## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

1943 F. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. in this project. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Research Director.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. W. E. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Olson. Harry January. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. engineer. Engstrom. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. Lorene E. Olson . wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. plex arrangements of multielement systems. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. an electrical circuit.

.

2 Introduction Resistance A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.CONTENTS Chapter I. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.3 3. Moment of Inertia.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .2 3. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. A. Electrical Resistance B. Rotational Compliance. Inductance B. C.1 2.1 1 1. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Mechanical Rectilineal. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Acoustical Capacitance 2.2 4 II. Rectilineal Compliance. Rectilineal Compliance C.1 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Acoustical Resistance 2. Electrical Capacitance B.5 Representation of Electrical.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Inertance 2. Acoustical Capacitance A. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. ELEMENTS 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Mass. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.3 Inductance. ELECTRICAL.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.8 67 . Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Chapter 3. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Dissipation 4... in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..2 Two Electrical.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. ELECTRICAL.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.6 3.2 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.6 62 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4.4 5.3 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.1 Introduction 37 4.13 Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . .7 64 5.7 The Electrical System .7 3.10 The Acoustical System 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..1 Introduction 52 5.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.6 4. 60 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. 4.

3 6. Mechanical Rotational. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5.21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.. and Acoustical Analogies 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.17 5.16 Electrical Resistance. WAVE FILTERS 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.4 6.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.15 Electrical Resistance.6 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.10 Series 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .1 6. Mechanical Rotational.11 69 71 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

4 9.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. C. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.5 114 120 7.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 7. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.6 VIII. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. 1 7. B.5 9. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.1 8.1 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .5 8.1 10.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. Unpolarized Armature B.2 8.X Chapter VII. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. THEOREMS 10.4 Ill 7.2 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.4 8.

Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.CONTENTS Chapter E.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. APPLICATIONS 11.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.8 1 1 .7 11.2 11.6 11.4 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.

.

Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. However. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. In other words. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. as for example. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. vibrating systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. mechanical and acoustical tems. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. 1 The acoustical . The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. Expressions for the kinetic energy.1. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.

as for example. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. . ' The lished. springs and friction.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Elements are the meshes. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Of course. various assemblies of masses. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. induct- ance and capacitance. cal. springs and brakes. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Electrical elements are resistance. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. constituent parts of a circuit. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits.

and the Standards of Electroacoustics.. all communication. — . Vol. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. Vol. Institute of Radio Engineers. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. Therefore. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. I) and Firestone {Jour. d. and ratio of pressure to displacement. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. ratio of force to displacement. However. In this book. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. For example. 4. Verojf a. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. Acous. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. However. up the mechanical and electrical. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. every electrical. Hanle {JViss. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Finally. XI. No. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. particularly electrical circuits. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. That is to say. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Soc. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. In addition. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. 4. Amer. Therefore.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. mechanical and acoustical systems. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. in the past. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24.1 of 1942. SiemensKonzern. circuit. No.

or which tity comprises a cycle. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. a period of jy. + T). y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. Octave. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one.2. a constant. The remainder. where T. all is the frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. Terms not sections. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. Frequency. This called a Fourier series. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. negative. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. Basic Frequency. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. Harmonic. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. Cycle. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. a positive constant. Definitions ^ this section. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. reciprocal of the period. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. . If a periodic quantity a function of ^. period. or zero. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. equals 2x divided by the period T. Periodic Quantity. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1.

. The unit is the dyne. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. mechanical or acoustical system. The unit is the abvolt. The unit the dyne. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. Wavelength. the dyne. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Electromotive Force. Mechanomotive Force). The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Effective Electromotive Force.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Dyne. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. — — Abvolt. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The root unit the abvolt. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). force. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Subharmonic. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Wave. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle.

The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. Effective the total instantaneous torque. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. An abampere is the unit of current. dyne per square centimeter. the abampere. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The the — Instantaneous Current. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. force. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). . —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne centimeter. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. the dyne per square centimeter. Abampere.

Effective Angular Velocity. Peak Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. Effective Velocity. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. per second. Maximum Velocity. the abampere. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. is Radian per Second. The unit is the abampere. current. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. velocity. The unit is the abampere. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the centimeter per second. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Peak Current. is velocity in that interval. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Maximum Current. Instantaneous Velocity. the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. unit is the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. complete cycle at the point. is Centimeter per Second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle.

—The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point.-W is impedance. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. Electrical Impedance. . Electrical Reactance. second. The unit the abohm. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. is Electrical Resistance. the cubic centimeter per second. which. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. for Peak Volume Current. The unit is the mechanical ohm.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. electrical Inductance. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. is the abohm. where both systems are considered concurrently. The unit is the abfarad. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. when times the frequency. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. Effective Volume Current. The unit the abohm. the cubic centimeter per second. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance.

Rotational Compliance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mass. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. ' See footnote S. rotational resistance ance. unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. — Compliance The unit is the gram. when multiplied by times the frequency. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Acoustical Impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. The unit is the mechanical ohm. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Compliance. page I . The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance.

This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. mass and compliance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. and rotational compliance. Mechanical Rotational System. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. The unit is the acoustical ohm. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. the fourth power. mass and compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. moment of inertia. .. inductance and electrical capacitance. Inertance. by "l-w times the frequency. inertance and acoustical capacitance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. the acoustical ohm. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. Acoustical Reactance. In the same way. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. when multiplied by times the frequency. Electrical System. Acoustical System. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. Mechanical Rectilineal System. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II.

A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. voltage. Transmission Loss {or Gain). fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. mechanical rectilineal. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . force. pressures or such as forces or velocities. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. Either of these systems may be electrical.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. — Transmission. angular velocity. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. force. pressure or volume current. torque. For example. velocity. The bel is the Decibel. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. torque or pressure is electrical. mechanical or acoustical. current. For For a gain the reference power is is greater.

resistor. As indicated in the preceding chapter. inductance and capacitance. inductor and capacitor.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance.1. An tinguished from the devices.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. 2. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. Electrical Resistance. in abohms. electrical.' 2. in abvolts. e rs^-. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. 5. is defined as A. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. the vibrating systems. A resistor.2. See footnote page 8. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. and current through the resistance. In this procedure. in abamperes. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. t 2. Electrical resistance rs. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. e. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. 12 .

is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. in dyne centimeters. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Equation 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. D. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. in rotational ohms.RESISTANCE B. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Mechanical rotational energy is C. in radians per second. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. . in centi- meters per second.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. and velocity at the point of application of the force. Acoustical Resistance. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in dynes.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. is defined as r^ — = y 2. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction).

. A tube of small diameter. in addition to the resistive component. in centimeters.5 = viscosity coefficient. slit normal to the direction of flow. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. Van Nostrand Co. volume current. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. New . density. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. 6pww 2. 1940. and frequency in cycles per second. York. in acoustical ohms. 'Olson. d= / thickness of the centimeters. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. However. slit in the direction of flow. resistance. in dynes per square centimeter.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity." D.86 X 10"'* for air.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. and U= Equation resistance current. 2. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in = width of the meters. slit normal to the direction of flow. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also.4 where p — pressure. in cubic centimeters per second. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. a reaccomponent. in grams per cubic centimeter. a narrow and metal. 1.

