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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Lorene E. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. an electrical circuit. engineer. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. 1943 F. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. in this project. E. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. Engstrom. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Olson . The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Research Director. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. Olson. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. Harry January. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. W. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. plex arrangements of multielement systems.

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C. Rectilineal Compliance.1 1 1. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.2 3. A. Electrical Resistance B. Electrical Capacitance B. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Inertance 2.3 3. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Representation of Electrical.2 Introduction Resistance A. Mass. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1.2 4 II.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . ELEMENTS 2. Moment of Inertia. Rectilineal Compliance C.CONTENTS Chapter I. Inductance B. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL.3 Inductance. Acoustical Capacitance A. ELECTRICAL. Acoustical Capacitance 2.1 2. Acoustical Resistance 2. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C.1 3.

.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .5 Chapter 3.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4..3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.13 Electrical. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.5 Equations of Motion 4. 60 5.6 3. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 Two Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.6 62 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.7 64 5.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.6 4.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.8 67 ..7 The Electrical System .3 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal..5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 Introduction 37 4.2 4. ELECTRICAL.7 3.4 Dissipation 4.4 5. 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.10 The Acoustical System 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.1 Introduction 52 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies.

2 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational.16 Electrical Resistance.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.17 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.4 6.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.15 Electrical Resistance.11 69 71 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.21 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational. WAVE FILTERS 6..6 6. and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5. Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.1 6.CONTENTS Chapter 5..7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.3 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.10 Series 5.

Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.6 VIII.2 7.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX.1 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7. THEOREMS 10. B.2 8. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 Ill 7.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.5 9.4 8. Unpolarized Armature B.5 114 120 7. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. 1 7.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.X Chapter VII. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 9.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.2 9. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.5 8.1 10.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. C. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.4 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.

CONTENTS Chapter E. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.3 Thevenin's Theorems A. APPLICATIONS 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.5 184 185 11.4 11. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.2 11.6 11.8 1 1 .7 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.

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Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. Expressions for the kinetic energy. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. However.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. vibrating systems. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. as for example. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. 1 The acoustical . A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. In other words. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system.1. mechanical and acoustical tems. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems.

When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Elements are the meshes. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. ' The lished. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. springs and brakes. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. as for example. The branches or meshes are composed of elements.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. Electrical elements are resistance. constituent parts of a circuit. Of course. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. . springs and friction. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. cal.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. various assemblies of masses. induct- ance and capacitance. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension.

XI. Acous. Vol. In addition. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. That is to say. However. 4. 4. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. Vol. Therefore. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Hanle {JViss. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. In this book.. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. in the past. Institute of Radio Engineers. SiemensKonzern.1 of 1942. ratio of force to displacement. No. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. Amer. Soc. — . Therefore. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. Verojf a. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. circuit. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. However. all communication. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. every electrical. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. d. and ratio of pressure to displacement. No. I) and Firestone {Jour. For example. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Finally. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. particularly electrical circuits. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical systems. up the mechanical and electrical.

Cycle. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. The remainder. a positive constant. Periodic Quantity. Definitions ^ this section. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. + T). The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. This called a Fourier series. Frequency. a period of jy. a constant. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. equals 2x divided by the period T. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. or zero.2. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. negative. Harmonic. or which tity comprises a cycle. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. all is the frequency. Terms not sections. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. period. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. Octave. reciprocal of the period.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. where T. Basic Frequency. .

mechanical or acoustical system. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. The unit the dyne. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. . time interval The is unit is the abvolt. The unit is the dyne.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. Wavelength. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. Mechanomotive Force). — — Abvolt. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. Effective Electromotive Force. Dyne. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. The unit is the abvolt. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. The root unit the abvolt. Electromotive Force. A wave is a propagated disturbance. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. Subharmonic. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. force. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Wave. the dyne.

Effective the total instantaneous torque. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). The the — Instantaneous Current. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. An abampere is the unit of current. the abampere. The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. . force. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The unit is the dyne centimeter. the dyne centimeter. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. dyne per square centimeter.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. Abampere. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. the dyne per square centimeter.

the centimeter per second. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. per second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. The unit is the abampere. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . Instantaneous Velocity. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. complete cycle at the point. is Centimeter per Second. Peak Velocity. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. The unit is the centimeter per second. is velocity in that interval. The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Maximum Current.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. Maximum Velocity. Effective Velocity. is Radian per Second. Cubic Centimeter per Second. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. current. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. the abampere. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. velocity. Peak Current. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The unit is the abampere. unit is the radian per second.

trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. is the abohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. Electrical Impedance. which. for Peak Volume Current. The unit the abohm. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. . The unit the abohm. is Electrical Resistance. when times the frequency. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. electrical Inductance. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. Effective Volume Current. The unit is the abfarad. second. the cubic centimeter per second. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point.-W is impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the cubic centimeter per second. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. Electrical Reactance. where both systems are considered concurrently. times the frequency. The unit is the mechanical ohm.

when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. The unit is the rotational ohm. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. rotational resistance ance. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the rotational ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. when multiplied by times the frequency. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. — Compliance The unit is the gram. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Acoustical Impedance. Mass. Compliance. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Rotational Compliance.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). The unit is the mechanical ohm. ' See footnote S. The unit is the mechanical ohm. The unit is the acoustical ohm. page I . when multiplied by times the frequency.

mass and compliance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. Acoustical System. inertance and acoustical capacitance. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. Acoustical Reactance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. moment of inertia. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. In the same way. inductance and electrical capacitance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance.. Electrical System. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. . mass and compliance. the fourth power.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. the acoustical ohm. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. when multiplied by times the frequency. inertance and acoustical capacitance. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. by "l-w times the frequency. and rotational compliance. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. Inertance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. Mechanical Rectilineal System. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. Mechanical Rotational System. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance.

velocity. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. — Transmission. pressures or such as forces or velocities. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. mechanical or acoustical. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. Either of these systems may be electrical. torque. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. force. voltage. Transmission Loss {or Gain). force. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. current. The bel is the Decibel. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. pressure or volume current. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . For example. angular velocity. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . mechanical rectilineal. torque or pressure is electrical. For For a gain the reference power is is greater.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer.

2. resistor.1. A resistor. is defined as A. and current through the resistance. e rs^-. inductor and capacitor. the vibrating systems. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. See footnote page 8.' 2.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. e.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. Electrical resistance rs. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. inductance and capacitance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. An tinguished from the devices. in abohms. In this procedure. t 2. in abamperes. 2. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. electrical. Electrical Resistance. 5. 12 . in abvolts. As indicated in the preceding chapter.

and velocity at the point of application of the force. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). Acoustical Resistance.3 where Jr d = = applied torque.RESISTANCE B. in radians per second. D. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. is defined as r^ — = y 2.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. Equation 2. . In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. in dynes. in dyne centimeters. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. in centi- meters per second. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. in rotational ohms. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). is defined as Vm where = — u 2. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Mechanical rotational energy is C. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity.

86 X 10"'* for air. in cubic centimeters per second. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also." D. and U= Equation resistance current.5 = viscosity coefficient. in addition to the resistive component. volume current. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. A tube of small diameter. 1.. slit in the direction of flow. and frequency in cycles per second. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . is defined as VA P = ~ 2. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. in acoustical ohms. d= / thickness of the centimeters. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. slit normal to the direction of flow. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in = width of the meters. York. New . in centimeters. resistance. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. 'Olson. 2. slit normal to the direction of flow.4 where p — pressure. However. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. 1940.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. in dynes per square centimeter. density. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. Van Nostrand Co. a narrow and metal. 6pww 2. a reaccomponent. in grams per cubic centimeter.

6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Moment gram (centimeter)^. and rate of change of current. in when the angular velocity a constant. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. mass increases. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m. Equation C. in abvolts. B. Mass.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. Mass. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. It remains constant ance. and driving force. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. in grams. = di Ldt ^ 2. It decreases when the current decreases. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. MOMENT OF INERTIA. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. in centimeters per second per second. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. that during angular acceleration. is Inductance L. in abhenries. INERTANCE 2. which opposes a change of velocity. 2. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. is remains a constant of inertia /. MASS. in abamperes per second. Moment of Inertia. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. Inductance. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Inertance A. given by dd . 15 Inductance. Moment of Inertia. Equation 2.3. in dynes. is defined as 2.INDUCTANCE.

Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. in radians per second per second. in grams per (centimeter)*. in cubic centimeters per second per second. New . Inertance M. in rate of change of 2. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. Inertance. in centimeters. Equation 2. volume current.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in dyne centimeters. cross sectional area in square centimeters. effective length of the tube. is. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. where ddj dt and Ju = torque." D. York. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. D. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. in grams. that tion.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. decreases. in centimeters. inertance. Van Nostrand Co. and driving pressure.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. 1940..10 m = S = mass. in dynes per square centimeter. in p = density of the meter.

Acoustical Capacitance A. in dynes is Equation 2. . and electromotive force.n Equation 2.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. in centimeters. Electrical 17 Capacitance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. Electrical Capacitance. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. Rectilineal Compliance. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. in abcoulombs. Electrical capacitance Cg. Rectilineal Compliance. in abfarads. and stored. and applied force. It is a constant.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage.13 states that the charge on an force. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. when is spring remains immovably compressed.14 = Jm = displacement. abvolts.4. Rotational Com- pliance.

in radians.17. Rotational compliance Cu-. It is constant. in centimeters per second. and condensation. in radians per centimeter per dyne. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. and applied torque.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. . Rotational Compliance. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted. Equation 2. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. C. It is constant. D. p = where c c^ps 2.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. D. in is The terms of the condensation. allowed to unwind. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement.16 p s — = = velocity.^ in dynes per square centimeter. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. New York. in grams per cubic centimeter. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. in dyne centimeters." p. 9. Van Nostrand Co. defined in equation 2. 1940.. Acoustical Capacitance. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed.17 s = * Olson. density. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand.

is 2.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2.17. The electrical elements. 2. From equations 2.X 2. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. = ^ F 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. mechanical rectilineal. and 2.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. and volume displacement. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.16.5.21 F= volume.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~. .19 and 2. Representation of Electrical.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. .1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. in cubic centimeters. 2. equal to the volume displacement. Equation 2. From equations 2. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation.18 X= volume displacement. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. Mechanical Rectilineal.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system.1. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical. mechanical rectilineal. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. 2. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. rE . —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

the standard modifiers for all four systems. Tables 2.1 page and list and 2.1 and 2. .1. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. ^ The Tables 8.24 sions are mass. and time. self-inductance. Further. Table 2.3.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. The dimensions given in Table 2. 1. length L and time T. 2.1. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. inertance and time.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. length. ELEMENTS and time.2.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical.1.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2.3 uses mass M. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.

AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. namely. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. From these definitions it is evident that friction.2. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. mechanical rotational or In other words. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. 3. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. mass.1.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. 3. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. mechanical rotational.1. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable.

mechanical rotational. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. Cr = T. Electrical. potential and heat energy. mechanical rectilineal. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. 3.1. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. In the electrical. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. velocity. mechanical rectilineal. namely. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. Heat is a transient form of energy. kinetic.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . C.

in abamperes. mechanical rectilineal. and heat energy during an interval of time is. mechanical rotational. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. in square centimeters. potential. the inertance. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. and current through the inductance L. in centimeters per second. in cubic centimeters per second.2 m = X mass. in abhenries. and velocity of the = mass m. in grams per (centimeter)*. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. mass of air in the opening.3.3 = moment of inertia.4 M= m = S — m/S^. equal to the system. by the principle of conservation of energy. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. in grams. in radians per second. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in grams. all the air particles in the opening move with the . electrical. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. X— X Sx = volume current. in centimeters per second. cross-sectional area of the opening. It is assumed that same phase. The sum of the kinetic. 3.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems.

p = density of air. . s — stiffness of the spring. in cubic centimeters. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. and <l> angular displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in abcoulombs. in dynes per centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring. in centimeters per dyne. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in abfarads. in centimeters per second.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. = -. and c = velocity of sound. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and X = displacement. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in radians.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. and charge on the capacitance.. in centimeters.4. dyne. ^ 3.

9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.17 = = is electrical resistance.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical rotational. mechanical Wm.18 .. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v.: 3. and current.y- 3. in abohms. +— + XX 3. in abamperes. force. and acoustical systems. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le . Wr.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.5. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. .14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.12 where We.

21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. in mechanical ohms. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. and velocity. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . in centimeters per second. in rotational ohms. and X= 3. in acoustical ohms.6.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.22 = acoustical resistance. in radians per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. and angular velocity. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.

23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.32 „.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.24. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.28 and 3.

is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. .7^ Ca 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.jo>I — — 3.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3.7. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. the velocity and force.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. the angular velocity and torque. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. the impedance is m and Cm. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce. and Cr. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.38 3.

^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. mechanical rectilineal.8. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.42 3.Ce r^ 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--. .44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.

34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.49 „ .51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3. Equation 3.1. namely. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. 3. 3. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.24. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.

D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.28.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.26. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.55 is the same as equation 3. 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. Equation 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.51 is the same as equation 3. .

59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.43 to 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. and acoustical systems. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.59. 3.36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. Equations 3.30. inclusively.59 is the same as equation 3. . Equation 3.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.

MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. 4.1.1. mechanical rectilineal. 4. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series.2. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.1.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. velocity. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. 4. MECHANICAL Electrical. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig.

in cubic centimeters per second.3.4 M = inertance. and velocity of the mass m. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. in abamperes. in centimeters per second. in branch 3. in grams. and = h = current.2 where x^ m = = mass. in radians per second. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.1 93 L = inductance. . in abhenries. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4.

39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in radians.5. and displacement.4. and — current. 4. and <i>2 angular displacement. in centimeters. in abamperes.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and charge on the electrical capacitance. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. per dyne. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4. . and X2 = volume displacement. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in qz ohms.DISSIPATION 4. in abcoulombs. in cubic centimeters.

in cubic centimeters per second. and velocity. current.i 4. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per second. in acoustical ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. and Xs = volume 4.12 = acoustical resistance. mechanical ohms. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4. 2 d<t>n dcj).6. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. in rotational ohms. and angular velocity. in radians per second.

1 is h = H Equation 4.7.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.19 +k 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4. 4.22. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.23.25 .20 4. e = = Lqz-[. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. at/jf. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4. The relation for the currents in Fig.13.rsqz 4. 4.18.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4. 4.14.8.21 4.24 Differentiating equation 4. The linear displacement. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.17.

9.42 4.1.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.32 ing piston. The angular displacement. Fig. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.29 4. . It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. p = MXa + vaXz 4. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr. at/^j.30. 4. Jb /. at p. = = /03 + rij^g 4.15. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. 4.16. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. in the acoustical system.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.31.27.10.26 ^ The 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.26.

33.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm . and to acoustical resistance. 4.25. 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. inclusive. Fig. to mechanical rotational resistance. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. mass.1. shows again that resistance.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. inertance acoustical system.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.29 and 4.11. given by ^3 JM is 4. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.1.1 to 4.19. inductance. Fig.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. vm.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. 4. 4.

4.X3 = pjccCa 4. is given by k The = f".39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg.45 . Fig. X2 = Xi .44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2..41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.1. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. is . = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.43 volume current Xi at given by X.1. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . Fig.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. 4. the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. 4. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta.

= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4. 4. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 1 tional systems of Figs.2.12. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 54. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. see pages 53. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. 55 and 56 and Fig.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4. .47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.3. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal. 4.1 of Chapter V. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies. 5. 4.48 JwCe3 Cr.2 are as follows: 4. The electrical impedances z^i.

49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.60 4.3 is the as that of Fig.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4. I2 and M2.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. mechanical rectilineal.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. 4. 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4.— JwLmz Zb. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.55 jwLai 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance. 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.59 4. 4. Ce2. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. mass. compliance. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.2 4.2 save that the electrical capacitance.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . The shunt electrical.

65 2^22^3 . The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.3. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. 4.

4.\.67 . L2.t 4.3. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. 4.4. I2. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Cm\.13. mechanical rectilineal.«i.4. Electrical. Cei. Ca.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Cri. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. Mechanical Rectilineal. m2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . L. O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. to /i. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4. Cb2 .412^3 + 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X.

^ zjji = . 4>2. The current to.74 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .82 4. M2.83 ZA2 4. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. the linear velocity Xq. Xi. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. Cai. Ca2 in the acoustical system. X2. 4>i.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. X3 rectilineal system.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. Xi. 4.84 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.88 4. to 4>o. h.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.80 4. i^ in show that /q.76 4. nA where zei = .86 4. 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.78 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. (h and 04 X2.89 .

ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.{ZA3jrZA.93 Ha = The current ii. the linear velocity Xi.97 The current i2.) Ha ^_^^j .y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. 02 = + Zr^ 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .98 .94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.90 4.92 4.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t. 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.ZM3 + ZMi) 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.1UU ^^^ pZA. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.99 r^r^ .95 . 01 4. the linear velocity X2.. 4.

103 4>z = —— 7} 4. .SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. = The equations cal.106 .109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.105 current 4.102 X3 4. the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. ^^^ 4. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^.107 .104 Xs = The ^^^ 4. J~iR X. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.„. 4. the linear velocity X4.-riE .

1. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. mechanical rectilineal. 52 . Two Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.1.^ an inductance.2. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. characteristics. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. mechanical rotational. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks.

branch is current flows in z^i. that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting .1.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. 5. Fig.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is.

Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . analogous to equation 5. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. Equation 5. relations existing between//.3. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. SAA.. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. must be in parallel. ^2. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. respectively. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. With these specifications the differential of Fig.4 That is. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. consists of a system of gears.1 with the same tions. Xt Differentiating equation 5. 5. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. respectively. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. respectively.2 for the electrical system. = = xx -\- X2 5.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. </>!. Z/jt. </)r.1. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. shown schematically in Fig. That is. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. Fig. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. respectively. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . as for example.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. reactance .13 and 5. equations 5. 5.2. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. ^^^^.12 relatively large 59 and 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies.2. equations 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. 5.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.

5.3 is = T^ 5. from equations 5.20 where Cm = compliance. Therefore. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. in abfarads.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. The acoustical system of Fig. 5.11 and 5. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. 5. Equations 5. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. .3.14 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. 5. 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig.2. Fig.2.18 where M= inertance.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in centimeters per dyne. 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.42 = joiM 5. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.

inversely proportional to the frequency. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.20 is shown in Fig. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.3.21 show that at low frequencies . at Equa- tions 5.13 and 5.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5.3. Fig. 5. 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.12 and 5.3.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. The mechanical the frequency.12 to the and 5.

transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.6. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.23 where L = Ce = inductance. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5.3. and electrical capacitance. in abhenries. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and 5. tional. .23. equations 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.11 and 5.12 = ^-^ 5. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5.4. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in abfarads. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.13 and 5. The shown in Fig.21 is The acoustical system of Fig.4 in series across a line. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.3. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.

4. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The output angular 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and Cu = rotational compliance. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. in centimeters per dyne.12 and 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.25. and compliance. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.25 where / = moment of inertia. in gram (centimeter)^. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.24. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in grams. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. 5.24 where m = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.13 and .

At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. .24 also is zero.11 and 5.4. 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. acoustical capacitance.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. Equations 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance. current can be obtained from equations 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.7. in grams per (centimeter)''.5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.14 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig.13 and 5. 5.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal.5 parallel across a line.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.12 and 5.26. in Fig.

in abhenries. 5. and compliance. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'.27.28.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.5. 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.28 where m = mass. and electrical capacitance.5 is jo}L -£2 5. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in abfarads. in grams. Cm = The output .J^mCM 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.27 where L = Ce = inductance.12 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .

. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.29. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. current can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. and = rotational compliance. 1 - 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5. 5.11 and 5.3 and the transmission is again small. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. The output volume 5. 5. Equations 5.13 and 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.2 and the transmission is small.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .5 is ZR2 = . in grams per (centimeter)*.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.30. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. .14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. in gram (centimeter)^.14 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and acoustical capacitance.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.12 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.^MC. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.13 and The output angular 5. 5.

THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.8. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. itance in series. 5. in abohms. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. Electrical Resistance. 5.31. . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.5.6. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.min.6 shows an electrical resistance. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. in abhenries.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in shunt with a line.11 and 5. and electrical capacitance.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. 5. in abfarads. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. 5.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.6. in Fig. Electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.

inertance.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. of inertia.2 and there is very little attenuation.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume 5. in mechanical ohms.3 and there is very little attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.32. in radians per dyne per centimeter.34. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. from equations 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne. 5.33.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. compliance. The output and 5. from equations 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in rotational ohms.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance.12 and 5. Therefore. 5. Therefore. 5. in grams. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . in acoustical ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. mass. and rotational compliance.12 and 5.

14 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Therefore.7 shows an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L.9. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. in abfarads.35. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. Therefore. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2.13 and 5. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. 5. in mechanical ohms. The mechanical network is rectihneal. in Fig. in Fig. mass.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. in abhenries.7.36.6. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance. . governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.12 The output and 5. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. in grams. and compliance.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5.11 and 5.4. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. 5. 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. inductance. quencies the same as that of Fig. from equations 5. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. in abohms.6. in centimeters per dyne. and electrical capacitance.

70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5.14 Ca = 5. S. inertance. of inertia. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.38. 5. Electrical resistance.7. in grams per and 5. in rotational ohms. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. acoustical capacitance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The output and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. rotational compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^.37.37 where ru Cb. = = mechanical rotational resistance.

At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.7.14 and 5. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and 5. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. However. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. output electrical impedance. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. Fig.7. 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.7. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.7.3 and the transmission is again small. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. inductance.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5. Fig.11 and 5.7. 5. 5.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.12 and 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5. 5. 5. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. Fig. termed the input and output electrical impedances. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. .10. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and the transmission is small.

= Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network. . The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.43 = p = 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.40 ZM2.41 input acoustical impedance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.11.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. 5. 5.42 Zas. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. output acoustical impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. in abhenries.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line.43 where L = inductance.

in gram (centimeters)^.39 and 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.8. 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.8. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.8 is = jo)I 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.45 where / = moment of inertia. .44 where tn = mass. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. 5.8 is = j^m 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig.8 equations 5. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5. characteristic. in grams. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. 5.8.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.

74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.8 equations 5.46 where M= inertance. acoustical Equations 5. The acoustical system of Fig. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.12. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. 5.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. 5. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig. Equation 5.48. in abfarads.8.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance. 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency.41 and 5.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small.42 and 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. 5. 5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.

line and the mechanical rectihneal.48 where Cm — compliance.9. frequency characteristic. 5.40 and 5.9.l/2 Fig. 5. in centimeters per dyne.47. Fig. is 5.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. is ance relatively large to motion. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.9 to the frequency. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.9 is ^R2 5. . At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. 5.9. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.9 = 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. is inversely proportional Equations 5. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5. 5.

42 and 5. analogous to an in Fig. 5. 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. acoustical capacitance tions 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. in (centimeter)" per dyne. and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Equation 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5.9.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5. The mechanical rectilineal. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.9. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. 5.9 is 2. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is. dyne. in square centimeters.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.13. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.10. and per = area of the diaphragm. compliance of the suspension system. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion.42 = -r-— JwCa 5.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. Equations 5. . 5. 5. 5.50.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig.41 and 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in centimeters per dyne. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. and C_if compliance.52.40 and 5.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The mechanical system of Fig.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and = rotational compliance.10.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.53 where m = = mass. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and electrical capacitance. in abfarads. in abhenries. 5. 5. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. in grams.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.53. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.39 and 5. rectilineal. .

Equations 5. Equations 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.55. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.41 and 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5. . The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.54.9 5. and acoustical capacitance.14.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation.42 and 5. 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.10. Equations 5. connected in with a line. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. and the transmission is small.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.42 and 5. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.55 where M= Ca = inertance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.39 and 5.11. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.8. 5.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. 5.50. and again the transmission is small. in grams per (centimeter)*.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.40 and 5.41 and 5.

11. and electrical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne.39 and 5.11 is - 5.11 is 2/22 = :. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. in abhenries.1/2 = 1 — S. 5.40 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abfarads. and compliance.57. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ . 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The mechanical system of Fig. in grams.56. 5.

39 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig.12 shows an electrical resistance.42 == 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. 2. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. Electrical Resistance.40 and 5. 5. 5. inductance and line.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.41 and 5.11.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. Equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. 5.11 equation 5. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. in grams (centimeter)^.12. 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance.59. and = rotational compliance. Equations 5.9 and again the attenuation is small. ance of Fig. 5. . Equation 5. 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in grams per (centimeter)*.15.58. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.41 The output angular 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig. 5.11 is -.

inductance. 5. 5. 5.60.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. in abhenries. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. compliance.61. Electrical resistance. and capacitance.40 and 5.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.62 . in centimeters per dyne. in grams.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.12.39 and 5. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. m = Cm = mass. in abfarads. in abohms. in mechanical ohms.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.

.40 and 5. 5. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.8.4 -T-z^ 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. and the transmission is small. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.12.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. current can be obtained from equations 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance. in grams per (centimeter)*. from equations 5. Fig.12. 5. Therefore. in rotational ohms.42 and 5.12. 5. and again the transmission is small.12. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.39 and 5.63. and Cr = rotational compliance.12. in acoustical ohms.coC. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. 5. from equations 5.62. from equations 5. Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Therefore.41 and 5. The output volume 5. 5. inertance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. The output and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Fig.10. However. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. from equations 5. Therefore. Therefore.12 is 2.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in gram (centimeter)^. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.

13 is ZM2 = r. in abhenries.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. 5. inductance.65 .16.64.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.13. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 83 Parallel. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. inductance line.13. 5. and electrical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. 5. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal.13 shows an electrical resistance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. Electrical Resistance. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical resistance. in abohms.39 and 5.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5. in abfarads.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.

13 is = jo^rAM ~. 5. in where tm mechanical ohms. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5. mass. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. Fig. Therefore. 5. in acoustical ohms.66. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Therefore. in centimeters per dyne. from .39 and 5.65. Fig. from equations 5. 5. The output volume 5. 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. in grams. The output and 5. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.40 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. inertance.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. Fig. 5. Therefore.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.13.9 and the attenuation is small. the acoustical reactance is infinite.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. in (centimeter)® per dyne. and Cr = rotational compliance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.8 and the attenuation is small. ohms.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. from equations 5.40 and 5. 5.13. from equations 5.13. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. current can be obtained from equations 5.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. therefore.67. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and.41 and 5.

Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig.18. 5. 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. 5. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.14 Mechanical Rotational. Referring to equation 5.67 the attenuation ance.11. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.13. the low and high frequencies is the same as However.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . 5. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits.42 and 5. Fig. that of Fig.17. 5. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.

5. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. Equation 5. Referring to equation 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. Equation 5. Fig.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller.14 shows a system of made larger. 5.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. . that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5. larger.15. Electrical Rectilineal. 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. Equation 5.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5. 5.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig.19. rectilineal.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.

5. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal.20. 5.16. and Zmz.13 the mechanical rectihneal. mechani- and acoustical analogies. and zai is the sum of ^Mi.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5.21.12. 5.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. mechanical rotational. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig. Equation 5. In the same way equations 5. rui. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . rm. "Zrz. respectively. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. zri. The mechanical rectilineal. wherein zm\.17.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. 5. 5. acoustical systems of Fig. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.16. 5. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. and r^i and the input impedances.11. respectively.16. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. and r.41 and the output impedances.

11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. Electrical. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 and 5.18.22. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal.17. 5. Electrical. me- chanical rotational. Mechanical Rectilineal.14. 5.17. 5. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. rectihneal. In this case zei is the input impedance. output impedance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. Equation 5.12. ze2 is rE2. . 5.

ei. Electrical.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. ii. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.68 5.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. ACOUSTICAL Fig. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. velocity and . current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers.18. The force.18 the electromotive force. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. and of turns on the secondary. 5. and zei represent the electromotive force. 5.

72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5. of Fig. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18. 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. The 5. 5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. The pressure.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.79 .71 = — xi 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.18.18.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5. consists of a mass- gear train. The torque. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. /mi.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.77 5. /ri. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. 5.

. pi. 5." D. Xi and 2. For these and other properties of horns see Olson.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. ^ Engineering.41 and p2. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. New York. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer. The acoustical transformer of Fig. two diaphragms..18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. 1940.

92 . Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. 20. Vol.. p. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. G. No. W. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems.. 6. Vol. mechanical rectilineal. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. Bell System Tech. 528. No. Jour.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6.. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. 1922. 6. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical.1. Rev. 1922. Phys. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. A. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. Stewart. 2. I.2. G. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters..

New York. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies." D. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. velocities. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. that is. Van New York.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents.3. velocities. Shea. ^ Nostrand Co. velocities. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. velocities. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents.. velocities." D. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. velocities. respectively. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. *' . angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four.. Johnson. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van Nostrand Co. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents. positive and when than four.

4. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. mechanical rectilineal.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.2 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.Ca 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig.1 zmi zri 6.8 . 6.94 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.6 ZR2 6.1. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .7 1 Z42 = T j(x. Electrical.1.

10 — — 0. coc = — 2Af2 V — . 2A2 VMC^ . — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. mechanical rotational. . when ccc 6. when oip = = = = 6.2.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .9 the constants of the systems. inclusive.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6.10 and show that the systems of Fig.= -4 6.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4. 6.17 Equations 6.= From and . when coc = .5.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.15 WC. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.17. when coe 6. when . High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. 6. 6.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. linear velocities. when uc = 6. and the cutoff 6. when coc 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= 22 and . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .= -4 22 6.

35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6.12.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec. .98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.

47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0.46 6.44 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . 2. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .lfi)^ ^ -.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. .50 V/iGji 0.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. when coci = = 6..12 =0. — — / 1 6. „ when coci = . _ 4.43 Let LiCei = 6. —= Z£2 — 4. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.51 VM2C42 = . when wci = — VLiCei .42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. = — 7= / 6. = 1 . UCe\ (1 6. —7== VMiCai . a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .48 VL2CJS2 = 0. 6.

60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.v/2 1 6.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. when .i/2 1 1 C0C2 6. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . one greater than uci and Therefore.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. —= 2.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .41 . -4. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. (1 . + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.

7. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. show that the systems of Fig.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.69 . mechanical rectilineal. 6. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6.64 CeiLi 6.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.4. 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".56 to 6.63. are 6. inclusive.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6. linear velocities.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.

73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.75 = I2CR2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.74 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G. Electrical.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.76 .102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6.4. mechanical rectilineal.

. when (1 .77 —— = ZM2 0.83 —= Z^l 2. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.42 -4.84 . when oici = and wa = =0 6. 6. when uci = and cca oo 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . when. LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. —= Zr\ -4.82 . .-4. .79 ^— = ZA2 0.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. M\Ca\) 4. —= zei -4. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. or. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. 6.78 —= ZR2 0.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. respectively. 7.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. . 7.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in grams. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. unit force.2.5 where aE = Te/L. and driving force.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. in dynes. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. velocity.2.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. The graph depicts the current. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.8 where m = = /m — V mass. rectilineal resistance. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.2. shown in Fig. The current is zero = 0. unit torque and unit pressure. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. in centimeters per second. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. 7.

in gram (centimeter)^. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. as shown in Fig.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). = mechanical rotational resistance.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0.2. and = torque.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. ohms. 7. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. 7.2. 1/riv/.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.12 = — - e"^') 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. . in rotational = angular velocity. in dyne centimeters.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. in radians per second.

in acoustical ohms. as shown in Fig.16 may be written ^B{t)=-.17 where aji — Vr/ I. in cubic centimeters.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg.22 . The angular / velocity zero for = 0.20 where M= ta inertance. 7. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. = acoustical resistance. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). From is the tables of operational formulas.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7. U = volume current. in dynes per square centimeter. the solution of equation 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. 7. and p = sound pressure. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.16 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. in grams per (centimeter)*.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.2.2.

23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.24 JA{t) = " (1 . 7. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. and electromotive force.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0.e-^ in Fig. current. 7.28 ve . electrical resistance series.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. 7. the solution of equation 7.3. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM. electrical resistance. 7. in abvolts.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.2.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas.4. From is the tables of operational formulas. in abohms. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 .22 111 may be written. the solution of equation 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. in abamperes. in abfarads.

Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. shown in Fig. 7. respectively. The graph depicts the current. 7.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. force. linear velocity. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. in centimeters per dyne. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.30 P)rM where a.y = l/rjfCv/. 7 3.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters.3. in dynes. unit torque and unit pressure. velocity.3. the solution of equation 7. is The for / shown in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. From the tables of operational formulas. unit force. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.31 . in mechanical ohms. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7.

mechanical rotational resistance. 7.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. as shown in Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. volume current. 7.3.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. in radians per second. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.3. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. in cubic centimeters per second. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. acoustical resistance. 7. 7. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. in dynes per square centimeter. and torque.33 where aR = IIvrCr.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. . angular velocity. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms. as shown in Fig. in dyne centimeters. and sound pressure. is shown in Fig.3.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. is shown in Fig.3. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. in rotational ohms.

114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.38 ^. 1 7.4. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. in abvolts. in abohms. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. 7.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . in abhenries. electrical resist- ance. is shown 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. .39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . abohms. in current. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. 7.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. abamperes.5.3. electrical resistance. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. (a + ^ Pfa . and electromotive force. 7. as in Fig. in electrical capacitance.

^. 7. 7. series Response of an electrical resistance.45. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. respectively.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7. The graph depicts the current. unit torque or unit pressure.4. 7. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. velocity. unit force. The response sinusoid. . for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.4. the solution of equation 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7.

and driving force. in centimeters per second per second. in dynes. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. in centimeters per dyne.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. in grams. displacement.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. in centimeters per second.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. in centimeters. Substituting equation 7.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p. v for x. acceleration. 7.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.47 . ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. rectilineal resistance. 1 A\ m = mass.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. 1 AC. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. velocity.

Cr = rotational compliance. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7.48 The response sinusoid.51 = moment of inertia. in radians per dyne per centimeter. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. in radians per second. lAA. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. in grams (centimeter). 7. in radians. 7. 4> = angular acceleration. = angular velocity.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.4. equation 7. 7. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. and 4> Jr = driving torque. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. in radians per second per second.si . is of inertia. in rotational ohms.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. in dyne centimeters.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>.4_S. = angular displacement.

WR^ 2 1 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. lAA. 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr. . = '^I/Cr.45. 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. It is a damped sinusoid.56 ^PR = Jo..4C.

in grams per (centimeter)^. acoustical capacitance. as in Fig. acoustical resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. in acoustical ohms. in cubic centimeters per second. volume current. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.4.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . at equation 7. in dynes per square centimeter. and pressure.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. Substituting U for X.

5. 7. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig.45.6. . then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. The value of the unit force t=o Fig. Step function approximation.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. 7. 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca.

UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. The This proof. as in the case of the preceding sections. 7. an electromotive force ^2 is added. etc. integral. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).68 .. «i. <?i at / = Ae. Therefore. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later.5. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig. as shown in Fig.u)du du 7. tem. 7.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. etc. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. all being of the unit type. a time «2 later. The indicial electrical admittance. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ .5. an electromotive force ei is added. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions.

u)du 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.69 fR{u) — AR{t . As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.72 .28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The velocity.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. mechanical rotational rectilineal.u)du du u)du 7. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. 7.

.

the electromagnetic. 8.1. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.CHAPTER 8. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.2. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. the electrostatic.

length of the conductor. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. termed motional electrical impedance. The electromotive force. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. in abamperes.2 where x = velocity. in gausses.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.1 and 8. When there is only one path. in using analogies in actual practice. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network).1 B = / = / = flux density. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. From equations 8. and Ca with vr. in centimeters. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. field in which depicted in Fig. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. L and Ce. it is located. in dynes. 8. circuit will be used instead of network. in abvolts. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. The force. in centimeters per second. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M . due to motion.However. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.1.1.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. and current. abohms.

driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. The normal electrical impedance zek.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. in 8. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. in abohms. in mechanical ohms.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor.1. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in the absence of motion.3.6 The 8. which the mechanical There are three general types of . that is. Zen in abohms.3. all of the conductor. in chanical ohms. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.4 8. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system. 8. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. 8. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. The dynamic direct radiator 8.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked.

Unpolarized Armature Type.2. A. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. the unpolarized armature type. 8. namely. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Since there is no polarizing flux. Assume that all the reluctance . Consider the system shown in Fig. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.

centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8.14 e = ^r 8.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. is where / = current in the coil. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8. C = l-^nA.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8. in square centimeters.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A. in abamperes.13 and 8. in abvolts.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. A = area of the center pole.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. and a = normal spacing. in dynes.15 The force on the armature. in centimeters. the total flux is <f>T Aa. then from equations 8. n = number of turns. .

mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. in seconds.21 . in mechanical ohms. nC^P 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. Substituting equation 8. mechanical ohms.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . From the mechanical circuit of Fig. 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. the force on the armature is Im = '. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 4TrJa*/M .18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current.20 — X From equations 8. in mechanical ohms.15 and 8.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.16.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.17 for the current in 8. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.18 Equation 8.2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8. and time.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.

24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. 8. in maxwells. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. this system cannot be used It is. in oersteds. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. saws. in centimeters. for the reproduction of sound. filing — as in Fig.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. ^ = area of center pole. in abamperes. in abohms. from the poles of a permanent magnet. and impedance of the coil.22 = motional electrical impedance. Polarized Reed Armature Type. 8. . 8. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines. / = current. Therefore.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. in abohms. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.19. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.3. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. Zen in abohms. in square centimeters. = number of turns. vibrators and clippers. in abohms. in mechanical ohms. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. for converting electrical variations into however. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency.20 and 8. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. a = spacing. in gilberts.2. B. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8.

in oersteds. 27r/. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. in 131 oit maxwells.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. frequency. in abamperes. and time. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .axsin wt n coil. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil.

the reluctance 4>i = a 8. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. __ .28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. Ax -\- Ax . in centimeters. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. in maxwells.32 „ .30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. spacing between the armature and pole. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. the flux will now be 4>x + A.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. and area of the pole. in abvolts.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. the flux.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in gilberts.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. sidered.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. due to the steady field. in square centimeters.^ .. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8.

~ 8.33.32 and e i = — X 8. in abohms.37. in mechanical ohms. 8. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. 8. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm..34.35 8.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. ZAfi.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. in me- chanical ohms. From equations 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.3. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.35 and 8.38 a Zm .36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. fu = MNi ~r — . the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.24 and 8.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms.36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.

7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. ARMATURE MAGNET .134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. in abohms. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. in abohms. in abohms. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.3. and impedance of the coil. C.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil.38 is similar to equation 8. Equation 8. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.

4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. in oersteds. at the poles (Fig. The . and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in maxwells.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The flux. in abamperes. which the coil energizes. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. at each pole magnet. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . 8. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. 8. in dynes. The steady magnetic field is force. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The sum of the forces. of the pole piece.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. and yf effective area.4. in dynes. i?2 = = coil. in square centimeters. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. in maxwells.

in abvolts. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. in square centimeters. and zm2 impedance of the load. .45. in gilberts. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells.136 flux.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in mechanical ohms.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.47 at a at a is The electromotive force.v) where M = magnetomotive a force.4. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. in centimeters. in mechanical ohms. through the armature to the right and upward. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. in merectilineal chanical ohms. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. 8.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. of the steady field.44 A. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. rectilineal impedance of the armature. NMA —^x a^ 8. and effective area of a pole piece.

. Zm\.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50.43 =-^ 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.

system of Fig. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. 8. galvanometers. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . This driving system is used for loud speakers.4. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. Therefore. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.

The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . in statfarads.59 and 8.60 From equations 8. and capacity per unit area. in dynes. in statamperes. The useful force. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. on the condenser is q considered. ^o^max sin wt .59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. in dynes. in statcoulombs.57 numerator of equation 8.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. = CeCq 8.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. the fourth term will be negligible. in statfarads. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. in statvolts. is The current. motive Cq is large . The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/. The force.62 .

66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8.5. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . 4ir(<2 + .(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.66 in 8. ohms. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in stat- amperes.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . .63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. in mechanical ohms. .69 . in Zm2 mechanical ohms.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. Ax) 8.61. 47r(a — 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system. the generated current.

Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- .67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. + . adding a large stiffness.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8.5.58 and 8. 8.69 and 8. electrical impedance of the condenser. in stat- Zem = motional ohms. at the same time. electrical network in Fig. 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface. statohms.5.68. in statohms. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8.

The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. 8. current is applied to 2m .142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.6. Consider the system shown in Fig.

in cycles per second. induced in the winding. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.73 Combining equations and 8.74 and ehminating the steady force. CO/ 8. current. turns in the coil. frequency. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in seconds. in abamperes. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. and time. in square centimeters. . induction is of the nickel rod. in current in the abamperes.X JR 8. e = MJ^ dt 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. The electromotive force. due to is the Villari effect. and area of the rod.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in gausses. in abvolts. coil. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. 8. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in centimeters. in square centimeters.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.

81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in centimeters.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms. 8.6. from the mechanical circuit of Fig.78 From equation 8. length of the rod. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. in square centimeters.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. The mechanical to one . rectilineal impedances zm. in mechanical ohms. and Young's modulus. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. in mechanical ohms. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.

The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other.86 Mason.. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.6). constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8. = motional impedance. 1942.83 From equations 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 8. 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. 8.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. . in abohms.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.79. is assumed to be a In general.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. The mass mi in Fig. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod.84. 8. in mechanical ohms.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. total in abohms. as shown by equation 8.82 and 8. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series." D.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. Van Nos- trand Co. 8. in abohms — equation 8. New York. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod.6. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.

8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in centimeters. in square centimeters. is where p The compliance Cmi. and Young's modulus. in Fig. in square centimeters. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8. and cross section of the rod. in centimeters. 8.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. length of the rod.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. in grams per cubic centimeter.80. length of the rod.7.

due to a force.84.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.88 where Jm = total force. Young's modulus. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. EA and 8. in dynes.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.8. that is.7. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. 8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. A= E = area. 8. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. is The deformation per unit length. 8.7C A and B given in Fig. 8. air load and support resistance. in square centimeters. . 8. 8. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.8. 8. X = 4^.7. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The vibrating system of Fig.

90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation. c„ .8 and Young's modulus.6. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. B = A= From and area.88 and 8. flux density.89 K = magnetostriction constant. . 8. the data of Fig. equations 8..148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8. 8. in square centimeters.

in statcoulombs. due an applied force. in centimeters. and A = cross-sectional area. E = Young's modulus.93 . X to 10~* for quartz.4 force.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. is . 4 = length of the crystal. in dynes. q is 149 = KJu 8. equations 8.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. due to the application of a force. in square centimeters. in dynes.91 and 8. in centimeters. 6.92 X From = 8. and The displacement.

is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8.97.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8. in statohms.101 From equations 8. in centimeters. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. 8. in square = length of the crystal. / centimeters.100 and 8. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. zmi and z. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. .vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. and E = Young's modulus. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.9. in mechanical ohms. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

9. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. 9.1. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.3. namely. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.

in square centimeters. in gilberts.2. in centimeters. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. area of the pole. in abohms. and velocity of the armature. force. is The velocity of the armature.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. in centimeters per second.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. in maxwells. in centimeters. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.6 ze = = = = = total flux. and impedance of the external load. 9. . in abohms. in centimeters per second. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature.2. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. 9. due to the steady field. spacing between the armature and pole. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. 9. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. and + ZE2. through the armature. coil.

r~ . Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig. Balanced Armature Generating System.3. 9.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature.

3. zei = electrical impedance of the coil.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.3. in gilberts. in abohms. 9. The current. in centimeters per second. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in oersteds. a = spacing between armature and pole. M. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. in maxwells.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.4. ZE = Zei + Ze2. = magnetomotive force. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. i?2 = reluctance. in abohms. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. in centimeters. in A . as depicted 9.11 zme From equations 9. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig.9 and 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. velocity of the armature. is The /m Zm + 9. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in statamperes. 9. of the magnet.

14 where e = electromotive force.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. 9. in statfarads. in centimeters per second. spacing between the plates. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statvolts. The current. in statamperes.4 e is t2 9. in square centimeters. ^= a area of the plate. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .stationary "plate . due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in centimeters. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statvolts. in statohms. electrical and impedance of the external load.

The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. in statohms. a spacing between plates. is The velocity of the movable plate. = Zm /^^ + 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. in statfarads. in square centimeters. in statvolts.71 of the chapter on ZME = .^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. area of the plates. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.4.15 and 9. is Ze2 in parallel. electrical impedance of the external load. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.18 Zme) . electrical and 9.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. 9. e.17 zme e From equations 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig.4. X in centimeters per second.

20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.25 Comparing equations 9.26 . = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.24 and fi 9.22.23 Substituting equation 9.21 Substituting equation 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8.19.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.E1 = -r—.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.21 in 9.62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9. . epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE. = — a CnX 9.23 in 9.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.25.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9.

coil. is ^tNK 9. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. The volt- age.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems. In the electrical circuit: e. However. 9. zme. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. 9. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. shown in Fig. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. In the mechanical circuit: zm. zei. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. Equation 9. L\ and rE\. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. Magnetostriction generating system. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. coil. in abvolts. ZEi. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil.5.5. from equation 8.5.27 .26 and an internal impedance zei.

and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.79 or 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. in square centimeters. force. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod. in abohms. . in abohms. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. - £ 9. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. in centimeters. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. and Young's modulus. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. electrical electrical wavelength.5.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. and impedance of the external circuit.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. length of the rod. 9.

31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. equations 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.6.86 and 8.32 From abvolts. are given by equations 8. 9.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9.6. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. in Fig.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical ohms. .30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9.28.27 and 9. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\.32 the generated electromotive force. ohms.5. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. in mechanical = ohms. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. in centimeters per second. to be a In general. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.

in centimeters per second. mi and Cmi. Li and tei. zei.27 and the velocity. in centimeters. the damped electrical impedance of the coil.4 X 10~* for quartz. the driving force. where KEJ — •* 9. 9. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig.6. generated The h = —.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. + 9. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. mass and compliance of the rod. ZMi. in statamperes. in Fig. 2_bi j<^Li. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the mechanical networks: /m. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. 9.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. 6. the effective Zjv/i. A.6 can be obtained from equation 9. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. . = = length of the crystal. In the electrical circuits: e. E= 4 = Young's modulus. cross-sectional area of the crystal. the other. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig.7. zei. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. and velocity of the crystal. in centimeters. zme.6. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. in square centimeters. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. length of the crystal. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes.

Ce\. 9. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. crystal. in statvolts. z^'i zei. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. 2_b2.34 force e. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. From equations 9. in statamperes.7. circuit: e. in statohms. electrical and 9. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. in statfarads.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. In the Piezoelectric generating system. electrical and impedance of the external load.

in statfarads. length of in centimeters.4 X 10~* for quartz.97 or 8. electrical impedance of the external load. and „ „„ 9.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. in centimeters. 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. E = Young's modulus. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. the crystal.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.41 . and E= Young's modulus.7. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. in centimeters.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. 4 = length of the crystal. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. in statohms. A = area of the electrode. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in square centimeters. length of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. in centimeters.

mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.36 and 9. is .43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. depicted equations 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.= where i.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. in mechanical ohms. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9.43 From Ze2 in parallel. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.7.45 . 9. in mechantotal ical ohms.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance.47 . zm2 in mechanical ohms. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. in centimeters per second.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.47 in 9.45.49 Substituting 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.51. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.104 and 8.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. However.8.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. 9. in Fig.50 and 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.49 in 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9. e.48. Equation 9.

the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. In the mechanical networks: Jm. 9. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. the electrical impedance of the external load. Zm2. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. Piezoelectric generating systems.37. . r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig.45 and the velocity. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. In the electrical circuits: e. A. ze\. electrical network of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. zei. the other. effective mass and compliance of the crystal.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.8 can be obtained from equation 9. zme. 9. crystal. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load.8.

E. 1929." 171 . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.. . In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. .. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. No. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. 1 Ballentine. I. e^' . Then 10.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. the elements. 6. and superposition theorems to electrical. ' 10. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . Vol. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. e^" . /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. p. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i .2. 17. A number cal systems. . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". Reciprocity Theorems A. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. .R. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. /s" .1. 929. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. S. i^' . produce a current distribution z'l'. Proc. z„".1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work.

equation 10. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. /" are the electromotive forces 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.2 = /'/' where e' .1 becomes 10. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig.1. as illustrated in the electrical 10. e" and /'. o e .1.

^ Olson. and provided the applied torques /iji. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. fB2" . linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. . 145.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements./m3 all of the same frequency./7j2'. . New . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. "Theory of Sound. mechanical rotational system of Fig. Van Nostrand Co./fl3 .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . . let a set of torques/iji'.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10.1. 1926. York. 10. London. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i"./ij2. . MacMillan and Co.1. '4>^" .1.. ^2'. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces..7 p Rayleigh. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. and provided the applied forces /mi." D. fli" are the torques and angular 10. rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. • distribution ^i'./b' and (J)'.6 velocities depicted . /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10. frequency. II. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 1940. produce a rotational velocity — . In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. equation 10. =/a/V 10. D. equation 10. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1.fRi" • 4>2. 10. /ji/2.3 becomes fu'x" . C. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. 4>2" . p./ij„ are all of the same . 10.1." Vol.4 where /^f'.

12 is for a point.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time.10 From neering" equations 1.—. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10. .9 and 1.+ dv' .15 v' .14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. v' grad po „ = 10. y" .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10.174 THEOREMS . v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude.. equation 10.11 From equations 10.9 and 10. 10. - p 1 . 0' dt dt p v" grad po . 10. p"v' 10. . .4 by the p and v of the other set.1.13 If.5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10..14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . 10.8.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' . 1 . equation 10. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.1.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v". dv" — . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.

. and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. pi. . . pressures and volume currents. . However. . velocities. X^" Xn" Then . .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems.^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. X^ X^.16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. . . which there are only two pressures. . Then — . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. let also. produce pn.16 becomes ./". .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. E. . and let a second set of pressures ^i". . equation 10.1. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. pz same frequency. . acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . . X2". produce a volume current distribution Xi. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system. . 10.19 ." a second volume current distribution Xi". as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. 10. x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. . . . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10.1. X2. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. 10. . . .

in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . px L. Electrical-mechanical.S. . — In .. . . n Then 10. HX* E p"X D Fig. C.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. P"X' tn\ B M . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.S.20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. an interconnected e\ . L. forces n and velocities. . P"X' i" L. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. currents. . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. i" .2^. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. let also. D. Mechanical-acoustical. B.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . E.21 . . fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system.2. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. . Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. F.S. 10. The 10. .

volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. G. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. .22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. me- chanical. electrical transducer. mechanical. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium.2C. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. mechanical. Theorem. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. acoustical.23 . e'i" = e"i' 10. acoustical transducer.23 states that a if. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. 10. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. is H. Electrical-Mechanical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. 2D.2fi. as shown in Fig. iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. 10. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. e"i' 10. Electrical-Mechanical. field. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.

where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . D. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' .24 Thevenin's Theorems A. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. as shown in Fig. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem. 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. = p"X' 10. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit.178 I.2£.3. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system.

4. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. forces. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. mechanical rotational or acoustical system.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. velocities. save the one being considered. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. forces. Each source. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. current. mechanical rectilineal. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. . velocity. force.

The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network.1. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. Introduction The fundamental lineal. An exhaust back pressure. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. muffler is quite effective. Convert the answer into the original system. However. However. principles relating to electrical. by acoustical capacitances. 11. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range.2. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method.

1. 11. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. 11. circuit will be used instead of network. When there is only one path. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.M and Ca for an acoustical system.However. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. with rft. 11. in Fig. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. Therefore. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. . in the audible frequency range. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. The system of Fig. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.1. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r.u. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. The latter convention will be used in this chapter.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure.

system the unpolarized type described in section 8. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.182 APPLICATIONS In general. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. sate for approximations. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.3. 11.3. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.2. .

w2.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. and .3.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. 11.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. 11." I"*.4.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. rMi and Ci. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. force can be determined /m 11. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. . 11. 11. in mechanical Jm = driving force.7. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. nii and r. radiator tube. In the mechanical circuit: m\.3. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. in dynes. teg. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. The mechanical driving from equation 8. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view.1. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. 11. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li. the mass of the cone.3. zem.

1940. New York. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation.. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. 11. comphance of the damper. .5. The simple vibration fly- damper. Van Nostrand Co. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . measuring cal systems. of inertia of the flywheel.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. FX. telephone receivers. in mechanical ohms. In the mechanical network: A. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. These systems include microphones.4. m. loud speakers. 11.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. etc. given by 11. in centimeters per second. and the shaft. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. phonograph pickups. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.YWHEEL I. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. 11. Olson. is The sound power output. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. shown ^ in Fig. F.4. velocity of the cone. the moment Cg." D.

11. the mass of the machine. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. The driving force/i. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. isolator. the mass of the machine.SA. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. /jf. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. zmf. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. W. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig.6.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. Cm /4 and 4rM ./ is due to the . B. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations.vF. The shunt mechanical vibration. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. W. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm.5. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. A. ciple of the device. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. z. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring.SA. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. Jm.

In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. mi. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. these values springs. 11. the compliance and mechanical mi. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. the mass of the case. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. Jm.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. consists of the following elements: nii. pressor. 11.7. 11. 11. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.6.6. only isolation in the system of Fig. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf .55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. isolating mechanical network. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. shown in Fig. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system.

ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. The mechanical network of Fig. . 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. Of course. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. the system in Fig. 187 Cmi and rui. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. Cm2 and ^1-/2. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations.8. 11. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating.7. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. 11. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. zmf. the mass of the case. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2.v/i/4. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. 11. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network.

etc. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. r. Cm2.v/2. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. the mass of the frame. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome.u 11. 11. m2.9.v/3. both rectilineal and rotational.8. the combined driving force at the four legs. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. the mass of the tire. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. tmi. Cms a-nd r. m-i. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. the compliance of the spring. This system has many degrees of freedom. 11. body. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. Cm2. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . in general. 11. mum. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. the driving force at each tire. the mass of the instrument and carriage.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. Cmi and tires. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. wheel and axle. the compliance of the spring suspension. engine.7.

the mass of the four tires. 4?ni. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. 4:rM2. Cmi/4 and 4r. the mass of the passenger. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. view. wheels. . However. 189 m^.\f 1. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr . Since there are four tires. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. m^. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. the driving force. fn2. the compliance of the four springs. Cji/2/4. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. the combined driving force at the four tires.i/a. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. Cms and r./ifi the comtires. the compliance of the springs. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. mi. body and engine. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. 4rif 2. springs and shock absorbers. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. the mass of the passenger. the mass of the frame. Cms.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion.8. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4.

11. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. mechanical rectilineal. an automobile has several modes of vibration. developed at the tires. As already indicated. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. Most of the forces. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. Rotational Ohm. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. that is. An acoustical resistance. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. For example. Mechanical Ohm. — — —A — . Electrical abohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. which controls the oscillations. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity.6. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. An electrical resistance. pitching or swaying motion. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rotational resistance. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. Acoustical Ohm. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. Supplementary Note: Electrical. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

48 two degrees of freedom. 42 one degree of freedom. 9. compliance. 22. 23 23. 188 Systems. 21. 9. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 6 instantaneous. 10. 178 mechanical rotational. 11 instantaneous. 13. impedance. 10. 9. 6 maximum. 6 Sound effective. 17. 6. 107 Transients. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 13. 171 Resonant frequency. 13.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 179 Suspension systems. 172 mechanical rotational. 85 rotational. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 179 Thevenin's. 6 peak. 28 Subharmonic. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 13. 9. 6 14 pressure. 23. reciprocity. 9. (see cor- effective. 32 Rotational. 22. 111 electrical resistance. acoustical. 10. 88 Transient response. 45 electrical. electrical Superposition theorem. 88 electrical. 88 mechanical rotational. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 9. automobile. 10. 178 acoustical. acoustical. 23 Theorems. 18. 41 mechanical rotational. 171 acoustical. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 45 instantaneous. 120 Duhamel's integral. 61. 122 . 9. 25 three degrees of freedom. 42 inductance and series coupled. 21. 6 Stiffness. 22 networlcs. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 21. 6. 37. 9 resistance. 6 Transducer. peak. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 184 Rotatomotive force. 35 effective. 22 mechanical rotational. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 6 maximum. 187 Torque.) 195 Table. 173 superposition. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 5 Transformer. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 23 mechanical. 21. 6 Static pressure. 37 and analogies. 6 peak. 9. 13. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. electrical-mechanical. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 18. 105 arbitrary force. 178 electrical. ohm. 177 reactance. 23 maximum. 178 electrical. 6.

gain. 37. 8 maximum. 95 low pass. 5 filters. 150. 92. 8 8 "T" type network. 45 Unit function. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 22. "X" isolator. band pass. 149. 94 response characteristics. 7. 7 Vibration. 163. 20.196 Transients (Cont. 106 Units. 184 186 Young's modulus. 143. 7 linear. 23 effective. peak. 148 machine isolator. 8 instantaneous. 7 Wave. 101 instantaneous. 93. 23 Transmission. Wave band elimination. 144. 22 angular. 93. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 92. 5 maximum. 21. 93 22 7 Wavelength. magnetostriction. 24 Velocity. 97 93. 167 . 11 effective. 147.) INDEX Villari effect. 8. 23. high pass. 7. 92. 151. Heaviside's Calculus. 11 loss. 7. 93. 106 unit function. 106 163 Volume current. 92. cut quartz crystal. 146. peak. 165.

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