This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

In the manufacture of this book, the publishers have observed the recommendations of the War Production Board with respect to paper, printing and binding in an effort to aid in the conservation of paper and other critical war materials.

Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

Harry January. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. engineer. W. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Engstrom. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. in this project. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system. 1943 F.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. an electrical circuit. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. plex arrangements of multielement systems. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. E. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. Olson. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. Olson . Research Director. Lorene E. The relations and actions are more easily visualized.

.

1 1 1. Rectilineal Compliance C. Electrical Resistance B. C. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. A. Rectilineal Compliance. Mechanical Rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2 3. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D.5 Representation of Electrical. Mass. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Acoustical Resistance 2. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D.4 16 Electrical Capacitance.2 4 II. Acoustical Capacitance A.CONTENTS Chapter I. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Electrical Capacitance B.1 3.3 Inductance. ELEMENTS 2. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. ELECTRICAL. Inertance 2. Rotational Compliance.1 2.2 Introduction Resistance A. Inductance B.3 3. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . Moment of Inertia. Acoustical Capacitance 2.

.6 4. Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V.. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies..3 5.13 Electrical.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.10 The Acoustical System 4.5 Equations of Motion 4. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.7 3. Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4.. ELECTRICAL.6 62 5. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.6 3.2 4.4 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 The Electrical System . 4. 60 5.8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.5 Chapter 3.8 67 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.2 Two Electrical.4 Dissipation 4. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5. .1 Introduction 52 5..7 64 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .1 Introduction 37 4. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.

and Acoustical Analogies 85 5.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.13 76 78 80 83 85 5.20 5.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.21 5.16 Electrical Resistance.6 6.1 6. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.11 69 71 5. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI.3 6.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal...17 5.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .10 Series 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. WAVE FILTERS 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational.2 6.15 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6.. Mechanical Rectilineal.

4 8.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A. THEOREMS 10. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 10.4 Ill 7.5 9. B.2 9.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X. 1 7.1 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.5 8. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. GENERATING SYSTEMS 9.1 8. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 . Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7.2 7.X Chapter VII.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A.6 VIII. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.5 114 120 7. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8. C. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C.4 9. Unpolarized Armature B.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 8.

Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G.CONTENTS Chapter E. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 .4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.8 1 1 . Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B. Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10.6 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.4 11.7 11.2 11.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.5 184 185 11. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H. APPLICATIONS 11.

.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields. vibrating systems. Expressions for the kinetic energy. In other words. However. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities.1. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. as for example. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. 1 The acoustical . This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. in the early days of electrical circuit theory. mechanical and acoustical tems.

the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. springs and brakes. cal.2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. The branches or meshes are composed of elements. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. . mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. ' The lished. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. constituent parts of a circuit. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. Elements are the meshes. various assemblies of masses. Of course. induct- ance and capacitance. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations. as for example.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. Electrical elements are resistance. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. springs and friction.

the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. In addition. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. mechanical and acoustical systems. 4. I) and Firestone {Jour. circuit. Amer. every electrical. However. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits. ratio of force to displacement. Hanle {JViss. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. Acous. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. Therefore. In this book. Institute of Radio Engineers. However. Soc. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. in the past. particularly electrical circuits. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible.. — .1 of 1942. That is to say. Finally. 4. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. Verojf a.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. No. Vol. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. and ratio of pressure to displacement. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. Vol. d. analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. For example. all communication. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. XI. No. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. SiemensKonzern. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. up the mechanical and electrical. Therefore. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force.

The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. The remainder. Definitions ^ this section. or zero. Harmonic. Cycle. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. a positive constant. equals 2x divided by the period T. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. Terms not sections. Octave. + T). all is the frequency. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. . —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. a constant. where T. Periodic Quantity. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. This called a Fourier series. negative. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod. period. reciprocal of the period. is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. Basic Frequency. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. or which tity comprises a cycle. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. a period of jy. Frequency.2.

The unit is the dyne. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). time interval The is unit is the abvolt. mechanical or acoustical system. is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Subharmonic. Dyne. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. The unit the dyne. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. The root unit the abvolt. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. The unit is the abvolt. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. Wave. Electromotive Force. — — Abvolt. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. Mechanomotive Force). Wavelength. Effective Electromotive Force. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). the dyne. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. The unit is the abvolt. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. force. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. A wave is a propagated disturbance. .

The the — Instantaneous Current. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. An abampere is the unit of current. the abampere. Abampere. —The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The unit is the dyne centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. the dyne centimeter. dyne per square centimeter. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. . force. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. Effective the total instantaneous torque. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter.

The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. the abampere. The unit is the abampere. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. unit is the radian per second. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. Maximum Velocity. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. Peak Current. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. velocity. current. the centimeter per second. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. is Centimeter per Second. The unit is the centimeter per second. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle. is velocity in that interval. Peak Velocity. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. Effective Velocity. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. Maximum Current. —The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. complete cycle at the point. The unit is the abampere. per second. is Radian per Second. The unit is the centimeter per second. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. Cubic Centimeter per Second.

trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance. To avoid ambiguity in this book. is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. The unit the abohm. times the frequency. Electrical Reactance. The unit the abohm. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval.-W is impedance. Electrical Impedance. electrical Inductance. . a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. which. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. the cubic centimeter per second. The unit is the abfarad. given cycle Maximum Volume Current.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. the cubic centimeter per second. is Electrical Resistance. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. is the abohm. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. for Peak Volume Current. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. The unit is the mechanical ohm. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. second. when times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. Effective Volume Current.

This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. page I . The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance).DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. Compliance. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. unit is the rotational ohm. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Mass. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. The unit is the acoustical ohm. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. The unit is the centimeter per dyne. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. The unit is the rotational ohm. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. rotational resistance ance. Rotational Compliance. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. ' See footnote S. Acoustical Impedance. — Compliance The unit is the gram. when multiplied by times the frequency.

defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. Mechanical Rectilineal System. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system. . inertance and acoustical capacitance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. Mechanical Rotational System. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the acoustical ohm. Acoustical Reactance. In the same way. the acoustical ohm. when multiplied by times the frequency. mass and compliance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. the fourth power.. Inertance. by "l-w times the frequency. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Electrical System. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II. Acoustical System. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. moment of inertia. the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. inductance and electrical capacitance. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. and rotational compliance. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance. mass and compliance.

A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. force. current. mechanical rectilineal. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. torque. voltage. pressure or volume current. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. power delivered to the load under some reference condition. The bel is the Decibel. pressures or such as forces or velocities. For example. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . torque or pressure is electrical. Either of these systems may be electrical. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. force. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. — Transmission.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. Transmission Loss {or Gain). /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- . velocity. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. mechanical or acoustical. angular velocity.

1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. in abvolts. 12 . e rs^-. is defined as A. See footnote page 8. Electrical Resistance. As indicated in the preceding chapter. t 2.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. 5. in abamperes. An tinguished from the devices. inductance and capacitance.1. electrical. and current through the resistance. Electrical resistance rs. the vibrating systems. In this procedure. 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. resistor.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal.' 2. inductor and capacitor.2. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. e. A resistor. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. in abohms.

is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms. is defined as r^ — = y 2. and velocity at the point of application of the force. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. Acoustical Resistance. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. Mechanical rotational energy is C. in dynes.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. D. in radians per second. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). rectilineal resistance Equation 2. In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. . Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. Equation 2. in centi- meters per second. At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. in rotational ohms. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. Energy is lost by the cal resistance.RESISTANCE B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance. in dyne centimeters. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. 13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction). is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.

in = width of the meters. slit normal to the direction of flow. in dynes per square centimeter. However.. 6pww 2. 2. slit in the direction of flow. d= / thickness of the centimeters. 1. 1940. in grams per cubic centimeter. 'Olson. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf. in cubic centimeters per second. to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. in addition to the resistive component. a narrow and metal.5 = viscosity coefficient. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw ." D. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity. in centimeters. A tube of small diameter. volume current. resistance. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. New .4 where p — pressure. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. slit normal to the direction of flow. York. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /. in acoustical ohms.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. Van Nostrand Co. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also.86 X 10"'* for air. density. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. is defined as VA P = ~ 2.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. a reaccomponent. and frequency in cycles per second. and U= Equation resistance current.

Inertance A. is remains a constant of inertia /. B. mass increases. in abvolts. in centimeters per second per second. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. = di Ldt ^ 2. It remains constant ance. Inductance. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. in abamperes per second. in abhenries. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is. is Inductance L. INERTANCE 2. Mass. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in grams. Equation C. which opposes a change of velocity. in when the angular velocity a constant. Equation 2. MASS. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. Moment of Inertia. 15 Inductance. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system.7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. MOMENT OF INERTIA. in dynes. given by dd . that during angular acceleration. 2. and rate of change of current. Moment of Inertia. Mass.INDUCTANCE. and driving force. Moment gram (centimeter)^. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. is defined as 2.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. that during linear when the velocity decreases. It decreases when the current decreases. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases.3. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system.

and driving pressure. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. volume current. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. in p = density of the meter.10 m = S = mass. decreases. Van Nostrand Co. cross sectional area in square centimeters. that tion. in rate of change of 2. Equation 2. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. is.. in centimeters. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*. effective length of the tube. in dyne centimeters. in radians per second per second. in cubic centimeters per second per second.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. Inertance. inertance. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. is defined as p = where M—dt 2. 1940." D. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube. New . D. in grams. York.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration. Inertance M.

and applied force. in abcoulombs. Acoustical Capacitance A. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. Rectilineal Compliance.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. when is spring remains immovably compressed.n Equation 2.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. abvolts. and electromotive force. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged.13 states that the charge on an force. is defined as fM = jr where x 2. Electrical 17 Capacitance. Electrical Capacitance. Rectilineal Compliance.4.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. . is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. Rotational Com- pliance.14 = Jm = displacement. It is a constant. Electrical capacitance Cg. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. electrical capacitance is Equation 2. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B. in centimeters. in abfarads. in dynes is Equation 2. and stored.

^ in dynes per square centimeter. in grams per cubic centimeter.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. Van Nostrand Co. It is constant. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. 9. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. Rotational Compliance. Rotational compliance Cu-." p. New York. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. in is The terms of the condensation. and applied torque. allowed to unwind. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Acoustical Capacitance.. in radians per centimeter per dyne. in centimeters per second. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. in dyne centimeters. D.17 s = * Olson. 1940. in radians. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand. defined in equation 2. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque.17. density. D. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted.16 p s — = = velocity. C. Equation 2. It is constant. . and condensation.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. p = where c c^ps 2.

These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols.X 2. in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. The electrical elements.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. and volume displacement. is 2. 2.REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters. mechanical rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal. Representation of Electrical. . in cubic centimeters.17. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. From equations 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. 2.16. equal to the volume displacement. in cubic centimeters. electrical resistance. = ^ F 2. and 2.18 X= volume displacement. Equation 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.5.20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance.21 F= volume.19 and 2.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2. .

move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel.1.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. mechanical rectilineal. 2. rE . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. —^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure. ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.3 .

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

inertance and time.24 sions are mass.1. ^ The Tables 8. length L and time T. . the standard modifiers for all four systems.1 page and list and 2.1. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2. length.3. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous.2. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. The dimensions given in Table 2. ELEMENTS and time. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.3 uses mass M. and time.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5.1.1 and 2.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. 1. Table 2. Further.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge. self-inductance. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. Tables 2. 2. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.

mechanical rotational. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. mechanical rectilineal.2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rectilineal. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance.1.1. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. 3. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. namely. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. From these definitions it is evident that friction. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 . mechanical rotational or In other words. mass. 3.

in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. namely. mechanical rectilineal. In the electrical. mechanical rectilineal. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. 3. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon . potential and heat energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//.The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current. Heat is a transient form of energy. Cr = T. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. kinetic. velocity.1. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. C. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. Electrical. mechanical rotational.

potential.2 m = X mass. in grams per (centimeter)*. in centimeters per second. equal to the system. in cubic centimeters per second. and current through the inductance L. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. by the principle of conservation of energy. The sum of the kinetic. and velocity of the = mass m. in grams. mass of air in the opening. mechanical rectilineal. all the air particles in the opening move with the . The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. and heat energy during an interval of time is. mechanical rotational. 3. the energy delivered to the system during that interval.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems. cross-sectional area of the opening. in centimeters per second. in radians per second. in abhenries. It is assumed that same phase. in square centimeters. X— X Sx = volume current. electrical.3 = moment of inertia. = velocity of the air particles in the opening. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. in grams. in abamperes.4 M= m = S — m/S^.3. the inertance.

in cubic centimeters. in dynes per centimeter. in cubic centimeters. . potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in centimeters. in radians per dyne per centimeter. p = density of air. and c = velocity of sound. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in grams per cubic centimeter. in centimeters per second. = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. in centimeters per dyne. = -. in radians. and <l> angular displacement. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in abcoulombs. s — stiffness of the spring.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3.4. in abfarads. dyne. ^ 3. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.8 where X= Ca volume displacement. and charge on the capacitance. and X = displacement..

12 where We.5.17 = = is electrical resistance.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3. and current. and acoustical systems. mechanical Wm. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. .: 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical rotational.18 .. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal. +— + XX 3. in abamperes.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .15 dWA ~-^ = at 3. in abohms. force. Wr.DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy.y- 3.

The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. in rotational ohms. The rate at which livered to the electrical system . The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. in acoustical ohms. and velocity.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. and angular velocity. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits.6.22 = acoustical resistance. in radians per second. and X= 3.

32 „.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3. 3.26.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.24.28 and 3..

7^ Ca 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. the impedance is m and Cm.32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. the angular velocity and torque.jo>I — — 3. and Cr.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3.7. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. .33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency. the velocity and force. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.38 3.

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.42 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law. mechanical rectilineal. KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. .Ce r^ 3.8.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.

24.49 „ . The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.1. Equation 3. namely.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . 3.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig. The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. 3. principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero.

D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.26.28. Equation 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.51 is the same as equation 3. 3. .1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3. The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 is the same as equation 3.

36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. mechanical rotational. . Equations 3. 3.59 is the same as equation 3. inclusively. Equation 3.59.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3.43 to 3.30.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure. and acoustical systems. further illustrate the analogies between electrical. mechanical rectilineal. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig.

angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. velocity. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig.1.2. Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . MECHANICAL Electrical. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations.1. 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.1. 4. 4.

4 M = inertance. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. in cubic centimeters per second.1 93 L = inductance.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in radians per second.3.2 where x^ m = = mass. in branch 3.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current. in centimeters per second. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. and velocity of the mass m. and = h = current. in grams. in abamperes. in abhenries. . Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4.

6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring. in abcoulombs. and charge on the electrical capacitance. per dyne. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in abamperes. and <i>2 angular displacement. in cubic centimeters. in abfarads. in radians per dyne per centimeter.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. and displacement. . and — current.4. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance. 4.DISSIPATION 4. and X2 = volume displacement. in radians. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in qz ohms. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.5.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. in centimeters.

in rotational ohms. and Xs = volume 4. in centimeters per second. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in radians per second. current. The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. and angular velocity.12 = acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms. and velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4.i 4. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A. 2 d<t>n dcj).11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 .10 heat Dm = where Vm X2.6.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4. in cubic centimeters per second. mechanical ohms.

at/jf.17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.22.rsqz 4. The linear displacement. 4.8. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.7.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4.17.24 Differentiating equation 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4. 4.19 +k 4. The relation for the currents in Fig. 4.21 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.18.13.1 is h = H Equation 4.20 4.23. e = = Lqz-[.14.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.25 . in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig.

15. p = MXa + vaXz 4. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. = = /03 + rij^g 4. in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.26 ^ The 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system. at/^j.30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4. . merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p. in the acoustical system.9. The angular displacement. at p.31.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4.16. 4.32 ing piston.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4.28 Differentiating equation 4.1. Fig.26. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.10. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.42 4.30.29 4. 4.27. Jb /.

1. 4. and to acoustical resistance. mass. to mechanical rotational resistance. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. 4. inclusive. 4. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4. Fig. inductance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. given by ^3 JM is 4. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system. shows again that resistance.1 to 4. inertance acoustical system.11.19.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4.25.29 and 4. Fig.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4. and to volume currents in the acoustical system.1. 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.33. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system.34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. vm.

Fig.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4. is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . X2 = Xi . the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. is given by k The = f".X3 = pjccCa 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2..1.43 volume current Xi at given by X.40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. 4.45 . given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.1. Fig. is . the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4. 4.

see pages 53.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. 1 tional systems of Figs.2. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. .2 are as follows: 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic. 4. 5. The electrical impedances z^i.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.48 JwCe3 Cr.1 of Chapter V. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 4. |-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.12. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4. 54. 55 and 56 and Fig. 4.3.

Ce2. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4.59 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . 4. 4.60 4.57 The system shunt in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. The shunt electrical.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm. and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig. mass.— JwLmz Zb. compliance. 4. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2.56 ZA2 -T-z.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4. I2 and M2.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 .46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.55 jwLai 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4. 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig.2 save that the electrical capacitance.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.3 is the as that of Fig.2 4.50 + jwm2 + T-p. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig.

An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.65 2^22^3 . 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4.3.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.

4. mechanical rectilineal. Cri. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig.4.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4. 4. Cei. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . m2.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 . 4. = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. to /i. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Cm\.67 . O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical. I2.3. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ .4.\. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs.«i. Mechanical Rectilineal.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. L2.412^3 + 4. Cb2 .13.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig. 4. Electrical. Ca. L.t 4.

78 4. 4>2. X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.80 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. Xi.82 4.74 4. to 4>o. 4>i. (h and 04 X2. 4. i^ in show that /q. Ca2 in the acoustical system. nA where zei = . 4.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. h. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq. X3 rectilineal system.70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4.81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4. the linear velocity Xq. Cai.89 .86 4. X2.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq.84 4.76 4. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] . M2.83 ZA2 4. Xi.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4. ^ zjji = . The current to.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.88 4.

+ ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.) Ha ^_^^j . 02 = + Zr^ 4.92 4. the linear velocity X2.95 .ZM3 + ZMi) 4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.97 The current i2.1UU ^^^ pZA. the linear velocity Xi.99 r^r^ .y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. 4.90 4.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.93 Ha = The current ii.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4. 4.{ZA3jrZA. 01 4.91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4.98 . the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd ..

the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4. J~iR X. 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.107 . Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4. . ^^^ 4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.105 current 4.102 X3 4.-riE . 4.106 . show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.„. the linear velocity X4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. = The equations cal.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.

prior to the introduction of the corrective network. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. characteristics. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. mechanical rectilineal.1. 5. Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5. Two Mechanical Rectilineal.1.^ an inductance. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. 5. 52 . Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line. mechanical rotational. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical.2.

£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system. Fig. branch is current flows in z^i. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is.IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2.1. 5.

. 5. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?. = = xx -\- X2 5. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4. must be in parallel. Xt Differentiating equation 5.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. respectively. </)r. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5. Equation 5. analogous to equation 5. </>!. With these specifications the differential of Fig.3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . respectively. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. ^2. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. Fig.2 for the electrical system. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. 5. That is. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. Z/jt.1 with the same tions. shown schematically in Fig.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. relations existing between//. consists of a system of gears. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. respectively. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel.1. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. SAA. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. respectively.4 That is.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ . as for example.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig. equations 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. reactance .2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^.17 where / = moment of inertia.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.2.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2. equations 5. 5. 5.12 relatively large 59 and 5. ^^^^. 5.13 and 5.

19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency. .20 where Cm = compliance.5.11 and 5.18 where M= inertance. 5. Therefore.3 is = T^ 5. 5. from equations 5. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5.2. Fig.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Equations 5. in centimeters per dyne. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.14 and 5. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency.2.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. The acoustical system of Fig. 5.42 = joiM 5. 5.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. in abfarads. in grams per (centimeter)*.3. 5.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency.

3. 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.3. 5. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter.21 show that at low frequencies . inversely proportional to the frequency.3 is 1 2fi2 5.3. 5. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.12 to the and 5. The mechanical the frequency. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.12 and 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.20 is shown in Fig. at Equa- tions 5. 5.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system.13 and 5. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig.

3. and electrical capacitance.3. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. 5. .13 and 5.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance.23 where L = Ce = inductance. impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. in abfarads. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. 5.6. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.4 in series across a line. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abhenries.23.14 and 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.4. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. 5. equations 5.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load. The shown in Fig. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z.12 = ^-^ 5. 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. tional. 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal.

in radians per dyne per centimeter.25 where / = moment of inertia. The output angular 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series. and compliance.24 where m = mass.24. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'.25.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and Cu = rotational compliance.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. in grams. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. 5. in gram (centimeter)^.13 and .4. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5.5.7. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. Equations 5.26.24 also is zero. in grams per (centimeter)''. current can be obtained from equations 5.2 and there is very little attenuation.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. 5. The output volume 5.26 where M= Ca = inertance.14 and 5.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.5 parallel across a line.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.12 and 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. in (centimeter)" per dyne. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.13 and 5.4. acoustical capacitance. in Fig. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. 5.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. .

line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.J^mCM 5. in abfarads.27 where L = Ce = inductance.5. in centimeters per dyne. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. 5.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. in grams.12 and 5. Cm = The output . 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.27. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'." ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. and electrical capacitance.5 is jo}L -£2 5.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim . and compliance.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. in abhenries.28. 5. 5.28 where m = mass.

5.13 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.12 and 5. 5.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.29.3 and the transmission is again small. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency..14 and 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.30. and = rotational compliance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system. Equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.5 is ZR2 = . .29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia.11 and 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 .2 and the transmission is small. in grams per (centimeter)*.^MC. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe.13 and The output angular 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency. 1 - 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. and acoustical capacitance. The output volume 5.

and electrical capacitance. Electrical resistance. .6 shows an electrical resistance.31. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series.8. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.min.5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.11 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. inductance and electrical capacitance in series. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. Electrical Resistance. 5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.6.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. 5. inductance. in Fig. 5. in abfarads. in abhenries.tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abohms.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.6. itance in series. in shunt with a line. 5. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.

5. compliance. The output volume 5. from equations 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.33. in grams. in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.3 and there is very little attenuation.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and rotational compliance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.11 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance. in mechanical ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter.2 and there is very little attenuation. mass.34.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.32.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. Therefore.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. Therefore.12 and 5.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. from equations 5. inertance. in centimeters per dyne. 5. in rotational ohms. of inertia. in acoustical ohms. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. 5.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . The output and 5. current can be obtained from equations 5. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.12 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance.

5. in mechanical ohms. in Fig.14 and 5.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig. 5.13 and 5. in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. inductance. and electrical capacitance. and compliance. quencies the same as that of Fig.7 shows an electrical resistance.6. Therefore.11 and 5. from equations 5. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. in abfarads.35. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. . The output current can be obtained from equations 5. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in abhenries.4. 5.7.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. 5. Therefore. in abohms. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. The mechanical network is rectihneal.9. 5. in grams. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.6.12 The output and 5. mass.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance.36.

= = mechanical rotational resistance. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. inertance.7. The output and 5. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. of inertia. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. acoustical capacitance.38. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and .37 where ru Cb.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. in grams per and 5. in acoustical ohms.37. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.14 Ca = 5. rotational compliance. in radians per and dyne per centimeter. in rotational ohms. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance. 5.70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. S. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.

5. output electrical impedance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5. .7. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. However. 5.5. 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. inductance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5. 5.10.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.11 and 5. Fig. 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance. 5.7. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.2 and the transmission is small.7.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.3 and the transmission is again small. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line. termed the input and output electrical impedances.12 and 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. Fig.7. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.14 and 5.13 and 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. Fig.7.

11. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. 5. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network.41 input acoustical impedance.43 = p = 2. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2. in abhenries. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.42 Zas.40 ZM2. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5.43 where L = inductance. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances. 5. output acoustical impedance. . 5. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance. = Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5.

8. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5.8 equations 5. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency. in grams.45 where / = moment of inertia.8 is = j^m 5.8 is = jo)I 5. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig.39 and 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. 5.44 where tn = mass. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. in gram (centimeters)^. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5. . Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. characteristic.8. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5.8.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.

the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. acoustical Equations 5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. The acoustical system of Fig.48. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig. Equation 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.46 where M= inertance. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.12.41 and 5.8 equations 5. 5. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .8. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small. 5.42 and 5. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5. in abfarads.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small. 5. 5. 5.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance.

Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. frequency characteristic. 5. 5.9 to the frequency. in centimeters per dyne.9 = 5.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. is inversely proportional Equations 5. 5.9. 5.40 and 5. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5.48 where Cm — compliance. . Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.9. is ance relatively large to motion. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. line and the mechanical rectihneal. is 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small.47. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.9 is ^R2 5. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.l/2 Fig. 5.9.

50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line. dyne.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. 5.42 and 5. 5. Equations 5.9. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig. Mechanical Rotational. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. Equation 5. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.13. 5. and per = area of the diaphragm.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency.9.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.10. 5.41 and 5.42 = -r-— JwCa 5. in square centimeters. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. acoustical capacitance tions 5. 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. . analogous to an in Fig.50. The acoustical impedance of Fig. 5.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. compliance of the suspension system. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension. 5.9 is 2.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. The mechanical rectilineal.9 inversely proportional to the frequency.

52. and C_if compliance. and = rotational compliance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. in abfarads.10. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5. The mechanical system of Fig.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5. 5.39 and 5. 5.40 and 5.53. in centimeters per dyne.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. 5. in gram (centimeter)^. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.53 where m = = mass. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rectilineal. . and electrical capacitance. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in abhenries.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.

and again the transmission is small.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.9 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5. Equations 5.10.55 where M= Ca = inertance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.11. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. and the transmission is small.39 and 5. Equations 5. Equations 5.42 and 5.55. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.54.42 and 5. 5.50. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.40 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.14. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. 5. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig. 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in grams per (centimeter)*. and acoustical capacitance.8. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. 5.41 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. connected in with a line. .41 and 5.

in grams. The mechanical system of Fig. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .56. and electrical capacitance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. in centimeters per dyne. 5. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.40 and 5. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.11 is - 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance.39 and 5. 5.1/2 = 1 — S. in abfarads. in abhenries. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5.57.11. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. and compliance.11 is 2/22 = :.

Electrical Resistance. Equation 5.11 is -.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.12 shows an electrical resistance. 2.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate. 5.59.9 and again the attenuation is small. in grams per (centimeter)*.39 and 5. 5.58. 5.11 equation 5.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission. . 5. and acoustical capacitance.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.8 and the attenuation is small. Equations 5. inductance and line.59 where M= Ca = inertance. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5.40 and 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. and = rotational compliance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne. in grams (centimeter)^.41 The output angular 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig. 5. 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move.12.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.42 == 5. 5. 5.15. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.11.41 and 5. ance of Fig. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.

The output current can be obtained from equations 5. in abfarads. 5.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.40 and 5. Electrical resistance. in mechanical ohms.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + . in grams. 5.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig. 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. in centimeters per dyne. in abohms.60. inductance. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.61. and capacitance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal. compliance.12 T = rE + jwL + 5.12. in abhenries. 5.62 .61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance.39 and 5. c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. m = Cm = mass.

5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.8. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. 5.40 and 5. Therefore.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.12. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Therefore.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.12. and Cr = rotational compliance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. in acoustical ohms.10. 5.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. However.42 and 5. from equations 5.39 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig.62. Therefore. Therefore.42 = TA -[-jwM + _. Fig.12. 5. from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. where vr / = moment of inertia.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. The output and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig.12.coC. . in (centimeter)^ per dyne. from equations 5. Fig. from equations 5.63. 5.12 is 2.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig. inertance. 5. the acoustical reactance is zero. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5. and the transmission is small.41 and 5. The output volume 5.4 -T-z^ 5. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. Fig. in grams per (centimeter)*. in rotational ohms. current can be obtained from equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. and again the transmission is small.12. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.

inductance. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in abohms. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig. 5. in abfarads.13 is ZM2 = r. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance. and electrical capacitance.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.16. Electrical Resistance. 5. Electrical resistance. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.39 and 5.64. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. inductance line. in abhenries. 5.13.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. 5.13 shows an electrical resistance.65 .13.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. 5. 83 Parallel.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

39 and 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. 5.65. 5. from . Fig. and compliance. inertance. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance. ohms.40 and 5.13 is = jo^rAM ~. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in grams. The output and 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite.13.41 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in where tm mechanical ohms. Therefore.13.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance.66. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. in (centimeter)® per dyne. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance.40 and 5. in centimeters per dyne.9 and the attenuation is small. 5. mass. Fig. 5. Therefore. current can be obtained from equations 5. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. 5.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. from equations 5. 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. therefore.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance. The output volume 5.42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.67. from equations 5.8 and the attenuation is small. 5.13. in acoustical ohms. and Ca = acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. Therefore. and Cr = rotational compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.

5.13. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.14 Mechanical Rotational.11. 5.67 the attenuation ance. 5.13.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5.18. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. that of Fig. 5.17. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.42 and 5. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line. 5. Fig. and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation. Referring to equation 5.39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . 5.

5. larger.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances. 5. Referring to equation 5. 5. Electrical Rectilineal.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. 5. Equation 5.19. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. .15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Equation 5. Fig. rectilineal.13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. Equation 5. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.15.14 shows a system of made larger.

14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.12. mechani- and acoustical analogies. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. zri. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. acoustical systems of Fig. In the same way equations 5. "Zrz. mechanical rotational. 5. respectively. 5.41 and the output impedances. 5.20.16.16. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" . rui. respectively. The mechanical rectilineal. and Zmz.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. Equation 5. and r.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5. 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. and r^i and the input impedances. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.13 the mechanical rectihneal.11.16. 5.21. wherein zm\. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. 5.17. rm.

13 and 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig. 5. Electrical. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. 5. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. me- chanical rotational. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. In this case zei is the input impedance.17.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system. output impedance.22.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. rectihneal. Mechanical Rectilineal. ze2 is rE2.12.18.17. 5. . and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance.14. Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. Equation 5.

5. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. Electrical.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig.18 the electromotive force. 5. 5. The force.68 5. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings.18. velocity and . ACOUSTICAL Fig. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. ii. and zei represent the electromotive force. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig. and of turns on the secondary. ei. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary.

5. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5.18.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5.79 .78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5. acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. of Fig. consists of a mass- gear train. The torque.77 5.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer. The 5. 5.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig. /ri.18.18. The pressure. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque.71 = — xi 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer. /mi. 5. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force.18.

volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer.41 and p2." D. pi.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms.. transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. The acoustical transformer of Fig.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. 5. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer. 1940. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. ^ Engineering. Xi and 2. . two diaphragms. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. New York.

. 2. 6.2. 1922.1. No. 1922. p. Bell System Tech. A. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. No. 6. 528. Rev. W. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical. Stewart. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. 92 . G. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. Vol. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. Jour. Phys... Vol. Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. I. 20. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. G.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters..

angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. *' . 6. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. velocities. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. velocities. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four.3. ^ Nostrand Co. velocities. Shea. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. velocities. respectively. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. that is. velocities. Van New York. New York.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. positive and when than four.. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents.. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. velocities." D. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. Johnson. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies." D. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. Van Nostrand Co. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. velocities. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents.

7 1 Z42 = T j(x.6 ZR2 6. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.1.Ca 6.8 . pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. Electrical.1.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6. 6. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6. mechanical rectilineal. 6.4.2 6.1 zmi zri 6. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6.94 6.

5.2. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical. coc = — 2Af2 V — . cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig. and the cutoff 6. when uc = 6. 6.= -4 6.15 WC. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. mechanical rotational.10 — — 0.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents. when . 6.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. when oip = = = = 6. 6. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. inclusive.17.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4. when coe 6. . 6.9 the constants of the systems. when coc 6.12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.10 and show that the systems of Fig. 6. mechanical rectilineal. 2A2 VMC^ .11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. when ccc 6. when coc = . linear velocities.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4.17 Equations 6.= From and .-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

= -4 22 6.27 . 2£1 6.26 From the constants of the systems.= 22 and .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .

36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.12.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6. 5.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. .35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.

when wci = — VLiCei .12 =0.46 6.BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 .41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6.V/2 when WC2^WiC. — — / 1 6.50 V/iGji 0. UCe\ (1 6.51 VM2C42 = .42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2. 6. „ when coci = .48 VL2CJS2 = 0. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4. —= Z£2 — 4. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) . = — 7= / 6.lfi)^ ^ -.. —7== VMiCai .43 Let LiCei = 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . _ 4. = 1 .45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. .44 6. 2.47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. when coci = = 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4.

—= 2. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6. when . when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi .v/2 1 6.^C2'MiCaxY = --—.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6. -4.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 .57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.53 —= ZiJ2 -4. (1 .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . one greater than uci and Therefore. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.41 . the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.

63. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.41 = 1 JcoMi - 6. mechanical rectilineal. linear velocities. are 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6. 6.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6.64 CeiLi 6. 6. show that the systems of Fig.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".7. inclusive.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.4.56 to 6.69 .

Electrical.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6.74 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.75 = I2CR2 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rectilineal.76 .4.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.

when uci = and cca oo 6. . when (1 . when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6.77 —— = ZM2 0. M\Ca\) 4.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. 6.84 . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi . when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6. when oici = and wa = =0 6. . i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. . —= zei -4.-4.42 -4.79 ^— = ZA2 0. or.82 . when (1 .83 —= Z^l 2. 6.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. when. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6. —= Zr\ -4.78 —= ZR2 0.

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

The graph depicts the current. unit torque and unit pressure.2. and driving force. shown in Fig. respectively. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. velocity. unit force. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.2. 7. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. The current is zero = 0. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. rectilineal resistance.2. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7.8 where m = = /m — V mass. . angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. in centimeters per second.5 where aE = Te/L.4 = (ajj + p)L 7. 7. in dynes.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. in grams. 7. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. in tm = mechanical linear velocity.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. ohms.14 d Jr = moment of inertia. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7. as shown in Fig. .2. in gram (centimeter)^.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J. and = torque. 1/riv/.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.2. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7. in rotational = angular velocity. 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t). = mechanical rotational resistance.12 = — - e"^') 7.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. in radians per second. 7. in dyne centimeters.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7.

The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. in cubic centimeters. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. and p = sound pressure. = acoustical resistance. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.17 where aji — Vr/ I. in grams per (centimeter)*.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7. U = volume current. From is the tables of operational formulas.16 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.2. in dynes per square centimeter.22 .21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.20 where M= ta inertance. 7. the solution of equation 7. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). The angular / velocity zero for = 0. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. as shown in Fig. 7. The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. in acoustical ohms.2.

{(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7.3.28 ve . electrical resistance series. 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. 7. The electrical indicial admittance is ^.4. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig. in abamperes. 7. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . the solution of equation 7.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. the solution of equation 7. in abohms. in abfarads. electrical resistance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^. From is the tables of operational formulas.22 111 may be written.e-^ in Fig. 7.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7.26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.2. in abvolts. current. and electromotive force.24 JA{t) = " (1 .23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.

From the tables of operational formulas. in dynes. velocity.3. shown in Fig. 7. in mechanical ohms. 7.3. the solution of equation 7. force. unit torque and unit pressure.y = l/rjfCv/.30 P)rM where a. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the current. in centimeters per dyne. is The for / shown in Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. 7 3. respectively. in centimeters.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. unit force.31 . ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. mechanical rectilineal resistance. linear velocity.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7.

mechanical rotational resistance.3. as shown in Fig. in radians per dyne per centimeter. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. 7.3. in cubic centimeters per second. in dynes per square centimeter.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. 7. in dyne centimeters. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance. in radians per second. and torque. is shown in Fig. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. acoustical resistance. in acoustical ohms. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7.3.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. as shown in Fig. . angular velocity.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. 7. 7. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. volume current. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and sound pressure. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. in rotational ohms.3. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. is shown in Fig.

electrical resist- ance.38 ^. is shown 7. The volume current decreases for values of / limit.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0. in abhenries. J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance. abamperes. . 7. (a + ^ Pfa . in electrical capacitance. electrical resistance.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig. in abvolts. in current. and electromotive force. > and approaches the value zero as a 7.39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.5.3.4. 7. 7. 1 7. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. abohms. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. as in Fig. in abohms.

42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. the solution of equation 7.4. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal.^. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. respectively.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.4. 7. velocity. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. . It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. unit torque or unit pressure. 7. The graph depicts the current.45. series Response of an electrical resistance. The response sinusoid.

in centimeters per second per second. in centimeters per dyne. The differential equation of a force driving a mass.116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. displacement. and driving force. in centimeters per second. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. velocity.47 . ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. v for x. acceleration. 1 AC. rectilineal resistance. 7. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. 1 A\ m = mass. in grams. Substituting equation 7. in dynes.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in centimeters.

= angular displacement. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance.si .4. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in grams (centimeter). 7. in dyne centimeters.51 = moment of inertia. and 4> Jr = driving torque.4_S. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7. 4> = angular acceleration. 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. equation 7. lAA. Cr = rotational compliance.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l. = angular velocity. in radians per second per second.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. 7. in radians. is of inertia. in rotational ohms. in radians per second.48 The response sinusoid.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.

= '^I/Cr. If rR^ > AI/Cr.55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig.^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7.57 The response for this condition shown in Fig.56 ^PR = Jo. 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7.4C. .53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- . lAA. WR^ 2 1 7. 7.45. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. It is a damped sinusoid. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + ..

7. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7. at equation 7.58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7. Substituting U for X. volume current.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. and pressure. in grams per (centimeter)^. in acoustical ohms.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. acoustical resistance.4. as in Fig.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. acoustical capacitance. in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters per second. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is .

then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7. 7.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. 7. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. cca^ = 4M/Ca. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral. 7. Step function approximation.45. . The value of the unit force t=o Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained.5.6.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig.

<?i at / = Ae. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7.u)du du 7. as shown in Fig. 7.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u).67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems. all being of the unit type. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. tem. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7.66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.68 . integral.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. The This proof. etc. 7. an electromotive force ^2 is added. etc. The indicial electrical admittance. as in the case of the preceding sections. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. an electromotive force ei is added. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «.5. Therefore. «i.5. a time «2 later..

angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force.72 .122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.u)du du u)du 7. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig. The velocity. 7. Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series.69 fR{u) — AR{t . and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . mechanical rotational rectilineal.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.u)du 7. The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7.

.

2.CHAPTER 8. 8. the electromagnetic. It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations. the electrostatic.1. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric.

and current. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system.1 B = / = / = flux density. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. abohms. it is located. 8. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. in gausses. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M .2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system. in dynes. From equations 8. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. in centimeters.However. in using analogies in actual practice. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8.1. in centimeters per second. L and Ce. in abvolts. due to motion.1 and 8.ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8. The electromotive force. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. field in which depicted in Fig.1. circuit will be used instead of network. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig. When there is only one path.2 where x = velocity. The force.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE.4 where Zem = electrical impedance. length of the conductor. termed motional electrical impedance. and Ca with vr. in abamperes. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru.

in mechanical ohms.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8. in abohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.1. The normal electrical impedance zek. all of the conductor.3. in 8. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions. in the absence of motion. The dynamic direct radiator 8. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil.4 8.126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. 8. in chanical ohms. 8. driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers.6 The 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.3. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. that is.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. Zen in abohms. which the mechanical There are three general types of . Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.

the unpolarized armature type. namely. Since there is no polarizing flux. Consider the system shown in Fig.2. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current. the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Unpolarized Armature Type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. 8. the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. A. Assume that all the reluctance . The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature.

12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.13 and 8.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole.14 e = ^r 8. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. in abvolts. in centimeters. in dynes.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. n = number of turns. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. then from equations 8. C = l-^nA.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole. A = area of the center pole. and a = normal spacing. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage. . is where / = current in the coil.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.15 The force on the armature. in square centimeters. in abamperes.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.

4TrJa*/M . From the mechanical circuit of Fig. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8.20 — X From equations 8.21 . and time.2.16.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. mechanical ohms. nC^P 8. the force on the armature is Im = '.19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.18 Equation 8.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. in seconds.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes. Substituting equation 8. in mechanical ohms.15 and 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z.16 e 1 X ^ 4 . 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8. in mechanical ohms.17 for the current in 8. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.

24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet.19. Zen in abohms. in centimeters. from the poles of a permanent magnet. and impedance of the coil. = number of turns. in abohms. in square centimeters.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. ^ = area of center pole. in abamperes. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. for converting electrical variations into however. a = spacing. 8. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit. for the reproduction of sound. in abohms. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current. vibrators and clippers. in maxwells. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen.20 and 8. in mechanical ohms. in oersteds. B. Polarized Reed Armature Type.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. . in gilberts. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. 8. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. this system cannot be used It is. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. filing — as in Fig.3. / = current. in abohms.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. 8. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. saws. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.22 = motional electrical impedance. Therefore. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8.2.

in oersteds. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in abamperes. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. and time. frequency. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. 27r/.axsin wt n coil. in 131 oit maxwells. r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET .

^ .. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole. in centimeters. in abvolts. the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8.27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. __ . sidered. Ax -\- Ax .26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. the flux.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. the reluctance 4>i = a 8.32 „ .28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion. in square centimeters. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8. in maxwells.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA .132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. and area of the pole. in gilberts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. spacing between the armature and pole. the flux will now be 4>x + A. due to the steady field.

36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8.24 and 8.34. in me- chanical ohms. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.32 and e i = — X 8. ZAfi. 8. in mechanical ohms.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. From equations 8..3.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.35 8.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature.37. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. in abohms.33. 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.38 a Zm . the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece. fu = MNi ~r — . The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8.35 and 8. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8. ~ 8.

Equation 8. in abohms.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. ARMATURE MAGNET . Polarized Balanced Armature Type. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature.3. C.38 is similar to equation 8.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms.134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem. 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers. in abohms. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. and impedance of the coil. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8.

41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. The steady magnetic field is force. at the poles (Fig. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. in maxwells. of the pole piece. The sum of the forces. The . in maxwells. in abamperes. which the coil energizes. 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. at each pole magnet. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. in dynes. 2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. i?2 = = coil. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . 8. and yf effective area. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8. in dynes. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in square centimeters. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered.4.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. The flux.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. in oersteds.

in gilberts. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. NMA —^x a^ 8. in mechanical ohms.45. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8. and zm2 impedance of the load. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. through the armature to the right and upward. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.44 A.136 flux.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. in merectilineal chanical ohms.47 at a at a is The electromotive force. rectilineal impedance of the armature. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di. in centimeters. of the steady field. . in mechanical ohms.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. in abvolts. in square centimeters. and effective area of a pole piece.4. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap.

rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8. .50 and 8. and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.43 =-^ 8.50. Zm\.

difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. This driving system is used for loud speakers. galvanometers. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. Therefore. 8. In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles.4. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. system of Fig. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze.

is The current.62 . in dynes.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. = CeCq 8. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. and capacity per unit area. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge.57 numerator of equation 8. in statfarads. in dynes. motive Cq is large . The force. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. ^o^max sin wt .60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. The useful force. in statvolts. on the condenser is q considered. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. in statamperes. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. the fourth term will be negligible.60 From equations 8. in statcoulombs. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8.59 and 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = . in statfarads.

66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate. in stat- amperes. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = .5.61. . in mechanical ohms.140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. Ax) 8. The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.69 . the generated current. ohms. . 8. 4ir(<2 + .x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in Zm2 mechanical ohms. 47r(a — 8.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.66 in 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8.

statohms. in statohms. in stat- Zem = motional ohms.58 and 8. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without.68. at the same time.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. 8. adding a large stiffness. + .72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.5. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.5. 8. 8. electrical network in Fig. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -. electrical impedance of the condenser.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance.69 and 8.

Consider the system shown in Fig. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a. 8. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. current is applied to 2m . The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.6.

and area of the rod. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. in abvolts.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect.74 and ehminating the steady force. in square centimeters.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation. in abamperes. CO/ 8.73 Combining equations and 8. 8. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.X JR 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns. in square centimeters. The electromotive force. due to is the Villari effect. coil. in current in the abamperes.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. in cycles per second. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . reluctance of the magnetic circuit. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf. e = MJ^ dt 8. turns in the coil. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. induction is of the nickel rod. frequency. in gausses. in seconds. and time. . this stress may be considered to be the driving force. current. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. induced in the winding. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in centimeters.

is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. and Young's modulus. in square centimeters.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod. in centimeters. za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed.78 From equation 8. The mechanical to one . rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8. in mechanical ohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. in abvolts. 8. is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. length of the rod. in mechanical ohms.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance.6. in mechanical ohms. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. is The induced e = —K X -— 8. rectilineal impedances zm.

7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. as shown by equation 8. 8." D. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig. 8. 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.79. total in abohms. in abohms. in abohms — equation 8. 8. in mechanical ohms. 8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8.83 From equations 8.82 and 8.84.6. 1942. is assumed to be a In general. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series. New York. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other..86 Mason. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.6). . = motional impedance.83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. The mass mi in Fig. Van Nos- trand Co.

87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. in square centimeters. in centimeters. 8. and Young's modulus. in centimeters. in grams per cubic centimeter. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i . length of the rod. length of the rod.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. is where p The compliance Cmi.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8.80. in Fig. 8. in square centimeters.7. and cross section of the rod.

8.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. Young's modulus. 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. due to a force.8. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. in dynes. X = 4^. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig.7. . A= E = area. air load and support resistance. is The deformation per unit length. 8. 8. 8.7C A and B given in Fig. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. that is.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases. 8. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.88 where Jm = total force. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel.84. 8. EA and 8. in square centimeters.7.8. The vibrating system of Fig. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig.

the data of Fig.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8.8 and Young's modulus. c„ .6. . B = A= From and area. equations 8. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze..90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.88 and 8. in square centimeters. flux density. 8.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.89 K = magnetostriction constant. 8.

in statcoulombs. in dynes.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge. in centimeters. in dynes. equations 8.V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force.92 X From = 8. in centimeters.91 and 8.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. and The displacement. due an applied force. 4 = length of the crystal. E = Young's modulus. X to 10~* for quartz. and A = cross-sectional area. due to the application of a force.93 . in square centimeters. q is 149 = KJu 8.4 force. 6. is .

impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /.9. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. in statohms. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. in square = length of the crystal.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.100 and 8. and E = Young's modulus. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. .vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed.97. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal. in mechanical ohms.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. in mechanical ohms. 8. in centimeters.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. zmi and z. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. in mechanical ohms.101 From equations 8. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. / centimeters. 8.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

namely. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load. 9. 9. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.3.1. There are two general types of magnetic generating systems.

8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. 9. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. .6 ze = = = = = total flux. in centimeters. in gilberts.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil.2. spacing between the armature and pole. in abohms. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. area of the pole. is The velocity of the armature. 9. in abohms. and impedance of the external load. and velocity of the armature. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. 9. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. due to the steady field. and + ZE2. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature. in square centimeters. in centimeters. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. in maxwells. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force.2. force. in centimeters per second. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil. coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. through the armature. in centimeters per second.

ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B. flows through the armature. due to the deflection of the armature. 9. r~ . Balanced Armature Generating System. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.3.

in abohms. ZE = Zei + Ze2. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. of the alternating magnetic circuit. in gilberts. in centimeters.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9. 9. in oersteds. i?2 = reluctance. The current.3. is The /m Zm + 9. a = spacing between armature and pole. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in centimeters per second. in abohms.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig.3. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. in statamperes.11 zme From equations 9. in A . M. in maxwells.4. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature.9 and 9.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. of the magnet. velocity of the armature. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. as depicted 9. = magnetomotive force. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. 9.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^.

due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. in square centimeters. ^= a area of the plate. in statvolts. in statamperes. in centimeters. in statvolts. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. in statfarads. The current.stationary "plate .ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL .14 where e = electromotive force. in centimeters per second. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statohms. 9. and velocity of the X movable plate. spacing between the plates.4 e is t2 9.

Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. electrical and 9.4. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. in centimeters. X in centimeters per second.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. in square centimeters. area of the plates. in statohms. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. 9.17 zme e From equations 9. ^ \ira^{%M + 9.17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.71 of the chapter on ZME = . is The velocity of the movable plate.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. is Ze2 in parallel. in statvolts.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.4.18 Zme) . in statfarads. a spacing between plates.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.15 and 9. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. electrical impedance of the external load. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. = Zm /^^ + 9. e. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.

ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8. .62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.E1 = -r—.26 .25.23 Substituting equation 9.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.21 Substituting equation 9.22.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.21 in 9.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.19. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.24 and fi 9.25 Comparing equations 9. = — a CnX 9.23 in 9.= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.

26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. The magnetostriction magnetic generator. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. is ^tNK 9. zme. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. zei. L\ and rE\. coil.5. in abvolts. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. Magnetostriction generating system. ZEi. 9. In the electrical circuit: e. coil.5. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. However. shown in Fig. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. In the mechanical circuit: zm. 9. the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.26 and an internal impedance zei. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. from equation 8. The volt- age. Equation 9.27 . the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi.5.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in square centimeters. in centimeters. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.79 or 8.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod. in abohms. 9. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. in abohms. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. in centimeters per second.5. - £ 9. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. and Young's modulus. electrical electrical wavelength.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. and impedance of the external circuit. force. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil. . and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. length of the rod. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.

The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in mechanical = ohms. 9. . in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9. ohms. the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other.6.32 the generated electromotive force.28.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. in mechanical ohms. to be a In general.32 From abvolts.86 and 8. are given by equations 8. 9. in Fig.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. in centimeters per second.27 and 9. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. equations 9.6. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.5.

in square centimeters. In the electrical circuits: e.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. 6. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems.27 and the velocity. the effective Zjv/i. Li and tei. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig. 9. E= 4 = Young's modulus. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. mass and compliance of the rod. in statamperes. the driving force. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. 2_bi j<^Li. 9. In the mechanical networks: /m. and velocity of the crystal. zei. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. the other.4 X 10~* for quartz. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. in centimeters. . where KEJ — •* 9. A. generated The h = —. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil. length of the crystal.7. zei. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. cross-sectional area of the crystal. = = length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. mi and Cmi. in centimeters per second.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. ZMi. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. + 9.6 can be obtained from equation 9. 9. zme.6.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system.6. in Fig. in centimeters. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties.

crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical . In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statamperes. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. From equations 9. circuit: e.7.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. electrical and impedance of the external load. 2_b2.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. z^'i zei. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu. electrical and 9. Ce\. in statohms. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me.34 force e. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. in statvolts. 9. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. in statfarads.

A = area of the electrode.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. length of the crystal. length of in centimeters. and „ „„ 9. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. in statohms.7.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. in centimeters.41 . electrical impedance of the external load. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.4 X 10~* for quartz.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. in centimeters. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal.97 or 8.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. and E= Young's modulus.37 K = constant of the crystal 6. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. 4 = length of the crystal. the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator. E = Young's modulus. in centimeters. in statfarads. Cmi where = ^ EA 9. 9. in square centimeters. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.

and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. The velocity at the end of crystal.36 and 9. is .43 From Ze2 in parallel. 9. zm2 in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9.7.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. depicted equations 9.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. in mechantotal ical ohms.45 .= where i.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig. in centimeters per second.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.47 .

are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8.104 and 8. 9. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. 9. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . However. in Fig.49 Substituting 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. e.47 in 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.49 in 9. Equation 9. the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems.8.52 and an internal impedance Ze\.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9.48.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.51. == -^ AwKEx 9. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other.50 and 9.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is .8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.45.

From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. In the electrical circuits: e.37. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. In the mechanical networks: Jm. electrical network of Fig. crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. zme.45 and the velocity. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. 9.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9.8 can be obtained from equation 9. Piezoelectric generating systems. 9. ze\. the electrical impedance of the external load. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. .8. zei. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. Zm2. A. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. the other. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.

Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.. produce a current distribution z'l'. "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. Vol. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal.2.E. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. 929. i^' . mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Proc. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance.. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. 17. Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. ' 10. and superposition theorems to electrical. e^' . e^" . No. . A number cal systems. Then 10. 1 Ballentine. the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". I. p. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal. 1929. /s" . /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . Reciprocity Theorems A. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i . . . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. the elements.1. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . 6. z„".R. S. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance." 171 .CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10.1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. .

e" and /'.1 becomes 10.1. and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. /" are the electromotive forces 10.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1. e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces. equation 10.2 = /'/' where e' . o e . as illustrated in the electrical 10.

New . C. '4>^" . "Theory of Sound.. .. equation 10. • distribution ^i'. fli" are the torques and angular 10. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.7 p Rayleigh. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device." Vol. ^ Olson." D.1.' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n . and provided the applied forces /mi./fl3 . . London. 10.4 where /^f'. p.6 velocities depicted ./m3 all of the same frequency. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10.1. produce a rotational velocity — . frequency. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces./ij2. 4>2" . mechanical rotational system of Fig. 1926./ij„ are all of the same . 10.1. . let a set of torques/iji'. MacMillan and Co. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. II. /ji/2. York. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem. equation 10. ^2'. 10. rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i". rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. fB2" .3 becomes fu'x" ./b' and (J)'./7j2'. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. 1940. Van Nostrand Co. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. and provided the applied torques /iji. D. 145.1. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. =/a/V 10.fRi" • 4>2.

10 From neering" equations 1.10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10. . 10..14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and .15 v' . . equation 10. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures. 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10.1. 1 .12 is for a point. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig.12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. equation 10.11 From equations 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".13 If. a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10. ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .174 THEOREMS . .—. y" .+ dv' .. 10.1. dv" — . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. v' grad po „ = 10. - p 1 .8.9 and 1. p"v' 10.9 and 10.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10. 10.4 by the p and v of the other set.

Then — . 10. .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. velocities. . . . X^ X^. .1. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. X^" Xn" Then . . . . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. However.19 . . let also. . and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. pressures and volume currents. and let a second set of pressures ^i". n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10. n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. produce a volume current distribution Xi. pz same frequency. X2". linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. 10. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. . . . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. 10.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . . pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' .16 becomes .1. ." a second volume current distribution Xi". as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance./". .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. . . which there are only two pressures. pi. E. equation 10. . X2. produce pn.

currents. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. D. . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. . an interconnected e\ . en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . B. Electrical-mechanical. F. n Then 10.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces.S. let also. Mechanical-acoustical.21 .2^. L.. . px L. . HX* E p"X D Fig.S. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" . C.19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical. 10. i" . fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. . Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem.176 THEOREMS Equation 10. P"X' i" L. — In . .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. E.S. forces n and velocities. . . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. P"X' tn\ B M . The 10.2.

iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone. 2D. The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. 10.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. Theorem.2C.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. as shown in Fig. mechanical. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field. For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. e"i' 10.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. acoustical. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. . e'i" = e"i' 10.23 states that a if. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. Electrical-Mechanical. me- chanical. G. electrical transducer. 10. acoustical transducer. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker.23 . mechanical. field.2fi. Electrical-Mechanical. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. is H. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10.

10. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker.178 I. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. as shown in Fig.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze . D. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.3. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- .2£.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. = p"X' 10. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically.

save the one being considered. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. . Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical.4.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. velocities. force. mechanical rectilineal. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. velocity. forces. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical. angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. Each source. current. forces.

However. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. 11. An exhaust back pressure. Introduction The fundamental lineal. principles relating to electrical. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size. by acoustical capacitances. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. Convert the answer into the original system. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. However. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. muffler is quite effective.1. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved. The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise.2. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 .

The system of Fig. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe.u. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. with rft. 11. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. 11.1. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.However. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. circuit will be used instead of network. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA.1. in the audible frequency range.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). Therefore. When there is only one path. in Fig. In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. 11.M and Ca for an acoustical system. . ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce.

The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi. 11. sate for approximations. 11. serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes. .2. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.182 APPLICATIONS In general.3. system the unpolarized type described in section 8.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed.

Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil.w2. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. force can be determined /m 11. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.4.3. 11.. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit. 11. 11. nii and r. 11. electrical dynamic loud speal<er. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. radiator tube.3. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| .7. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e. rMi and Ci.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. . in dynes. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig." I"*.1. the mass of the cone. and . In the mechanical circuit: m\. zem.3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. in mechanical Jm = driving force. 11. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms.3. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. The mechanical driving from equation 8. teg.

In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H. 11. the moment Cg. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. is The sound power output. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. in centimeters per second. Olson. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. F. 1940. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. Van Nostrand Co.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range.4. phonograph pickups. given by 11." D.5. telephone receivers. etc. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11. These systems include microphones. measuring cal systems. . SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. The simple vibration fly- damper. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. and the shaft. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs..2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . FX. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. shown ^ in Fig.4. 11. velocity of the cone. m.YWHEEL I. 11. in mechanical ohms. of inertia of the flywheel. loud speakers. In the mechanical network: A. New York. comphance of the damper.

z. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations. the mass of the machine.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. Cm /4 and 4rM . the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. ciple of the device. W.SA. Machine mounted directly upon the floor.5. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. zmf. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. W. The driving force/i. the mass of the machine.6. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. A. The shunt mechanical vibration.vF. Machine mounted upon an isolating system. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\. B.SA. isolator.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel./ is due to the . is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. Jm. /jf. 11. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies.

the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. . In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. Jm. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. 11.6.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. pressor. consists of the following elements: nii.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the case.6.Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. the compliance and mechanical mi.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. only isolation in the system of Fig. mi. MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. 11. 11.7. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m. shown in Fig. isolating mechanical network. 11. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2. these values springs.

the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. the system in Fig.8. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. the mass of the case. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. The mechanical network of Fig.v/i/4. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. . Cm2 and ^1-/2. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. 187 Cmi and rui. 11. 11. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic.7. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system. Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Of course. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor. The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. 11. zmf. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf.

8.v/3. Cm2.9. m-i. engine. etc. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. both rectilineal and rotational. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . 11. the combined driving force at the four legs. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. Cm2. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. 11. 11. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. body. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. This system has many degrees of freedom. the mass of the instrument and carriage. the driving force at each tire. the mass of the frame. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line.v/2. the compliance of the spring suspension. Cms a-nd r. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. the mass of the tire. VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. m2. tmi. mum. Cmi and tires. in general. 11. A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. r. wheel and axle. the compliance of the spring.7. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig.u 11.

body and engine.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. the mass of the four tires. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. 189 m^. Cmi/4 and 4r. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small.8. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. 4?ni. view. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. springs and shock absorbers. the compliance of the four springs. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. the mass of the passenger. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. the mass of the frame. Cji/2/4.i/a. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. the combined driving force at the four tires. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. 4rif 2. fn2. Cms and r. . Since there are four tires. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the driving force. m^. mi. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/. 4:rM2. However./ifi the comtires. wheels. 11.\f 1. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. the mass of the passenger. the compliance of the springs. Cms. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .

An electrical resistance. Acoustical Ohm. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. pitching or swaying motion. — — —A — . A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. 11. that is. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. mechanical rotational resistance. Electrical abohm. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. which controls the oscillations. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude.6. Supplementary Note: Electrical. An acoustical resistance. developed at the tires. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. For example. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. Mechanical Ohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. Rotational Ohm. A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^. As already indicated. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. an automobile has several modes of vibration. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. mechanical rectilineal. Most of the forces. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

61. 177 reactance. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 9. 88 electrical. 9. 9. 187 Torque. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 171 Resonant frequency. 22 networlcs. 35 effective. 6 Sound effective. impedance. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. acoustical. 23 mechanical. 6. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical. electrical Superposition theorem. 171 acoustical. 88 mechanical rectilineal. 17. 9. 22. 184 Rotatomotive force. 23 23. 120 Duhamel's integral. 21. 22. 42 one degree of freedom. 107 Transients. peak. 6 14 pressure. 88 mechanical rotational. 13. 42 inductance and series coupled. 122 . 178 electrical. acoustical. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 111 electrical resistance. 188 Systems. 28 Subharmonic. 10. 9. automobile. 6 instantaneous. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 18. 21. 32 Rotational. 85 rotational. reciprocity. 18. 6 maximum. 178 electrical. 45 electrical. 5 Transformer. 6 peak. 23. 9.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 10. 178 acoustical. 9. 10. 6 Stiffness. ohm. 45 instantaneous. 6. 178 mechanical rotational. electrical-mechanical. 23 maximum. 13. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. (see cor- effective. 13. 179 Suspension systems. 11 instantaneous. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 179 Thevenin's. 6 Transducer. 48 two degrees of freedom. 9. 21. 13. 6 mechanical rectilineal. 41 mechanical rotational. compliance. 6. 6 maximum. 25 three degrees of freedom. 9 resistance.) 195 Table. 13. 88 Transient response. 22 mechanical rotational. 105 arbitrary force. 37 and analogies. 37. 172 mechanical rotational. 6 peak. 21. 10. 173 superposition. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 178 Three degrees of freedom. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 23 Theorems. 6 Static pressure.

24 Velocity. peak. band pass. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. 144. 93. 7 linear. 149. gain. 8 instantaneous.) INDEX Villari effect. 37. 20. 146. 45 Unit function. 8 maximum. 8 8 "T" type network. 93. high pass. 11 effective. 95 low pass. 165. 23. 184 186 Young's modulus. 22. 8. 92. peak.196 Transients (Cont. 23 effective. 21. 92. 147. Heaviside's Calculus. 5 maximum. 7 Vibration. 92. 151. 163. "X" isolator. 106 163 Volume current. 106 unit function. 23 Transmission. 7. magnetostriction. 7. 97 93. 5 filters. cut quartz crystal. 92. 106 Units. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 148 machine isolator. 143. 101 instantaneous. 150. 93. 167 . 94 response characteristics. 22 angular. 7 Wave. 11 loss. Wave band elimination. 7.

- KTC Caracteristicas tecnicas.
- Difference Between Reactance and Inductive Reactance
- ECE571-Chap-11
- electrical-engineering-portal.com-An_Overview_Of_Short_Circuit_Current_part_3.pdf
- Circuit Q (Q Factor)
- Hybrid Pie
- IES CONV Electrical Engineering 1993
- From Impedance Measurements Across Five Frequencies to Approximate
- ShortCircuitCalculations Ok
- Quad Comparators
- EIS Traduzindo
- Slide 1.pdf
- High Speeds and Fine Precision Knock PCB Traces Off Pedestal
- Eis
- understanding the zed meter.pdf
- Eis
- Basics of EIS
- SUNIL Question Paper.doc
- Norton
- Negative Impedance Converter - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Electrical Laws
- gateee Questions
- Public a Cao
- e971_zjys
- Physiological Measurement Volume 24 Issue 2 2003 [Doi 10.1088%2F0967-3334%2F24%2F2%2F361] Ross, Alexander S; Saulnier, G J; Newell, J C; Isaacson, D -- Current Source Design for Electrical Impedance Tomogr
- 3 Microwave Measurements
- The Impedance Matching in the Audio Signal Processing (Part XXXVIII)
- The Impedance Matching in the Audio Signal Processing (Part XXXVI)
- New Microsoft Word Document (5)
- Impedance Matching Example

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd