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# Dynamical Analogies

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Harry January. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. E. an electrical circuit. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Olson. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. 1943 F. Lorene E. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Research Director. Olson . plex arrangements of multielement systems.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. in this project. W. engineer. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. Engstrom.

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AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3.3 3. Mass. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal Compliance. Acoustical Capacitance 2.2 Introduction Resistance A. ELECTRICAL. C.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.2 3. Inductance B. Mechanical Rectilineal.1 1 1. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.1 2.2 4 II. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Rotational Compliance. Electrical Resistance B.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Rectilineal Compliance C. ELEMENTS 2. Acoustical Resistance 2.3 Inductance. Moment of Inertia.5 Representation of Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Electrical Capacitance B. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. Inertance 2.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. A.1 3.

6 4.7 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .1 Introduction 52 5.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.5 Equations of Motion 4. . Mechanical Rectilineal.6 62 5.2 Two Electrical.10 The Acoustical System 4.13 Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V... MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.7 The Electrical System . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series..1 Introduction 37 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.3 5. 60 5.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.2 4.7 64 5. 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Chapter 3.4 5.6 3. ELECTRICAL.8 67 ..9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4.. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.

Mechanical Rotational.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 6.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI..4 6.17 5.20 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .21 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rectilineal. WAVE FILTERS 6..16 Electrical Resistance. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.10 Series 5.11 69 71 5.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.2 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 6. Mechanical Rotational. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and Acoustical Analogies 5.3 6.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.15 Electrical Resistance.CONTENTS Chapter 5.

153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.4 Ill 7.X Chapter VII.4 9.1 9.5 9. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.1 10. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. C. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.6 VIII. Unpolarized Armature B. 1 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.1 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.5 8. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.4 8. B.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.5 114 120 7. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8. THEOREMS 10.2 9.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.2 8.

Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.6 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.CONTENTS Chapter E.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .3 Thevenin's Theorems A. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.8 1 1 . APPLICATIONS 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.4 11.7 11.5 184 185 11.2 11. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.

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Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. 1 The acoustical .1. Expressions for the kinetic energy. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. as for example. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. mechanical and acoustical tems. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. However. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. vibrating systems. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. In other words. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities.

The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. various assemblies of masses. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. springs and brakes. springs and friction. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. ' The lished. Electrical elements are resistance. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. . In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. induct- ance and capacitance. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Elements are the meshes. Of course.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. constituent parts of a circuit. as for example. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. cal. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements.

SiemensKonzern. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. Soc. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. XI. Amer. up the mechanical and electrical. That is to say. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. mechanical and acoustical systems. ratio of force to displacement. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. all communication. every electrical. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. In addition. d. in the past. No. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. For example. 4. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. 4. Finally. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. I) and Firestone {Jour. — . However. Verojf a. circuit. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. No. Vol. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. Hanle {JViss. Acous. Therefore. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. Vol. and ratio of pressure to displacement. Therefore. However. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. Institute of Radio Engineers. In this book.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements.1 of 1942. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals.. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. particularly electrical circuits.

The remainder. equals 2x divided by the period T. reciprocal of the period. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. + T). Harmonic. Cycle. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. all is the frequency. Octave. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. a constant. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. period.2. This called a Fourier series. Frequency. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. a positive constant. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. . are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. where T. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. Definitions ^ this section. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. Terms not sections. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. a period of jy. Periodic Quantity. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. or which tity comprises a cycle. Basic Frequency. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. negative.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. or zero. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. Mechanomotive Force). . Wavelength. Wave.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Electromotive Force. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. The unit is the abvolt. A wave is a propagated disturbance. force. Dyne. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. The unit is the abvolt. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. mechanical or acoustical system. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). Instantaneous Electromotive Force. time interval The is unit is the abvolt. the dyne. — — Abvolt. The unit is the dyne. The root unit the abvolt. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Effective Electromotive Force. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. The unit the dyne. Subharmonic. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle.

absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. Abampere. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. The the — Instantaneous Current. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. force. the dyne per square centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. the dyne centimeter. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. dyne per square centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. . Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. The unit is the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. the abampere. Effective the total instantaneous torque. An abampere is the unit of current. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter.

complete cycle at the point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. Maximum Velocity. velocity.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. the centimeter per second. the abampere. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The unit is the abampere. Cubic Centimeter per Second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is Radian per Second. The unit is the centimeter per second. per second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. is Centimeter per Second. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. Peak Current. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. is velocity in that interval. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. The unit is the centimeter per second. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The unit is the abampere. Peak Velocity. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum Current. unit is the radian per second. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. Effective Velocity. current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. Instantaneous Velocity.

-W is impedance. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. is Electrical Resistance. . trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. which. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. when times the frequency. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. The unit is the abfarad. To avoid ambiguity in this book. second. Effective Volume Current. the cubic centimeter per second.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. The unit the abohm. Electrical Impedance. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. The unit is the mechanical ohm. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. the cubic centimeter per second. where both systems are considered concurrently. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. electrical Inductance. is the abohm. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. for Peak Volume Current. The unit the abohm. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. times the frequency. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. Electrical Reactance. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2.

is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Compliance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. unit is the rotational ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). The unit is the rotational ohm. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. page I . when multiplied by times the frequency. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. Mass. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm. rotational resistance ance. Acoustical Impedance. ' See footnote S. The unit is the acoustical ohm. The unit is the rotational ohm.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^.

Inertance. Mechanical Rotational System. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. mass and compliance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. the fourth power. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. Mechanical Rectilineal System. In the same way. moment of inertia. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. the acoustical ohm.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy.. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. Acoustical System. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. by "l-w times the frequency. Acoustical Reactance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. when multiplied by times the frequency. inertance and acoustical capacitance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. mass and compliance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. inductance and electrical capacitance. Electrical System. . An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. and rotational compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.

The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. torque. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. The bel is the Decibel. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . pressures or such as forces or velocities. Either of these systems may be electrical. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. pressure or volume current. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. force. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. force. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. — Transmission. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- .DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. current. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. mechanical or acoustical. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . Transmission Loss {or Gain). angular velocity. mechanical rectilineal. voltage. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. torque or pressure is electrical. velocity. For example.

t 2.1. in abohms. An tinguished from the devices. See footnote page 8. inductor and capacitor. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. As indicated in the preceding chapter. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. in abvolts.' 2. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. e. 5. Electrical resistance rs. electrical. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. and current through the resistance. in abamperes. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. the vibrating systems. Electrical Resistance. is defined as A.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. In this procedure. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. A resistor. e rs^-. resistor.2. inductance and capacitance. 12 .1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance.

Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. .2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Equation 2. and velocity at the point of application of the force. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. in radians per second.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity.RESISTANCE B. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. is defined as r^ — = y 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. Acoustical Resistance. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. D. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). is defined as Vm where = — u 2. in dyne centimeters. in dynes.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. in rotational ohms. Mechanical rotational energy is C. in centi- meters per second.

4 where p — pressure. in centimeters. in acoustical ohms. density. and U= Equation resistance current. 2. 'Olson. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per cubic centimeter.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. resistance. 1. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. slit normal to the direction of flow. d= / thickness of the centimeters. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. York.. volume current. A tube of small diameter. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. Van Nostrand Co. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw .5 = viscosity coefficient. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions.86 X 10"'* for air. a reaccomponent. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in addition to the resistive component. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also. in dynes per square centimeter. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. a narrow and metal." D. New . 1940. slit in the direction of flow. 6pww 2. and frequency in cycles per second.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. However. slit normal to the direction of flow. in = width of the meters.