Inductance. MOMENT OF INERTIA. that during angular acceleration. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. is Inductance L. in abamperes per second. in centimeters per second per second. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. in abhenries. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. 15 Inductance. Equation C.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Mass. mass increases.INDUCTANCE. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. Equation 2. Moment of Inertia. in abvolts. It decreases when the current decreases. and rate of change of current. in grams. Inertance A. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. and driving force. MASS. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Mass. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. which opposes a change of velocity.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. 2. is defined as 2. given by dd . = di Ldt ^ 2.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration.3. in dynes. in when the angular velocity a constant. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. B. INERTANCE 2. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Moment gram (centimeter)^. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Moment of Inertia. is remains a constant of inertia /. It remains constant ance. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system.

Equation 2. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. 1940.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. in grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance M. volume current. in p = density of the meter. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. York. in cubic centimeters per second per second. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in dyne centimeters. D." D. in dynes per square centimeter. in centimeters.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. in rate of change of 2.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. effective length of the tube. Inertance. and driving pressure. in grams. is. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. Van Nostrand Co. decreases. that tion. inertance..9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. cross sectional area in square centimeters. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. New . in radians per second per second. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant.10 m = S = mass. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in centimeters. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube.

Rotational Com- pliance. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. in centimeters. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Rectilineal Compliance. and applied force. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B.13 states that the charge on an force. Acoustical Capacitance A.n Equation 2. in dynes is Equation 2. in abcoulombs. and electromotive force. Electrical Capacitance. Electrical capacitance Cg. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand.14 = Jm = displacement. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. and stored.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. .4. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. It is a constant. in abfarads. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Rectilineal Compliance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. abvolts.

Van Nostrand Co. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. in radians. Rotational Compliance. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. D. C. and applied torque. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering." p. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. It is constant. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed.17 s = * Olson. D. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed.17. . in grams per cubic centimeter.^ in dynes per square centimeter. It is constant. 9. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. defined in equation 2. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. New York. in is The terms of the condensation.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. and condensation. in radians per centimeter per dyne. Acoustical Capacitance. p = where c c^ps 2. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. in centimeters per second. in dyne centimeters. Rotational compliance Cu-. 1940. Equation 2. density.16 p s — = = velocity. allowed to unwind. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force.

mechanical rectilineal. 2.X 2.17.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. electrical resistance.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Mechanical Rectilineal. in cubic centimeters.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Equation 2. From equations 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems.16. . is 2. From equations 2.5. equal to the volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. . = ^ F 2. and 2. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Representation of Electrical. and volume displacement. in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. The electrical elements.19 and 2. 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.21 F= volume. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.

—^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.1.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. mechanical rectilineal. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. 2. rE . ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.

24 sions are mass. .^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.1 page and list and 2. length. ELEMENTS and time.2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.1. the standard modifiers for all four systems. 2. self-inductance. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. and time. length L and time T.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.1. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. inertance and time. The dimensions given in Table 2. ^ The Tables 8. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.3 uses mass M. 1. Further. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. Tables 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.3. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement.1 and 2. Table 2.

MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rotational.1. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical.2. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational or In other words. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. namely. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. 3. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. From these definitions it is evident that friction. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L.1. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rectilineal. 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. mass. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. potential and heat energy. Electrical. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. mechanical rectilineal. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . mechanical rotational. C. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity. namely. Cr = T. In the electrical. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation.1. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. 3. Heat is a transient form of energy.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. kinetic.

and velocity of the = mass m. The sum of the kinetic. in radians per second. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. and heat energy during an interval of time is. cross-sectional area of the opening. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. mass of air in the opening. It is assumed that same phase. in centimeters per second. in grams. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in grams per (centimeter)*. in centimeters per second. electrical. X— X Sx = volume current. in cubic centimeters per second. by the principle of conservation of energy. and current through the inductance L. equal to the system. mechanical rotational.4 M= m = S — m/S^. 3.3. mechanical rectilineal. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in square centimeters. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3.3 = moment of inertia. in grams. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in abhenries. the inertance. potential. in abamperes.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems.2 m = X mass.

in centimeters per second. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. and X = displacement. dyne. and charge on the capacitance. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. ^ 3. in radians per dyne per centimeter.8 where X= Ca volume displacement.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. s — stiffness of the spring.4. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in cubic centimeters. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in radians. in centimeters. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. in dynes per centimeter. in abcoulombs. and <l> angular displacement. in cubic centimeters. p = density of air.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. = -. in centimeters per dyne. . in grams per cubic centimeter.. and c = velocity of sound.

y- 3.5.12 where We. mechanical rotational. in abohms.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . and acoustical systems. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical..17 = = is electrical resistance. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. . force. mechanical Wm. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. and current.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. +— + XX 3. Wr.: 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.18 . in abamperes. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.

in centimeters per second.22 = acoustical resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. in rotational ohms. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. and velocity. and angular velocity. in radians per second. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . and X= 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. in mechanical ohms. in acoustical ohms. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.6. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.

27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.32 „.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.24.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.28 and 3.26.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3..

the impedance is m and Cm.7.7^ Ca 3. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. .34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.jo>I — — 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.38 3.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. the velocity and force. and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the angular velocity and torque.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.

It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.42 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.Ce r^ 3.8. .40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. mechanical rectilineal. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.

namely.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. Equation 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. 3.49 „ .1. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.24.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. 3.

1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. . The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.55 is the same as equation 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.51 is the same as equation 3. 3.28.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. Equation 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.26. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.

59 is the same as equation 3. Equations 3. Equation 3.43 to 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. and acoustical systems. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.30. 3. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. mechanical rotational. . inclusively.59.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. mechanical rectilineal.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.

the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.2. 4. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. velocity. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . MECHANICAL Electrical.1.1. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. 4. mechanical rectilineal.1. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.

in cubic centimeters per second. and velocity of the mass m. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.3. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space.1 93 L = inductance.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.4 M = inertance. in grams. in branch 3.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. in abamperes. and = h = current.2 where x^ m = = mass. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in abhenries. in centimeters per second. in radians per second. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. .

in abfarads. 4. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in qz ohms.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. and charge on the electrical capacitance. and <i>2 angular displacement. .5. and X2 = volume displacement. in abamperes.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and — current. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. per dyne. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters.DISSIPATION 4. in centimeters. in radians.4. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and displacement.

10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. in radians per second. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in rotational ohms. and velocity.i 4. and angular velocity. current. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . 2 d<t>n dcj). in cubic centimeters per second.12 = acoustical resistance.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in centimeters per second.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. and Xs = volume 4. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. mechanical ohms. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.6. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in acoustical ohms.

