acceleration. velocity. rectilineal resistance. in centimeters. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. v for x. and driving force. in centimeters per second. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in centimeters per second per second. in grams.47 . 7. in dynes.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7.

<J) Substituting 6 for 4>. equation 7. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. in radians per second per second. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. 7. 4> = angular acceleration.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. 7. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. in radians. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. = angular displacement. and 4> Jr = driving torque. Cr = rotational compliance. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. 7. = angular velocity.51 = moment of inertia.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.si . in grams (centimeter). as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. lAA. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.4. in radians per second. is of inertia.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.4_S.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.48 The response sinusoid.

lAA.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. = '^I/Cr. If rR^ > AI/Cr. WR^ 2 1 7.. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.56 ^PR = Jo.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. . It is a damped sinusoid.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . 7. 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.4C. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.45.

in (centimeter)^ per dyne.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. in grams per (centimeter)^.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. and pressure.4. at equation 7. in cubic centimeters per second.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical resistance. 7. Substituting U for X.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in acoustical ohms. as in Fig.

Step function approximation. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.45.6.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.5.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. 7. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. 7. . cca^ = 4M/Ca.

Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. <?i at / = Ae.5.. 7. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. The indicial electrical admittance.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. an electromotive force ^2 is added. Therefore.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. as shown in Fig. an electromotive force ei is added.68 . integral.5. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . a time «2 later. 7.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. tem. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). The This proof. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. etc. as in the case of the preceding sections. etc. «i. all being of the unit type. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du du 7.

and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .72 . Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.u)du du u)du 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.u)du 7. The velocity.69 fR{u) — AR{t . 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.

.

Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.2. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.1. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. 8. the electromagnetic. the electrostatic.

1 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. From equations 8.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. The force. in centimeters per second.1 B = / = / = flux density. When there is only one path. in abamperes. abohms. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. in dynes. due to motion. 8. field in which depicted in Fig.1. in gausses. in centimeters. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.However.2 where x = velocity.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . and Ca with vr.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. length of the conductor.1. in using analogies in actual practice. circuit will be used instead of network. L and Ce.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. The electromotive force. termed motional electrical impedance. and current. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in abvolts. it is located. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.

Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. that is.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. in the absence of motion. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in mechanical ohms. in chanical ohms.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zen in abohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.1. which the mechanical There are three general types of .3.6 The 8. The normal electrical impedance zek. all of the conductor.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.4 8. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. in abohms.3. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. 8.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.

8. A. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Assume that all the reluctance . namely. Unpolarized Armature Type. Consider the system shown in Fig. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.2. Since there is no polarizing flux.

in square centimeters. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. .13 and 8. then from equations 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. in abamperes. in dynes. and a = normal spacing. the total flux is <f>T Aa.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. n = number of turns.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.14 e = ^r 8. in abvolts. is where / = current in the coil.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. A = area of the center pole. in centimeters.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.15 The force on the armature. C = l-^nA.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.

15 and 8. Substituting equation 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. the force on the armature is Im = '.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .21 . From the mechanical circuit of Fig. nC^P 8.17 for the current in 8. in seconds. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.18 Equation 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. and time. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. 4TrJa*/M . mechanical ohms. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. in mechanical ohms.2.20 — X From equations 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. in mechanical ohms. 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.16.

The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.2. a = spacing.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. this system cannot be used It is. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. 8. saws. in gilberts. 8. vibrators and clippers.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in abamperes. in abohms. in centimeters. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. for the reproduction of sound. . filing — as in Fig. = number of turns. Zen in abohms. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.22 = motional electrical impedance. from the poles of a permanent magnet. Polarized Reed Armature Type. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. in abohms. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. 8. in abohms. in maxwells. ^ = area of center pole. in square centimeters. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. in mechanical ohms. in oersteds.20 and 8. Therefore.19. / = current.3. and impedance of the coil. for converting electrical variations into however.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. B. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.

in abamperes. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in oersteds.axsin wt n coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . frequency. and time. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in 131 oit maxwells. 27r/.

i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. in maxwells.. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. sidered.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. Ax -\- Ax . the flux. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. and area of the pole. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8.32 „ . in square centimeters.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. in abvolts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. spacing between the armature and pole. __ . the flux will now be 4>x + A. in gilberts. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. due to the steady field. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in centimeters.^ .

32 and e i = — X 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.37.. 8.34.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.38 a Zm . assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.35 and 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. ZAfi.33.35 8.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. in me- chanical ohms.24 and 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.3. fu = MNi ~r — . ~ 8. in abohms.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. From equations 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.

38 is similar to equation 8. Equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. 8. C. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. and impedance of the coil. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.3. in abohms. ARMATURE MAGNET .

8. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in square centimeters. which the coil energizes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in oersteds. at each pole magnet. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. The . in dynes. in maxwells. i?2 = = coil. in maxwells.4. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. The steady magnetic field is force.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. of the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The sum of the forces. and yf effective area. 8. in dynes. in abamperes. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. at the poles (Fig.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. The flux. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current .

<^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. in abvolts.44 A. . rectilineal impedance of the armature.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. in centimeters. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.45. NMA —^x a^ 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. through the armature to the right and upward.4.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. in mechanical ohms.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. of the steady field.136 flux. in gilberts. in merectilineal chanical ohms. and effective area of a pole piece. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. in mechanical ohms. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.

50 and 8. .50. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. Zm\. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.43 =-^ 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.

Therefore. galvanometers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. system of Fig.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. This driving system is used for loud speakers. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. 8. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.4.

57 numerator of equation 8.59 and 8.60 From equations 8. in statfarads. ^o^max sin wt . motive Cq is large . ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. in statvolts. The force.62 .57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statamperes. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. in dynes. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. on the condenser is q considered. The useful force.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. the fourth term will be negligible. is The current. = CeCq 8. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . and capacity per unit area. in statcoulombs. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statfarads. in dynes.

68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.66 in 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.61. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in stat- amperes. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. 47r(a — 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.5. the generated current.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. ohms. . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. in mechanical ohms.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 8. 4ir(<2 + . Ax) 8.69 .

5. adding a large stiffness. in statohms. statohms.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. at the same time.5. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. 8. electrical network in Fig. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.69 and 8.68.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.58 and 8. + .72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. electrical impedance of the condenser. 8.

The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Consider the system shown in Fig. 8.6. current is applied to 2m . Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.

The electromotive force. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. in abamperes.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abvolts. due to is the Villari effect. frequency. in cycles per second. .74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . coil. in seconds. induction is of the nickel rod. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in centimeters. turns in the coil.73 Combining equations and 8. in square centimeters. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in square centimeters.74 and ehminating the steady force. 8. current. in current in the abamperes. CO/ 8. in gausses. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.X JR 8. and area of the rod. e = MJ^ dt 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. induced in the winding. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. and time. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.

and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.78 From equation 8.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. rectilineal impedances zm.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in square centimeters. length of the rod.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. in mechanical ohms.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in centimeters. and Young's modulus. The mechanical to one . is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.6. 8.

84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. The mass mi in Fig.6). including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.86 Mason. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. is assumed to be a In general.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 8. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.83 From equations 8. as shown by equation 8. in mechanical ohms.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8..7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. in abohms — equation 8.84." D.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in abohms.6. New York. = motional impedance. 8.82 and 8. 8.79. Van Nos- trand Co. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. total in abohms. . constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. 8. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. 1942.

in square centimeters.7. in centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. and Young's modulus. in Fig. in centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. length of the rod.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.80. length of the rod. in square centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8. and cross section of the rod.

For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.7. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. in dynes. in square centimeters.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.7C A and B given in Fig. Young's modulus. X = 4^. EA and 8. 8. 8.84. 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. 8. 8. air load and support resistance. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. 8. The vibrating system of Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.88 where Jm = total force. due to a force. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. that is. A= E = area.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.7. . is The deformation per unit length. 8.

89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. .88 and 8. in square centimeters.8 and Young's modulus. B = A= From and area.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant. c„ .. the data of Fig. 8. flux density. equations 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.6.

4 force. 6. q is 149 = KJu 8.93 . in centimeters. due to the application of a force. equations 8. in dynes. in square centimeters.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. and The displacement. is .92 X From = 8.91 and 8. due an applied force. 4 = length of the crystal. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. and A = cross-sectional area.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. X to 10~* for quartz. E = Young's modulus. in dynes. in statcoulombs.

in mechanical ohms. in statohms. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.100 and 8.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. and E = Young's modulus. 8. in square = length of the crystal. . The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in mechanical ohms. 8. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. / centimeters.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.9.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.97. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.101 From equations 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. zmi and z.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. namely.1.3. 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. and velocity of the armature.2. is The velocity of the armature.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. area of the pole. in maxwells. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in square centimeters. due to the steady field. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in centimeters per second. . N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. and impedance of the external load.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in gilberts. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.6 ze = = = = = total flux. force. 9.2. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. in abohms. through the armature. in abohms. 9. coil. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. spacing between the armature and pole. in centimeters per second. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. and + ZE2. in centimeters. 9. in centimeters.

Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. r~ . flows through the armature. 9. Balanced Armature Generating System. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. due to the deflection of the armature.3.

3.4. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in abohms.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. i?2 = reluctance. in gilberts.3. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. M. The current.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. as depicted 9. in oersteds. 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2. velocity of the armature. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. of the magnet. 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in abohms. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in A .9 and 9. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.11 zme From equations 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. in maxwells. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. in centimeters per second. a = spacing between armature and pole. = magnetomotive force. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. is The /m Zm + 9. in centimeters. in statamperes. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8.

4 e is t2 9. in statvolts. in statohms. ^= a area of the plate. in statfarads. in statvolts. electrical and impedance of the external load. in square centimeters. and velocity of the X movable plate.stationary "plate . in centimeters. 9. in statamperes.14 where e = electromotive force. spacing between the plates. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in centimeters per second. The current. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .

The vibrating system is shown in Fig. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in centimeters. in statvolts. is The velocity of the movable plate. X in centimeters per second. = Zm /^^ + 9.17 zme e From equations 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.4.71 of the chapter on ZME = . across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. electrical impedance of the external load.15 and 9. 9. in statfarads. in statohms.18 Zme) . In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. e. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.4. in square centimeters. electrical and 9.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. is Ze2 in parallel.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. a spacing between plates. area of the plates. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator.

23 Substituting equation 9. . e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.21 Substituting equation 9.22. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.24 and fi 9.25 Comparing equations 9.21 in 9.25.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. = — a CnX 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.19.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.23 in 9.26 .E1 = -r—.

ZEi.5. 9. L\ and rE\. In the mechanical circuit: zm. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in abvolts.26 and an internal impedance zei. shown in Fig. The volt- age. Magnetostriction generating system. zei. Equation 9. is ^tNK 9. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zme. coil. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. However. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. coil.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5.5. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. 9.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. In the electrical circuit: e. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. from equation 8. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.27 .

reluctance of the magnetic circuit. electrical electrical wavelength. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. 9. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. and Young's modulus. in abohms. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in square centimeters.79 or 8.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.5. - £ 9. in abohms. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. force. length of the rod. in centimeters per second. . and impedance of the external circuit.

the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.32 From abvolts. 9. equations 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.5. in mechanical = ohms.86 and 8. in mechanical ohms.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. in centimeters per second. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.6. . magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.32 the generated electromotive force. ohms.28. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. to be a In general. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. in Fig.6. 9.27 and 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. are given by equations 8.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.

Rod fixed on one end and driven on B.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. mi and Cmi. 2_bi j<^Li. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. in statamperes. . In the electrical circuits: e.4 X 10~* for quartz. 9. cross-sectional area of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. and velocity of the crystal. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. mass and compliance of the rod. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. 6. = = length of the crystal. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. E= 4 = Young's modulus. in centimeters per second. in square centimeters. in centimeters. 9. where KEJ — •* 9. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. the driving force. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the effective Zjv/i. + 9.27 and the velocity.6.6. zei. length of the crystal. generated The h = —.7. zei. 9. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. zme. ZMi. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. the other. In the mechanical networks: /m.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. in Fig.6 can be obtained from equation 9. A. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. Li and tei. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.

2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. in statfarads.7. in statvolts. z^'i zei. in statamperes. crystal. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. electrical and impedance of the external load. From equations 9.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. Ce\.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. 9.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. 2_b2. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statohms.34 force e. circuit: e. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. electrical and 9.

rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in centimeters.7.41 .PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. length of in centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. length of the crystal. 4 = length of the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. in statohms. A = area of the electrode. and „ „„ 9. in square centimeters.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters. and E= Young's modulus.97 or 8. the crystal. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in statfarads.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.4 X 10~* for quartz.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. electrical impedance of the external load. E = Young's modulus. in centimeters.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.

in mechantotal ical ohms. zm2 in mechanical ohms.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. 9.36 and 9. in mechanical ohms. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. depicted equations 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.45 .= where i.47 . The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. in centimeters per second.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. is . Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.7.

104 and 8.45. Equation 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.8. However.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. == -^ AwKEx 9. 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.50 and 9.51. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. e.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .49 Substituting 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.49 in 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. 9. in Fig.47 in 9.48.

45 and the velocity. zme. Zm2. the other. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. 9. In the mechanical networks: Jm. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the electrical impedance of the external load. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. . In the electrical circuits: e. electrical network of Fig. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. ze\. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. Piezoelectric generating systems. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. crystal.8 can be obtained from equation 9.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. A. zei. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.37. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. 9.

i^' . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency.1.2.R. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. produce a current distribution z'l'. 929.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. Vol. ' 10. No.. I. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. /s" . 1 Ballentine. the elements. Reciprocity Theorems A. e^" . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work." 171 . z„". . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 6. A number cal systems. e^' . 1929. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Then 10. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. 17.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. Proc. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. and superposition theorems to electrical.E. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . . p. S.

as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. e" and /'. /" are the electromotive forces 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10.1.2 = /'/' where e' . equation 10. o e .172 THEOREMS system of Fig.

" D. produce a rotational velocity — . p.. • distribution ^i'." Vol. 4>2" . =/a/V 10. '4>^" .fRi" • 4>2. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i"./ij2. ^ Olson.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. . /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. London. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n .6 velocities depicted . C. equation 10. let a set of torques/iji'. II. D. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. /ji/2. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia.1. . 1940. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.7 p Rayleigh. and provided the applied forces /mi. .4 where /^f'. and provided the applied torques /iji.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques./ij„ are all of the same . 10. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. 10. 1926. York. MacMillan and Co. mechanical rotational system of Fig.1../7j2'./fl3 . New .1. ^2'./b' and (J)'. fli" are the torques and angular 10. . Van Nostrand Co. frequency.3 becomes fu'x" . fB2" .1. 10. "Theory of Sound. 145. equation 10./m3 all of the same frequency.

+ dv' .11 From equations 10.1.. 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. 1 . .12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". .—.13 If. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. equation 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. equation 10.174 THEOREMS . .15 v' .8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. p"v' 10.9 and 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.. v' grad po „ = 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. y" . - p 1 .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.8. dv" — .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.12 is for a point.4 by the p and v of the other set.1. 10.9 and 1.10 From neering" equations 1.

. 10. . .1. . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . However. and let a second set of pressures ^i".19 . . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. X^" Xn" Then . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable./". n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. .16 becomes . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. produce pn. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. equation 10. . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. produce a volume current distribution Xi. . . . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. pi. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. X^ X^. 10. .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . which there are only two pressures. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. X2. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.1. . . velocities. E. ." a second volume current distribution Xi". pressures and volume currents. pz same frequency. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. 10. Then — . . . . let also. X2".

. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. . forces n and velocities. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. D. . L.21 . E.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. F.. n Then 10. . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. 10. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . .2. . px L. currents.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. Mechanical-acoustical. i" . . C. an interconnected e\ .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10.2^. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. The 10. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.S. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ .S. B. let also. P"X' i" L. . P"X' tn\ B M . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. HX* E p"X D Fig. — In .S. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. Electrical-mechanical.

volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. acoustical. acoustical transducer. mechanical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. electrical transducer.2fi. .22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. me- chanical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. Electrical-Mechanical. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. G. e'i" = e"i' 10. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.23 . The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.23 states that a if. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. 2D. Theorem. is H. e"i' 10. as shown in Fig.2C.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. 10. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. field. mechanical. Electrical-Mechanical.

Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .2£. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. This may be expressed as p'X" 10.178 I. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . as shown in Fig.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. D.3. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. = p"X' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.

Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. forces. forces. save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. velocity. Each source. force.4. mechanical rectilineal. . angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. current. velocities. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.

Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. by acoustical capacitances. An exhaust back pressure. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. However. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. principles relating to electrical. However. Convert the answer into the original system. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory.2. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Introduction The fundamental lineal. muffler is quite effective. 11. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size.1.

circuit will be used instead of network. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. 11. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. in the audible frequency range.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. When there is only one path. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.u. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1. with rft.1. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. . are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. Therefore. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. 11.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig.However. 11. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.M and Ca for an acoustical system. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. The system of Fig. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). in Fig.

182 APPLICATIONS In general.3. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. 11. sate for approximations.3.2. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. . changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. In the mechanical circuit: m\. 11.7. zem. rMi and Ci.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11.. nii and r. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. 11.1. and ." I"*. radiator tube. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. the mass of the cone.4. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.3. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. in mechanical Jm = driving force. .w2. 11. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. The mechanical driving from equation 8.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction.3. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. teg. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. 11. in dynes. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. force can be determined /m 11. 11.

in mechanical ohms. etc. 11. These systems include microphones. 11. 11. velocity of the cone. given by 11. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. in centimeters per second.5. telephone receivers. The simple vibration fly- damper. F.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. phonograph pickups. m. measuring cal systems. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. 1940. the moment Cg. New York. of inertia of the flywheel. and the shaft. shown ^ in Fig. comphance of the damper. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . .. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. loud speakers.YWHEEL I. Olson. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper.4. is The sound power output. Van Nostrand Co." D. In the mechanical network: A.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies.4. FX. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation.

5. A. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. Cm /4 and 4rM . the mass of the machine. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. the mass of the machine. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. ciple of the device. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig./ is due to the . W. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. zmf.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. z. W. The shunt mechanical vibration. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.6.SA. 11. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr.SA. Jm. The driving force/i. B.vF. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. isolator. /jf. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.

Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. pressor. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. 11.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports.6. only isolation in the system of Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. Cui/'i and 4rii/2.5^ is due to the mass of the machine.7. consists of the following elements: nii. these values springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. . the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Jm. mi. 11. shown in Fig. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. the compliance and mechanical mi. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. isolating mechanical network.6. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. 11. 11. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. the mass of the case.

zmf. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Cm2 and ^1-/2. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. 11. .7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 187 Cmi and rui. The mechanical network of Fig.7. 11.v/i/4. the mass of the case.8. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. 11. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. Of course. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the system in Fig.

r. the compliance of the spring.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- .u 11. Cms a-nd r. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. etc. 11.v/2. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. tmi. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. This system has many degrees of freedom. body. the compliance of the spring suspension. m2.9. Cmi and tires. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. wheel and axle. both rectilineal and rotational. Cm2. the mass of the frame. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the combined driving force at the four legs. m-i. engine.7. Cm2. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. mum. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the driving force at each tire. 11. the mass of the tire.v/3.8. 11. 11. in general. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting.

the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. fn2. Cms and r. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mass of the four tires. wheels. 4rif 2. 189 m^./ifi the comtires. body and engine. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. m^. springs and shock absorbers. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. Cms. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the compliance of the four springs. However. 11. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. Since there are four tires. the mass of the passenger. the compliance of the springs. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the mass of the passenger. the combined driving force at the four tires. Cji/2/4. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency.i/a. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . the mass of the frame.\f 1. mi. the driving force. 4?ni. 4:rM2. .AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. view. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig.8. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system.

the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. Most of the forces. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. 11. Electrical abohm. Acoustical Ohm. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. An acoustical resistance. Rotational Ohm. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. Mechanical Ohm. which controls the oscillations. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. mechanical rectilineal.6. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. — — —A — . A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. pitching or swaying motion. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. mechanical rotational resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. that is. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. For example.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. As already indicated. An electrical resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. an automobile has several modes of vibration. Supplementary Note: Electrical. developed at the tires. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

10. 6 Sound effective. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 22 networlcs. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 23 23. 88 Transient response. 25 three degrees of freedom. 9. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 177 reactance. 184 Rotatomotive force. 18. 107 Transients. 178 electrical. 6 Transducer. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 13. 23 Theorems. 48 two degrees of freedom. peak. 13. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 6 Static pressure. 85 rotational. 13. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 10. 9. 9. 22. acoustical. impedance. 23 mechanical. 6. 45 instantaneous. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 18. 42 one degree of freedom. acoustical. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 178 electrical. 187 Torque. 6 peak. 122 . 9. 178 mechanical rotational. 120 Duhamel's integral. 88 mechanical rotational. 22. 21. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 171 acoustical. 6 maximum. 42 inductance and series coupled. 35 effective. 6 maximum. 13. 13. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 6. reciprocity. 188 Systems. 9. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 9 resistance. 45 electrical. electrical Superposition theorem.) 195 Table. 88 electrical. 37. 178 Three degrees of freedom. electrical-mechanical. 5 Transformer. 6 instantaneous. 179 Thevenin's. 10. 111 electrical resistance. (see cor- effective. 9. 9. 28 Subharmonic. 6 Stiffness. 171 Resonant frequency. 172 mechanical rotational. 179 Suspension systems. 23. 17. 9. 21. 23 maximum. 105 arbitrary force. 6 peak. 22 mechanical rotational. 6 14 pressure. 178 acoustical. automobile. 37 and analogies. 10. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 21. 41 mechanical rotational. 32 Rotational. 173 superposition. compliance. ohm. 6. 11 instantaneous. 61.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 21.

167 . Two 87 degrees of freedom. 93. 165. 11 effective. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 184 186 Young's modulus. 5 filters. 149. 24 Velocity. 23 Transmission. 7 linear. 151. 20. 106 Units. 8 instantaneous. 148 machine isolator.) INDEX Villari effect.196 Transients (Cont. high pass. 101 instantaneous. 144. 143. 8 maximum. 22. 21. peak. band pass. 7. 23. 94 response characteristics. 92. 147. cut quartz crystal. 11 loss. 7 Vibration. 92. 37. 95 low pass. 7. 23 effective. 7 Wave. 8. 92. "X" isolator. Wave band elimination. magnetostriction. 146. gain. 93. 7. 163. Heaviside's Calculus. 45 Unit function. 150. 93. 92. 97 93. 8 8 "T" type network. peak. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 22 angular. 5 maximum. 106 163 Volume current. 106 unit function.

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