Dynamical Analogies

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Dynamical Analogies
By

HARRY
RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.
Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK
D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
250 Fourth Avenue
1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
All Rights Reserved
This book, or any
-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

W. Lorene E. E. engineer. plex arrangements of multielement systems. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. in this project.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Olson. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Olson . The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Harry January. 1943 F. an electrical circuit. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Engstrom. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Research Director. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics.

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A. C.1 2.3 3. Electrical Capacitance B. Moment of Inertia. Inertance 2.2 4 II. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 1 1. Electrical Resistance B. Acoustical Capacitance A. Mass. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.5 Representation of Electrical.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.CONTENTS Chapter I. Acoustical Capacitance 2. Acoustical Resistance 2. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.1 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Rotational Compliance. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.3 Inductance. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. ELEMENTS 2.2 Introduction Resistance A.2 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Rectilineal Compliance C. Rectilineal Compliance. Inductance B. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. ELECTRICAL.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.8 67 .4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.. . 60 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Equations of Motion 4.7 The Electrical System .6 3..2 Two Electrical.6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.7 64 5. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. ELECTRICAL.10 The Acoustical System 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 5.7 3. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.2 4.13 Electrical. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL..8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4.1 Introduction 52 5.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.1 Introduction 37 4.5 Chapter 3.3 5.6 4.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.

21 5. WAVE FILTERS 6.3 6.10 Series 5.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.20 5.1 6. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5.13 76 78 80 83 85 5..'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.4 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6..6 6. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 69 71 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5.2 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .16 Electrical Resistance.15 Electrical Resistance.

B. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 10. THEOREMS 10. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.4 9.X Chapter VII. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 8. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. 1 7. C. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.5 114 120 7.5 9.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.2 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.1 9. Unpolarized Armature B.2 9.5 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.4 Ill 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.6 VIII.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.1 8.2 7.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

6 11.4 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.8 1 1 .2 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.CONTENTS Chapter E.7 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. APPLICATIONS 11.5 184 185 11. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.

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Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Expressions for the kinetic energy. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. However. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. vibrating systems. as for example. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. In other words.1. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. mechanical and acoustical tems. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. 1 The acoustical . A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered.

The branches or meshes are composed of elements. . Of course. various assemblies of masses. springs and brakes.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. This involves acousti- electroacoustical.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. cal. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. constituent parts of a circuit. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. as for example. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Electrical elements are resistance. springs and friction. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. induct- ance and capacitance. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Elements are the meshes. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. ' The lished.

— . mechanical and acoustical systems. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. Institute of Radio Engineers. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. I) and Firestone {Jour. 4. 4. XI. Acous. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. However. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements.. in the past. Verojf a. Therefore. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. ratio of force to displacement. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. and ratio of pressure to displacement. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. Hanle {JViss. Vol. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. all communication. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. Therefore. That is to say. Amer. Finally. d. Soc. However. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. circuit. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force.1 of 1942. In this book. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. every electrical. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. No. For example. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. In addition. up the mechanical and electrical. SiemensKonzern. particularly electrical circuits. Vol. No. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted.

— The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. or which tity comprises a cycle. a period of jy. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. or zero. negative. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. . component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. The remainder. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. This called a Fourier series.2. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. Basic Frequency. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. Terms not sections. Cycle. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Frequency. equals 2x divided by the period T. reciprocal of the period. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. a constant. where T. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. Harmonic. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. Definitions ^ this section. + T). are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. Octave. a positive constant. Periodic Quantity. all is the frequency. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. period. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1.

Mechanomotive Force). time interval The is unit is the abvolt. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Wave. Effective Electromotive Force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Dyne. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). The unit is the dyne.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. The unit is the abvolt. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The unit is the abvolt. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Subharmonic. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The unit the dyne. the dyne. Electromotive Force. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). . —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. The root unit the abvolt. force. — — Abvolt. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. mechanical or acoustical system. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Wavelength.

in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force).6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. The the — Instantaneous Current. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. dyne per square centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). force. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). the dyne per square centimeter. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. . —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. the abampere. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The unit is the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. Effective the total instantaneous torque. Abampere. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter.

—A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. The unit is the abampere. is Radian per Second. Peak Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. Instantaneous Velocity. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. is velocity in that interval. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. complete cycle at the point. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. per second. Maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. is Centimeter per Second. Effective Angular Velocity. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. unit is the radian per second. Effective Velocity. current. Maximum Current. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. The unit is the abampere. velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. the abampere. the centimeter per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Peak Current.

Electrical Reactance. where both systems are considered concurrently. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. The unit the abohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. Effective Volume Current.-W is impedance. is Electrical Resistance. times the frequency. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. electrical Inductance. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. is the abohm. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. The unit is the abfarad. Electrical Impedance. the cubic centimeter per second.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. which. . The unit the abohm. when times the frequency. To avoid ambiguity in this book. for Peak Volume Current. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. the cubic centimeter per second. second. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. The unit is the mechanical ohm. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle.

Rotational Compliance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. ' See footnote S. Mass. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. Acoustical Impedance. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. page I . Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Compliance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. rotational resistance ance.

Electrical System. Acoustical System. and rotational compliance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. Inertance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical Rotational System. The unit is the acoustical ohm. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. mass and compliance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. In the same way. when multiplied by times the frequency. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. the acoustical ohm. inductance and electrical capacitance. mass and compliance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. by "l-w times the frequency. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. the fourth power. Mechanical Rectilineal System. . Acoustical Reactance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance.. moment of inertia. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.

The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. current. voltage. pressure or volume current. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. Either of these systems may be electrical. angular velocity. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . — Transmission. force. force. mechanical rectilineal.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. For example. The bel is the Decibel. pressures or such as forces or velocities. torque or pressure is electrical. torque. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. velocity. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. mechanical or acoustical. Transmission Loss {or Gain). power delivered to the load under some reference condition. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . For For a gain the reference power is is greater.

inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. and current through the resistance.1. in abohms. inductance and capacitance. Electrical Resistance. inductor and capacitor. 12 . resistor.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. An tinguished from the devices. 5. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. Electrical resistance rs. See footnote page 8. As indicated in the preceding chapter. e. electrical. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. A resistor. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. 2. the vibrating systems. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. in abamperes. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. In this procedure. e rs^-.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. is defined as A. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance.' 2. in abvolts. t 2.

is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. . and velocity at the point of application of the force.RESISTANCE B. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Acoustical Resistance. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms. in radians per second. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. Mechanical rotational energy is C. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). D. in centi- meters per second. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. Equation 2. is defined as r^ — = y 2.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. in dynes. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction.

slit normal to the direction of flow. a reaccomponent. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 2. However." D. slit normal to the direction of flow.4 where p — pressure. slit in the direction of flow. in grams per cubic centimeter.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. 6pww 2. in addition to the resistive component. 1. 'Olson.86 X 10"'* for air. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in acoustical ohms. d= / thickness of the centimeters.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. in centimeters. A tube of small diameter. and frequency in cycles per second. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. Van Nostrand Co. York.5 = viscosity coefficient. in cubic centimeters per second. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity.. in dynes per square centimeter. New . 1940. resistance. a narrow and metal. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. in = width of the meters. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. and U= Equation resistance current. volume current. density. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw .

MASS. in dynes. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. given by dd . which opposes a change of velocity.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. Inductance. and driving force. 15 Inductance. It remains constant ance. Equation 2. and rate of change of current. B. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. is defined as 2. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is.INDUCTANCE. Moment of Inertia.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. that during linear when the velocity decreases. in grams. in abvolts. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. that during angular acceleration. 2. in centimeters per second per second. in when the angular velocity a constant. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. Mass. Mass. Equation C. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Inertance A. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. is remains a constant of inertia /. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. is Inductance L. It decreases when the current decreases. mass increases. = di Ldt ^ 2. in abamperes per second.3. in abhenries. Moment of Inertia. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. INERTANCE 2.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. MOMENT OF INERTIA. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Moment gram (centimeter)^.

cross sectional area in square centimeters. in rate of change of 2. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. and driving pressure. in dyne centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. in radians per second per second. New . 1940. in centimeters. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases..9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. Inertance. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. Equation 2. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in grams. volume current. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. is. Van Nostrand Co.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. that tion. York. in p = density of the meter.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. inertance. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass.10 m = S = mass. in grams per (centimeter)*. in cubic centimeters per second per second." D. in centimeters. Inertance M. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. effective length of the tube. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. decreases. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. D.

Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Electrical Capacitance.13 states that the charge on an force. . Electrical capacitance Cg. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal Compliance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Electrical 17 Capacitance. in dynes is Equation 2. in abcoulombs.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. It is a constant. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated.4. and electromotive force.n Equation 2. Rectilineal Compliance. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. in centimeters.14 = Jm = displacement. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. in abfarads. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. when is spring remains immovably compressed. abvolts. and applied force. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. and stored. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. Acoustical Capacitance A.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force.

^ in dynes per square centimeter. Rotational compliance Cu-. It is constant. density. 1940. in radians. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure." p. Rotational Compliance. and condensation.16 p s — = = velocity. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. defined in equation 2. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. D. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. D.17 s = * Olson. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. C. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. in centimeters per second. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. allowed to unwind. 9. in dyne centimeters. Acoustical Capacitance. New York. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. in grams per cubic centimeter. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. . in radians per centimeter per dyne. It is constant. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. Van Nostrand Co. and applied torque. p = where c c^ps 2. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force.17. Equation 2.. in is The terms of the condensation.

17.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. mechanical rectilineal. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. and volume displacement.X 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. From equations 2. . Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. 2.5. Representation of Electrical. electrical resistance. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. 2.16. From equations 2. in cubic centimeters.21 F= volume. . Equation 2.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. Mechanical Rectilineal. = ^ F 2. equal to the volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. is 2. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. and 2.19 and 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. in cubic centimeters.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. The electrical elements.18 X= volume displacement.

is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. 2. rE . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.1. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. mechanical rectilineal. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. and time.1. Further.1 page and list and 2. . Tables 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. self-inductance. the standard modifiers for all four systems.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. length L and time T.24 sions are mass. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. ELEMENTS and time. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.1 and 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.3 uses mass M.3. 2. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.1. inertance and time. ^ The Tables 8.1. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. length.2.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. 1. The dimensions given in Table 2.

These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rotational or In other words. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. mechanical rectilineal. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . namely. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance.1. From these definitions it is evident that friction. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mass. mechanical rotational. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. 3.1. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal.2.

Electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. In the electrical. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. kinetic.1. potential and heat energy. mechanical rotational. Cr = T. velocity. Heat is a transient form of energy. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. mechanical rectilineal. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. 3. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. C. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. namely. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon .

and heat energy during an interval of time is. 3. The sum of the kinetic.4 M= m = S — m/S^. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. and current through the inductance L. by the principle of conservation of energy. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. cross-sectional area of the opening. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. mass of air in the opening.2 m = X mass.3 = moment of inertia. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. in abhenries. in centimeters per second. mechanical rotational. It is assumed that same phase. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. potential. and velocity of the = mass m. in abamperes.3. in cubic centimeters per second. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. mechanical rectilineal. the inertance. in radians per second. in centimeters per second. electrical.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. X— X Sx = volume current. in grams. in grams per (centimeter)*. all the air particles in the opening move with the . equal to the system. in grams. in square centimeters.

potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in radians. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters. and charge on the capacitance. p = density of air.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and c = velocity of sound. and X = displacement.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in cubic centimeters. s — stiffness of the spring. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. dyne. = -. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters per dyne. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. and <l> angular displacement. ^ 3. in abfarads. in dynes per centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.4. in centimeters. in centimeters per second.. .8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity.

y- 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. and current.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. mechanical Wm. Wr.17 = = is electrical resistance. mechanical rotational.18 . in abamperes. and acoustical systems.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.12 where We. in abohms.: 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. .. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. force. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. +— + XX 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.5. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.

in mechanical ohms.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. in acoustical ohms. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in radians per second. and velocity. in centimeters per second.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in rotational ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.22 = acoustical resistance. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.6. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . and angular velocity.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. and X= 3.

28 and 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .26.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.32 „.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.24. 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3..

the velocity and force. the impedance is m and Cm. .37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.7^ Ca 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.jo>I — — 3.38 3.7. and the volume current and pressure are in phase.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the angular velocity and torque. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. and Cr.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.

It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.8.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.Ce r^ 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. . The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally. mechanical rectilineal. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.42 3.

3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force .24. Equation 3. 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. namely. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.49 „ .„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.1. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.51 is the same as equation 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. Equation 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.28.26.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. . The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.

1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.59. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. 3.59 is the same as equation 3. Equations 3. . inclusively.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.30. mechanical rectilineal. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. and acoustical systems. Equation 3.43 to 3. mechanical rotational.

1. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .1. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. 4. mechanical rectilineal.2. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. 4. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1. velocity. 4. MECHANICAL Electrical. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig.

Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in cubic centimeters per second. in abamperes. in branch 3. and velocity of the mass m.3. in grams.4 M = inertance. in radians per second. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. . in abhenries. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.2 where x^ m = = mass. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. and = h = current.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.1 93 L = inductance. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. in centimeters per second.

9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in radians. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and <i>2 angular displacement. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. in abamperes. per dyne.DISSIPATION 4. in abfarads.5. and displacement. .5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in abcoulombs. in qz ohms. and charge on the electrical capacitance.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. 4. in cubic centimeters. and — current. and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.4. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in centimeters.

in radians per second.6. and angular velocity.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. mechanical ohms. current. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in centimeters per second. and velocity. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. and Xs = volume 4. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in cubic centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. 2 d<t>n dcj). VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. in rotational ohms.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.i 4.12 = acoustical resistance.

Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.7.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. The linear displacement.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.18. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.24 Differentiating equation 4.19 +k 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.20 4. e = = Lqz-[.8.17.13.25 .23. The relation for the currents in Fig. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.22.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.21 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.14.rsqz 4. at/jf.1 is h = H Equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4.

30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.32 ing piston. 4. Jb /. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. at/^j.9.15.30.42 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. .31.26. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4. 4. The angular displacement.1. p = MXa + vaXz 4. Fig.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.29 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.27. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.26 ^ The 4. at p.28 Differentiating equation 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.10. = = /03 + rij^g 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.16. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. in the acoustical system.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.

vm. mass. given by ^3 JM is 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. inclusive. inertance acoustical system.25. and to acoustical resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.19. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. inductance. 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.1. to mechanical rotational resistance.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.1. 4.1 to 4.29 and 4.11.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. shows again that resistance.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. Fig. 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.33. 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. Fig. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.

4. is given by k The = f". is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is .. 4. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.1.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. X2 = Xi .X3 = pjccCa 4. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.1. Fig. is .43 volume current Xi at given by X. Fig.45 . the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.

Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. The electrical impedances z^i. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.2. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 55 and 56 and Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.3. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 5. see pages 53. 54. . 4.12. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 1 tional systems of Figs.1 of Chapter V.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 4.2 are as follows: 4.