7.rsqz 4.19 +k 4. The linear displacement. 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.21 4. 4.20 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.18.13.8. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. at/jf.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. e = = Lqz-[. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.17. The relation for the currents in Fig.14.1 is h = H Equation 4.22. 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.23.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.25 .

p = MXa + vaXz 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.1.29 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. 4.16. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. The angular displacement. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. = = /03 + rij^g 4. at/^j.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.26 ^ The 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.9. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.27. at p. . SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.32 ing piston.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.26.15.10.30. in the acoustical system. Fig.31.42 4. Jb /. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.

and to acoustical resistance. shows again that resistance.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.1 to 4.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. mass.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. inclusive.1. given by ^3 JM is 4.33.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.19. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. 4. Fig. 4. inertance acoustical system.11. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. to mechanical rotational resistance.25. Fig. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. inductance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. vm. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.29 and 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. 4.1. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. 4.

the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. X2 = Xi . given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.1. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.X3 = pjccCa 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. is given by k The = f". the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.1. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . 4. 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X. 4. Fig. is .45 .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. Fig..

A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. . 4. 1 tional systems of Figs. 5. 55 and 56 and Fig. 54.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. see pages 53.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.1 of Chapter V.48 JwCe3 Cr. 4. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. The electrical impedances z^i. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.2 are as follows: 4.12.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.3.

60 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. 4.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.3 is the as that of Fig.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. compliance.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. I2 and M2.50 + jwm2 + T-p.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4. 4.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 save that the electrical capacitance. moment of inertia and inertance L2.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . Ce2.2 4. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4. mechanical rectilineal.— JwLmz Zb. 4.59 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. The shunt electrical.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . mass. 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.55 jwLai 4.

mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.65 2^22^3 . The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.3.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.

L2. 4.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.412^3 + 4. 4. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. m2. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cb2 . Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. I2. to /i.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Ca. mechanical rectilineal.67 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.t 4. Cm\.3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Electrical. Cri. 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . 4. Cei. Mechanical Rectilineal.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4.13. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.4.4. L.\.«i.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .

and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.89 . The current to.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. ^ zjji = . 4>2. nA where zei = .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. 4. to 4>o. Ca2 in the acoustical system.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. X3 rectilineal system. M2. h. Cai. 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . Xi.84 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.86 4.82 4.83 ZA2 4.80 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. the linear velocity Xq. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. (h and 04 X2.76 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.74 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. X2. Xi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.88 4. i^ in show that /q.78 4. 4>i.

y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the linear velocity Xi. 4.90 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.{ZA3jrZA. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. 01 4.97 The current i2. 02 = + Zr^ 4. 4.92 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.) Ha ^_^^j .1UU ^^^ pZA.98 .93 Ha = The current ii. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4..91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.99 r^r^ . the linear velocity X2. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.95 .

109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.102 X3 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.107 . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.105 current 4. 4. . show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.„. J~iR X.-riE . ^^^ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. the linear velocity X4. = The equations cal.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.106 .

characteristics. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.^ an inductance. mechanical rectilineal. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. 52 .1.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. termed the input and output electrical impedances.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. 5. mechanical rotational.1. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. 5. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.2. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.

1.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. Fig. 5. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . branch is current flows in z^i.

SAA. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. 5.. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. Z/jt. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. as for example. must be in parallel. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. the differential used in automobiles and tractors.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. ^2.1. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. </>!.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . = = xx -\- X2 5. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. relations existing between//. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3.3. Fig. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. Xt Differentiating equation 5. Equation 5. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. respectively. 5. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. respectively.2 for the electrical system.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. consists of a system of gears. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. </)r.4 That is. shown schematically in Fig. respectively. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. That is. analogous to equation 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. With these specifications the differential of Fig.1 with the same tions. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. respectively. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

mechanical and acoustical analogies. 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. reactance . ^^^^. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.12 relatively large 59 and 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5. 5.13 and 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance.2.2. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. equations 5. equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.

5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.42 = joiM 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. The acoustical system of Fig. .60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.3.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.18 where M= inertance.20 where Cm = compliance.11 and 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. in centimeters per dyne. Fig.3 is = T^ 5. Equations 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2. in abfarads. 5. 5. from equations 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Therefore.2.14 and 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.

12 and 5. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. 5.3. 5. 5.13 and 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.12 to the and 5. at Equa- tions 5. The mechanical the frequency. Fig. inversely proportional to the frequency.21 show that at low frequencies . velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.3.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.20 is shown in Fig.3 is 1 2fi2 5.

12 = ^-^ 5.23. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. equations 5. 5. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.3.14 and 5. 5. tional.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.4 in series across a line. and electrical capacitance. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. in abfarads. 5. The shown in Fig. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.13 and 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.6.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. in abhenries. 5. 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5.11 and 5. .4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

25. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.4. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.25 where / = moment of inertia. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in centimeters per dyne. and Cu = rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.24 where m = mass. The output angular 5.12 and 5. in gram (centimeter)^.13 and . in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and compliance.24. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

26 where M= Ca = inertance. in (centimeter)" per dyne. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.5.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.4.2 and there is very little attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. in Fig.12 and 5. 5. acoustical capacitance.7. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .26.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. 5.14 and 5.24 also is zero.5 parallel across a line. in grams per (centimeter)''. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.11 and 5. The output volume 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. Equations 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.

27. in centimeters per dyne.5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.12 and 5.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries. 5. in abfarads. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.27 where L = Ce = inductance. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.28. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams.5 is jo}L -£2 5. 5. and compliance." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.J^mCM 5.28 where m = mass. Cm = The output .5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and electrical capacitance. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.

5. and acoustical capacitance.^MC. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.13 and 5. and = rotational compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5 is ZR2 = . current can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.30.2 and the transmission is small.3 and the transmission is again small. 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . 1 - 5. 5.14 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*..29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. .66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.12 and 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.29. The output volume 5. Equations 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.11 and 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5. 5.13 and The output angular 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.

and electrical capacitance. in Fig. . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.6. 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. 5. 5. in abohms. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.6 shows an electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in shunt with a line. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. inductance.8. Electrical Resistance. itance in series.11 and 5.min.6. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.31. in abfarads. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. in abhenries.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.5.

The output and 5. in centimeters per dyne. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. from equations 5. compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5. in acoustical ohms.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. of inertia. inertance.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. 5.2 and there is very little attenuation. Therefore.3 and there is very little attenuation. Therefore. current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in grams. in rotational ohms.32.34. in grams per (centimeter)*. in mechanical ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.33.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.12 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume 5.11 and 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + .14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.

in centimeters per dyne.36. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. and electrical capacitance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Therefore. in Fig.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. mass.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. in abhenries. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. in abfarads. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7. in mechanical ohms.6.6. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. in grams.7 shows an electrical resistance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. Therefore. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. The mechanical network is rectihneal. quencies the same as that of Fig. 5.13 and 5. 5. and compliance.4. 5. from equations 5. in abohms.9.35. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.14 and 5. in Fig.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.11 and 5. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. inductance. .12 The output and 5.

S. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.14 Ca = 5.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. inertance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. acoustical capacitance.37.7. = = mechanical rotational resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. of inertia. in rotational ohms. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. The output and 5. rotational compliance.38. in grams per and 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Electrical resistance. in acoustical ohms. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.37 where ru Cb.

the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances.13 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5. 5.5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.2 and the transmission is small. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. output electrical impedance. 5. Fig. Fig.7. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inductance. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.12 and 5. 5. However. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.10.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5.7.11 and 5. Fig.7.7. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.3 and the transmission is again small. .7.14 and 5.