Equation C. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. that during linear when the velocity decreases.INDUCTANCE. INERTANCE 2. mass increases. Equation 2. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Moment gram (centimeter)^. 15 Inductance. in grams.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. is Inductance L. that during angular acceleration.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. It remains constant ance. MOMENT OF INERTIA. in dynes. is remains a constant of inertia /. 2. in when the angular velocity a constant. Mass. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. Inductance. in abvolts. Moment of Inertia. and rate of change of current. Inertance A. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration.3. in abhenries. MASS. Moment of Inertia.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. in centimeters per second per second. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. B. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. in abamperes per second. It decreases when the current decreases. is defined as 2. given by dd . which opposes a change of velocity. = di Ldt ^ 2. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. Mass. and driving force. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases.

9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in radians per second per second. in dyne centimeters. in centimeters. Inertance M.. 1940.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in grams per (centimeter)*. and driving pressure. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. inertance. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. in grams. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in dynes per square centimeter. volume current. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. that tion.10 m = S = mass. in centimeters. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. is. Equation 2. Inertance. cross sectional area in square centimeters. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. in rate of change of 2. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. York." D. D. is defined as p = where M—dt 2.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in p = density of the meter. effective length of the tube. Van Nostrand Co. in cubic centimeters per second per second. New . Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. decreases.

12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Acoustical Capacitance A. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. and stored. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. in abfarads. . Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. in abcoulombs. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in dynes is Equation 2. Rectilineal Compliance. Electrical Capacitance. and electromotive force.13 states that the charge on an force.n Equation 2.14 = Jm = displacement.4.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. abvolts. and applied force. in centimeters. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. when is spring remains immovably compressed. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. It is a constant. Electrical capacitance Cg. Rectilineal Compliance.

in is The terms of the condensation. 9. .16 p s — = = velocity. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. in centimeters per second. in radians. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. 1940. in radians per centimeter per dyne. allowed to unwind. Rotational Compliance. Rotational compliance Cu-. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. It is constant. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. Van Nostrand Co. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas.. and applied torque. in dyne centimeters. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque." p. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. Equation 2.17.^ in dynes per square centimeter. D. Acoustical Capacitance. D. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. It is constant. in grams per cubic centimeter.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. New York. defined in equation 2. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. p = where c c^ps 2.17 s = * Olson. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. C. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. and condensation. density.

mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. Mechanical Rectilineal. is 2. From equations 2. and 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.X 2.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. .21 F= volume.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. . in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. electrical resistance. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.5.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. = ^ F 2. 2.16. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits.17. Representation of Electrical. and volume displacement. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. in cubic centimeters. Equation 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.19 and 2. 2. equal to the volume displacement. The electrical elements. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.

move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. 2. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel.1. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. rE . —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

Tables 2.24 sions are mass. ELEMENTS and time. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2.1. the standard modifiers for all four systems.3. and time. self-inductance.1.2. . rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. length L and time T. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. 2. inertance and time.1 page and list and 2. The dimensions given in Table 2. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2.1.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. Further. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. length.1 and 2. 1.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. Table 2. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. ^ The Tables 8.3 uses mass M. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. 3. mass. namely. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. From these definitions it is evident that friction.1. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rectilineal.2. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. mechanical rotational or In other words. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. 3. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.1.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. mechanical rotational.

mechanical rectilineal. Heat is a transient form of energy. C. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. mechanical rectilineal. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. namely. velocity.1. mechanical rotational. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. Cr = T. In the electrical. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. Electrical. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . kinetic. potential and heat energy.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. 3.

The sum of the kinetic. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in centimeters per second. in grams per (centimeter)*. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in abhenries. potential. and velocity of the = mass m. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. 3. in cubic centimeters per second. mass of air in the opening. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. It is assumed that same phase. mechanical rectilineal. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. equal to the system. and current through the inductance L.4 M= m = S — m/S^. in abamperes. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. cross-sectional area of the opening.3. and heat energy during an interval of time is.2 m = X mass. in centimeters per second.3 = moment of inertia. in grams.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. electrical. by the principle of conservation of energy. all the air particles in the opening move with the . in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. in square centimeters. the inertance. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in radians per second. X— X Sx = volume current. mechanical rotational. in grams.

in grams per cubic centimeter. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in dynes per centimeter. and c = velocity of sound. in radians per dyne per centimeter. = -. in radians. and <l> angular displacement.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. in abcoulombs. and charge on the capacitance.. in cubic centimeters. dyne. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. s — stiffness of the spring. p = density of air.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and X = displacement. in abfarads.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in centimeters per second. . in centimeters per dyne. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in centimeters. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. ^ 3.4.

12 where We.y- 3.18 . mechanical Wm.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3. may be written ^^ = dt Z/.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. and current.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3. and acoustical systems. Wr. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.5. in abohms.: 3. mechanical rotational. . force.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.17 = = is electrical resistance. in abamperes. +— + XX 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v..DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.

viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i.6.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. and angular velocity. in mechanical ohms. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. in centimeters per second. volume current in cubic centimeters per second.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in radians per second.22 = acoustical resistance. and velocity.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. and X= 3. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq.

31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.24. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.26..32 „. — -—- JO^ Cm .28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.28 and 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.

36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.7^ Ca 3. the impedance is m and Cm.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf. the angular velocity and torque. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. and Cr.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the velocity and force. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. .34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r.jo>I — — 3.38 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.

45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.8. .42 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.Ce r^ 3. mechanical rectilineal. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3.

48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.24.1. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. Equation 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. 3. namely.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.49 „ .

KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.26.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.51 is the same as equation 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.28. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.55 is the same as equation 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. Equation 3. .

mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal. Equations 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.59 is the same as equation 3. . Equation 3. and acoustical systems.59. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.43 to 3.30. inclusively.

In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. 4. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. 4. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom.1.1. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. velocity. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . angular velocity and volume current response characteristics.2. MECHANICAL Electrical.1. 4.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.

in grams. in abamperes.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr.4 M = inertance.1 93 L = inductance. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. and = h = current. in radians per second.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. in cubic centimeters per second. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. and velocity of the mass m. in abhenries. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. in centimeters per second.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.3. in branch 3. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. .2 where x^ m = = mass. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.

and displacement. and X2 = volume displacement. and <i>2 angular displacement. . in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in centimeters. in qz ohms.4. and — current. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4.DISSIPATION 4. in abfarads. in abcoulombs.5.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in abamperes. 4.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. per dyne. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in cubic centimeters. in radians.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance.

The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. and Xs = volume 4. in cubic centimeters per second. in radians per second. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. mechanical ohms.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. in rotational ohms. 2 d<t>n dcj).12 = acoustical resistance. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. and velocity. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.6. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.i 4. and angular velocity. in acoustical ohms. current. in centimeters per second.

22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.13.8. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. at/jf.14. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.1 is h = H Equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.25 .23.18. 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. e = = Lqz-[. 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.20 4.7.rsqz 4. The linear displacement.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.21 4.17.19 +k 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.22.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.

26. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. Jb /. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.27. The angular displacement.10.29 4.9.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.26 ^ The 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.1.28 Differentiating equation 4.30.42 4. in the acoustical system. Fig. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. = = /03 + rij^g 4.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.32 ing piston. 4. . p = MXa + vaXz 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. 4. at/^j. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. at p. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4.31.15. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.16. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.

to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . inductance. 4. mass. shows again that resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. 4. Fig. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.1 to 4.25.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system.29 and 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. vm. given by ^3 JM is 4. to mechanical rotational resistance.19.11. 4. 4.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.33.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. inertance acoustical system. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. and to acoustical resistance.1. inclusive.1.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. Fig.

the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.45 . 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. is given by k The = f". 4. Fig. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. 4.1.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg..X3 = pjccCa 4.43 volume current Xi at given by X. X2 = Xi . Fig.1. is . given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. 4.

2 are as follows: 4. 5. 4.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 1 tional systems of Figs.12.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. The electrical impedances z^i. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 4.3.2. 54.48 JwCe3 Cr. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. see pages 53. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.1 of Chapter V. . A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 55 and 56 and Fig.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 4.

49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .2 save that the electrical capacitance. compliance. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. 4.2 4. 4. I2 and M2. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.50 + jwm2 + T-p. Cm2i Cr2 inductance. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. mechanical rectilineal. ze2 = j^L2 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. The shunt electrical. mass.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712.— JwLmz Zb. Ce2. 4.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.59 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.56 ZA2 -T-z.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.60 4.3 is the as that of Fig.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.55 jwLai 4. 4.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.

An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.65 2^22^3 . The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.3. 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4.

Cri. Mechanical Rectilineal. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. m2. mechanical rectilineal. L.t 4. 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Ca.13. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . to /i.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .\. Cb2 .69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. Cm\.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. 4. I2.«i.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. 4. 4. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Cei.3.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. L2. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.4.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.4.67 . Electrical.412^3 + 4.

Ca2 in the acoustical system.89 .84 4.82 4. Xi. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. 4>2.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.76 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h.88 4. h.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. Xi. Cai.83 ZA2 4. 4>i. X2. The current to. i^ in show that /q.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4. ^ zjji = . X3 rectilineal system.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. M2. (h and 04 X2. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.74 4.78 4.80 4. nA where zei = . in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.86 4. 4. the linear velocity Xq.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. to 4>o.

X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4. the linear velocity X2. 01 4. the linear velocity Xi.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.{ZA3jrZA..92 4.1UU ^^^ pZA.99 r^r^ .93 Ha = The current ii. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.98 .90 4.y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.) Ha ^_^^j .97 The current i2. 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.95 .

-riE .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. J~iR X.102 X3 4.„. the linear velocity X4.107 .109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.106 . 4. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.103 4>z = —— 7} 4. ^^^ 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. = The equations cal.105 current 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.

Two Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. 5. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. characteristics.^ an inductance. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. 52 . impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. mechanical rotational.1. mechanical rectilineal.2. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. 5. termed the input and output electrical impedances.1. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line.

that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. branch is current flows in z^i. Fig. 5. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.1. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.

shown schematically in Fig. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. must be in parallel. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. That is. ^2.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4.2 for the electrical system. analogous to equation 5. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. consists of a system of gears.4 That is. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. respectively. </)r. respectively. Z/jt. 5. SAA. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. as for example. 5. respectively.1 with the same tions.1. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. relations existing between//. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. Equation 5. = = xx -\- X2 5. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. Xt Differentiating equation 5. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4..3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.3. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. Fig. With these specifications the differential of Fig. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. </>!. respectively.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

2. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.17 where / = moment of inertia. ^^^^. 5. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies.12 relatively large 59 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. reactance . 5. equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.13 and 5. 5.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. equations 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.

20 where Cm = compliance. Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. 5. in centimeters per dyne.42 = joiM 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.2. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. The acoustical system of Fig.3. 5. Therefore.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.3 is = T^ 5. 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line.11 and 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.14 and 5. Equations 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2.18 where M= inertance. from equations 5. in abfarads. .19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5.2. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. 5.20 is shown in Fig. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.3. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. Fig.12 to the and 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3. inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12 and 5.3. at Equa- tions 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. 5. The mechanical the frequency. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.21 show that at low frequencies . in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 and 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.

5.14 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.4 in series across a line. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.23. 5. 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. and electrical capacitance. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.21 is The acoustical system of Fig.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 and 5. .23 where L = Ce = inductance.3.3. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement. The shown in Fig.4.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. tional. equations 5. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.6. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. in abfarads. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement. 5. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 = ^-^ 5.13 and 5. in abhenries. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.

in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne. The output angular 5.25 where / = moment of inertia.24.25. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.24 where m = mass. and Cu = rotational compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. in gram (centimeter)^. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.12 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.4.13 and . in grams.

5.24 also is zero. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. . At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.26. in grams per (centimeter)''.5 parallel across a line. in (centimeter)" per dyne.4.13 and 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. The output volume 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. acoustical capacitance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.11 and 5. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. 5. in Fig.12 and 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.7.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig.14 and 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5.5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.2 and there is very little attenuation. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig. 5.J^mCM 5. 5. in grams.5 is jo}L -£2 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.28 where m = mass. 5. in abfarads. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5.28. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne.12 and 5. Cm = The output . ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. and electrical capacitance. in abhenries. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .5.27.27 where L = Ce = inductance.

At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. and = rotational compliance.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. in grams per (centimeter)*. The output volume 5.11 and 5. 5.12 and 5. Equations 5. .14 and 5. in gram (centimeter)^.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 1 - 5. and acoustical capacitance. Equations 5.2 and the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5.5 is ZR2 = . in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3 and the transmission is again small.. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.13 and The output angular 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.29.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .30. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.13 and 5.^MC. 5.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.

The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. in abohms.6. inductance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. Electrical Resistance.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.6.min. in Fig. Electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.5. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal. 5. in shunt with a line. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abhenries.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. in abfarads. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig.11 and 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.31.6 shows an electrical resistance.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. itance in series. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu.8. and electrical capacitance. 5. . are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. 5.

12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The output volume 5. mass. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.3 and there is very little attenuation.2 and there is very little attenuation.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.34. The output and 5. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in rotational ohms. Therefore.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal .32. Therefore. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. of inertia. in mechanical ohms.11 and 5. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^. in centimeters per dyne. 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5.33.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5.12 and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in acoustical ohms.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . from equations 5.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. in grams.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. and rotational compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance.

is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.14 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. 5. Therefore.13 and 5.6. inductance. in Fig. from equations 5. in grams.11 and 5. in Fig. .7 shows an electrical resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.7. in abfarads. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.36. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. mass. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. The mechanical network is rectihneal. and electrical capacitance.6.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance.12 The output and 5. in abohms. in abhenries. and compliance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.4.35. from equations 5. in mechanical ohms. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. 5. 5.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. quencies the same as that of Fig. Therefore.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. 5.9. in centimeters per dyne.

7.14 Ca = 5. of inertia. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. rotational compliance. The output and 5.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . in grams per and 5.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.37 where ru Cb.37. = = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.38. Electrical resistance. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in rotational ohms. in acoustical ohms. 5. inertance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. acoustical capacitance. S.

the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5.3 and the transmission is again small.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.12 and 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.7. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5.7. 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. However. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and the transmission is small.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. Fig. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7.7. inductance. Fig. 5. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.11 and 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.10.13 and 5. 5. .36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5.5. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.7.14 and 5. output electrical impedance. termed the input and output electrical impedances.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. 5.

41 input acoustical impedance. 5.11. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.42 Zas. output acoustical impedance.40 ZM2. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network. 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. in abhenries. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.43 where L = inductance. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.43 = p = 2. . of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance.

8. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.44 where tn = mass. 5.8. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.8 is = jo)I 5. 5. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. characteristic. . in gram (centimeters)^.39 and 5.8.8 equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.8 is = j^m 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5. in grams. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.

the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5. in abfarads. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. 5.8.8 equations 5. acoustical Equations 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.48.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.46 where M= inertance.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Equation 5.41 and 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. The acoustical system of Fig. 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. 5. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.42 and 5. 5.12.

.9 = 5. 5.9. is ance relatively large to motion. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.9.9. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.9 is ^R2 5. is 5. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.47.48 where Cm — compliance. frequency characteristic. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z. 5. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. line and the mechanical rectihneal. in centimeters per dyne.l/2 Fig. 5.9 to the frequency. Fig. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. is inversely proportional Equations 5. 5. 5.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.40 and 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.

5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. Equation 5. dyne. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. in square centimeters.50.41 and 5. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. Mechanical Rotational. acoustical capacitance tions 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. 5. analogous to an in Fig. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. The mechanical rectilineal. 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. compliance of the suspension system. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. and per = area of the diaphragm. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. in (centimeter)" per dyne.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. 5.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. Equations 5. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.9. 5. .51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5.9. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.10.9 is 2.13. 5.42 and 5.

and electrical capacitance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in gram (centimeter)^. and = rotational compliance. rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.52.40 and 5.53 where m = = mass.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. and C_if compliance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. in abfarads. in centimeters per dyne.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. 5. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.10. in abhenries. . The mechanical system of Fig.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. in grams. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.53.39 and 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia. 5.

in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 5. 5. Equations 5.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5.10.14. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.8.40 and 5.39 and 5.42 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.50. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. . At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5. 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance.55. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.42 and 5. connected in with a line. 5. and again the transmission is small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.41 and 5.11. Equations 5.54.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. and the transmission is small. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. Equations 5.

Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.11 is - 5. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. and electrical capacitance. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.57.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11. The mechanical system of Fig.11 is 2/22 = :. in grams. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .1/2 = 1 — S. in abfarads. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.56.40 and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and compliance.39 and 5. 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abhenries.

At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. ance of Fig.59 where M= Ca = inertance. Equation 5. and = rotational compliance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small.11 equation 5. inductance and line. 5. 5.9 and again the attenuation is small.40 and 5.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. Equations 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.11 is -. 5.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. in grams per (centimeter)*. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. and acoustical capacitance.58.42 == 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.59.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 2. 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5.12. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11. 5. 5.41 The output angular 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical Resistance.15. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 shows an electrical resistance. 5. Equations 5. .39 and 5. in grams (centimeter)^.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.41 and 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.

in grams. and capacitance. 5. in abfarads. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.40 and 5.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.61.12.39 and 5. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.60. compliance. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in abhenries. 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in mechanical ohms.62 .12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . inductance. Electrical resistance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. in abohms. in centimeters per dyne. m = Cm = mass. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.12 T = rE + jwL + 5.

At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.12. 5. in acoustical ohms. and Cr = rotational compliance. The output volume 5.12. Fig. 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. from equations 5. Fig. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. Therefore.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.42 and 5. The output and 5.12. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. in rotational ohms. Therefore.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. from equations 5.40 and 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. and again the transmission is small. .39 and 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.41 and 5. Therefore. However.4 -T-z^ 5. inertance. Therefore. 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. from equations 5.coC.12.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. the acoustical reactance is zero. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.12 is 2. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. from equations 5.10.12. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. Fig.63. 5.62. and the transmission is small.8. where vr / = moment of inertia. 5. 5.

inductance line. 83 Parallel.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance.16. 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.13 is ZM2 = r. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.13 shows an electrical resistance.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5.64. Electrical resistance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. in abohms. and electrical capacitance. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal.65 .39 and 5. 5. in abfarads. 5. in abhenries. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. Electrical Resistance.13. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig.

9 and the attenuation is small.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. inertance. Fig. 5. The output volume 5.13. in grams. Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. and compliance.8 and the attenuation is small.66. and Cr = rotational compliance.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. from . 5.39 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. current can be obtained from equations 5.41 and 5. Therefore. Therefore. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in where tm mechanical ohms. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite.13. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5.40 and 5. in acoustical ohms. therefore. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. from equations 5. The output and 5. from equations 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~. Therefore. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.40 and 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.65. from equations 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in (centimeter)® per dyne. ohms.13. mass. 5.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. 5.67.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. Fig. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. in centimeters per dyne. the acoustical reactance is infinite.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

5.13. 5. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . that of Fig.13. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.42 and 5.14 Mechanical Rotational. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. 5.17. Referring to equation 5. Fig.11.67 the attenuation ance.18. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5.

5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.15. Equation 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Equation 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller. Equation 5. 5. . 5. Referring to equation 5. Fig. 5. larger.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.19.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. 5. rectilineal.14 shows a system of made larger.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. Electrical Rectilineal.

acoustical systems of Fig.12. and r.11. 5.20. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. rm. zri. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 5. In the same way equations 5. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.16. and r^i and the input impedances.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. 5.41 and the output impedances.16. 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5.13 the mechanical rectihneal. respectively. respectively. and Zmz. wherein zm\.21. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. 5.17.16. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. 5. "Zrz. The mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. rui. Equation 5. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

ze2 is rE2.18.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. Electrical.17. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. 5. 5. output impedance. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. me- chanical rotational. In this case zei is the input impedance. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5.12.13 and 5. . 5. Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.17.14. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. rectihneal.22. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. Electrical. 5. Equation 5.

mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. and zei represent the electromotive force. The force. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.68 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. and of turns on the secondary.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. Electrical. 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.18 the electromotive force. 5. ACOUSTICAL Fig. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. velocity and . ei.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. ii.18. 5.

/ri.18. 5. The pressure. consists of a mass- gear train.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. /mi.18.18.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. 5.18.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. of Fig. The 5.79 . •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.77 5.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5. 5. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. The torque.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.71 = — xi 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.

ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. ^ Engineering. two diaphragms.. The acoustical transformer of Fig. . pi. 5. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. Xi and 2." D. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. 1940. New York. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.41 and p2.

W. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. G. No. Stewart. p. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. A. Bell System Tech.2.. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. 92 .. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Vol. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. 1922.. 528. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. Jour. 6. Vol. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. 6. 2.1. 1922.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. Phys. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. No. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. I.. 20. G. Rev.

A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. velocities. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances.. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. positive and when than four. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Shea. 6. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. respectively. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. New York. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. ^ Nostrand Co. velocities. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. *' . The most important type of structure is the ladder type. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. Van Nostrand Co. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents." D. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van New York. velocities.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. velocities. that is." D.. Johnson. velocities.3. velocities.

6 ZR2 6. 6.1.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.1.94 6.1 zmi zri 6.Ca 6.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. Electrical. mechanical rectilineal.2 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL . WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.8 .5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.4. mechanical rectilineal. 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.

10 and show that the systems of Fig. when coe 6. 6. and the cutoff 6. mechanical rectilineal. coc = — 2Af2 V — .=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. when ccc 6. 6.15 WC. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r.17. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. 6. when oip = = = = 6.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. inclusive.2.9 the constants of the systems.10 — — 0.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. . when coc 6.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. when coc = . when uc = 6. linear velocities. 2A2 VMC^ .17 Equations 6.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. mechanical rotational.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0. when .= From and .14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.= -4 6.5.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by . 6. 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .27 . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.= -4 22 6.= 22 and .

98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.12.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6. 5. .

47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. _ 4. —= Z£2 — 4.. UCe\ (1 6. = — 7= / 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .50 V/iGji 0. 6.43 Let LiCei = 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . 2.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. — — / 1 6.46 6. —7== VMiCai .51 VM2C42 = . = 1 .lfi)^ ^ -.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. when coci = = 6. „ when coci = .44 6.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.12 =0.48 VL2CJS2 = 0. when wci = — VLiCei .49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. . V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6.

58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. —= 2.53 —= ZiJ2 -4.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. one greater than uci and Therefore.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .v/2 1 6. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. -4. when . <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . (1 .57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.41 .

are 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. 6.56 to 6.7. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r. inclusive.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6. mechanical rectilineal.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.69 . mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.4. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.64 CeiLi 6.63.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. show that the systems of Fig. linear velocities.

mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. 6.74 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.76 .ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. Electrical.75 = I2CR2 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G. mechanical rectilineal.

when uci = and cca oo 6.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. or.78 —= ZR2 0. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. M\Ca\) 4. when. 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. —= Zr\ -4. when (1 .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. when (1 .79 ^— = ZA2 0.77 —— = ZM2 0.42 -4. when oici = and wa = =0 6. . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . .-4. . MiCa2 — UlC ^ = .82 . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7.84 . —= zei -4. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. 6.83 —= Z^l 2.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

2. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. shown in Fig. The current is zero = 0. 7. 7. respectively. rectilineal resistance. The graph depicts the current. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. in centimeters per second. in dynes.8 where m = = /m — V mass. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. and driving force.2.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. 7. velocity. unit torque and unit pressure.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. 7. in grams.5 where aE = Te/L. .6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. unit force.

12 = — - e"^') 7. . 1/riv/.2. = mechanical rotational resistance.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. as shown in Fig.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. in radians per second.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. in gram (centimeter)^. 7. and = torque. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.2. ohms. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig. 7. in rotational = angular velocity. in dyne centimeters.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.

is M^+rAU=p dt 7. 7.2.17 where aji — Vr/ I.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. in cubic centimeters. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. U = volume current.22 . The angular / velocity zero for = 0. 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. = acoustical resistance. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). and p = sound pressure.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. as shown in Fig.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0. in grams per (centimeter)*. in acoustical ohms. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7. in dynes per square centimeter.16 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.2.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.20 where M= ta inertance.

in abohms.4.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. From is the tables of operational formulas. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. current. the solution of equation 7.28 ve .22 111 may be written.e-^ in Fig. 7.2. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . 7.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.3. in abfarads. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.24 JA{t) = " (1 . is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. in abvolts. electrical resistance series. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. the solution of equation 7. in abamperes. 7. electrical resistance. and electromotive force.

in centimeters per dyne. 7. shown in Fig. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. mechanical rectilineal resistance. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. respectively. 7.30 P)rM where a. From the tables of operational formulas. in centimeters. unit force. The graph depicts the current. is The for / shown in Fig. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. in dynes. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. in mechanical ohms. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7 3.31 . velocity. linear velocity. unit torque and unit pressure. force. the solution of equation 7.y = l/rjfCv/.3.3. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.

3. in radians per second. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. is shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. and sound pressure. volume current. in rotational ohms. 7. angular velocity. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in acoustical ohms. acoustical resistance.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. and torque.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. . 7. mechanical rotational resistance. 7.3. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. as shown in Fig. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.3.33 where aR = IIvrCr. in cubic centimeters per second.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. in dyne centimeters.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dynes per square centimeter. in radians per dyne per centimeter.3.

in abhenries.3. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. 1 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. abohms. abamperes. in current. 7. and electromotive force. electrical resistance.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E .38 ^. is shown 7. 7.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. in electrical capacitance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. as in Fig. (a + ^ Pfa . The volume current decreases for values of / limit.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.5.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. in abohms. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. 7. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.4. . in abvolts. electrical resist- ance.

40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. unit force.^.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. respectively. 7. .4. series Response of an electrical resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.45. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. 7. velocity.4. The graph depicts the current. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. The response sinusoid. the solution of equation 7.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. unit torque or unit pressure.

4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. 1 AC.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in centimeters.47 .Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. Substituting equation 7. 7. displacement. rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per second. 1 A\ m = mass. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. v for x. in centimeters per dyne. in grams. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in dynes. velocity.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in centimeters per second per second. and driving force. acceleration.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r.

4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.4_S. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. in radians per dyne per centimeter. equation 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.si .48 The response sinusoid. = angular displacement. in radians. 7. in rotational ohms. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. is of inertia. in radians per second per second.4. in grams (centimeter). 7. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. and 4> Jr = driving torque.51 = moment of inertia. lAA. 4> = angular acceleration. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. vr = mechanical rotational resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. in dyne centimeters.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. = angular velocity. in radians per second. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. Cr = rotational compliance.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. 7.

4C.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig. = '^I/Cr.45.56 ^PR = Jo. If rR^ > AI/Cr..53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . WR^ 2 1 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. lAA.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. . It is a damped sinusoid. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.

in cubic centimeters per second.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. in dynes per square centimeter.4. in grams per (centimeter)^. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. acoustical capacitance.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. at equation 7. Substituting U for X. in acoustical ohms. and pressure. as in Fig. acoustical resistance.

6.45.5. 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. 7. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. . Step function approximation. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.

etc. as shown in Fig. integral. an electromotive force ^2 is added. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. an electromotive force ei is added.68 . tem. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. «i. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. 7. The This proof.. The indicial electrical admittance. a time «2 later.u)du du 7.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. 7. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. as in the case of the preceding sections. all being of the unit type.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system.5.5. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). Therefore. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. <?i at / = Ae. etc.

mechanical rotational rectilineal.u)du 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. 7.72 .28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. The velocity. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.69 fR{u) — AR{t . and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du du u)du 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.

.

8. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the electromagnetic.1. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the electrostatic.CHAPTER 8.2. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.

8. When there is only one path. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). From equations 8. due to motion. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.1. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. length of the conductor.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. in dynes. in using analogies in actual practice. it is located. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. in gausses. and Ca with vr. in abamperes. in centimeters per second. L and Ce.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. abohms. termed motional electrical impedance. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M .However.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. in centimeters.1. circuit will be used instead of network. in abvolts. The force. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. field in which depicted in Fig. and current. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.1 B = / = / = flux density.2 where x = velocity. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. The electromotive force.1 and 8.

me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil.3. which the mechanical There are three general types of . Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. The normal electrical impedance zek. The dynamic direct radiator 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. 8. in mechanical ohms.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Zen in abohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked.4 8. in 8.3. that is. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.1. in the absence of motion. all of the conductor. in chanical ohms.6 The 8. in abohms.

the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Assume that all the reluctance . the unpolarized armature type. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. Unpolarized Armature Type. 8. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. namely. Consider the system shown in Fig. Since there is no polarizing flux.2.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. A.

generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. then from equations 8. in abamperes. C = l-^nA.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in square centimeters.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. n = number of turns. .v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. is where / = current in the coil. and a = normal spacing. in dynes. the total flux is <f>T Aa.14 e = ^r 8. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.15 The force on the armature. A = area of the center pole. in abvolts. in centimeters.13 and 8.

17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. and time. nC^P 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. 8. in seconds. in mechanical ohms. 4TrJa*/M . then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. From the mechanical circuit of Fig.2. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature. the force on the armature is Im = '. mechanical ohms.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.18 Equation 8.21 .ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.17 for the current in 8.15 and 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. Substituting equation 8.16.20 — X From equations 8.

24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. for converting electrical variations into however. . due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. Zen in abohms.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in gilberts.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. in maxwells. 8. 8. saws. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.20 and 8. in abohms. from the poles of a permanent magnet.3. a = spacing. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. in centimeters. for the reproduction of sound. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in oersteds. in abamperes. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. in square centimeters. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.2. B. vibrators and clippers. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit.19. in abohms. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. in abohms. and impedance of the coil. ^ = area of center pole. this system cannot be used It is. 8.22 = motional electrical impedance. Therefore. Polarized Reed Armature Type. filing — as in Fig. / = current.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. in mechanical ohms. = number of turns.

ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. frequency. in abamperes. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.axsin wt n coil. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . and time. 27r/. in oersteds. in 131 oit maxwells. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.

26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. in maxwells. in square centimeters.^ .i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. __ .29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. due to the steady field. Ax -\- Ax .32 „ . the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. in gilberts.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. sidered..27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. the flux will now be 4>x + A. spacing between the armature and pole.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. in centimeters. and area of the pole.^1 = fl MA — A* 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. in abvolts. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. the flux.

in mechanical ohms. From equations 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. 8.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.35 and 8.37. _x_ _ M^N^ 8. ~ 8. in me- chanical ohms.38 a Zm .33. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.. ZAfi.3. in abohms.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm. fu = MNi ~r — .36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.24 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.34.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.32 and e i = — X 8.35 8.

38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. Polarized Balanced Armature Type.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. ARMATURE MAGNET . C. in abohms. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME. 8. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8.3. Equation 8. and impedance of the coil. in abohms. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.38 is similar to equation 8.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.

in maxwells. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. in dynes. The flux.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The . which the coil energizes. in abamperes.4. The sum of the forces. in maxwells. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. and yf effective area. at the poles (Fig. 8. in square centimeters. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. in oersteds. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in dynes. The steady magnetic field is force. 8.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . at each pole magnet. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. of the pole piece. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. i?2 = = coil.

NMA —^x a^ 8.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.4. . <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in centimeters. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in square centimeters.45.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8.136 flux. in gilberts. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal impedance of the armature. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole.44 A. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. through the armature to the right and upward. of the steady field. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 impedance of the load. and effective area of a pole piece.

43 =-^ 8. .50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50. Zm\. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.

system of Fig.4.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. Therefore. This driving system is used for loud speakers. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. galvanometers. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . 8. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8.

in statcoulombs. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. in statvolts. in statfarads. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . the fourth term will be negligible. in dynes. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. and capacity per unit area. = CeCq 8.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. in statamperes.57 numerator of equation 8.59 and 8. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. ^o^max sin wt . motive Cq is large . is The current. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. in dynes. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. The force.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage.60 From equations 8. on the condenser is q considered. The useful force. in statfarads.62 . ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt.

away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . . . in mechanical ohms. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. Ax) 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 4ir(<2 + . rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. the generated current.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.66 in 8. 47r(a — 8. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. in stat- amperes. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-. ohms.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.69 .65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.5.61.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ .

driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.58 and 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. in statohms. adding a large stiffness. + .5. electrical impedance of the condenser.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. statohms. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.69 and 8.68. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.5.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. 8. electrical network in Fig. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. at the same time.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser.

The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .6. 8.

B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. . in square centimeters. induced in the winding. current.74 and ehminating the steady force. in centimeters. turns in the coil. and area of the rod. due to is the Villari effect.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. and time.73 Combining equations and 8. in gausses. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . in current in the abamperes. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. e = MJ^ dt 8.X JR 8. frequency. in seconds. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. in abvolts. coil. 8.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. CO/ 8. in cycles per second. induction is of the nickel rod. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters. in abamperes. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. The electromotive force.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.

in centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. The mechanical to one . is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms. and Young's modulus.78 From equation 8. 8. rectilineal impedances zm. length of the rod.6.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in square centimeters.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in mechanical ohms. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.

83 From equations 8.79.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in abohms — equation 8.6. 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. 1942. The mass mi in Fig.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. 8.6).84. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.82 and 8. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. . magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.86 Mason.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. = motional impedance. 8.. 8. as shown by equation 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in mechanical ohms. New York. 8." D. Van Nos- trand Co. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. in abohms. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. total in abohms. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. is assumed to be a In general. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.

8. in Fig.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.80. in square centimeters. in centimeters.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. is where p The compliance Cmi. in square centimeters.7.87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. length of the rod. and cross section of the rod. in centimeters. and Young's modulus. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . in grams per cubic centimeter. 8. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. length of the rod.

7.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.8. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. air load and support resistance. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. that is. 8. 8.88 where Jm = total force. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.7. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig. Young's modulus. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. . A= E = area.84. is The deformation per unit length.8. 8. due to a force. in dynes. EA and 8. X = 4^. 8. 8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance.7C A and B given in Fig. 8. in square centimeters.

flux density. equations 8. 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. in square centimeters. the data of Fig. 8.88 and 8.90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. .8 and Young's modulus.89 K = magnetostriction constant. c„ .148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. B = A= From and area.6..

and The displacement. 6.92 X From = 8. due to the application of a force.4 force. in centimeters. is . in dynes. in square centimeters. 4 = length of the crystal. in centimeters. and A = cross-sectional area. due an applied force. equations 8. q is 149 = KJu 8. in dynes. in statcoulombs.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. E = Young's modulus.93 .V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.91 and 8. X to 10~* for quartz.

and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in square = length of the crystal.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. / centimeters.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. 8. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. in centimeters.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. . 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. in mechanical ohms. in statohms.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.97. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.100 and 8. in mechanical ohms.101 From equations 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.9. zmi and z. and E = Young's modulus.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

1. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type. 9.3. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil. namely.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . 9.

in abohms. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters per second. in maxwells.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in centimeters per second. in gilberts. and + ZE2. is The velocity of the armature. area of the pole. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. in square centimeters. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. . and velocity of the armature. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. due to the steady field. 9.6 ze = = = = = total flux. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. coil. 9. in centimeters.2. through the armature. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. and impedance of the external load. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole.2. spacing between the armature and pole.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. 9. force. in centimeters.

9. due to the deflection of the armature.3. flows through the armature. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. r~ . Balanced Armature Generating System.

i?2 = reluctance. velocity of the armature. as depicted 9.3. in maxwells. in statamperes. of the alternating magnetic circuit.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. in abohms.4. 9. The current. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. = magnetomotive force. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. in centimeters. in abohms. is The /m Zm + 9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in centimeters per second. of the magnet.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. in gilberts. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. 9.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. ZE = Zei + Ze2. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. M.9 and 9.11 zme From equations 9. in A .158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in oersteds. a = spacing between armature and pole.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.

in square centimeters.stationary "plate . in centimeters. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .4 e is t2 9. in statvolts. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statamperes. in statfarads. in centimeters per second.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. in statohms. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. electrical and impedance of the external load. spacing between the plates. ^= a area of the plate. in statvolts.14 where e = electromotive force. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. The current. 9.

e. in statfarads.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. in statvolts. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage.4.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.18 Zme) . electrical impedance of the external load. in centimeters. in statohms. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in square centimeters. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. area of the plates. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. a spacing between plates.4.71 of the chapter on ZME = . X in centimeters per second.17 zme e From equations 9. = Zm /^^ + 9.15 and 9. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. electrical and 9. is The velocity of the movable plate. is Ze2 in parallel. 9.

25 Comparing equations 9.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.23 Substituting equation 9.21 Substituting equation 9.26 . .23 in 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.E1 = -r—.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.19.21 in 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.24 and fi 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.22. = — a CnX 9.25. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.

in abvolts. from equation 8.5. 9.5. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif.26 and an internal impedance zei.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. coil. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi. zme. The volt- age. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. Magnetostriction generating system. 9. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. ZEi. shown in Fig. L\ and rE\. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. zei. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.5. Equation 9. In the electrical circuit: e. However.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. coil.27 . is ^tNK 9. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. In the mechanical circuit: zm.

electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. .MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in abohms. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in centimeters per second.79 or 8. - £ 9. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil.5. and Young's modulus. in abohms. length of the rod. force.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. and impedance of the external circuit. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 9. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical electrical wavelength. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in centimeters.

32 From abvolts. are given by equations 8. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in centimeters per second.32 the generated electromotive force. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. 9. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.6. ohms.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.27 and 9.86 and 8.28. in mechanical = ohms.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.5. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. . in Fig. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. 9.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. to be a In general. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. equations 9.

Li and tei. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. zei. mass and compliance of the rod. zme. the effective Zjv/i. in centimeters. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil.4 X 10~* for quartz. zei. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. length of the crystal.6 can be obtained from equation 9. in centimeters per second.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. E= 4 = Young's modulus. = = length of the crystal. and velocity of the crystal. in Fig. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil.6. 6. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. + 9. In the electrical circuits: e. cross-sectional area of the crystal.6. 9. in statamperes.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. the other. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8.7. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. where KEJ — •* 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. in centimeters. generated The h = —. . 9. 9. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. mi and Cmi. In the mechanical networks: /m.27 and the velocity. 2_bi j<^Li. ZMi. in square centimeters. A. the driving force. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems.

electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. 9. electrical and 9. 2_b2. in statohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. in statvolts. z^'i zei. circuit: e. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. Ce\. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the Piezoelectric generating system. From equations 9. crystal. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. in statfarads. electrical and impedance of the external load. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.7.35 Ze where e = electromotive force.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. in statamperes.34 force e. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.

97 or 8. A = area of the electrode.4 X 10~* for quartz.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9.41 . in statfarads. in centimeters. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. 9. length of the crystal. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in statohms. 4 = length of the crystal. in square centimeters.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. in centimeters.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. and „ „„ 9.7. E = Young's modulus.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. the crystal. in centimeters. length of in centimeters. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. electrical impedance of the external load. and E= Young's modulus.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.

= where i.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. zm2 in mechanical ohms. is . Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. depicted equations 9.45 .42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. 9. in mechantotal ical ohms.43 From Ze2 in parallel. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.36 and 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The velocity at the end of crystal.47 .44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.7. in centimeters per second.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.

= _^i^_ ZEI + 9. 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. However.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.50 and 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.48.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.45. 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.104 and 8. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- .8.47 in 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. in Fig.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.49 in 9.49 Substituting 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. e.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.51.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. == -^ AwKEx 9. Equation 9.

zme. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.8 can be obtained from equation 9. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei.45 and the velocity.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. 9. ze\. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. zei. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. A.8. In the mechanical networks: Jm. the driving force. 9. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the electrical impedance of the external load. the other.37. . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. Zm2. crystal. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuits: e. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. Piezoelectric generating systems. electrical network of Fig. the electromotive force generated across the crystal. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /.

produce a current distribution z'l'. Proc. No. 6. p. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . . 1 Ballentine. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.1. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. i^' .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. 1929. Then 10. z„". A number cal systems. e^' . Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. I. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". and superposition theorems to electrical.. ' 10. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Vol. . "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems." 171 . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. . e^" . S. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal.2. Reciprocity Theorems A.R.E.. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. the elements. /s" . 929. 17.

172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1. e" and /'. o e .1 becomes 10. /" are the electromotive forces 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. equation 10.2 = /'/' where e' .1.

"Elements of Acoustical Engineering.3 becomes fu'x" . . • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces..6 velocities depicted . fB2" .fRi" • 4>2. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. • distribution ^i'." Vol. ^ Olson. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig./b' and (J)'.1. 145. D. fli" are the torques and angular 10. . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities./ij„ are all of the same . Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. and provided the applied torques /iji./m3 all of the same frequency. . 1926.1. =/a/V 10. Van Nostrand Co. frequency." D. New . equation 10.7 p Rayleigh.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements./fl3 . ^2'. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. MacMillan and Co. produce a rotational velocity — . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. York.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . let a set of torques/iji'.4 where /^f'.1. and provided the applied forces /mi. 10. 4>2" .. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. equation 10. 1940. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. C. "Theory of Sound. '4>^" . as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. ./ij2. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. mechanical rotational system of Fig. 10. London./7j2'.1. II. /ji/2. 10. p. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i".

equation 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".+ dv' .8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.—.9 and 10. 10.174 THEOREMS . 10. dv" — .12 is for a point.11 From equations 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.8.15 v' . as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. . y" .10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume.4 by the p and v of the other set.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. 1 . v' grad po „ = 10. .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10. 10.13 If. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. 10. - p 1 . equation 10.10 From neering" equations 1.14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .1. p"v' 10.. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.1.. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.9 and 1.

. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. X2". n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. Then — . and let a second set of pressures ^i"./". produce a volume current distribution Xi. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. . . 10. velocities. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. pressures and volume currents. . . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . 10. . . as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. pi. However.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. . . .1. n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . E. which there are only two pressures. X2. equation 10. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. . . . . 10. let also. . pz same frequency. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces." a second volume current distribution Xi".^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. .16 becomes .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. .19 . . . X^ X^. X^" Xn" Then . as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system.1. produce pn.

20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. .176 THEOREMS Equation 10. B. currents.2.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. Mechanical-acoustical. C. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem.. P"X' i" L. P"X' tn\ B M . HX* E p"X D Fig.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. let also. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. E. . . in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . i" . electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.2^. . F. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . . px L.21 . — In . an interconnected e\ . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. 10.S. mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Electrical-mechanical. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical.S. D. n Then 10. . . L. . Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. The 10. forces n and velocities.

The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.2C.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. e"i' 10.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. acoustical. electrical transducer. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. e'i" = e"i' 10.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.23 . acoustical transducer. 10. mechanical. me- chanical. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. 2D. .Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. G. is H. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. Electrical-Mechanical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. mechanical. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. field.2fi. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. 10. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. Electrical-Mechanical. as shown in Fig. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10.23 states that a if. Theorem.

If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. D.2£. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .178 I. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. 10. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC.3. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. = p"X' 10. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. as shown in Fig.24 Thevenin's Theorems A.

forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. save the one being considered. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. force. velocities. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. mechanical rectilineal. current. .4. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. velocity. forces. Each source. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.

principles relating to electrical. by acoustical capacitances. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. However. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. Convert the answer into the original system. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. 11. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.2. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. However. An exhaust back pressure. muffler is quite effective. Introduction The fundamental lineal. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume.1. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.

/and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The system of Fig. in the audible frequency range. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j.u. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe.1. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. When there is only one path. 11. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. 11. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.M and Ca for an acoustical system. . circuit will be used instead of network. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.1. in Fig. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter. with rft. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. Therefore.However.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. 11.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.

changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.2. .3. sate for approximations. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. 11. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.3.182 APPLICATIONS In general. 11.

nii and r. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.w2.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig." I"*. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .3. in dynes.1. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig..3. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube.3. .7. teg. The mechanical driving from equation 8. 11. in mechanical Jm = driving force.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. rMi and Ci.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. radiator tube. 11. the mass of the cone. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. 11.4. 11. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. and .1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. force can be determined /m 11. zem. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. In the mechanical circuit: m\. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.

In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig.5. telephone receivers. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. These systems include microphones. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. is The sound power output. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. 1940. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. m. F.YWHEEL I." D. 11. and the shaft.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. etc. comphance of the damper. given by 11. FX. the moment Cg. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. New York. The simple vibration fly- damper.. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. in mechanical ohms. measuring cal systems. 11. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. shown ^ in Fig.4. Van Nostrand Co. Olson. of inertia of the flywheel. velocity of the cone.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. loud speakers. In the mechanical network: A. . phonograph pickups.4. in centimeters per second. 11.

the mass of the machine. ciple of the device. 11. the mass of the machine. The shunt mechanical vibration. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. The driving force/i.SA. The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine./ is due to the . In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. B. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations.5. W. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11.vF. /jf. A. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . Jm. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. zmf. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring.SA. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. Cm /4 and 4rM . Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. isolator. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr.6. W. z.

only isolation in the system of Fig.6. 11.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. consists of the following elements: nii. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. isolating mechanical network.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig.7.6. the compliance and mechanical mi. 11. the mass of the case. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. .Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. shown in Fig. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. Jm. pressor. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. 11. 11. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. these values springs.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. mi. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm.

The mechanical network of Fig.8. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises.v/i/4. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. 11. . the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the mass of the case. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. 11. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the system in Fig. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. Cm2 and ^1-/2. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 187 Cmi and rui. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4.7. zmf. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. 11. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. Of course.

the compliance of the spring suspension. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. Cm2. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. engine. 11.9.8. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. This system has many degrees of freedom. etc. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. mum. 11. tmi. the mass of the frame. m-i. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. both rectilineal and rotational.v/3. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line.7. r. the mass of the tire. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Cmi and tires. the driving force at each tire. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. Cms a-nd r. 11. m2. the compliance of the spring. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . the mass of the instrument and carriage. Cm2.v/2. wheel and axle. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi.u 11. in general. body. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. the combined driving force at the four legs.

This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires.\f 1. However. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. . 4?ni. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. 4:rM2. 11. 4rif 2. view. 189 m^. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. fn2. body and engine. mi. Cji/2/4. the compliance of the springs. the mass of the passenger. the mass of the frame.8. the compliance of the four springs. the driving force. Cms. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. Cms and r. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. the mass of the four tires. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Since there are four tires. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs./ifi the comtires. the combined driving force at the four tires. wheels. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4.i/a. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. m^. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. springs and shock absorbers. the mass of the passenger.

are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. 11. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. which controls the oscillations.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. an automobile has several modes of vibration. mechanical rectilineal. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. Mechanical Ohm. Supplementary Note: Electrical. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. For example. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Acoustical Ohm. Electrical abohm. mechanical rotational resistance. An acoustical resistance. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. Most of the forces. An electrical resistance. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. that is. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. — — —A — . reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. pitching or swaying motion. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. As already indicated. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. developed at the tires. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies.6. Rotational Ohm.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

88 mechanical rotational. 22 mechanical rotational. impedance. 107 Transients. 23 Theorems. 9. 171 Resonant frequency. 188 Systems. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 6. electrical-mechanical. 6 Transducer. 61. 11 instantaneous. automobile. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 9.) 195 Table. 23 mechanical rectilineal. ohm. 187 Torque. 9. 6 peak. 179 Suspension systems. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 42 inductance and series coupled. compliance. 17. 21. acoustical. 9. 41 mechanical rotational. 184 Rotatomotive force. 10. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 42 one degree of freedom. 13. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 9. 178 acoustical. 22 networlcs. 88 electrical. 6. 111 electrical resistance. reciprocity. 9. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 6 maximum. 13. 48 two degrees of freedom.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 172 mechanical rotational. 21. 10. 5 Transformer. 25 three degrees of freedom. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 9. 173 superposition. peak. 13. 88 Transient response. 37. 10. electrical Superposition theorem. 23 mechanical. 18. 9. 10. 45 electrical. 85 rotational. 13. 105 arbitrary force. 6 maximum. 21. 35 effective. 6. 23 23. 18. 28 Subharmonic. acoustical. 21. 6 peak. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 23 maximum. 22. 32 Rotational. 178 mechanical rectilineal. (see cor- effective. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 178 electrical. 178 electrical. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 6 instantaneous. 6 14 pressure. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Static pressure. 22. 45 instantaneous. 120 Duhamel's integral. 6 Sound effective. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 178 mechanical rotational. 171 acoustical. 122 . 177 reactance. 37 and analogies. 9 resistance. 23. 6 Stiffness. 179 Thevenin's. 13.

92. 146. Heaviside's Calculus. 22 angular. 167 . 95 low pass. 92. 21. 93.196 Transients (Cont. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 184 186 Young's modulus. 93. 8 8 "T" type network. 8 instantaneous. 97 93. Wave band elimination. 24 Velocity. 106 unit function. peak. 101 instantaneous. 11 loss. 106 163 Volume current. band pass. 151. 11 effective. 7 Wave. 23 Transmission. 23 effective. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 8. 165. 147. magnetostriction.) INDEX Villari effect. 149. 20. 22. peak. high pass. 150. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 5 filters. 45 Unit function. 94 response characteristics. 106 Units. 92. 7. 7 Vibration. 7. 37. 143. 7 linear. gain. 93. 163. cut quartz crystal. 5 maximum. 7. 23. "X" isolator. 8 maximum. 144. 92. 148 machine isolator.