56 ZA2 -T-z. mass.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. I2 and M2. 4. 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.55 jwLai 4.60 4. 4. mechanical rectilineal. Ce2.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.— JwLmz Zb.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.2 save that the electrical capacitance. ze2 = j^L2 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.57 The system shunt in Fig. compliance. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.2 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .3 is the as that of Fig.59 4. The shunt electrical.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .

4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.65 2^22^3 .INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.

Electrical. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal.\. to /i.«i.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. m2.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cm\.t 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. I2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.67 . ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. L.13. Ca.4. mechanical rectilineal. Cei.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.412^3 + 4.4. Cb2 .48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . 4. 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. 4. L2. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.3. Cri.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.

76 4.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.82 4. 4>i. h. nA where zei = .SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. 4. the linear velocity Xq.83 ZA2 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.88 4. to 4>o. 4>2. X3 rectilineal system.80 4. (h and 04 X2. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. X2. The current to.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. Xi. Ca2 in the acoustical system. i^ in show that /q. 4. ^ zjji = . h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.86 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.84 4. Cai. Xi.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.78 4.74 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.89 . M2.

ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.99 r^r^ . the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t..ZM3 + ZMi) 4.98 .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. 4. the linear velocity X2.90 4.92 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .93 Ha = The current ii.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.1UU ^^^ pZA.95 . 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4.) Ha ^_^^j .97 The current i2. the linear velocity Xi. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.{ZA3jrZA. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(. 01 4.

„.-riE . show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal. ^^^ 4. . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.102 X3 4. J~iR X.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.107 .105 current 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. 4. the linear velocity X4.106 . = The equations cal.

1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. mechanical rotational. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line.1. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. termed the input and output electrical impedances.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. 52 . impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. 5. mechanical rectilineal.^ an inductance. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.1. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.2. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. characteristics.

consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.1. branch is current flows in z^i.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. 5. Fig. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.

the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5.2 for the electrical system. </)r. relations existing between//. With these specifications the differential of Fig.. Z/jt. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. 5.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. respectively. must be in parallel. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. respectively. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. shown schematically in Fig. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. That is. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Equation 5.4 That is. analogous to equation 5. as for example. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. respectively. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. 5. ^2. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. respectively. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?.3.1 with the same tions. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. = = xx -\- X2 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . SAA.1. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. </>!. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. Fig. consists of a system of gears.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL
The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears
these conditions
if

55

rotate with
are

its

axis coincident with gear /.
shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

as the driving gear 1.
is

Or

if

5

is

held stationary the
1.

angular displacement of gear 7

the same as the driving gear
it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x
Zri2I

^

m^
J2&

^ ti
END VIEW
Fig. i.\A.
Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

various gears are as outlined above.
the gears are massless and that
rotational impedances zrx and
all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This
Ze\

is

analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
Ze2 in the electrical circuit.
4>t

and

The angular displacement
angular displacement at
i>\

at gear 1
<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and
•Ar

of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,
<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That
5.7
is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the
7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

angular velocities at gears 5 and
Ziei

the rotational impedances zr2 and
parallel.

at gears 7

ical

and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=
Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there
if

is

no motion

at

gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.
Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances
the
is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi
Equation 5.9
is

+

X2

5.9

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat
If 2^2

=
Zai

,

+

5.10
Za2
in this
is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes
is

za2-

Thus

it

will

infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
across a line.'
^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
The output
given by
l3

57
is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=
ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
e

input electrical impedance,
electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=
ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

where Zmi Zm2
zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
rectilineal

impedance.
of a mechanical rotational network
is

The output angular
which
is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=
ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13
Zr2ZB3

where Zm
2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =
ZaiZA2

P^
+
Z.41Z.13

+

5.14
ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —
Za2

input acoustical impedance,
acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.
5.4.

Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance
where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =
co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.
if

Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
inductance inductance
is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

ances, the transmission will be small.
is

large

compared

to the input

and output
is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
characteristic
*

proportional to the

frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
of Fig. 5.2.
rectilineal

The mechanical
where

impedance of the mass
ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When
5.2
''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.17 where / = moment of inertia. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.13 and 5.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. equations 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.2. reactance . 5.2.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.12 relatively large 59 and 5. equations 5. ^^^^. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.

11 and 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. Equations 5. 5.3 is = T^ 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. 5. Fig.2. . At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.18 where M= inertance. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.3. 5. in centimeters per dyne.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. in grams per (centimeter)*. 5.14 and 5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. in abfarads. The acoustical system of Fig. 5.42 = joiM 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.2.5. from equations 5. Therefore.20 where Cm = compliance.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.

mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 and 5.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.12 and 5.3. 5. inversely proportional to the frequency.3 is 1 2fi2 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3. Fig. at Equa- tions 5. 5.21 show that at low frequencies . velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical the frequency.12 to the and 5. 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.20 is shown in Fig.3. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.

62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abhenries. 5.6.12 = ^-^ 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The shown in Fig. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.23 where L = Ce = inductance. equations 5.3.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. and electrical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.4. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. in abfarads. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.13 and 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. 5. tional.3. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.14 and 5.11 and 5. . The output current can be obtained from equations 5.23.4 in series across a line. 5.

^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in grams. and Cu = rotational compliance.24 where m = mass. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12 and 5.25 where / = moment of inertia.24.13 and . Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output angular 5. in gram (centimeter)^. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. in centimeters per dyne.25. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and compliance.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.5 parallel across a line. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.2 and there is very little attenuation.13 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.7.12 and 5.11 and 5. . 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. The output volume 5.4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.14 and 5. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.26 where M= Ca = inertance.26. acoustical capacitance.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. 5. in grams per (centimeter)''.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. Equations 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.24 also is zero.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. in Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.

velocity can be obtained from equations 5.28. 5. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.28 where m = mass. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance.5 is jo}L -£2 5.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.12 and 5.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. Cm = The output . depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in centimeters per dyne. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5.J^mCM 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .27. and compliance. in abfarads. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.5. 5.27 where L = Ce = inductance. in grams. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.2 and the transmission is small. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . 5.11 and 5.13 and The output angular 5. The output volume 5. and = rotational compliance.12 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.^MC. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.30.29. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. .27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. 1 - 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. and acoustical capacitance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. 5.5 is ZR2 = . 5. Equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.13 and 5.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.3 and the transmission is again small..30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.14 and 5. in gram (centimeter)^.

6. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. .11 and 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.6. 5. itance in series. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.8.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in abohms. 5. inductance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in shunt with a line. in abfarads.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. and electrical capacitance.31. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. in Fig.5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries. 5. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.6 shows an electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.min.

12 and 5.3 and there is very little attenuation.34. in centimeters per dyne. The output and 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and there is very little attenuation. 5. compliance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The output volume 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . in radians per dyne per centimeter.33. Therefore. and rotational compliance. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in rotational ohms. inertance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.32. from equations 5.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. in acoustical ohms. from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.12 and 5. in mechanical ohms. mass. of inertia. Therefore. in grams. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.

in grams.7 shows an electrical resistance.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.9.6.36. 5.13 and 5.14 and 5. quencies the same as that of Fig. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. and electrical capacitance. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance. The mechanical network is rectihneal. in abohms. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5.35. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.4. Therefore. 5. in mechanical ohms.11 and 5. in abhenries. Therefore. mass.12 The output and 5.7. in Fig. 5. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. from equations 5.6. in Fig.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. in abfarads. inductance. . velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.

38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. inertance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. rotational compliance.14 Ca = 5. in grams per and 5.38.37 where ru Cb. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Electrical resistance.7. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. 5. = = mechanical rotational resistance. of inertia. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. S.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. The output and 5. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.37.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.

7.7. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. Fig. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. 5. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. Fig.14 and 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. Fig. . the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.12 and 5.5. 5.7.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and the transmission is small. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. 5.7.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.10.13 and 5.11 and 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. termed the input and output electrical impedances. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.7. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.3 and the transmission is again small. However. 5. 5. output electrical impedance. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. inductance. 5.

41 input acoustical impedance. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.43 where L = inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.42 Zas.11. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.43 = p = 2. in abhenries. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. output acoustical impedance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. .41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. 5. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.40 ZM2. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.

-nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. . The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. 5. 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.8 is = jo)I 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.39 and 5. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.8 is = j^m 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8.8.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.8. 5. 5.45 where / = moment of inertia.8 equations 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. characteristic.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.44 where tn = mass. 5. in grams. 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in gram (centimeters)^. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.

5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Equation 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.46 where M= inertance. The acoustical system of Fig. in abfarads. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5. 5.8.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. acoustical Equations 5. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.42 and 5.8 equations 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.41 and 5.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5.48. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5.

9 to the frequency. line and the mechanical rectihneal. is 5. . Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. frequency characteristic. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. 5.9. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.9.48 where Cm — compliance. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.9. 5. is inversely proportional Equations 5.9 is ^R2 5.l/2 Fig. 5.47. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5. Fig.40 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. is ance relatively large to motion. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9 = 5.

Equations 5. Equation 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. 5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.9. The mechanical rectilineal. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.50.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9 is 2. .42 = -r-— JwCa 5. 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational. and per = area of the diaphragm.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5.9. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.42 and 5. analogous to an in Fig. in square centimeters.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The acoustical impedance of Fig.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.13. 5. dyne. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.41 and 5. compliance of the suspension system. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5.10.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low.

in abhenries.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.52.40 and 5.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. . in grams. 5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.53 where m = = mass.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical system of Fig.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.10.53. 5.39 and 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and = rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and C_if compliance. and electrical capacitance. in abfarads. 5. rectilineal.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in gram (centimeter)^.

41 and 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.55. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5. 5.42 and 5.40 and 5. Equations 5.11. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.50.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. and the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.54. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. and again the transmission is small. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.55 where M= Ca = inertance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.9 5. 5. 5. and acoustical capacitance.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.39 and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. . 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. connected in with a line.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.10. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5. 5.14. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.42 and 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.8.

Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.57. in grams.11. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and electrical capacitance.11 is - 5.1/2 = 1 — S.40 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abhenries.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance. The mechanical system of Fig. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.56. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.11 is 2/22 = :.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .39 and 5. in abfarads. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in centimeters per dyne.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. 5.

mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. 5.41 and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.11 is -.58. 2. Equation 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.59.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.9 and again the attenuation is small. 5.41 The output angular 5. Equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. ance of Fig. . in grams per (centimeter)*. and acoustical capacitance. inductance and line. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical Resistance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15. 5. and = rotational compliance. Equations 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 5. in grams (centimeter)^.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.12. 5. 5.11.39 and 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.11 equation 5.8 and the attenuation is small.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5.42 == 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. 5.

graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. compliance. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.40 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5.12. 5.62 .12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in abfarads. in grams.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . inductance. 5.61. 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. in mechanical ohms.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance. m = Cm = mass. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. and capacitance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5.60. in centimeters per dyne. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. in abhenries.

the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in acoustical ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. in rotational ohms.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. The output and 5. 5. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. . Therefore. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.42 and 5. the acoustical reactance is zero.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. Fig.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.4 -T-z^ 5.62.12. Therefore. inertance. 5.12. Therefore. from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.41 and 5.8. from equations 5. However. and again the transmission is small. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5. in gram (centimeter)^. and the transmission is small. Fig. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.39 and 5.12.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. Therefore. current can be obtained from equations 5. Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. from equations 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.12.12 is 2. 5.coC. from equations 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. and Cr = rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.63.10.12. 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 83 Parallel. 5. in abohms. inductance.13.39 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13. in abhenries.16.13 is ZM2 = r.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. Electrical Resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.65 . in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.64. 5. and electrical capacitance. Electrical resistance.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. in abfarads. inductance line. 5.13 shows an electrical resistance.

40 and 5.13. 5. from equations 5. from equations 5. Therefore.40 and 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. The output and 5.13. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. Therefore. mass. from equations 5.67.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5.8 and the attenuation is small. in where tm mechanical ohms.39 and 5. Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. in centimeters per dyne.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. from . therefore. The output volume 5. ohms. inertance. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. and Cr = rotational compliance.13 is = jo^rAM ~. Fig.13. 5. in acoustical ohms.65. current can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. 5. in grams. in (centimeter)® per dyne. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.66. 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.9 and the attenuation is small.

In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.13. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.18.67 the attenuation ance. 5. Fig. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.14 Mechanical Rotational.13. 5. Referring to equation 5.11. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. 5. that of Fig.17.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5.42 and 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the .

5. 5. larger. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.19. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. 5. Equation 5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Equation 5. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. Fig. . that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. Electrical Rectilineal.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. rectilineal.14 shows a system of made larger. Referring to equation 5.15.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. 5.

*V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. wherein zm\. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. "Zrz. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. The mechanical rectilineal. rm.17. and r^i and the input impedances.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. Equation 5. In the same way equations 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. 5. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. 5. zri. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal.16.21. rui.12. and r. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. acoustical systems of Fig. 5. mechanical rotational. 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.11. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig.16.20. respectively.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and Zmz. 5. mechani- and acoustical analogies.13 the mechanical rectihneal. respectively. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .16.41 and the output impedances. 5. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.

This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. ze2 is rE2. Mechanical Rectilineal.22.14. 5. Electrical.17. rectihneal. Equation 5.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. output impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.12. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. In this case zei is the input impedance.13 and 5. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. me- chanical rotational. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. .18.17. 5. 5. Electrical. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5.

70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.18. ACOUSTICAL Fig. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. velocity and .69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. The force. 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. Electrical. ei. 5. and zei represent the electromotive force. 5. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ii.68 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. and of turns on the secondary.18 the electromotive force.

71 = — xi 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.18.79 .90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. The torque. The 5. 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. 5.18. consists of a mass- gear train. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.77 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.18.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.18. of Fig. The pressure. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. /ri.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. /mi.

1940. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. ^ Engineering. New York. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. Xi and 2." D.41 and p2.. pi.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. 5. . For these and other properties of horns see Olson. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. two diaphragms. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. The acoustical transformer of Fig.

1. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.2. Rev. No. 528. No. 92 . The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Vol. G. mechanical rectilineal. A. 6. 20. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. 2.. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Stewart. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. p. Vol.. Bell System Tech. 1922. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Phys. G.. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others.. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. W. 1922. I. 6. Jour.

The most important type of structure is the ladder type. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. Shea. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. Van New York. ^ Nostrand Co. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. Johnson.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. *' . velocities. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. respectively. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. velocities. New York. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. positive and when than four. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents.. that is. 6. Van Nostrand Co. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range." D. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents.3. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances.. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. velocities. velocities." D.

8 .2 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.Ca 6. mechanical rectilineal.1 zmi zri 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. Electrical.1.1.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6.4. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.94 6.

10 — — 0.15 WC.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. mechanical rectilineal. when coe 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. 6.9 the constants of the systems.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.17.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — . 6. mechanical rotational. when ccc 6. when coc 6. 6. when .17 Equations 6. when uc = 6. 6. inclusive. and the cutoff 6.2. .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.= -4 6.= From and . 6.5. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. linear velocities. when coc = . angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. when oip = = = = 6. 2A2 VMC^ .HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= 22 and .27 . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.= -4 22 6.

5.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6. .12.

— — / 1 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. when coci = = 6. = 1 .12 =0.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. —7== VMiCai .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. 2.44 6. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. —= Z£2 — 4. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . „ when coci = .43 Let LiCei = 6. . UCe\ (1 6. = — 7= / 6. when wci = — VLiCei . when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .50 V/iGji 0.. 6.lfi)^ ^ -. _ 4.46 6.51 VM2C42 = .48 VL2CJS2 = 0.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.

56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4. when .59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . one greater than uci and Therefore.41 .^C2'MiCaxY = --—.v/2 1 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. -4. (1 .60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. —= 2.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.

The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.64 CeiLi 6.7. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".4.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. are 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. inclusive.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.69 . mechanical rectilineal.56 to 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r. 6.63. linear velocities. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. show that the systems of Fig.

74 6. 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.4.75 = I2CR2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical.76 .ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.

when oici = and wa = =0 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. M\Ca\) 4.83 —= Z^l 2. 6. when. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.42 -4. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .84 . —= zei -4. 6. . . when uci = and cca oo 6.77 —— = ZM2 0. when (1 . MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .79 ^— = ZA2 0. or.-4.82 .1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0.78 —= ZR2 0. —= Zr\ -4.

104

WAVE FILTERS
other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and
tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and
^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER
7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS
Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear
trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a
volume currents have become con-

steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state
stant direct or periodic functions of time.
condition.
Electrical, mechanical
to all types of varying

and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

solution of the differential equation
state term

may
The

be divided

'

into the steady
is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.
^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS
general analysis used by Heaviside
is

The

applicable to

any type of

vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
calculus.
electrical,
It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
pressure respectively.
7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT
t=

o
electromotive force, force, torque or pressure
/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a
system which was
initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the
operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

piled which serve for operational calculus the
^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book
*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE
of integrals serve the integral calculus.
modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure
equation

in the

Method

to be

followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known
7.3.

operators.

Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

an electromotive force,
series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~
where

di
-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,
electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

electromotive force, in abvolts.
for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. and driving force.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. shown in Fig. in grams. in centimeters per second. velocity.2. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. unit torque and unit pressure. 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. The current is zero = 0. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. rectilineal resistance.2. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. .5 where aE = Te/L. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The graph depicts the current.2. 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. in dynes.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.8 where m = = /m — V mass. respectively.

1/riv/.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.12 = — - e"^') 7.2.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). 7.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. as shown in Fig. 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. in gram (centimeter)^.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. in dyne centimeters. . in radians per second. in rotational = angular velocity. ohms. = mechanical rotational resistance. and = torque.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.2.

U = volume current.20 where M= ta inertance.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. 7. and p = sound pressure.22 . ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. as shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.17 where aji — Vr/ I. in acoustical ohms. = acoustical resistance. in dynes per square centimeter.2. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.2. in cubic centimeters. in grams per (centimeter)*.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t).16 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.

3.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. in abamperes. current. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. in abvolts. the solution of equation 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.e-^ in Fig. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. 7. electrical resistance. the solution of equation 7. electrical resistance series.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. From is the tables of operational formulas.2.24 JA{t) = " (1 . 7. 7.22 111 may be written. in abohms.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. 7. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.28 ve . in abfarads. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.4. and electromotive force.

force. 7. unit torque and unit pressure. the solution of equation 7. velocity.30 P)rM where a.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. respectively. The graph depicts the current. unit force. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. in mechanical ohms.31 . in dynes. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. 7. in centimeters.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. in centimeters per dyne. shown in Fig. is The for / shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal resistance.3.3. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. linear velocity. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.y = l/rjfCv/. 7 3. From the tables of operational formulas.

rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. 7. is shown in Fig. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. in cubic centimeters per second. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. volume current.33 where aR = IIvrCr.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. and torque. in acoustical ohms. . and sound pressure.3. in rotational ohms. in radians per second. in dyne centimeters. 7. as shown in Fig. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. 7. angular velocity. is shown in Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7.3. mechanical rotational resistance.3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. as shown in Fig. acoustical resistance.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.3. in dynes per square centimeter. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.

37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. and electromotive force. 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. in abohms. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. in abvolts. abohms. .5. is shown 7. (a + ^ Pfa . in electrical capacitance. 7.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. as in Fig.3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force.4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. in abhenries. in current. abamperes. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. 1 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.38 ^. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. electrical resist- ance. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. electrical resistance.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .

45. series Response of an electrical resistance.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. 7.4. the solution of equation 7. respectively. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7. unit force.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. velocity. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.^. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. unit torque or unit pressure.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the current.4. The response sinusoid. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. .

in centimeters per second per second. acceleration. 1 AC. and driving force. in centimeters per second.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. rectilineal resistance. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. Substituting equation 7. v for x. in centimeters per dyne. displacement.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. in dynes.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in centimeters.47 . velocity.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in grams. 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. 1 A\ m = mass. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7.

in rotational ohms. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. in grams (centimeter). It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in dyne centimeters. in radians per second.48 The response sinusoid. equation 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.si . Cr = rotational compliance. = angular velocity. 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig. is of inertia. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. lAA.51 = moment of inertia. 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. 4> = angular acceleration. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.4_S. and 4> Jr = driving torque. = angular displacement. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. in radians. 7.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per second per second.

. If rR^ > AI/Cr.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. = '^I/Cr. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. .118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + . WR^ 2 1 7. lAA.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.4C.56 ^PR = Jo.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .45.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. It is a damped sinusoid.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical capacitance. acoustical resistance. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. in cubic centimeters per second. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. at equation 7.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. Substituting U for X. as in Fig. and pressure.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . in acoustical ohms. in grams per (centimeter)^.4.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.

6. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7. . 7.45. cca^ = 4M/Ca. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.5. 7. Step function approximation.

The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. etc. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7.5. The indicial electrical admittance.5. <?i at / = Ae. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. Therefore.68 . The This proof.u)du du 7. as in the case of the preceding sections. etc. integral. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. tem. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. 7.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. an electromotive force ^2 is added. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. an electromotive force ei is added. as shown in Fig. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). a time «2 later. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. all being of the unit type.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. 7.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. «i. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ ..

The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.72 . As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.69 fR{u) — AR{t .u)du du u)du 7.u)du 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. The velocity. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.

.

It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems.1. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. the electromagnetic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the electrostatic. 8. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW .CHAPTER 8.2.

termed motional electrical impedance.1.However. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. abohms. When there is only one path. field in which depicted in Fig. The electromotive force.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE.1 B = / = / = flux density. length of the conductor. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). in dynes. circuit will be used instead of network. and current.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. in abvolts. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. in abamperes. in centimeters per second.1. 8. and Ca with vr. due to motion. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in centimeters.2 where x = velocity. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.1 and 8. in gausses. From equations 8. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. it is located. in using analogies in actual practice. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. L and Ce. The force.

Zen in abohms. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. which the mechanical There are three general types of .6 The 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. in mechanical ohms. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.4 8. all of the conductor. The normal electrical impedance zek. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.1. 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. 8.3. in 8. in the absence of motion. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. The dynamic direct radiator 8. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in chanical ohms. that is. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. in abohms.

the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. namely.2. 8. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. the unpolarized armature type. Since there is no polarizing flux. A. Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Assume that all the reluctance . Unpolarized Armature Type.

. in centimeters.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. and a = normal spacing. then from equations 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a.15 The force on the armature. the total flux is <f>T Aa. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. in abvolts.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. A = area of the center pole. C = l-^nA.13 and 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.14 e = ^r 8. in square centimeters. in abamperes. is where / = current in the coil. n = number of turns.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. in dynes.

mechanical ohms. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the force on the armature is Im = '. 4TrJa*/M . in mechanical ohms. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. Substituting equation 8.17 for the current in 8.18 Equation 8.21 .18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. in seconds.16. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.20 — X From equations 8. 8. nC^P 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.15 and 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and time. in mechanical ohms.2.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.

A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. / = current. this system cannot be used It is. and impedance of the coil. from the poles of a permanent magnet. 8. Polarized Reed Armature Type. Therefore. for the reproduction of sound.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. a = spacing. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.20 and 8. in abohms. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abohms. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. filing — as in Fig.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. in maxwells. for converting electrical variations into however.2. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. = number of turns.22 = motional electrical impedance. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. ^ = area of center pole.3.19. vibrators and clippers. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. in centimeters. 8.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in abohms. Zen in abohms. 8. . in mechanical ohms. B. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in square centimeters. in oersteds. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. saws.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. in abamperes. in gilberts.

in 131 oit maxwells. and time. frequency. 27r/. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in abamperes. in oersteds. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux.axsin wt n coil.

= IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. due to the steady field. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. the flux. in centimeters.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .^1 = fl MA — A* 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. spacing between the armature and pole. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible..30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. in gilberts. the flux will now be 4>x + A. sidered.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.^ .27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. __ .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. Ax -\- Ax . and area of the pole.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.32 „ . in abvolts. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. in maxwells. in square centimeters.

24 and 8.34.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.35 8. fu = MNi ~r — . 8. ZAfi. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.37. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.3.33. in abohms. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.38 a Zm .26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency..35 and 8. 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. ~ 8. in mechanical ohms. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. From equations 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.32 and e i = — X 8.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. in me- chanical ohms.

in abohms.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. ARMATURE MAGNET . in abohms.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. in abohms. and impedance of the coil. 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.3. C. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. Equation 8.38 is similar to equation 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.

4. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. and yf effective area. 8. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. which the coil energizes.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. i?2 = = coil. in maxwells. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in abamperes.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. The sum of the forces. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. The . in oersteds. The flux. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in maxwells. in square centimeters. in dynes. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. of the pole piece. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. at the poles (Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. at each pole magnet. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in dynes. 8. The steady magnetic field is force.

the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. rectilineal impedance of the armature.44 A. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.45. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.4.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in gilberts. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. through the armature to the right and upward. in merectilineal chanical ohms.136 flux. in mechanical ohms. NMA —^x a^ 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. . in mechanical ohms.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. and effective area of a pole piece. of the steady field. in centimeters.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. in abvolts. in square centimeters.

and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. . Zm\.50 and 8.50.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.43 =-^ 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.

This driving system is used for loud speakers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . galvanometers. Therefore. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.4. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. system of Fig. 8.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.

is The current.59 and 8. on the condenser is q considered.62 . generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. and capacity per unit area. in statcoulombs. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . The force. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. the fourth term will be negligible. in statvolts. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. ^o^max sin wt . The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. The useful force. = CeCq 8. in dynes.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. in statfarads. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. in dynes. motive Cq is large .57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. in statfarads.60 From equations 8.57 numerator of equation 8. in statamperes.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser.

69 . in Zm2 mechanical ohms.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. ohms.5. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. .66 in 8. . mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 47r(a — 8. Ax) 8. the generated current. 4ir(<2 + . in stat- amperes.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. in mechanical ohms.61. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. 8.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. + . in stat- Zem = motional ohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.5. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. adding a large stiffness. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.69 and 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. electrical network in Fig.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. at the same time. in statohms.58 and 8. 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. 8.5. statohms.68.

Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. 8. Consider the system shown in Fig. current is applied to 2m . The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.6. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.

reluctance of the magnetic circuit. CO/ 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in current in the abamperes. in abamperes. in cycles per second. in centimeters.X JR 8. induction is of the nickel rod. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . in square centimeters. The electromotive force. and area of the rod. in square centimeters.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. in abvolts. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. 8. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. induced in the winding. . coil. in gausses. due to is the Villari effect.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.73 Combining equations and 8. frequency.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. e = MJ^ dt 8. in seconds. and time. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.74 and ehminating the steady force. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. turns in the coil. current. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction.

The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.78 From equation 8.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. in abvolts. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in square centimeters. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal impedances zm. in centimeters. 8. and Young's modulus.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.6. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical to one .75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod.

83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8.82 and 8. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. in abohms. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.84.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.6. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. Van Nos- trand Co. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.86 Mason. .83 From equations 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.6). in mechanical ohms. 8. 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. is assumed to be a In general.79. 1942. = motional impedance. 8. total in abohms.." D. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. New York. The mass mi in Fig. 8. as shown by equation 8. 8. in abohms — equation 8.

in grams per cubic centimeter. and Young's modulus.7. in centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. length of the rod. in square centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8. in square centimeters. 8.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.80.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. in centimeters. and cross section of the rod. in Fig. length of the rod.

in square centimeters. 8. in dynes. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig.84. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.7C A and B given in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. A= E = area. is The deformation per unit length. X = 4^. 8. that is. .MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.88 where Jm = total force.7.8. air load and support resistance. 8. 8. EA and 8. Young's modulus. 8. due to a force. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.7.

8. equations 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.8 and Young's modulus.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. the data of Fig. B = A= From and area.. in square centimeters. 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. .88 and 8. c„ .90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.89 K = magnetostriction constant.6. flux density.

in centimeters. 6.92 X From = 8.4 force. in square centimeters. equations 8.93 .V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. and A = cross-sectional area. in dynes.91 and 8. due an applied force.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. X to 10~* for quartz. and The displacement. in centimeters. q is 149 = KJu 8. 4 = length of the crystal.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. due to the application of a force. in dynes. is . in statcoulombs. E = Young's modulus.

. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. 8. zmi and z.97.101 From equations 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. and E = Young's modulus. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.100 and 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms. in square = length of the crystal. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. in statohms. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.9.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. 8. / centimeters.

PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
The normal
electrical

151

impedance of the
Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem
,

8.103

where zem
Cei

= =

motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical
is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

The damped impedance and
in parallel as
circuit in Fig. 8.9.

In the above considerations the length of the crystal
a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the
crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^
is

8.104

where p

=

density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
the crystal, in centimeters, and
cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.
in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi
where
//
le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.
8.105
is

The compliance given by equation
pliance given
^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in
Fig.
8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z
Ze.

f

"V

c
'Ml.
_ifc;

z

7^^

4
SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING
Fig. 8.10.
other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.
8.10.

CHAPTER IX
GENERATING SYSTEMS
9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.
9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system
is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
field. Fig. 9.1, is
e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the
^See footnote
1,

page 125.
153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme
where

=

{Blf
9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

length of the conductor, in centimeters,
Z£l

+ Ze2,
impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.
MAGNET

electrical
electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.
driving force,
.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm
zm

+ Zme

9.3

From
volts,
is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=
2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. namely. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. 9.1. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.3.

and + ZE2. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. spacing between the armature and pole.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in abohms. through the armature.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. area of the pole. force. . 9. 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. is The velocity of the armature. in abohms. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. coil. due to the steady field. and velocity of the armature. in gilberts.6 ze = = = = = total flux.2. in square centimeters.2. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in maxwells. in centimeters per second. and impedance of the external load. in centimeters. in centimeters per second. in centimeters.

Balanced Armature Generating System.3.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. due to the deflection of the armature. r~ . 9. flows through the armature. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.

Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. as depicted 9.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in abohms.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.3. in oersteds. 9. is The /m Zm + 9. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. in gilberts. of the alternating magnetic circuit.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. i?2 = reluctance. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. M. a = spacing between armature and pole. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.4.9 and 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. in A .11 zme From equations 9. ZE = Zei + Ze2. The current. in centimeters per second. velocity of the armature. = magnetomotive force.3. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. in centimeters. in statamperes. 9. in maxwells. of the magnet.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in abohms.

in statamperes. in centimeters per second. and velocity of the X movable plate. The current. in statvolts. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in centimeters. spacing between the plates. ^= a area of the plate. in square centimeters.stationary "plate . in statfarads. 9. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statvolts. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statohms.4 e is t2 9. electrical and impedance of the external load.14 where e = electromotive force.

15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.4. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. electrical impedance of the external load. in statvolts. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. electrical and 9.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.71 of the chapter on ZME = . X in centimeters per second.17 zme e From equations 9.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. is The velocity of the movable plate.15 and 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. in square centimeters.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. area of the plates. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. in statohms. 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. = Zm /^^ + 9. e. is Ze2 in parallel. in statfarads. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. a spacing between plates.4. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.18 Zme) . ^ \ira^{%M + 9.

21 in 9.22.25 Comparing equations 9.19.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.23 Substituting equation 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.E1 = -r—.24 and fi 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.23 in 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.26 .25.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.21 Substituting equation 9. .20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. = — a CnX 9.

The volt- age. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. 9.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. coil. is ^tNK 9. zme. In the electrical circuit: e. L\ and rE\. However. Equation 9. 9. Magnetostriction generating system.5.26 and an internal impedance zei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.5. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. coil. shown in Fig. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. zei. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. In the mechanical circuit: zm. from equation 8. in abvolts.27 . the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif.5. ZEi.

- £ 9. in abohms.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. length of the rod. force. and Young's modulus. in centimeters per second. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil.79 or 8. 9. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. and impedance of the external circuit. in abohms. . The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical electrical wavelength.5. in centimeters. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. in square centimeters. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod.

in mechanical ohms.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.5. 9. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.6.28.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. in centimeters per second.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. are given by equations 8. in Fig. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.32 the generated electromotive force. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.6. in mechanical = ohms. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.86 and 8. equations 9. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. to be a In general. 9.32 From abvolts. . ohms.27 and 9.

zei. and velocity of the crystal. the driving force. in Fig. 9.4 X 10~* for quartz. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. ZMi. in centimeters.6. length of the crystal. where KEJ — •* 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. . 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. In the mechanical networks: /m. 2_bi j<^Li. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 9. mass and compliance of the rod. + 9. in centimeters. A. mi and Cmi. the other. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. 9.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. generated The h = —. 6. in statamperes. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. In the electrical circuits: e.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. zme. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. zei. E= 4 = Young's modulus. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil.6 can be obtained from equation 9.6. the effective Zjv/i. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system.27 and the velocity. in square centimeters. = = length of the crystal. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the damped electrical impedance of the coil.7. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. in centimeters per second. Li and tei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. cross-sectional area of the crystal.

ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. From equations 9.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. in statfarads. in statvolts. z^'i zei.34 force e. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. In the Piezoelectric generating system. circuit: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. in statohms. 9. electrical and impedance of the external load.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current.7. 2_b2.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. Ce\. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. in statamperes. crystal. electrical and 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9.

40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. the crystal.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. in statfarads. A = area of the electrode. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. and „ „„ 9. electrical impedance of the external load. length of in centimeters. E = Young's modulus.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. in statohms.41 . In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. and E= Young's modulus.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.4 X 10~* for quartz.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.97 or 8.7. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. 4 = length of the crystal. length of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in centimeters. 9. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.

4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.7. depicted equations 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.= where i.43 From Ze2 in parallel. is .36 and 9.47 . in centimeters per second. in mechanical ohms. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.45 .43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. The velocity at the end of crystal. in mechantotal ical ohms. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.

the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.50 and 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.48. 9. in Fig. == -^ AwKEx 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .52 and an internal impedance Ze\. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9.104 and 8. 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.49 Substituting 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.47 in 9.45.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . Equation 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.49 in 9.8. e.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. However.51.

OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the mechanical networks: Jm. zei. the other. In the electrical circuits: e.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. . Piezoelectric generating systems. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the electrical impedance of the external load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.37. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 9. the driving force. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. zme. ze\. electrical network of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.8.8 can be obtained from equation 9. crystal. Zm2. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. 9.45 and the velocity. A.

No. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . e^" . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem.2. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. ' 10. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity.. the elements. Then 10.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. . in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . /s" . 1 Ballentine. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. i^' . S. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. e^' .R. 929. and superposition theorems to electrical. z„". 17. p.. 1929. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • .E. .CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. Vol. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. I. A number cal systems. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Proc." 171 .1. . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. 6. produce a current distribution z'l'. Reciprocity Theorems A. .

1. o e . e" and /'. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.2 = /'/' where e' . equation 10. /" are the electromotive forces 10.1 becomes 10. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.

. equation 10.fRi" • 4>2. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". fB2" . 1940. let a set of torques/iji'. equation 10. and provided the applied forces /mi. . 10. C. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. York. p. ./ij„ are all of the same . Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. 4>2" . .5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.4 where /^f'." Vol." D. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. '4>^" . frequency. 145./b' and (J)'. mechanical rotational system of Fig.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. 10.7 p Rayleigh. • distribution ^i'. /ji/2. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. 1926./ij2./7j2'.1. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. and provided the applied torques /iji. fli" are the torques and angular 10.1./m3 all of the same frequency. II.6 velocities depicted . produce a rotational velocity — .. =/a/V 10.3 becomes fu'x" ./fl3 .1. D. London. "Theory of Sound. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.1. ^ Olson. 10. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. ^2'. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. Van Nostrand Co.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. MacMillan and Co. New .

. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. equation 10. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.9 and 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". dv" — .—. .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.174 THEOREMS ..11 From equations 10. equation 10. 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.+ dv' .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . v' grad po „ = 10. 10. .10 From neering" equations 1.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . 10.. - p 1 .4 by the p and v of the other set.13 If.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.1. 10. y" .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.12 is for a point.1.9 and 1. 1 . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. p"v' 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.8. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.15 v' .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.

/". linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. ." a second volume current distribution Xi". . . . . .16 becomes . . . . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. pz same frequency. However. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. Then — . pressures and volume currents. E. . . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. produce a volume current distribution Xi. . . let also. . X2". which there are only two pressures. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . . 10. and let a second set of pressures ^i". 10. produce pn. velocities.1. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.1. .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. 10. X^ X^. . equation 10. X2. pi.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. .19 . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . X^" Xn" Then .

. currents. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. B. .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. . F. — In . i" . . L. . Mechanical-acoustical. E. P"X' i" L. P"X' tn\ B M . in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.S. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. The 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. 10. HX* E p"X D Fig.2.21 .S. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. . D. n Then 10. an interconnected e\ . C.2^. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. .S. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. Electrical-mechanical. px L. let also. forces n and velocities. .

mechanical.23 states that a if. a generator of electromotive force e" produces.23 .Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. Electrical-Mechanical. acoustical transducer. e"i' 10. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. me- chanical.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system.2fi. is H. electrical transducer. 10. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. . as shown in Fig. field. 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. G.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.2C. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Theorem. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. e'i" = e"i' 10. 2D. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. acoustical. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. Electrical-Mechanical. mechanical.

D. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. as shown in Fig. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical.3. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. = p"X' 10. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker.2£. 10. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC.178 I.

torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. save the one being considered. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. . mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. velocity. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. current. forces.4. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. Each source. velocities.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. force. forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately.

CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.2. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. However. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. principles relating to electrical. muffler is quite effective. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. Introduction The fundamental lineal. 11. by acoustical capacitances. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. An exhaust back pressure.1. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. Convert the answer into the original system. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. However.

circuit will be used instead of network.1.1. in Fig. The system of Fig. Therefore. . 11.M and Ca for an acoustical system. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.However. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.u. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. in the audible frequency range. When there is only one path. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. with rft. 11. 11. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.

11. . sate for approximations. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.2. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.182 APPLICATIONS In general. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. 11.3.

7. 11. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig.. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. in dynes. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. . 11. radiator tube. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.1. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. rMi and Ci. the mass of the cone. In the mechanical circuit: m\. nii and r. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.3. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit." I"*. 11. teg. in mechanical Jm = driving force. and . the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. zem. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig.3. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. The mechanical driving from equation 8. 11. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11.4.w2. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.3.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. force can be determined /m 11. 11.

"Elements of Acoustical Engineering. velocity of the cone. telephone receivers. Olson. loud speakers. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. m. in centimeters per second. . shown ^ in Fig. New York. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. comphance of the damper. the moment Cg.4. in mechanical ohms. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. The simple vibration fly- damper. given by 11. and the shaft. etc. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper.. is The sound power output.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.4. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies.YWHEEL I. 11." D. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. Van Nostrand Co. 1940. 11. measuring cal systems.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. phonograph pickups. F. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. FX. of inertia of the flywheel.5. These systems include microphones.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . In the mechanical network: A. 11.

zmf. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. Jm. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The shunt mechanical vibration. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. the mass of the machine. W. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr.vF. /jf. The driving force/i. 11. z. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. Cm /4 and 4rM . The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. B. ciple of the device. W./ is due to the . Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. isolator.5. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network.SA.6. the mass of the machine. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. A. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi.SA.

The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the compliance and mechanical mi. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. shown in Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Cui/'i and 4rii/2.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. mi.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. 11.7. only isolation in the system of Fig. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. . the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 11. consists of the following elements: nii. pressor. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2.6. these values springs. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.5^ is due to the mass of the machine.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. the mass of the case.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. isolating mechanical network. 11. 11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. Jm.6.

8. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. 187 Cmi and rui. Of course. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.v/i/4. the mass of the case. 11. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. zmf. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the system in Fig. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The mechanical network of Fig. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. . the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. 11. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. 11. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.7.

m-i. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the mass of the instrument and carriage.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig.9. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration.8. body.v/3. the mass of the tire. 11. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. the mass of the frame. This system has many degrees of freedom. 11. the compliance of the spring.7. m2. etc. r. engine. the driving force at each tire. wheel and axle. Cms a-nd r. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. tmi. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. the combined driving force at the four legs. mum. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. in general. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. Cm2. 11.u 11.v/2. both rectilineal and rotational. Cm2. the compliance of the spring suspension. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. Cmi and tires.

Cji/2/4.i/a. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mass of the passenger. the mass of the frame.8. fn2. Cms and r.\f 1. wheels. 4:rM2. the mass of the four tires. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. springs and shock absorbers. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. body and engine./ifi the comtires. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. view. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. However. 4?ni. mi. the driving force. Cms. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. the combined driving force at the four tires. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. 11. the mass of the passenger. 189 m^. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. 4rif 2. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. .AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. Since there are four tires. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the compliance of the springs. m^. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the compliance of the four springs. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires.

reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. Electrical abohm. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. mechanical rectilineal. pitching or swaying motion. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. An electrical resistance. developed at the tires. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. mechanical rotational resistance. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. Acoustical Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. which controls the oscillations. that is. Mechanical Ohm. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. Most of the forces. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Supplementary Note: Electrical. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. Rotational Ohm. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. 11. A mechanical rectilineal resistance.6. — — —A — . 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. An acoustical resistance. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. As already indicated. an automobile has several modes of vibration. For example.

INDEX
Abampere, 6
Abvolt, 5
Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
reactance, 10, 23
resistance, 10, 13, 23

Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
series, 71

Acoustomotive
effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,
effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126
Capacitance,
acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76
electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69
resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192
Current,
effective, 7

INDEX
Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,
peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88
principle, 33

D'Alembert's
Decibel, 11
Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33
effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,
peak, 5
Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23
electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5
force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
torque, 6
velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,
kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39
8

volume current,
Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190
22, 23, 60, 74

Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
8,

wave
21,

(see

wave
6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,
5,

35

INDEX
Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120
effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5
force, 5
5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5
5,

sound pressure, 6
34
torque, 6
velocity, 7
6,

mechanomotive,
peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4
basic,

4

Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
Introduction,
1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
magnetostriction, 162
piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine
Harmonics, 4
Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,
acoustical, 9, 23
electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,
acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
motional, 126

electromotive force, 5
force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34
force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
torque, 6
velocity, 7

volume current,
Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23
rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194
Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22
rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX
Parallel,

22

system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
rectilineal
rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
current, 7

wave

filters,

92
iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5
force, 5

Mechanical refrigerator vibration
lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment
73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,
electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6
impedance,
125,

Motional

torque, 6
velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,
Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14
52,

Periodic quantity, 4
125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)
acoustical, 52, 125, 181
electrical, 52, 125, 181

driving system, 148 generating system, 165
"it" type network, 87

mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
resistance corrective, 85
series corrective, 71

Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,
acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190
electrical, 8, 22,

Radians per second, 7
Reactance,
acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25
electrical,

22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22
23

rotational, 9

mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
106

Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
electrical, 8, 12,

22

37 and analogies. 21. 5 Transformer. 88 Transient response. 9. 22 networlcs. 6 maximum. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 23 maximum. 17. electrical-mechanical. 178 electrical. 18. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 instantaneous. 18. compliance. 9. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 88 mechanical rotational. 9. 188 Systems. 6 maximum. acoustical. 13. 105 arbitrary force. 23 mechanical. 45 electrical. 6 Stiffness. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 178 mechanical rotational. 22. 10. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 179 Suspension systems. 9. 6 14 pressure. 23. ohm. 178 electrical. 6 peak. 41 mechanical rotational. 6. 6 peak. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 177 reactance. electrical Superposition theorem. 32 Rotational. 22. 171 acoustical. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 23 Theorems. 10. 11 instantaneous. 88 electrical. 9 resistance. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 48 two degrees of freedom. 6 Sound effective. 21. 9. impedance. 13. 42 inductance and series coupled. 9. 122 . 28 Subharmonic. 61.INDEX Resistance (Cont. peak. 171 Resonant frequency. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal.) 195 Table. 6. 10. 35 effective. (see cor- effective. 45 instantaneous. 85 rotational. 13. 6. 184 Rotatomotive force. 107 Transients. 21. automobile. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 37. 22 mechanical rotational. 111 electrical resistance. 173 superposition. 178 acoustical. 23 23. 179 Thevenin's. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 42 one degree of freedom. 13. 6 Static pressure. 9. 13. 120 Duhamel's integral. 6 Transducer. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. acoustical. 21. 25 three degrees of freedom. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 172 mechanical rotational. reciprocity. 187 Torque. 10.

8 instantaneous. 92. 8 8 "T" type network. 106 unit function. 184 186 Young's modulus. high pass. 150. 144. 22 angular. 97 93. 151.196 Transients (Cont. "X" isolator. 106 Units. 93. 8. 37. 165. 148 machine isolator. gain. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. magnetostriction.) INDEX Villari effect. band pass. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 20. 95 low pass. 11 effective. 92. 22. peak. Wave band elimination. 8 maximum. 7 linear. 106 163 Volume current. 93. cut quartz crystal. 23 effective. 92. 93 22 7 Wavelength. Heaviside's Calculus. 45 Unit function. 7. 5 maximum. 149. 167 . 23 Transmission. 101 instantaneous. 92. 11 loss. 94 response characteristics. 23. 7. 7 Wave. 5 filters. 93. 146. 143. 147. 21. 163. peak. 24 Velocity. 7 Vibration. 7.

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