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.40 ZM2.11.42 Zas.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. output acoustical impedance. 5. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. .43 where L = inductance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.43 = p = 2. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.41 input acoustical impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. in abhenries. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. 5.

45 where / = moment of inertia. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5.8 equations 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5. . Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.44 where tn = mass.8.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. in gram (centimeters)^. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8 is = j^m 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. characteristic. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.8. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5.8 is = jo)I 5. 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. in grams. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8. 5. 5.39 and 5.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.12. 5. 5. 5. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.46 where M= inertance.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. acoustical Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.42 and 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5.41 and 5.8 equations 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.8.48. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.

l/2 Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.9 = 5.9 to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. Fig. 5. 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne. is ance relatively large to motion.47.9.9.9 is ^R2 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.9. 5. .48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.40 and 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.48 where Cm — compliance. frequency characteristic. 5. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. is 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.

9.10. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. Equations 5. 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.42 and 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and per = area of the diaphragm.50.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. analogous to an in Fig. in square centimeters. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. .13. The acoustical impedance of Fig.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational. 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.9. dyne. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.9 is 2. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line. compliance of the suspension system.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.41 and 5. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. Equation 5.

.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. rectilineal.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.53.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and electrical capacitance. 5.10.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in grams. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.40 and 5.39 and 5. in abfarads. 5.53 where m = = mass. in abhenries. in gram (centimeter)^. and = rotational compliance. and C_if compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.52. The mechanical system of Fig.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.

42 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. 5.40 and 5.50.9 5.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.41 and 5. and acoustical capacitance. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Equations 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.14. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5.11. and again the transmission is small. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5.39 and 5. and the transmission is small.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.54. in grams per (centimeter)*.41 and 5. Equations 5. . The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.8.55.55 where M= Ca = inertance. connected in with a line. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.10.

^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.1/2 = 1 — S. The mechanical system of Fig.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass.11. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in abhenries. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11 is - 5. and compliance.11 is 2/22 = :.57.56.40 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. in abfarads. and electrical capacitance.39 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . 5.

Equation 5.12. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5. ance of Fig.41 and 5.58. 2. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. 5.42 == 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.11 equation 5. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.59 where M= Ca = inertance. Equations 5.41 The output angular 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. and acoustical capacitance.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. and = rotational compliance.9 and again the attenuation is small.39 and 5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.11 is -. Electrical Resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.15. 5. inductance and line. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.40 and 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. Equations 5.59. . in grams (centimeter)^.

60.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.12. Electrical resistance. compliance. in grams. in abfarads.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. m = Cm = mass.40 and 5. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in mechanical ohms. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.62 . in centimeters per dyne. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and capacitance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + .60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5.39 and 5.61.

12. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. Therefore. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.40 and 5. 5.8.42 and 5. and again the transmission is small.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. in rotational ohms.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.39 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.63. 5.62. Fig.10. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output volume 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 is 2. However.41 and 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.12. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. where vr / = moment of inertia. in grams per (centimeter)*. current can be obtained from equations 5.12. Fig. and the transmission is small. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. The output and 5. from equations 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in gram (centimeter)^.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.12. Therefore. and Cr = rotational compliance. in acoustical ohms. from equations 5. from equations 5. Therefore. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.coC.12.4 -T-z^ 5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. 5.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Fig. .

Electrical Resistance.13. and electrical capacitance. in abohms. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries. Electrical resistance. in abfarads.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. 83 Parallel. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.39 and 5. 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal.13 shows an electrical resistance. inductance. inductance line.64.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 5. 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.13.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 is ZM2 = r.65 . 5.

13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. the acoustical reactance is infinite. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.13. mass. 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5. 5.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.41 and 5. therefore.39 and 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. The output and 5.8 and the attenuation is small. Fig. from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Therefore. Therefore. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. ohms.13. Fig.65. in acoustical ohms. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5. inertance.67.13 is = jo^rAM ~. 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. and compliance. from equations 5.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)® per dyne.13.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in where tm mechanical ohms. and Cr = rotational compliance. in grams. in M= grams per (centimeter)*.40 and 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. Fig. from equations 5.40 and 5.9 and the attenuation is small.66. 5. Therefore. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. from . 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.

39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.42 and 5.14 Mechanical Rotational. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. 5. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.67 the attenuation ance.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. that of Fig.13.13. Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.18. Referring to equation 5. 5.11. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. 5. 5. 5.17. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.

Referring to equation 5. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5.15. 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.19. Equation 5. larger. 5. Fig. Electrical Rectilineal. .15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. rectilineal. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. Equation 5.14 shows a system of made larger.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.

and 2^3 is the sum of rui.16.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. 5. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.16. mechani- and acoustical analogies. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . 5.12. and r^i and the input impedances. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. respectively.16. 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. and r.41 and the output impedances. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. In the same way equations 5. respectively. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal. rm. mechanical rotational. "Zrz. wherein zm\. rui.11. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. zri. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. 5.17.21. acoustical systems of Fig. 5. and Zmz.20. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. 5. Equation 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal.

5.18.17. ze2 is rE2.13 and 5. 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. Mechanical Rectilineal. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.22. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Equation 5. me- chanical rotational. .12. 5. Electrical.14. rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. 5. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. output impedance.17. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. In this case zei is the input impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical.

5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. ei. The force. 5.18. and zei represent the electromotive force. ii.18 the electromotive force. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. velocity and .68 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig. and of turns on the secondary. Electrical. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. 5.

76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.18.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. The torque.71 = — xi 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. /ri. /mi. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. consists of a mass- gear train.18. The pressure. of Fig.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. The 5.18. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.79 . 5. 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.77 5.

As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. . transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. Xi and 2. two diaphragms. ^ Engineering.. 5." D. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. The acoustical transformer of Fig. 1940. New York.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. pi.41 and p2.

A. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. G. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 2. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Vol. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 92 . mechanical rectilineal. 6. 528. I. 20.. Rev. 6.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Stewart. Bell System Tech.. 1922. 1922. Jour.. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure.. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. Vol. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. No. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. G. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. W. Phys. No. p.1.2.

respectively. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. Van New York.. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. New York. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. velocities. that is. Van Nostrand Co. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. positive and when than four. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. velocities. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. velocities. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. *' . rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies.3. 6. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. velocities. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies.. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. Shea. velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. Johnson. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies." D. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters." D. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. ^ Nostrand Co.

4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.2 6.Ca 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.4.8 .3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . mechanical rectilineal. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.94 6. mechanical rectilineal.1.6 ZR2 6.1. 6. Electrical. 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.1 zmi zri 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.

11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. when . when coc 6. . mechanical rotational. 2A2 VMC^ .= From and . — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. when coe 6. 6. inclusive. and the cutoff 6.17.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. when oip = = = = 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig. 6. linear velocities. coc = — 2Af2 V — .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. when coc = . High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.9 the constants of the systems. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . 6.5.15 WC.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.17 Equations 6.= -4 6. 6.2.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when uc = 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. 6. mechanical rectilineal.10 — — 0. when ccc 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .26 From the constants of the systems. 2£1 6.= -4 22 6.= 22 and .

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec. 5.12. .35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.

V/2 when WC2^WiC.51 VM2C42 = . 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.12 =0.46 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . = — 7= / 6. .. „ when coci = . — — / 1 6.44 6.50 V/iGji 0. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . = 1 .52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. —7== VMiCai . when wci = — VLiCei .41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. —= Z£2 — 4.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. _ 4. 2. UCe\ (1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.lfi)^ ^ -.43 Let LiCei = 6. when coci = = 6.

the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . (1 .1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. —= 2.41 . one greater than uci and Therefore.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. -4.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.v/2 1 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . when .^C2'MiCaxY = --—. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.

where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.64 CeiLi 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. inclusive.4. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. mechanical rectilineal. are 6.56 to 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. show that the systems of Fig.69 . linear velocities.7.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.63. 6.

mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. Electrical. 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.74 6.4.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.76 . The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rectilineal.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.

when. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. 6. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. .1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.78 —= ZR2 0. when uci = and cca oo 6.82 . when (1 .79 ^— = ZA2 0. 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. —= zei -4.-4. or. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. when (1 .83 —= Z^l 2. . when oici = and wa = =0 6. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .84 . —= Zr\ -4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. .42 -4.77 —— = ZM2 0. M\Ca\) 4. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

4 = (ajj + p)L 7. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. 7.2. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5 where aE = Te/L.8 where m = = /m — V mass. and driving force. unit torque and unit pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. in centimeters per second. in dynes. unit force. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. . The graph depicts the current. 7. respectively.2. shown in Fig. in grams. 7.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.2. 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. rectilineal resistance.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. The current is zero = 0. velocity. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.

12 = — - e"^') 7. ohms.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. and = torque. in dyne centimeters.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. . The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. in gram (centimeter)^.2.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. = mechanical rotational resistance.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. as shown in Fig.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. in radians per second. 1/riv/.2. 7. in rotational = angular velocity.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.

and p = sound pressure. 7.2. 7.2.17 where aji — Vr/ I.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.22 . in acoustical ohms. From is the tables of operational formulas. in grams per (centimeter)*.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. U = volume current.20 where M= ta inertance. = acoustical resistance. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.16 7. as shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.

e-^ in Fig. the solution of equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .22 111 may be written.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. in abohms. 7. the solution of equation 7. electrical resistance series. current. in abfarads. 7. 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.28 ve .27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. in abamperes. 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.2. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. in abvolts.24 JA{t) = " (1 .3. and electromotive force.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. electrical resistance.4.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.

unit torque and unit pressure. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. in mechanical ohms. velocity.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. linear velocity. unit force. in centimeters.30 P)rM where a.3. The graph depicts the current.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.3. 7 3. 7. the solution of equation 7. is The for / shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. mechanical rectilineal resistance. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. in dynes. force. in centimeters per dyne.y = l/rjfCv/. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. 7.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. respectively. shown in Fig.31 . ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. From the tables of operational formulas. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.

is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dyne centimeters. as shown in Fig. in dynes per square centimeter.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.3. mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. is shown in Fig. 7.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. 7. and torque.3.3. in rotational ohms. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and sound pressure.33 where aR = IIvrCr. . in acoustical ohms. in cubic centimeters per second. volume current. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit.3. angular velocity.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. acoustical resistance. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in radians per second.

abohms. .36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in abohms. abamperes. is shown 7. in electrical capacitance. in current.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = .36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. as in Fig.3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. in abhenries.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. 7. and electromotive force. 7. 7. (a + ^ Pfa . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abvolts. electrical resist- ance.38 ^. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.4.5. electrical resistance. 1 7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .

4. 7. velocity. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. The response sinusoid. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. respectively. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the current.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.4.^. series Response of an electrical resistance. the solution of equation 7. unit torque or unit pressure.45. unit force.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. 7. .

in centimeters per dyne. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.47 . 1 A\ m = mass. Substituting equation 7. 1 AC.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in grams. in centimeters. velocity. v for x. in centimeters per second per second.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. 7. in dynes. and driving force. in centimeters per second.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. rectilineal resistance. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. acceleration.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. displacement.

lAA. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in radians per second.4. is of inertia. in radians. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.48 The response sinusoid. in rotational ohms. equation 7. = angular velocity. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. 4> = angular acceleration. 7.4_S. and 4> Jr = driving torque. 7.51 = moment of inertia. = angular displacement. in radians per second per second.si . 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. in grams (centimeter). in radians per dyne per centimeter. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. in dyne centimeters.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. Cr = rotational compliance.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.

54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. It is a damped sinusoid. WR^ 2 1 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.. . 7.45.56 ^PR = Jo. lAA.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . = '^I/Cr. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.4C. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7.

in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical capacitance. Substituting U for X. at equation 7.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. in cubic centimeters per second. 7. in grams per (centimeter)^. and pressure.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . as in Fig.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. acoustical resistance. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.4. in acoustical ohms.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.

Step function approximation. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. 7. 7. 7.45. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.5. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. .6.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.

a time «2 later.. The indicial electrical admittance. an electromotive force ^2 is added.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. an electromotive force ei is added. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). tem. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ .65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. etc. etc. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.5. integral. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. as shown in Fig. The This proof. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. all being of the unit type. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. as in the case of the preceding sections. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. Therefore. 7. 7. <?i at / = Ae. «i. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7.u)du du 7.68 .5.

The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. mechanical rotational rectilineal. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The velocity. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. 7.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.69 fR{u) — AR{t . angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.u)du 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.72 .u)du du u)du 7. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.

.

It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electrostatic.2. the electromagnetic.1.CHAPTER 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. 8. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.

in dynes. The force. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. length of the conductor. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. in centimeters per second. due to motion. The electromotive force.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. abohms. circuit will be used instead of network.1 B = / = / = flux density. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. When there is only one path. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. 8. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . it is located.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in abamperes. in using analogies in actual practice. termed motional electrical impedance. L and Ce.However.2 where x = velocity. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1. From equations 8. in gausses. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. field in which depicted in Fig. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. and current.1. and Ca with vr.1 and 8.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. in centimeters. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. in abvolts.

in the absence of motion.4 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8.3.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. The dynamic direct radiator 8. all of the conductor. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.3. 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. in abohms.6 The 8. which the mechanical There are three general types of . 8. that is.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in chanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance zek. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in 8. in mechanical ohms. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.1. Zen in abohms.

namely. Since there is no polarizing flux. A. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. Consider the system shown in Fig. 8. Assume that all the reluctance . the unpolarized armature type. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. Unpolarized Armature Type.2. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.

then from equations 8. and a = normal spacing.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. A = area of the center pole. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. in abamperes.14 \i Ax is small compared to a.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. is where / = current in the coil. in dynes. .14 e = ^r 8. in abvolts. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.13 and 8. in square centimeters.15 The force on the armature. n = number of turns. the total flux is <f>T Aa. in centimeters.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. C = l-^nA.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.

nC^P 8.18 Equation 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.16. in mechanical ohms.21 . The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. and time. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in seconds.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.2. 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.17 for the current in 8.15 and 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. the force on the armature is Im = '.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . mechanical ohms.20 — X From equations 8. Substituting equation 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in mechanical ohms. 4TrJa*/M .

vibrators and clippers. 8. in centimeters. for the reproduction of sound. B.3. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. in square centimeters.22 = motional electrical impedance. from the poles of a permanent magnet. Therefore. ^ = area of center pole.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. in abohms. .19.20 and 8. filing — as in Fig. 8. saws. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. in mechanical ohms. in abohms. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. a = spacing. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in abamperes. in gilberts.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. this system cannot be used It is. in maxwells. and impedance of the coil. 8.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.2. = number of turns. Zen in abohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. for converting electrical variations into however. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. in oersteds. in abohms. / = current.

r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . in abamperes. and time. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in 131 oit maxwells.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. 27r/.axsin wt n coil. frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. in oersteds.

the flux. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. in gilberts. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. in maxwells.32 „ . __ .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. sidered. in abvolts. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. spacing between the armature and pole. due to the steady field.^1 = fl MA — A* 8..29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. and area of the pole. the flux will now be 4>x + A. in square centimeters.^ .27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. in centimeters. Ax -\- Ax .

26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.33.34.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.32 and e i = — X 8. in abohms. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. 8.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. fu = MNi ~r — . ~ 8. in me- chanical ohms. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. in mechanical ohms.35 and 8.35 8.24 and 8. From equations 8.37.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.38 a Zm .. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.3. ZAfi.

The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. and impedance of the coil. C. 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. ARMATURE MAGNET .134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. Equation 8.38 is similar to equation 8. in abohms.3.

8.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil.4. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in abamperes. in dynes. The .4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. 8. which the coil energizes. at the poles (Fig. in square centimeters. The steady magnetic field is force.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. of the pole piece. in maxwells. i?2 = = coil. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. and yf effective area. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. at each pole magnet. The flux. in maxwells. The sum of the forces. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current .= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in oersteds. in dynes. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature.

and zm2 impedance of the load. of the steady field.4. in merectilineal chanical ohms. and effective area of a pole piece. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms.45. in square centimeters. 8.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.136 flux. in mechanical ohms. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. NMA —^x a^ 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in abvolts. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. .44 A.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. through the armature to the right and upward. in gilberts. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.

50 and 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.43 =-^ 8.50. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. . rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8. Zm\.

motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. 8. Therefore.4. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. galvanometers. system of Fig.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. This driving system is used for loud speakers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency.

in statvolts. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . in statfarads.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statamperes. ^o^max sin wt . then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. motive Cq is large .59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.57 numerator of equation 8. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8.59 and 8. in dynes.60 From equations 8. The force.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. in statcoulombs. in dynes. The useful force. in statfarads.62 . is The current. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. and capacity per unit area. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. = CeCq 8. on the condenser is q considered. the fourth term will be negligible.

68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.61.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. in stat- amperes.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.69 . the generated current.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. 47r(a — 8. . ohms. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 4ir(<2 + .5.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in mechanical ohms. Ax) 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.66 in 8. . 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.

adding a large stiffness. 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. statohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.68. + . In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. 8. electrical network in Fig.5.69 and 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.58 and 8.5. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . in statohms. 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. electrical impedance of the condenser. at the same time. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.6. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. 8.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. current is applied to 2m . Consider the system shown in Fig.

8. and area of the rod.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.73 Combining equations and 8. coil. e = MJ^ dt 8. in gausses.X JR 8. and time. in abvolts. in cycles per second. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. CO/ 8. in square centimeters. induced in the winding. induction is of the nickel rod. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. due to is the Villari effect.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. current. in centimeters. . in abamperes. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. turns in the coil. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in current in the abamperes. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in seconds. The electromotive force.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm .74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in square centimeters.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.74 and ehminating the steady force. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. frequency.

from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and Young's modulus. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. rectilineal impedances zm. in square centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in mechanical ohms.78 From equation 8. in centimeters. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in mechanical ohms. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.6. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in abvolts.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. length of the rod. The mechanical to one .

New York. . = motional impedance." D.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. in mechanical ohms. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.84.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. in abohms — equation 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.79. total in abohms.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance.82 and 8. 8. is assumed to be a In general.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.86 Mason. 1942.6. as shown by equation 8. in abohms. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.6).85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. 8. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.83 From equations 8. 8. 8. Van Nos- trand Co. The mass mi in Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.

in centimeters. 8.80. in square centimeters. in centimeters. length of the rod. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in Fig.7. is where p The compliance Cmi. in grams per cubic centimeter.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in square centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. and cross section of the rod.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. length of the rod. and Young's modulus. 8.

8.7.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. due to a force. EA and 8.7C A and B given in Fig. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.88 where Jm = total force. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. is The deformation per unit length. 8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. The vibrating system of Fig. in dynes.7.8. that is. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. Young's modulus. 8. in square centimeters. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. X = 4^. 8. air load and support resistance.84. A= E = area. 8. . 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.

89 K = magnetostriction constant. 8. equations 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.6. B = A= From and area.. c„ . 8. in square centimeters.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.88 and 8. flux density. .8 and Young's modulus.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. the data of Fig.

E = Young's modulus. q is 149 = KJu 8. 4 = length of the crystal. due an applied force.4 force. in square centimeters.91 and 8.93 . in centimeters. and The displacement.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. X to 10~* for quartz. due to the application of a force. in dynes. and A = cross-sectional area.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.92 X From = 8. in statcoulombs.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. in dynes. equations 8. 6. is . in centimeters.

8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.97. in mechanical ohms.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.100 and 8. in mechanical ohms. . in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. in centimeters.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.101 From equations 8. in square = length of the crystal.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. / centimeters. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. in statohms. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. and E = Young's modulus.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. 8. zmi and z.9. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.3. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9. 9. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.1.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. namely.

. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. through the armature. in maxwells. 9. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. and impedance of the external load. spacing between the armature and pole. in abohms.6 ze = = = = = total flux. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. and + ZE2. coil. in abohms. in gilberts. due to the steady field. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil.2. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. is The velocity of the armature. and velocity of the armature. area of the pole. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.2. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. in centimeters per second. force.

r~ . In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. 9. due to the deflection of the armature. flows through the armature. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.3. Balanced Armature Generating System.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.

9. in abohms.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. is The /m Zm + 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. velocity of the armature. i?2 = reluctance. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. a = spacing between armature and pole. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2.3. = magnetomotive force. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8.4. in centimeters per second. of the alternating magnetic circuit.3.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. in A . and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in maxwells. M.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in centimeters.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 zme From equations 9.9 and 9. in oersteds. of the magnet. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in gilberts. in abohms. The current. 9. as depicted 9. in statamperes. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates.

^= a area of the plate. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . electrical and impedance of the external load. 9. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. spacing between the plates. and velocity of the X movable plate.stationary "plate . Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser.14 where e = electromotive force. in centimeters. in statohms. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in statvolts. in statfarads.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. The current.4 e is t2 9. in statamperes.

in statfarads. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. is The velocity of the movable plate. e. X in centimeters per second. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. area of the plates. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. in statohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.4.4. in statvolts. is Ze2 in parallel. electrical and 9. 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.18 Zme) . electrical impedance of the external load. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.71 of the chapter on ZME = .14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.15 and 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. in centimeters. a spacing between plates. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in square centimeters.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.17 zme e From equations 9.

ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. .25. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.22.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.21 in 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.26 .21 Substituting equation 9.E1 = -r—.23 Substituting equation 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9. = — a CnX 9.24 and fi 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.19.25 Comparing equations 9.23 in 9.

In the mechanical circuit: zm. is ^tNK 9. coil. In the electrical circuit: e. ZEi. Magnetostriction generating system. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. Equation 9.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. shown in Fig. from equation 8.27 . in abvolts. zei.26 and an internal impedance zei. L\ and rE\.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. 9. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5.5. coil. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. zme. However. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. The volt- age. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig.5. 9. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.

K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abohms.79 or 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and impedance of the external circuit. electrical electrical wavelength. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. - £ 9. . where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in abohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil.5. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. and Young's modulus. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. in centimeters per second. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. force. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. in centimeters. length of the rod. in square centimeters. 9.

in mechanical ohms.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. 9. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. are given by equations 8. in centimeters per second.5.32 From abvolts. in Fig. ohms. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.32 the generated electromotive force. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. equations 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. . in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.86 and 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.6. to be a In general. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.28. 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. in mechanical = ohms.27 and 9.

the driving force. the other. 9. A. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. = = length of the crystal. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. mi and Cmi. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. generated The h = —. in Fig. zei. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. in centimeters per second.6. 9. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. + 9.27 and the velocity. ZMi. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. where KEJ — •* 9.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. in centimeters.6 can be obtained from equation 9. in statamperes. E= 4 = Young's modulus. zei. 6. in centimeters. length of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. cross-sectional area of the crystal. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. the effective Zjv/i. 2_bi j<^Li. zme.4 X 10~* for quartz. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.7. 9. In the electrical circuits: e. in square centimeters.6. Li and tei. and velocity of the crystal. . In the mechanical networks: /m. mass and compliance of the rod. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.

36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. 9.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statfarads. crystal. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. circuit: e. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network.34 force e. z^'i zei. electrical and impedance of the external load. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. electrical and 9.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. in statamperes. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. 2_b2. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. in statohms. From equations 9. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. in statvolts. Ce\.7. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .

The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters. 4 = length of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. electrical impedance of the external load. and „ „„ 9.97 or 8. in statohms. E = Young's modulus. A = area of the electrode.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in statfarads. in centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.4 X 10~* for quartz. and E= Young's modulus.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. in centimeters. length of in centimeters. 9. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. length of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.7.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.41 . In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in square centimeters.

in mechanical ohms.47 . in mechantotal ical ohms.43 From Ze2 in parallel.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.36 and 9. is . Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. The velocity at the end of crystal. zm2 in mechanical ohms.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. depicted equations 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.= where i. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.45 .7. in centimeters per second. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.

The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. 9. 9.49 Substituting 9.51.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.50 and 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.8. However. == -^ AwKEx 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. e.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.48. in Fig.49 in 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.104 and 8. Equation 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.47 in 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.45. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.

37. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. A. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. Piezoelectric generating systems.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined.8 can be obtained from equation 9. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the other. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.8. ze\.45 and the velocity. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. electrical network of Fig. 9. In the electrical circuits: e. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. . the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. 9. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. Zm2. the electrical impedance of the external load. zei. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. crystal. zme. the driving force.

Proc. e^" .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. i^' . 17. 6. Reciprocity Theorems A. I. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . ' 10. Vol.1. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . p.R. . Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". e^' ." 171 .. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. 1929. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . and superposition theorems to electrical.E. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. No. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. S. . Then 10. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . produce a current distribution z'l'. the elements. 929.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10.2. . z„". /s" . A number cal systems.. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. 1 Ballentine. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book.

1 becomes 10.2 = /'/' where e' . equation 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. /" are the electromotive forces 10. o e . e" and /'.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.

1. let a set of torques/iji'. Van Nostrand Co. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. 10. and provided the applied forces /mi.fRi" • 4>2. II. and provided the applied torques /iji. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. equation 10.4 where /^f'.1. equation 10. New . 145../fl3 . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. 1940. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig.6 velocities depicted . '4>^" . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. "Theory of Sound./b' and (J)'. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. ^2'. mechanical rotational system of Fig. . • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. MacMillan and Co. • distribution ^i'. 10.1. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. ." Vol. fB2" . rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i".4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10.7 p Rayleigh. frequency../m3 all of the same frequency. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. p. 1926. /ji/2. . 10. D.1./ij2. London.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. C.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig." D./7j2'./ij„ are all of the same . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. fli" are the torques and angular 10. produce a rotational velocity — . 4>2" . =/a/V 10. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.3 becomes fu'x" . ^ Olson. York. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.

4 by the p and v of the other set..12 is for a point.+ dv' . dv" — .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. - p 1 . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. equation 10.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. .11 From equations 10. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. .9 and 10.174 THEOREMS .9 and 1.. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". 10.8.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. p"v' 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. 10. 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.—.1. 1 . equation 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. v' grad po „ = 10.15 v' .10 From neering" equations 1.1.13 If. y" . 10.

contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . X^ X^. . . let also.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. ./". and let a second set of pressures ^i". .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.19 .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10.16 becomes . . X2". produce pn. 10. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. E. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. .1. . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. which there are only two pressures.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. X2. 10. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . pz same frequency. . However.1. . produce a volume current distribution Xi. . . velocities. equation 10. . . Then — . X^" Xn" Then . 10. pi. pressures and volume currents. . ." a second volume current distribution Xi".

S. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . currents. Mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . HX* E p"X D Fig. forces n and velocities. P"X' i" L. .S. C. px L. . Electrical-mechanical. P"X' tn\ B M . Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A.2^.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. B.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. D.S. . n Then 10. E. i" . 10. . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. L. . . The 10. let also. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.21 . an interconnected e\ . .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. .2.. F. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. — In .

10. acoustical transducer. Electrical-Mechanical. Electrical-Mechanical. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical.2fi. mechanical. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. is H. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. . Theorem. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. as shown in Fig. acoustical. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.23 . e"i' 10. 10. e'i" = e"i' 10.23 states that a if. field.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. me- chanical. G. electrical transducer. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. mechanical. 2D. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.2C.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.

= p"X' 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. as shown in Fig. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.178 I. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. 10. D.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.2£.3.

velocity. forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. . save the one being considered. velocities. forces. force. Each source. current. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces.4. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. mechanical rectilineal.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately.

mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. muffler is quite effective. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. However. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. Convert the answer into the original system. by acoustical capacitances. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. principles relating to electrical. Introduction The fundamental lineal. 11.2. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output.1. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. However. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. An exhaust back pressure.

11. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. in Fig. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. with rft. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. Therefore. . 11. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.1. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. The system of Fig. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.However. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. When there is only one path. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. in the audible frequency range. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. 11. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). circuit will be used instead of network. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.u.M and Ca for an acoustical system. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained.

changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.2.3. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. 11. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.3. .182 APPLICATIONS In general. system the unpolarized type described in section 8. 11. sate for approximations. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.

and .3.4. 11. 11. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. in dynes. teg. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.3. 11. The mechanical driving from equation 8.1. the mass of the cone. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 11.w2.7.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. radiator tube. force can be determined /m 11.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. in mechanical Jm = driving force. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. In the mechanical circuit: m\. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. zem. rMi and Ci. nii and r. .3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig..3." I"*.

FX. 11. m. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. given by 11. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. measuring cal systems." D. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds.. and the shaft. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. comphance of the damper. in centimeters per second. New York.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. Olson.YWHEEL I. Van Nostrand Co. phonograph pickups. velocity of the cone. the moment Cg. in mechanical ohms. 11. of inertia of the flywheel. . The simple vibration fly- damper. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. 1940. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. loud speakers. In the mechanical network: A.4. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. F. etc. shown ^ in Fig. 11. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation.4. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is The sound power output.5. telephone receivers. These systems include microphones.

The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. 11. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? ./ is due to the . Machine mounted directly upon the floor. The shunt mechanical vibration. ciple of the device. the mass of the machine. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig.6. W. isolator. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.SA. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network.5. the mass of the machine. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. The driving force/i.vF. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Cm /4 and 4rM . Jm. z. /jf. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.SA. B.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. A. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. W. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. zmf. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.

Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. .6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. the compliance and mechanical mi. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.7. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig.6. these values springs. 11. isolating mechanical network. 11.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. 11.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. Jm. only isolation in the system of Fig. consists of the following elements: nii.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. shown in Fig.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. mi. the mass of the case. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. 11. pressor. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator.

the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises.v/i/4. the system in Fig.8. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. 187 Cmi and rui. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. Cm2 and ^1-/2. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. 11.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. zmf. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. 11. The mechanical network of Fig. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. the mass of the case. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. .7. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. Of course. 11. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf.

In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M.v/2. 11. the compliance of the spring suspension. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. 11. r. Cm2. both rectilineal and rotational. m-i.9.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the mass of the tire. tmi. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- .7. engine. This system has many degrees of freedom. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels.u 11. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. etc. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. m2. the compliance of the spring. the mass of the instrument and carriage. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. Cm2.8. the driving force at each tire. Cmi and tires. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. 11. mum. 11. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. Cms a-nd r. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. body. the combined driving force at the four legs.v/3. wheel and axle. the mass of the frame. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. in general. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but.

4rif 2.i/a. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. Since there are four tires. Cms and r. springs and shock absorbers. m^.8.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. 189 m^. 11. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. 4:rM2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. Cji/2/4. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the mass of the passenger. body and engine. Cms. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the mass of the four tires.\f 1. fn2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. Cmi/4 and 4r. the driving force. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. However. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the compliance of the springs. the mass of the passenger. the mass of the frame. the combined driving force at the four tires./ifi the comtires. mi. view. the compliance of the four springs. wheels. . and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. 4?ni.

Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. For example. Supplementary Note: Electrical. that is. An acoustical resistance. — — —A — . reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling.6. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical abohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. An electrical resistance. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. Rotational Ohm. Most of the forces. 11. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. mechanical rotational resistance. As already indicated. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. pitching or swaying motion. Acoustical Ohm. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. Mechanical Ohm. an automobile has several modes of vibration. which controls the oscillations. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. developed at the tires.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

22 networlcs. 23 mechanical. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 6 instantaneous. 13. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 45 electrical. 28 Subharmonic. 88 mechanical rotational. 5 Transformer. 188 Systems. 88 Transient response. 171 acoustical. peak. 35 effective. 9. 6 Transducer. 172 mechanical rotational. 6. 21. 6. 42 inductance and series coupled. 179 Thevenin's. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 122 . 45 instantaneous. 9. 9. 18. 10. electrical Superposition theorem. 9. 42 one degree of freedom. 6 maximum. 6 Sound effective. 37 and analogies. 179 Suspension systems. 48 two degrees of freedom. compliance. 41 mechanical rotational. 13. 105 arbitrary force. 10. 23. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 171 Resonant frequency. acoustical. 13. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 173 superposition. 10. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 17. 32 Rotational.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 177 reactance. 37. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 6 peak. 178 mechanical rotational. reciprocity. 178 acoustical. 6. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 22. 22. 10. 9. 22 mechanical rotational. 178 electrical. 61. ohm. (see cor- effective. 11 instantaneous. 85 rotational. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 184 Rotatomotive force. automobile. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 178 electrical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 25 three degrees of freedom. 13. 9 resistance. 23 23. 88 electrical. 187 Torque. 21.) 195 Table. 23 maximum. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 107 Transients. 111 electrical resistance. 6 14 pressure. 120 Duhamel's integral. 18. impedance. 6 Stiffness. 6 maximum. 6 Static pressure. electrical-mechanical. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 13. acoustical. 21. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 9. 23 Theorems. 21. 6 peak.

165. 22. 106 163 Volume current. peak. 149. 20. 11 loss. 93. Heaviside's Calculus. 92. 92. 143. 7. 7 linear. "X" isolator. 146. 106 unit function. 94 response characteristics.196 Transients (Cont. peak. 167 . 23. 148 machine isolator. 97 93. 45 Unit function. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 147. band pass. 106 Units. 37. 93. 23 effective. 184 186 Young's modulus. cut quartz crystal. 7 Vibration. 5 maximum. 8 8 "T" type network. 8 maximum. 8 instantaneous. magnetostriction. 92. 144. 21. 92. 151. 150. 8. gain. 22 angular. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 23 Transmission. 93. 95 low pass. 7. 7. 163. 11 effective. Wave band elimination. high pass. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper.) INDEX Villari effect. 24 Velocity. 5 filters. 101 instantaneous. 7 Wave.

- C57.138-1998.pdf
- ABB DCS800 Drives Hardware Manual Rev E
- 6661_TutorialCalculatingSIR
- Waiver of Inspection & DI of 145 KV SF6 CB for KHAGARIA -Ms CGL Ltd. Nashik--NIT No.315
- Alternating Current Circuits by chorcoran
- The Fundamental Technical Knowledge of Passive Componentsbasics(1)
- Basics of Noise
- ACS800!37!0390-3 Heat Dissipation
- 35889924 Fualt Level Sps
- Accurate Modeling and Design of LLC Resonant Converter With Planar Transformers
- dc748A
- 182.Testing with MZTU-34 Relay-GenPro.pdf
- Lineas de Transmision
- G3YNH Info_ Current Transformers
- ANNA UNIVERSITY B.E. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING VI - SEMESTER
- 2 - 5 - Volume Control and Loudness Perception (7_04)
- B43510__20(Barramento_de_entrada)
- XENYX 2222FX
- unit_1_2
- Attenuators _ Amplifiers and Active Devices
- Fourier Series
- RSSI & RSL dBm
- Lab09
- Flint Electric Membership Corp
- P14x_2010-Alstom_310111
- 04529198
- real time
- EHV-765-JUNE-15
- An Adaptive Fault Location Technique Based on PMU for Transmission Line
- Optimization for Setpoints of Steam Generator Water Level Control Systems

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading