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# Dynamical Analogies

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. Olson. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Lorene E. Engstrom. 1943 F. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. engineer. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. plex arrangements of multielement systems. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. in this project. Harry January. an electrical circuit. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. W. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Olson . Research Director. E.

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Moment of Inertia. ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Inductance B. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Electrical Capacitance B. ELEMENTS 2.3 3. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Mechanical Rectilineal. A.3 Inductance. Inertance 2. C. Mass. Rectilineal Compliance C. Acoustical Resistance 2.1 1 1. Rectilineal Compliance. Rotational Compliance.2 4 II.2 Introduction Resistance A.5 Representation of Electrical. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III.CONTENTS Chapter I. Acoustical Capacitance 2.2 3.1 3. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 .4 16 Electrical Capacitance.1 2. Acoustical Capacitance A. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Electrical Resistance B.

4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.1 Introduction 37 4.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4..6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.7 The Electrical System .4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.1 Introduction 52 5.6 4. 60 5.2 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.7 3.2 Two Electrical. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.10 The Acoustical System 4.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .5 Chapter 3. ELECTRICAL..7 64 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.13 Electrical.4 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.6 3.5 Equations of Motion 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Mechanical Rectilineal...8 67 .

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical..12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.1 6.2 6.16 Electrical Resistance.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.15 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.11 69 71 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .4 6..20 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.21 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6.6 6.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.17 5.

DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. B.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.X Chapter VII. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.2 7. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. C.4 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.6 VIII.5 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.5 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Unpolarized Armature B.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D. 1 7.1 9.4 Ill 7.1 10.2 9. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.2 8.4 8.5 114 120 7.1 8. THEOREMS 10.

4 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.7 11.5 184 185 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.2 11. APPLICATIONS 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.6 11.CONTENTS Chapter E.8 1 1 . Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C.

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as for example. In other words. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. However. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. vibrating systems. Expressions for the kinetic energy.1. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. mechanical and acoustical tems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. 1 The acoustical . The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. in the early days of electrical circuit theory.

^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. constituent parts of a circuit. Of course. induct- ance and capacitance. as for example. springs and brakes. . This involves acousti- electroacoustical. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. cal. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. various assemblies of masses. springs and friction. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. Elements are the meshes. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. ' The lished. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. Electrical elements are resistance. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions.

There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. However. No. No. 4. Acous.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. every electrical. Vol. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. Finally. Hanle {JViss. particularly electrical circuits. Soc. Verojf a. However. ratio of force to displacement. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Institute of Radio Engineers. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24.1 of 1942. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. For example. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. mechanical and acoustical systems. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. — . In addition. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. Therefore. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. and ratio of pressure to displacement. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. I) and Firestone {Jour. XI. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. Amer. circuit. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. d. in the past. Therefore. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. In this book. all communication. Every analogy possesses certain advantages.. Vol. SiemensKonzern. up the mechanical and electrical. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. That is to say. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. 4. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations.

is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. .4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. Definitions ^ this section. Basic Frequency. Frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. Terms not sections. Periodic Quantity. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. or zero. Octave. equals 2x divided by the period T. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. + T). period. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. negative.2. The remainder. reciprocal of the period. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. a period of jy. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. all is the frequency. where T. Cycle. or which tity comprises a cycle. a positive constant. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. Harmonic. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. This called a Fourier series. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. a constant. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod.

The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. The unit is the abvolt. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). The root unit the abvolt. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). The unit is the abvolt. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. — — Abvolt. Subharmonic. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. The unit the dyne. Electromotive Force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Instantaneous Electromotive Force. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. the dyne. Mechanomotive Force). The unit is the dyne. force. . Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. Dyne. Wavelength. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. Wave. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. mechanical or acoustical system. Effective Electromotive Force. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. A wave is a propagated disturbance.

Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. the abampere. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. Abampere. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. the dyne per square centimeter. The the — Instantaneous Current. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. Effective the total instantaneous torque. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. force. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. dyne per square centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. . —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. The unit is the dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. An abampere is the unit of current. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. the dyne centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force).

complete cycle at the point. The unit is the abampere. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. Maximum Current. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Cubic Centimeter per Second. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Instantaneous Velocity. current. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . is Centimeter per Second. is velocity in that interval. the centimeter per second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. Effective Angular Velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. unit is the radian per second. Maximum Velocity. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. Peak Current. Effective Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. the abampere. The unit is the centimeter per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. velocity. Peak Velocity. The unit is the abampere. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. is Radian per Second.

the cubic centimeter per second. The unit the abohm.-W is impedance. The unit the abohm. The unit is the abfarad. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. is the abohm. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. where both systems are considered concurrently. electrical Inductance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. which. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. Electrical Impedance. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. To avoid ambiguity in this book. The unit is the mechanical ohm. second. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. for Peak Volume Current. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. is Electrical Resistance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. times the frequency. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. Effective Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second. when times the frequency. Electrical Reactance. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. .

This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. rotational resistance ance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). The unit is the rotational ohm. Mass. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Acoustical Impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. ' See footnote S. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. The unit is the rotational ohm. Rotational Compliance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. The unit is the mechanical ohm. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. page I . Compliance. unit is the rotational ohm. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance.

inertance and acoustical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. the fourth power. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. Acoustical System. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. In the same way. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. Acoustical Reactance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. . The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. Electrical System. by "l-w times the frequency. the acoustical ohm. mass and compliance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. Mechanical Rectilineal System. mass and compliance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inductance and electrical capacitance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. moment of inertia. when multiplied by times the frequency. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance.. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. Inertance. and rotational compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance.

cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. torque or pressure is electrical. force. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. Transmission Loss {or Gain). A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. — Transmission. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. current. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . angular velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . pressure or volume current. For example. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. Either of these systems may be electrical. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. mechanical or acoustical. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. torque. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. voltage. mechanical rectilineal. force. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. pressures or such as forces or velocities. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. velocity. The bel is the Decibel.

1. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. t 2. See footnote page 8. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. Electrical Resistance. 12 . e rs^-. inductance and capacitance. e.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. inductor and capacitor. An tinguished from the devices. Electrical resistance rs. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. is defined as A. in abohms.' 2. electrical. in abvolts. In this procedure. in abamperes. A resistor.2. 2. resistor. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. As indicated in the preceding chapter. 5. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. the vibrating systems. and current through the resistance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance.

in rotational ohms. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. in centi- meters per second. is defined as r^ — = y 2. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. . Acoustical Resistance. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. Equation 2. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. Mechanical rotational energy is C. and velocity at the point of application of the force.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. in dynes. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. in dyne centimeters. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance.RESISTANCE B. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction).2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. D. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in radians per second.

1940. slit normal to the direction of flow. in acoustical ohms.. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. a reaccomponent. Van Nostrand Co. in grams per cubic centimeter. York. slit in the direction of flow. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. However.4 where p — pressure. slit normal to the direction of flow. 'Olson. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in dynes per square centimeter. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. 6pww 2. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. 1. in = width of the meters. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. a narrow and metal. density.86 X 10"'* for air. in cubic centimeters per second." D. 2.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. resistance. d= / thickness of the centimeters.5 = viscosity coefficient. in addition to the resistive component. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. A tube of small diameter.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. New . and U= Equation resistance current. volume current. in centimeters. and frequency in cycles per second.

given by dd . — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. B. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. and rate of change of current. in abvolts. It decreases when the current decreases. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. in grams. Moment gram (centimeter)^.3. which opposes a change of velocity. 2. Inertance A. 15 Inductance. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Equation 2. Inductance. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. mass increases.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. that during angular acceleration. Equation C. and driving force. Mass. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. Mass. in abhenries. in dynes. is remains a constant of inertia /. = di Ldt ^ 2. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Moment of Inertia. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant.INDUCTANCE. in when the angular velocity a constant. INERTANCE 2.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. is Inductance L. MOMENT OF INERTIA. MASS. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. in abamperes per second. is defined as 2. It remains constant ance. Moment of Inertia. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. in centimeters per second per second.

cross sectional area in square centimeters. inertance.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. Inertance M. decreases.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. that tion.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. and driving pressure. Van Nostrand Co. in dyne centimeters. in centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. in centimeters. effective length of the tube. Equation 2. in p = density of the meter.." D. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. D. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. is.10 m = S = mass. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. in grams. in rate of change of 2. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. in grams per (centimeter)*. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in radians per second per second. Inertance. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. New . York. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. in cubic centimeters per second per second. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. volume current. 1940.

Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. in abcoulombs. Rectilineal Compliance.4. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. Acoustical Capacitance A.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2.n Equation 2. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed.14 = Jm = displacement. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. in centimeters. and electromotive force. Rotational Com- pliance. and stored. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. when is spring remains immovably compressed. Electrical capacitance Cg. abvolts.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. . proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. and applied force. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. It is a constant. in dynes is Equation 2. Rectilineal Compliance. in abfarads. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Electrical Capacitance.13 states that the charge on an force. Electrical 17 Capacitance.

18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. D. and condensation. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. in radians.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. in radians per centimeter per dyne. allowed to unwind. 9.17 s = * Olson.17. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. density. D. 1940. . is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure.. Equation 2. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. in is The terms of the condensation. It is constant.^ in dynes per square centimeter. New York. Van Nostrand Co. Acoustical Capacitance. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. It is constant. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. C. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. Rotational Compliance. and applied torque. Rotational compliance Cu-." p. defined in equation 2. in centimeters per second. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. p = where c c^ps 2.16 p s — = = velocity. in dyne centimeters. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. in grams per cubic centimeter.

20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. mechanical rectilineal. in cubic centimeters. 2. in cubic centimeters. 2. Mechanical Rectilineal. From equations 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. The electrical elements. is 2. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.19 and 2. electrical resistance. = ^ F 2. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig. and volume displacement.21 F= volume.5.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. . and 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. Representation of Electrical.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. in cubic centimeters.16.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. equal to the volume displacement. Equation 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. From equations 2.X 2. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.18 X= volume displacement. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. .17.

—^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. 2. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.1. rE . Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. . mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 and 2. inertance and time. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. 2.1. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.24 sions are mass.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. Tables 2. length L and time T. Table 2.1.1. self-inductance.3.1 page and list and 2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. the standard modifiers for all four systems. and time. The dimensions given in Table 2. 1. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.2. ELEMENTS and time.3 uses mass M.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. length. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. ^ The Tables 8. Further. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.

2. namely. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational or In other words. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. 3. mechanical rotational.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L.1. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal.1. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. From these definitions it is evident that friction. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. 3. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. mass. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.

the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms.1. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. velocity. kinetic. C. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. mechanical rectilineal. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. Heat is a transient form of energy. potential and heat energy. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Electrical.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. 3. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. mechanical rotational. namely. In the electrical. Cr = T. mechanical rectilineal.

equal to the system. in radians per second.3. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. potential. electrical. mass of air in the opening. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. 3. It is assumed that same phase. mechanical rectilineal. X— X Sx = volume current. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in abamperes. by the principle of conservation of energy.4 M= m = S — m/S^. in grams. and current through the inductance L.3 = moment of inertia. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. all the air particles in the opening move with the .KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. and velocity of the = mass m. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per (centimeter)*. The sum of the kinetic. in centimeters per second. mechanical rotational. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. the inertance. cross-sectional area of the opening. in square centimeters. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. in abhenries. and heat energy during an interval of time is. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3.2 m = X mass. in grams. in centimeters per second.

in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. and <l> angular displacement. dyne. in abfarads. in centimeters.. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. and X = displacement.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and charge on the capacitance. ^ 3. in grams per cubic centimeter. in radians. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in cubic centimeters. s — stiffness of the spring. p = density of air. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in dynes per centimeter. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance.4. in centimeters per dyne.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. = -. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters. . and c = velocity of sound. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in centimeters per second.

Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. mechanical Wm.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.12 where We.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Wr. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. in abohms.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.17 = = is electrical resistance. .18 ..: 3. +— + XX 3. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. in abamperes.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. and current. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. force. and acoustical systems. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.y- 3. mechanical rotational.5.

The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in centimeters per second. in rotational ohms. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. and angular velocity. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. in radians per second.6.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. in acoustical ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. and velocity. and X= 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in mechanical ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3.22 = acoustical resistance.

29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.28 and 3.26.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.24. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.32 „. 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3..27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.

33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. and Cr.jo>I — — 3.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the impedance is m and Cm. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. the velocity and force. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. the angular velocity and torque. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.7.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7^ Ca 3.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.38 3. .34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.

40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.Ce r^ 3.8.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.42 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. .43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. mechanical rectilineal. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.

namely.49 „ .46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. Equation 3.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. 3.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.1. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.1. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.24. 3.

57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. . Equation 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.28.26.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.55 is the same as equation 3.51 is the same as equation 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.

mechanical rectilineal. Equations 3.30. inclusively.59. mechanical rotational.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. 3. and acoustical systems. Equation 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. .1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.43 to 3.59 is the same as equation 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.

MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. velocity. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. MECHANICAL Electrical. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1.1. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.1. 4. 4. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.2. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. 4. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 .

Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. in abhenries. and velocity of the mass m.1 93 L = inductance. in abamperes. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in centimeters per second. in grams. in cubic centimeters per second. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4.2 where x^ m = = mass. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. in radians per second.3. .38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in branch 3. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.4 M = inertance.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. and = h = current.

in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters.DISSIPATION 4.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance.4.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. and <i>2 angular displacement. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. and — current. in abfarads. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in abamperes. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in qz ohms. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in radians. in centimeters. and displacement. 4. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. per dyne. and X2 = volume displacement. . in radians per dyne per centimeter.5.

Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .i 4. in radians per second.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in acoustical ohms.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. 2 d<t>n dcj). and Xs = volume 4. in rotational ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. and angular velocity. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. in centimeters per second. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.12 = acoustical resistance. current. and velocity.6. mechanical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. in cubic centimeters per second.

13.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. e = = Lqz-[.22. 4.23. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.20 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.24 Differentiating equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.rsqz 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.25 . 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.1 is h = H Equation 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.7. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.8.14. The relation for the currents in Fig. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.18.19 +k 4.21 4. 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. at/jf.17. The linear displacement.

The angular displacement. = = /03 + rij^g 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. 4.15. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.28 Differentiating equation 4. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.29 4.42 4.30. at/^j.31. p = MXa + vaXz 4. at p.16.27.26 ^ The 4. 4. Fig.10. Jb /.9.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.26. . The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.1.32 ing piston. in the acoustical system.

29 and 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. and to acoustical resistance. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.19.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4.11. to mechanical rotational resistance.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. vm.33.1.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.25. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. inclusive. 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.1.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. inertance acoustical system. Fig.1 to 4. 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. inductance. mass. 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. given by ^3 JM is 4. shows again that resistance. 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. Fig.

= pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.45 .1. 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . is . given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.X3 = pjccCa 4.. 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.43 volume current Xi at given by X. is given by k The = f". given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. Fig.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.1. X2 = Xi . Fig. 4.

= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.12.2 are as follows: 4. 4. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 55 and 56 and Fig. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.48 JwCe3 Cr. . The electrical impedances z^i. 1 tional systems of Figs.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. see pages 53.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 5.2. 4. 54. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.1 of Chapter V.3.

61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .56 ZA2 -T-z. mechanical rectilineal. moment of inertia and inertance L2. The shunt electrical.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.3 is the as that of Fig. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + .2 save that the electrical capacitance.59 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. mass. 4. ze2 = j^L2 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.50 + jwm2 + T-p. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. 4. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.2 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.60 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. 4. compliance. I2 and M2.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. Ce2.— JwLmz Zb. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.55 jwLai 4. 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.

INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.65 2^22^3 .

68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. Cei. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal. m2. Cb2 .4. Cm\. I2.t 4. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.4. Ca. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to .\. 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. mechanical rectilineal. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Electrical.67 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . 4. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . L.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. to /i. 4.3.«i. 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. L2.13.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cri.412^3 + 4.

70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. M2. Cai. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.82 4. nA where zei = . Xi.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.78 4. 4.74 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. to 4>o.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.84 4. 4>i.83 ZA2 4. (h and 04 X2. X3 rectilineal system.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. ^ zjji = .77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. the linear velocity Xq.76 4.80 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .86 4.89 .88 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. X2. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. The current to. Xi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. 4>2. h. 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. i^ in show that /q.

92 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.1UU ^^^ pZA.95 . X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd . + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. 02 = + Zr^ 4..94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.98 . the linear velocity X2.{ZA3jrZA. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.93 Ha = The current ii. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4. 4.) Ha ^_^^j .y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the linear velocity Xi. 01 4. 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.99 r^r^ .97 The current i2.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.90 4.

106 . = The equations cal.-riE .„. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. the linear velocity X4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.102 X3 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. ^^^ 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. . the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. 4.107 .105 current 4. J~iR X.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s.

2.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.^ an inductance. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. characteristics. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. 5. mechanical rotational.1. prior to the introduction of the corrective network.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. 52 . Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. mechanical rectilineal.1. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.

5. Fig.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.1. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. branch is current flows in z^i. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .

5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. That is. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.3. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. respectively. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. Z/jt. shown schematically in Fig. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. 5. must be in parallel.. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. relations existing between//. Equation 5. respectively.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. Fig.4 That is. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. as for example. respectively. analogous to equation 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. 5. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. </>!. ^2. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. consists of a system of gears. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . respectively. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.1 with the same tions. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. </)r. With these specifications the differential of Fig. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. = = xx -\- X2 5.1. SAA. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5.2 for the electrical system. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. ^^^^. 5.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. equations 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.13 and 5. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. equations 5. 5. 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.17 where / = moment of inertia. mechanical and acoustical analogies. reactance .12 relatively large 59 and 5. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.2.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. 5.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Fig.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The acoustical system of Fig.18 where M= inertance.5.42 = joiM 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.14 and 5. 5. Equations 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. Therefore. 5.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*.20 where Cm = compliance.2.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5.11 and 5.3. 5. 5.2.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abfarads.3 is = T^ 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.

velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load.3.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.3.12 to the and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The mechanical the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.3 is 1 2fi2 5.20 is shown in Fig. 5.12 and 5. 5.3.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance. 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. 5. 5.21 show that at low frequencies . Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. inversely proportional to the frequency. at Equa- tions 5.13 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. Fig.

At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. in abfarads. .22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.23. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.3.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.12 = ^-^ 5. tional. 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. 5. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.4 in series across a line.3.6.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. 5. 5. 5. in abhenries. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The shown in Fig. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.14 and 5.4.11 and 5.23 where L = Ce = inductance. equations 5.

12 and 5.13 and . The output angular 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and Cu = rotational compliance. in centimeters per dyne. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.4.24 where m = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.25 where / = moment of inertia. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and compliance.25.24.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.

in grams per (centimeter)''.12 and 5. Equations 5. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.14 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.5 parallel across a line.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.11 and 5. in Fig. acoustical capacitance.26 where M= Ca = inertance. . in (centimeter)" per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero.24 also is zero.4.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.7. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.26.2 and there is very little attenuation.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5.5.

velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. in abhenries.12 and 5.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in abfarads." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Cm = The output .INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.27 where L = Ce = inductance.27. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. in grams. 5. 5.J^mCM 5.28 where m = mass.5 is jo}L -£2 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. in centimeters per dyne.28. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.5. and electrical capacitance.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and compliance.

12 and 5.11 and 5.5 is ZR2 = .14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.13 and 5.29. in radians per dyne per centimeter. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. 1 - 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and The output angular 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. The output volume 5. and acoustical capacitance. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5.3 and the transmission is again small.. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.2 and the transmission is small.^MC. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.30. .29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency. Equations 5.14 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. 5. 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. 5. 5. and = rotational compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5.

in shunt with a line. Electrical resistance.31. . mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. inductance. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. in Fig.11 and 5. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. Electrical Resistance.min.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. 5. 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. in abhenries. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. in abohms. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. 5. itance in series. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.6 shows an electrical resistance.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. and electrical capacitance.8. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6. in abfarads.5.

in grams. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.2 and there is very little attenuation.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. in grams per (centimeter)*. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in mechanical ohms.11 and 5.34.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5.12 and 5. Therefore. 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. inertance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.33.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .12 and 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in acoustical ohms.3 and there is very little attenuation. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. mass. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. The output and 5. and rotational compliance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. of inertia. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. compliance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.32. from equations 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. in rotational ohms. The output volume 5.

in abfarads.14 and 5.35. in centimeters per dyne.11 and 5. 5. from equations 5.6. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. and electrical capacitance. quencies the same as that of Fig. Therefore.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. 5. 5. in Fig.4. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. 5.36. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. in abohms. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.6.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne.12 The output and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. inductance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in abhenries.7 shows an electrical resistance. in grams.9. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The mechanical network is rectihneal. Therefore. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. .13 and 5. from equations 5. in Fig. and compliance. mass. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. in mechanical ohms.7.

inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in acoustical ohms. of inertia. rotational compliance.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. in rotational ohms.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. S. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. acoustical capacitance.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.14 Ca = 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. = = mechanical rotational resistance.37.37 where ru Cb. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per and 5. The output and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . inertance. 5. Electrical resistance.7.38.

This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. 5.3 and the transmission is again small.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. output electrical impedance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance.10.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.7. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. termed the input and output electrical impedances. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Fig. inductance.7. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. .12 and 5.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. 5.2 and the transmission is small. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.7.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. However. 5.14 and 5.13 and 5. Fig. Fig.7. 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.5.7. 5.

8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. 5.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. 5. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. output acoustical impedance.11. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.42 Zas. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance.43 = p = 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.41 input acoustical impedance.40 ZM2.43 where L = inductance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. 5. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. in abhenries.

5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.8 equations 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in grams.45 where / = moment of inertia. in gram (centimeters)^.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5. 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. characteristic.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. 5.39 and 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.8.8. . The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.44 where tn = mass. 5.8 is = jo)I 5.8 is = j^m 5.

acoustical Equations 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. 5.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5. in abfarads.41 and 5. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.8.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.46 where M= inertance.48. The acoustical system of Fig. Equation 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.12. 5. 5. 5.8 equations 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. 5.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.42 and 5.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. 5. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.

5. in centimeters per dyne. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. is inversely proportional Equations 5. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.9 to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.9. line and the mechanical rectihneal.9. 5. . 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.9 = 5. 5. is 5.9 is ^R2 5. Fig. is ance relatively large to motion. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.48 where Cm — compliance. 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.47. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.9. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. frequency characteristic.l/2 Fig.40 and 5.

41 and 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.42 and 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. acoustical capacitance tions 5. dyne.50. analogous to an in Fig.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. in square centimeters. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. The acoustical impedance of Fig.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. The mechanical rectilineal. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. compliance of the suspension system.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)" per dyne.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. and per = area of the diaphragm. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. . 5. Equation 5.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. 5.9 is 2. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. 5. Mechanical Rotational. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.9.9. Equations 5.10. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. 5. 5.

and = rotational compliance.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. 5. in abhenries.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.40 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in grams.52.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in centimeters per dyne. .53. in gram (centimeter)^. in radians per dyne per centimeter.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. The mechanical system of Fig.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. rectilineal. 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and electrical capacitance. 5.39 and 5.10. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.53 where m = = mass. in abfarads.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. and C_if compliance. 5.

54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.10.14.39 and 5.8.50. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and the transmission is small. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5.54. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. and acoustical capacitance. Equations 5. 5.40 and 5. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.42 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.41 and 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. .55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Equations 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance.55.42 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. and again the transmission is small.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal. connected in with a line.

in grams. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.11 is - 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.56. and electrical capacitance. 5.11 is 2/22 = :. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. in abfarads. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. The mechanical system of Fig.11.57.40 and 5. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.1/2 = 1 — S.39 and 5.

mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance.42 == 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.40 and 5. 5.12 shows an electrical resistance.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 2. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. .11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. inductance and line.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. 5. in grams (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 is -. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 5. 5. 5.41 The output angular 5. Equations 5. Electrical Resistance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.11.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. ance of Fig. 5.59. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.58.12.39 and 5. Equation 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.8 and the attenuation is small.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. Equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*.41 and 5.15. and acoustical capacitance.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal.11 equation 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. 5. and = rotational compliance.

inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. and capacitance. 5. m = Cm = mass.39 and 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . Electrical resistance. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.60. 5. 5. in abohms. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. inductance. in abhenries. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.61. compliance.12. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. in abfarads.62 .THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in mechanical ohms.40 and 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams.

and again the transmission is small.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. in gram (centimeter)^.41 and 5. Fig. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.coC. 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. . Therefore.12. from equations 5. Therefore.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance.12. from equations 5. However. in grams per (centimeter)*.12 is 2. where vr / = moment of inertia.12. in acoustical ohms.12. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. 5.4 -T-z^ 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. 5.63. The output volume 5. 5.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.8. The output and 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.10. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.39 and 5. Fig.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Therefore. from equations 5. from equations 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. the acoustical reactance is zero. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and the transmission is small. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in rotational ohms. 5.40 and 5. Fig.42 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. 5.12. Therefore. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.62.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13 is ZM2 = r. 5. 5. Electrical Resistance.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.65 .13. 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.13 shows an electrical resistance. in abohms. in abhenries. inductance line. in abfarads. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.64. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.13.39 and 5. Electrical resistance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.16. 83 Parallel. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and electrical capacitance.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. inductance.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.

Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance.39 and 5. in centimeters per dyne.65.13.13. mass. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. and compliance. in where tm mechanical ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Therefore. 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in (centimeter)® per dyne. 5.41 and 5. 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. inertance. Therefore.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. from equations 5.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.13. Therefore.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig.40 and 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. from .13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.40 and 5. Fig. The output volume 5. from equations 5. 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.9 and the attenuation is small. The output and 5.67.66. from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite. 5. and Cr = rotational compliance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Fig. in acoustical ohms.13 is = jo^rAM ~. therefore. ohms. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Fig. in grams.

may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.17.67 the attenuation ance.14 Mechanical Rotational. 5. that of Fig. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.13. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. Referring to equation 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. 5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.18. 5. 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . Fig. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.13. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.42 and 5.11. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.

86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.19. Fig. 5. 5. Electrical Rectilineal. Equation 5. 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. Equation 5. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Referring to equation 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.15. 5. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. Equation 5. 5.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. . rectilineal.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.14 shows a system of made larger.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5. larger.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.

TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. rm. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .17.20. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. 5. Equation 5. respectively. rui. mechanical rotational.11. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. and r^i and the input impedances.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. acoustical systems of Fig. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. 5. zri. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig.41 and the output impedances. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.12. and r. The mechanical rectilineal. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.16.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.21.16. wherein zm\. respectively. In the same way equations 5. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. and Zmz. 5. "Zrz.16. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. 5.

5.18. 5. Electrical. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.12. In this case zei is the input impedance. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. 5.13 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical. Equation 5. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. . me- chanical rotational. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.17. 5. output impedance. ze2 is rE2.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system.22.17. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. 5. rectihneal.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig.14. Mechanical Rectilineal. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.

mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. and of turns on the secondary.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. ei. velocity and .68 5.18. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. ii. The force. 5. Electrical. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. and zei represent the electromotive force.18 the electromotive force. 5. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5.

The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.71 = — xi 5. The pressure.18.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.18. 5. /mi.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.79 . two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. 5. 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.18. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. The 5. of Fig. /ri.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. The torque. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.77 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. consists of a mass- gear train. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.

1940. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. 5. .41 and p2. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. The acoustical transformer of Fig. New York.." D. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. Xi and 2. pi. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. ^ Engineering. two diaphragms.

Phys. Bell System Tech. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Vol. 6.. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different.. 1922.2. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. 20.1. I.. Rev. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. 6. 2. W. 528. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. A. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Jour. 1922. Stewart. G. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. p. Vol. No.. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. 92 . No. mechanical rectilineal. G.

all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. velocities. *' ." D. Johnson. velocities." D. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. New York. positive and when than four. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Van Nostrand Co. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters.. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents.3. Van New York. 6. that is.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. respectively. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore.. velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. ^ Nostrand Co. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. Shea.

1 zmi zri 6.Ca 6.2 6.1.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. mechanical rectilineal.6 ZR2 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. mechanical rectilineal. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . 6.1.94 6.8 .4. Electrical.

12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. 6. mechanical rotational.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. linear velocities. when ccc 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.2. when .= From and . mechanical rectilineal. 2A2 VMC^ . 6. and the cutoff 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. .10 — — 0. when uc = 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig. 6. 6.= -4 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.9 the constants of the systems.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. when coe 6. when oip = = = = 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0.15 WC.5. inclusive. when coc = . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. coc = — 2Af2 V — . 6. when coc 6.17.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.17 Equations 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= 22 and .= -4 22 6.27 .26 From the constants of the systems. 2£1 6.

38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec. .98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.12.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. 5.

= — 7= / 6.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. 6. when coci = = 6. 2.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.V/2 when WC2^WiC. — — / 1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . = 1 . —= Z£2 — 4. _ 4.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. when wci = — VLiCei .12 =0. . a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .50 V/iGji 0.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. UCe\ (1 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. „ when coci = ..47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.lfi)^ ^ -.44 6.51 VM2C42 = . —7== VMiCai .46 6.

+ LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6.v/2 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4. -4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC. (1 .58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. one greater than uci and Therefore.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . —= 2. when . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.41 . the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .

inclusive.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.64 CeiLi 6. show that the systems of Fig.7.63. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.69 .66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. are 6.56 to 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. linear velocities.4. 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".

ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.74 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.76 . 6.75 = I2CR2 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.4.

MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. —= Zr\ -4. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.42 -4. .84 . when uci = and cca oo 6.78 —= ZR2 0.-4. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. or.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4.77 —— = ZM2 0. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . 6.79 ^— = ZA2 0. —= zei -4. . 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6.82 . M\Ca\) 4. when. when (1 . when (1 .83 —= Z^l 2. . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

.2. velocity. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2.4 = (ajj + p)L 7.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.2. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. and driving force. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. 7. rectilineal resistance. shown in Fig.5 where aE = Te/L.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. unit force. in centimeters per second. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. The current is zero = 0. 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in dynes. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit torque and unit pressure. The graph depicts the current.8 where m = = /m — V mass. 7. in grams. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. respectively.

.12 = — - e"^') 7. = mechanical rotational resistance. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.2.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. 7. in rotational = angular velocity. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. as shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. and = torque.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. 1/riv/.2. in radians per second. in gram (centimeter)^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. ohms.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. 7.

110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. in dynes per square centimeter. the solution of equation 7.22 . The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. = acoustical resistance. U = volume current. From is the tables of operational formulas. is M^+rAU=p dt 7.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. and p = sound pressure.2.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. 7. in grams per (centimeter)*. as shown in Fig.2. in acoustical ohms.20 where M= ta inertance. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. The angular / velocity zero for = 0.17 where aji — Vr/ I.16 7. in cubic centimeters. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). 7.

4.24 JA{t) = " (1 .22 111 may be written. the solution of equation 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. and electromotive force. the solution of equation 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. 7. 7.3. in abamperes.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance. in abvolts. 7. current. From is the tables of operational formulas. 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.e-^ in Fig. electrical resistance. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.28 ve .27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. electrical resistance series. in abohms. in abfarads.

respectively. shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7. 7.30 P)rM where a. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. mechanical rectilineal resistance. The graph depicts the current.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. in centimeters. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. unit force. in dynes. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. is The for / shown in Fig. in mechanical ohms. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.31 . unit torque and unit pressure. From the tables of operational formulas. velocity.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7.3.y = l/rjfCv/.3. 7 3. 7. in centimeters per dyne. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. force. linear velocity.

. in rotational ohms. in dynes per square centimeter. is shown in Fig.3. in acoustical ohms. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.3. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. as shown in Fig. in radians per second.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. and torque. is shown in Fig. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 7. mechanical rotational resistance. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0.3. 7. and sound pressure.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. volume current.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. acoustical resistance. 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in dyne centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. angular velocity. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. as shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters per second.

The volume current decreases for values of / limit. 7. in abvolts.38 ^.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. electrical resist- ance.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. is shown 7.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . . 7. in abhenries. as in Fig. abamperes. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. 1 7. and electromotive force. 7. electrical resistance.4. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. in current. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. in electrical capacitance.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .3. in abohms. (a + ^ Pfa . abohms.

velocity.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. respectively. series Response of an electrical resistance.45. . 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit torque or unit pressure. The response sinusoid. unit force. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas.^. the solution of equation 7.4.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. The graph depicts the current. 7. 7. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig.

in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in grams. rectilineal resistance.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in dynes. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in centimeters. displacement.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in centimeters per second.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. 7.47 . 1 A\ m = mass. acceleration.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. v for x. 1 AC. Substituting equation 7. and driving force.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters per second per second. in centimeters per dyne. velocity.

7. 4> = angular acceleration. in dyne centimeters. in rotational ohms.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in grams (centimeter).si . equation 7. in radians per second. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. 7. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.4_S.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. = angular velocity. in radians. is of inertia. lAA. and 4> Jr = driving torque. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.4. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. = angular displacement.51 = moment of inertia. in radians per second per second.48 The response sinusoid. Cr = rotational compliance.

lAA. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. If rR^ > AI/Cr. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .. . 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. It is a damped sinusoid. 7.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. WR^ 2 1 7.45.4C.56 ^PR = Jo. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. = '^I/Cr.

4. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. volume current. Substituting U for X.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. in cubic centimeters per second.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. 7. acoustical resistance. as in Fig. in grams per (centimeter)^. in dynes per square centimeter. acoustical capacitance. at equation 7. in acoustical ohms.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. and pressure. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.

The value of the unit force t=o Fig.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. Step function approximation. cca^ = 4M/Ca. 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.45.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.5.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. . Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.6. 7.

7.5. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du du 7.68 .ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. integral. a time «2 later. as in the case of the preceding sections.5. The This proof. etc. tem. etc. as shown in Fig. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7.. an electromotive force ^2 is added. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. Therefore.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. «i. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. an electromotive force ei is added. all being of the unit type. <?i at / = Ae. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. The indicial electrical admittance. 7. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0.

mechanical rotational rectilineal. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.69 fR{u) — AR{t . Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. The velocity. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. 7.u)du 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit .u)du du u)du 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series.72 .

.

It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electromagnetic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. the electrostatic. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW .1.CHAPTER 8. 8.2. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.

From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. in centimeters. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. in abamperes. due to motion. in abvolts. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M .1 B = / = / = flux density. and Ca with vr. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. When there is only one path. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. in centimeters per second. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. termed motional electrical impedance. it is located. circuit will be used instead of network. field in which depicted in Fig.2 where x = velocity. L and Ce.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.1. From equations 8. in gausses.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. length of the conductor. in using analogies in actual practice. and current. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. 8.However. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. abohms.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. The electromotive force. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). in dynes. The force.1 and 8.1.

me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in mechanical ohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.1.6 The 8. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. in abohms.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. 8. in 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. in the absence of motion. that is.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.3. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.4 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8. Zen in abohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . all of the conductor. The normal electrical impedance zek.3.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. in chanical ohms. 8.

namely. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. the unpolarized armature type. A. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Since there is no polarizing flux. Assume that all the reluctance . Consider the system shown in Fig. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. Unpolarized Armature Type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. 8.2.

14 e = ^r 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.13 and 8. C = l-^nA.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in centimeters.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. the total flux is <f>T Aa. n = number of turns.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8. A = area of the center pole. in abamperes. and a = normal spacing.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. in abvolts.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. . is where / = current in the coil. then from equations 8.15 The force on the armature. in square centimeters. in dynes. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.

and time.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.2.17 for the current in 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. in seconds.16. nC^P 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . Substituting equation 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.20 — X From equations 8. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. 4TrJa*/M . in mechanical ohms.21 .18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.18 Equation 8. 8. in mechanical ohms.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.15 and 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. mechanical ohms. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. the force on the armature is Im = '.

The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in oersteds. a = spacing. in maxwells. in centimeters. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in abohms. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. Therefore. = number of turns. 8. B.19. for the reproduction of sound.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. 8. filing — as in Fig. saws. this system cannot be used It is. / = current. ^ = area of center pole. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. from the poles of a permanent magnet. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.2. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. Polarized Reed Armature Type.22 = motional electrical impedance.20 and 8. in square centimeters. and impedance of the coil. in abamperes. in abohms.3.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. in mechanical ohms. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. in gilberts.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. Zen in abohms. for converting electrical variations into however. vibrators and clippers. 8.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. . and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature.

r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . and time.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. frequency. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.axsin wt n coil. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. 27r/. in oersteds. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in abamperes. in 131 oit maxwells.

^1 = fl MA — A* 8. in centimeters. the flux. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. due to the steady field. in square centimeters. spacing between the armature and pole. __ .29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .^ .132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. sidered.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. in maxwells. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.32 „ . the flux will now be 4>x + A. in abvolts. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. in gilberts.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. Ax -\- Ax . and area of the pole. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible.

34.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8.38 a Zm .33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8.3.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.37. 8. in abohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. ~ 8. fu = MNi ~r — . _x_ _ M^N^ 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.35 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. in me- chanical ohms. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.35 and 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance..32 and e i = — X 8. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. ZAfi. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.24 and 8.33.

Polarized Balanced Armature Type. Equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. ARMATURE MAGNET .7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. and impedance of the coil.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. 8. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. in abohms. C.3. in abohms.38 is similar to equation 8.

the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in dynes. at the poles (Fig.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in square centimeters.4. in abamperes. at each pole magnet.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in dynes. The steady magnetic field is force. in maxwells. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. in maxwells. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. of the pole piece. i?2 = = coil. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. which the coil energizes. in oersteds. The sum of the forces. The . The flux. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. 8. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. 8. and yf effective area. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil.

.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in gilberts. NMA —^x a^ 8. through the armature to the right and upward. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.45. rectilineal impedance of the armature. of the steady field. 8. in square centimeters. and zm2 impedance of the load.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.4. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.44 A.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in merectilineal chanical ohms. in centimeters.136 flux. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. and effective area of a pole piece. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in mechanical ohms. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in abvolts. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in mechanical ohms.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.43 =-^ 8.50 and 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece. . rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50. Zm\.

the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. Therefore. 8. system of Fig.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. galvanometers.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers.4. This driving system is used for loud speakers.

eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge.62 . in statfarads.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. and capacity per unit area.59 and 8. in dynes. ^o^max sin wt . = CeCq 8. The force. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statamperes. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. is The current. in statvolts. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.60 From equations 8. motive Cq is large . in statcoulombs. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. the fourth term will be negligible. The useful force. in statfarads.57 numerator of equation 8. in dynes.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. on the condenser is q considered. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.

(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8. Ax) 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. in stat- amperes. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8.66 in 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . the generated current. 4ir(<2 + . is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.5.69 . 8.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 47r(a — 8. in mechanical ohms.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.61. . ohms.

72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.5.58 and 8. 8. at the same time.69 and 8.5. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . 8. + . of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. electrical impedance of the condenser. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. statohms. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. electrical network in Fig. adding a large stiffness. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. in statohms.68.

Consider the system shown in Fig. 8. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .6. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties.

induced in the winding.X JR 8. The electromotive force. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in current in the abamperes. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters. frequency. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm .74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in gausses. CO/ 8. in centimeters. . coil. induction is of the nickel rod. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in abvolts.74 and ehminating the steady force. turns in the coil.73 Combining equations and 8. e = MJ^ dt 8. current. 8. and area of the rod. in cycles per second. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abamperes. in square centimeters.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. in seconds. and time. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. due to is the Villari effect.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.

The mechanical to one .75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. rectilineal impedances zm.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in square centimeters.6. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in centimeters. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in abvolts. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. and Young's modulus. in mechanical ohms. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. in mechanical ohms. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. length of the rod. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8.78 From equation 8. in mechanical ohms.

MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. is assumed to be a In general. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. in abohms — equation 8.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. Van Nos- trand Co. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. 8.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 8.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8." D. = motional impedance.6. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. in mechanical ohms. 1942. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.79. 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. . 8.83 From equations 8.84.6). in abohms.. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.82 and 8. The mass mi in Fig. 8. as shown by equation 8. New York. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.86 Mason. total in abohms. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8.

80. length of the rod. and cross section of the rod. 8.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. in grams per cubic centimeter.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod.7. in centimeters. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. length of the rod. in square centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. in square centimeters. in centimeters. and Young's modulus. 8. in Fig.

This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. air load and support resistance. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. due to a force. 8. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small.7.8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. .7C A and B given in Fig. A= E = area. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. in dynes. 8.7. 8. 8.88 where Jm = total force. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. Young's modulus.84. is The deformation per unit length.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. that is. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. in square centimeters. 8.8. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. X = 4^. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. EA and 8. 8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.

88 and 8. in square centimeters. flux density. 8. 8.. . the data of Fig.8 and Young's modulus. c„ . equations 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. B = A= From and area.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.6.

and The displacement. and A = cross-sectional area. due an applied force. in centimeters.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. in statcoulombs.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. due to the application of a force.4 force.93 . equations 8.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. in dynes. 6. X to 10~* for quartz. q is 149 = KJu 8. E = Young's modulus. 4 = length of the crystal. is . in centimeters. in dynes.92 X From = 8. in square centimeters.91 and 8.

8. / centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. . in statohms. in mechanical ohms.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.97.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.100 and 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. in square = length of the crystal. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j.101 From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in centimeters. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. 8. and E = Young's modulus. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.9. 8. zmi and z.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.1. 9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. namely.3. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.

the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. and velocity of the armature. through the armature. . In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. in centimeters per second. in maxwells.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.2. force. in centimeters per second. and impedance of the external load. and + ZE2. is The velocity of the armature. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in abohms. 9. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.6 ze = = = = = total flux. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. spacing between the armature and pole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. coil. in abohms.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil.2. in centimeters. 9. 9. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. area of the pole. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. in gilberts. in centimeters. due to the steady field. in square centimeters. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.

flows through the armature.3. 9. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. Balanced Armature Generating System. r~ . due to the deflection of the armature.

in A . in statamperes. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. is The /m Zm + 9.11 zme From equations 9. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. velocity of the armature. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in abohms. in oersteds. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. as depicted 9.3. in maxwells.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. i?2 = reluctance. 9. a = spacing between armature and pole. of the magnet. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. in gilberts. The current. in centimeters. = magnetomotive force. 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature.9 and 9.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in centimeters per second. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.4. in abohms. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. M.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load.

14 where e = electromotive force.stationary "plate . J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. in statvolts. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statvolts.4 e is t2 9. 9. in statamperes. The current. in statfarads. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statohms. spacing between the plates. electrical and impedance of the external load.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. ^= a area of the plate. in centimeters.

a spacing between plates. is The velocity of the movable plate.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. electrical and 9.4.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.17 zme e From equations 9. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8. in statfarads.15 and 9.4. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. 9. in statvolts. in centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. X in centimeters per second. e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in square centimeters.71 of the chapter on ZME = .^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. is Ze2 in parallel. = Zm /^^ + 9.18 Zme) . electrical impedance of the external load. in statohms. area of the plates.

22.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.21 Substituting equation 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.19.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.25.21 in 9.E1 = -r—.23 in 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.23 Substituting equation 9.24 and fi 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.25 Comparing equations 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. = — a CnX 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. .20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.26 .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.

9.26 and an internal impedance zei. In the mechanical circuit: zm.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. 9. from equation 8. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. Equation 9. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. In the electrical circuit: e. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. zei. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. The volt- age. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. coil.27 . in abvolts. ZEi. coil. is ^tNK 9. shown in Fig. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. Magnetostriction generating system. zme. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod.5. L\ and rE\. However.5.5. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.

9.79 or 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. in abohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. - £ 9. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in square centimeters. in abohms. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. force. electrical electrical wavelength. and Young's modulus. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. and impedance of the external circuit. in centimeters.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. length of the rod. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.5. . The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.

in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. 9.5. in centimeters per second.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. 9. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in mechanical ohms. are given by equations 8. ohms. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6.27 and 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. . in Fig.32 From abvolts. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.6. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.32 the generated electromotive force. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. to be a In general. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.86 and 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. in mechanical = ohms.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. equations 9. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.28.

PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. 2_bi j<^Li. . in centimeters. in statamperes. zei. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. Li and tei. in Fig. In the electrical circuits: e. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. in square centimeters. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load.6 can be obtained from equation 9. zme. + 9. 6.6. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. the effective Zjv/i. zei. E= 4 = Young's modulus. A. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m.7. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil.6. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in centimeters per second. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. and velocity of the crystal. ZMi. 9. 9. cross-sectional area of the crystal. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. = = length of the crystal. the other.27 and the velocity. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 9. mass and compliance of the rod. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. in centimeters. the driving force. generated The h = —. In the mechanical networks: /m.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. where KEJ — •* 9. mi and Cmi.4 X 10~* for quartz. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.

in statvolts. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. in statfarads.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. In the Piezoelectric generating system. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . crystal. in statohms. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. 2_b2.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. in statamperes. electrical and impedance of the external load. Ce\. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. 9. circuit: e. electrical and 9. z^'i zei.34 force e.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9.7. From equations 9. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.

4 = length of the crystal. E = Young's modulus. and „ „„ 9. A = area of the electrode. electrical impedance of the external load. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. in centimeters. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. in statohms. in centimeters.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in square centimeters.41 .97 or 8. the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. and E= Young's modulus.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. length of the crystal. 9.4 X 10~* for quartz. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. in statfarads. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.7.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. length of in centimeters.

4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.45 .42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. The velocity at the end of crystal. in centimeters per second.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. in mechantotal ical ohms. is .= where i. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms.36 and 9. 9. in mechanical ohms.47 . is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. depicted equations 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.7.

50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. Equation 9.48.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.49 Substituting 9. in Fig. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.51. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. However. 9. e. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.50 and 9.45.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.8.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.47 in 9. 9.49 in 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.104 and 8.

. the other.8. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Piezoelectric generating systems. Zm2. zme. zei. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the mechanical networks: Jm.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.45 and the velocity. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. electrical network of Fig. the driving force. 9. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. ze\.37. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. 9.8 can be obtained from equation 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the electrical impedance of the external load. In the electrical circuits: e. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. A. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.

linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . p. Then 10. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. No.. I.. and superposition theorems to electrical.1.E. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. the elements. 6. . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. Reciprocity Theorems A. e^" . A number cal systems. z„".CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". 1 Ballentine. Vol. and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. 929. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. . ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. . e^' . mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. 17.R." 171 . electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. S. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. i^' . produce a current distribution z'l'. ' 10. 1929. Proc. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.2. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . /s" .

1.172 THEOREMS system of Fig. /" are the electromotive forces 10.2 = /'/' where e' . e" and /'.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10. equation 10. as illustrated in the electrical 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. o e .

"Theory of Sound." D./b' and (J)'..fRi" • 4>2. .6 velocities depicted . /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.4 where /^f'. 4>2" . London. 1940. equation 10. 10. produce a rotational velocity — . MacMillan and Co. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. 1926. . Van Nostrand Co.3 becomes fu'x" . Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. and provided the applied torques /iji.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. equation 10. York./ij„ are all of the same .1. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. ./7j2'. D. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. New . 10. mechanical rotational system of Fig. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. II. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. • distribution ^i'. 10./m3 all of the same frequency./ij2. =/a/V 10.7 p Rayleigh. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. and provided the applied forces /mi. frequency.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10." Vol. .1. 145. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. '4>^" ./fl3 . /ji/2..4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. ^ Olson.1. ^2'.1. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". C. fli" are the torques and angular 10. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. fB2" .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . p. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. let a set of torques/iji'. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance.

p"v' 10. 10.1. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.10 From neering" equations 1. then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.4 by the p and v of the other set.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and ..13 If. 1 . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . y" .1. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. equation 10. 10.9 and 10. dv" — .174 THEOREMS . 10.8. - p 1 .15 v' .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.12 is for a point. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. .9 and 1.+ dv' .8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. equation 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. v' grad po „ = 10. .. 10. .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.11 From equations 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.—.

. However. produce a volume current distribution Xi. 10. . . . n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. Then — . . . E. pi. . . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. X^ X^." a second volume current distribution Xi". linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first.1.16 becomes . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. X2. . . velocities. . which there are only two pressures.19 . .18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . X2". pressures and volume currents. .1.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. pz same frequency. produce pn. . and let a second set of pressures ^i". let also. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . equation 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. 10. . . ./". x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. X^" Xn" Then . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. . . . 10.

electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. . Mechanical-acoustical.S. .2. P"X' i" L. n Then 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. L. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. .. — In . .2^. P"X' tn\ B M . F. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. i" .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. Electrical-mechanical. . currents. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . let also. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. HX* E p"X D Fig. . forces n and velocities. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. C. E. 10. an interconnected e\ . .S. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. B. px L. The 10. .S.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. D.21 .Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.

For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. me- chanical. acoustical transducer. 2D. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. e"i' 10. Theorem. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium.2C. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. acoustical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.2fi.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. electrical transducer. field.23 states that a if. mechanical. G.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. mechanical. e'i" = e"i' 10. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. 10. is H.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. 10. Electrical-Mechanical. as shown in Fig. Electrical-Mechanical.23 .

where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB.178 I. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. = p"X' 10. D. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. 10. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . as shown in Fig. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system.2£. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem.3. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.24 Thevenin's Theorems A.

angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. Each source. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.4. force. . torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. velocity. forces. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. forces. current. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. mechanical rectilineal. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. save the one being considered. velocities.

issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.1. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. muffler is quite effective. principles relating to electrical. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . 11. However. Introduction The fundamental lineal.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.2. by acoustical capacitances. An exhaust back pressure. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. Convert the answer into the original system. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. However.

In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. 11. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers.u. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. 11. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. Therefore. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. When there is only one path. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.1. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1. in Fig. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.M and Ca for an acoustical system. 11. in the audible frequency range. with rft. The system of Fig. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. . ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit.However. circuit will be used instead of network. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig.

system the unpolarized type described in section 8. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.3. .182 APPLICATIONS In general. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. sate for approximations.2. 11.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. 11.

1.3. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig.3.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. in mechanical Jm = driving force.4. The mechanical driving from equation 8. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. nii and r. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. . 11. zem. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. in dynes. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. 11. and .DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. teg.. radiator tube. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig.3. In the mechanical circuit: m\.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. force can be determined /m 11.w2. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . 11. rMi and Ci. 11. the mass of the cone." I"*. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8.7.

MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . measuring cal systems.4. is The sound power output. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig.. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. shown ^ in Fig. In the mechanical network: A. 11. etc. in centimeters per second. New York. The simple vibration fly- damper.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. the moment Cg. Van Nostrand Co. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. F. telephone receivers. m.5. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. and the shaft. in mechanical ohms. FX. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. Olson. velocity of the cone. loud speakers. of inertia of the flywheel. given by 11. 1940. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. . phonograph pickups." D. These systems include microphones. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. comphance of the damper.4.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. 11. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. 11. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies.YWHEEL I.

5.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel.6. 11. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. Cm /4 and 4rM . In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. ciple of the device.vF. The shunt mechanical vibration. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. zmf. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. A.SA. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. the mass of the machine. W. W. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure.SA. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. The driving force/i. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. z. Jm. the mass of the machine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring./ is due to the . This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. B. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. isolator. /jf. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable.

6. 11. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.6.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. mi.7. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. isolating mechanical network. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Jm. shown in Fig. 11. the compliance and mechanical mi. these values springs. . the mass of the case.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. pressor. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .5^ is due to the mass of the machine. only isolation in the system of Fig. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. 11. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. 11. consists of the following elements: nii.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig.

zmf. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. the mass of the case. 11. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The mechanical network of Fig. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4.7. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. 11.v/i/4. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. Of course. the system in Fig. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. 187 Cmi and rui. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. 11. . Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration.8. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Cm2 and ^1-/2.

This system has many degrees of freedom. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the mass of the frame. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Cm2. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. r.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. Cmi and tires.7. body. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. in general. etc. the driving force at each tire.u 11.v/2. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. tmi. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. mum. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. m-i. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. 11. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. 11. the mass of the instrument and carriage.8. engine. both rectilineal and rotational. Cm2. wheel and axle.9. 11. m2.v/3. the mass of the tire. Cms a-nd r. 11. the combined driving force at the four legs. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. the compliance of the spring. the compliance of the spring suspension.

the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. the driving force./ifi the comtires. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/.8. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones.i/a. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. mi. the compliance of the springs. the mass of the passenger. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the mass of the four tires. 4:rM2. wheels. 189 m^. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4.\f 1. 4rif 2. Cmi/4 and 4r. m^. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. springs and shock absorbers. Cms. Cji/2/4. the mass of the frame. However. the combined driving force at the four tires. Since there are four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. the mass of the passenger. 4?ni. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. 11. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. body and engine. view. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. . the compliance of the four springs. fn2. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . Cms and r.

190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. an automobile has several modes of vibration. 11. Acoustical Ohm. pitching or swaying motion. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. Rotational Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. An acoustical resistance. developed at the tires. mechanical rectilineal. — — —A — . that is. An electrical resistance. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude.6. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. Electrical abohm. For example. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. Supplementary Note: Electrical. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. Mechanical Ohm. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. As already indicated. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. Most of the forces. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. mechanical rotational resistance. which controls the oscillations. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

6. 22 mechanical rotational. 120 Duhamel's integral. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 88 Transient response. 9. 22. 23 mechanical. 179 Suspension systems. (see cor- effective. 61. 18. 42 inductance and series coupled. 23 maximum. 10. 28 Subharmonic. 45 instantaneous. acoustical. 6 Sound effective. electrical Superposition theorem. 32 Rotational. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 178 electrical. 105 arbitrary force. 37. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 6 Stiffness. 21. 23 Theorems. 42 one degree of freedom. 21. 5 Transformer. 22 networlcs. 13. 25 three degrees of freedom. 21. 45 electrical. 9. 10. 9. 41 mechanical rotational. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 6 peak. 13. 6 instantaneous. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 9. 173 superposition.) 195 Table. 23 23. 9. acoustical. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 188 Systems. 6 Static pressure. 178 electrical. 9. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 9 resistance.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 37 and analogies. 13. 6 peak. 184 Rotatomotive force. 11 instantaneous. 48 two degrees of freedom. 6 maximum. 171 acoustical. 6. 9. 85 rotational. 88 mechanical rotational. 6. reciprocity. 35 effective. 178 mechanical rotational. 111 electrical resistance. 178 acoustical. electrical-mechanical. 22. ohm. 171 Resonant frequency. 21. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. peak. 6 Transducer. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 18. 10. 6 14 pressure. 23. 107 Transients. 6 maximum. 187 Torque. impedance. 172 mechanical rotational. 13. 88 electrical. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. compliance. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 179 Thevenin's. 122 . 10. 177 reactance. 13. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 23 mechanical rectilineal. automobile. 17.

"X" isolator. 8 maximum. 92. Wave band elimination. 92. 45 Unit function. Heaviside's Calculus. 95 low pass. 92. 22 angular. cut quartz crystal. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 37. gain. 8 instantaneous. 7 linear. 93. 93.) INDEX Villari effect. 106 163 Volume current. peak. band pass. 106 unit function. peak. 8. 106 Units.196 Transients (Cont. 151. 11 loss. 165. 7. 101 instantaneous. 149. 23. 147. 143. high pass. 5 maximum. 24 Velocity. 92. 22. 7. 7 Wave. 23 Transmission. 184 186 Young's modulus. 94 response characteristics. 8 8 "T" type network. 5 filters. 146. 167 . 97 93. 7 Vibration. 11 effective. 93. 150. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 144. 20. 148 machine isolator. 23 effective. 21. 7. 93 22 7 Wavelength. magnetostriction. 163.