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Dynamical Analogies

By

HARRY

RCA

F.

OLSON,

E.E.,

Ph.D.

Jersey

A coustical

Research Director

LaboratorieSy Princeton,

New

NEW YORK

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

250 Fourth Avenue

1943

Inc.

Copyright, 1943, by

D.

**VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,
**

All Rights Reserved

This book, or any

-parts

Inc.

thereof,

may

not he reprodii-ced in any form without written permission from the publishers.

Printed in U.

S.

A.

for compilation and assistance in preparation and correction of the manuscript. Lorene E. The problem is then reduced to the simple solution of This method has been used by acoustical engineers twenty years in the development of all types of electroMechanical engineers have begun to use the same procedure for analyzing the action of mechanisms. The text assumes on the part of the reader a familiarity with the elements of alternating circuit theory and physics. Harry January. The author The author wishes to acknowledge the interest given by Mr. mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. The subject matter is developed in stages from the simple element through to comrectilineal. the mathe- matics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. In this procedure the mechanical or acoustical vibrating system is converted into the analogous electrical circuit. Olson. By means is of may be compared with one that better known. Olson . plex arrangements of multielement systems. Engstrom. The importance and value of dynamical analogies to any one concerned with vibrating systems have led to a demand for expositions on this branch of dynamics. The relations and actions are more easily visualized. Research Director. engineer.PREFACE Analogies are useful for analysis in unexplored analogies an unfamiliar system fields. Accordingly this book has been written with the object of presenting the principles of dynamical analogies to the for the past acoustic transducers. By means of analogies the knowledge in electrical circuits may be applied to the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems. This book deals with the analogies between electrical. E. As an aid in the establishment of these analogies a complete theme is depicted in each illustration. W. in this project. wishes to express his gratitude to his wife. an electrical circuit. 1943 F. Although not generally so considered the electrical circuit is the most common and widely exploited vibrating system.

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Acoustical Capacitance 2.3 Inductance.3 3. Inertance 15 15 15 Mass Moment of Inertia 15 D. Rectilineal Compliance C. Mechanical Rectilineal.2 4 II.4 16 Electrical Capacitance. Inductance B. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Page Introduction Definitions INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. Acoustical Resistance 2. Rotational Compliance 17 17 17 18 18 D. ELEMENTS 2.2 3. Inertance 2.1 3. Acoustical Capacitance A. A.2 Introduction Resistance A. Electrical Resistance B. Mechanical Rotational Resistance 12 12 12 13 13 13 D. Rectilineal Compliance. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. Moment of Inertia.5 Representation of Electrical.1 1 1. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance C. Electrical Capacitance B.4 Introduction Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom Kinetic Energy Potential Energy vii 25 25 27 28 . C.1 2. ELECTRICAL. Rotational Compliance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements 19 III. Mass.CONTENTS Chapter I.

8 The Mechanical Rectilineal System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 45 48 V. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 4.11 Comparison of the Four Systems 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.12 Electrical Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Two Degrees of Freedom and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Shunt Corrective Networks Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.8 67 . in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rectilineal.. Mechanical Rectilineal..1 Introduction 37 4. 4. .3 Two Degrees of Freedom 37 38 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy 4.2 Two Electrical.7 64 5.6 4.. MECHANICAL RO- TATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.5 Chapter 3.7 The Electrical System . Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel 52 56 58 5.4 5.viii CONTENTS Page Dissipation 29 3.5 Equations of Motion 4.6 62 5.3 5. ELECTRICAL. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series.8 Equations of Motion Resonant Frequency Kirchhoff's Law and D'Alembert's Principle 30 32 33 IV.4 Dissipation 4.1 Introduction 52 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical Resistance. 60 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.7 3..13 Electrical. CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5.2 4.6 3. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.10 The Acoustical System 4.9 The Mechanical Rotational System 4. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies .

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Electrical. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.19 Electrical Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.13 76 78 80 83 85 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 86 5.21 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5.CONTENTS Chapter 5. Mechanical Rotational.2 6. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 ix Page Electrical Resistance.. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.20 5.15 Electrical Resistance.11 69 71 5.14 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.16 Electrical Resistance. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers 87 87 88 VI. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. and Acoustical Analogies 5.12 Corrective Networks Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.1 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.4 6..7 Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave Filters 97 101 .. Mechanical Rectilineal.'\nalog:es 74 Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.3 6. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Parallel.18 Resistance Networks Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.6 6.22 "T" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical 72 .10 Series 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance IN Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.17 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies . Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies "it" Type Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Rectilineal.5 Introduction Types of Wave Filters Response Characteristics of Wave Filters Low Pass Wave Filters High Pass Wave Filters 92 92 93 94 95 6. and Acoustical Analogies 85 5. WAVE FILTERS 6. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies 5. Mechanical Rotational.

GENERATING SYSTEMS 9. 124 124 126 127 Type Polarized Reed Armature Type Polarized Balanced Armature Type 130 134 138 141 8.5 8.X Chapter VII. CONTENTS Page Introduction lOS TRANSIENTS 7. Inductance AND Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.2 Introduction Reciprocity Theorems A. Electrical Reciprocity 171 171 Theorem 171 Theorem C. DRIVING SYSTEMS 8.6 VIII. Mechanical Rectilineal Reciprocity 172 173 173 .3 Introduction Electrodynamic Driving System Electromagnetic Driving Systems A.4 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance.2 9. 153 153 155 155 Reed Armature Generating System Balanced Armature Generating System 157 158 9.1 9. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Arbitrary Force 106 107 7.4 Ill 7.stem Piezoelectric Driving System 148 IX. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem B.3 The Heaviside Operational Calculus Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance IN Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal.4 8. Unpolarized Armature B.6 Electrostatic Generating System Magnetostriction Generating System Piezoelectric Generating System 162 165 X.2 7. THEOREMS 10. C.5 9.1 10.2 8. B.5 114 120 7.6 Electrostatic Driving System Magnetostriction Driving Sy. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem D.1 8. 1 7.3 Introduction Electrodynamic Generating System Electromagnetic Generating Systems A.

1 Introduction 180 180 182 183 11.4 11.9 Machine Vibration Isolator Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator Shockproof Instrument Mounting Automobile Suspension System 186 187 188 INDEX 191 . APPLICATIONS 11.8 1 1 . Theorem Theorem 177 Acoustical-Mcchanical-Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity 178 178 10. Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity F. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity xi Page Theorem Theorem 175 176 177 G. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem 10.6 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal C. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem H.3 Automobile Muffler Electric Clipper Direct Radiator Loud Speaker Rotational Vibration Damper 11.4 Superposition Theorem 179 XI.5 184 185 11.7 11. Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational 178 178 D. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem Theorem Theorem 178 178 B.2 11.3 Thevenin's Theorems A.CONTENTS Chapter E. Electrical-Mechanical-Acoustical-Mechanical-Elcctrical Reciprocity I.

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in the early days of electrical circuit theory. as for example. However. This immediately suggests analogies between electrical circuits and other dynamical systems. at the present time electrical circuit theory has been developed to a much tems. Introduction it is desired to compare an unfamiliar system known. Analogies make Analogies are useful when it possible to extend the line of reasoning into unexplored fields.1. the electrical circuit is the most common example and the most widely exploited vibrating system. Almost any work involving mechanical or acoustical systems includes electrical systems and electrical circuit theory. Expressions for the kinetic energy. vibrating systems. potential energy and dissipation show that network equations are deducible from general dynamic equations. an electrical circuit may be considered to be a vibrating system. The equations of electrical circuit theory may be based on Maxwell's dynamical theory in which the currents play the role of velocities. In other words.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS 1. higher state than the corresponding theory of mechanical sys- The number is of engineers times the and scientists versed in electrical circuit theory many number equally familiar with mechanical also systems. 1 The acoustical . time before any attention was given to equations for electrical this reason. the mathematics more readily applied and the analytical solutions more readily obtained in the familiar system. The relations and actions are more easily with one that is better visualized. The equations of motion For of mechanical systems were developed a long circuits. it ural to explain the action in was natterms of mechanical phenomena. mechanical and acoustical tems. A large part of engineering analysis is concerned with vibrating sys- Although not generally so considered.

2 engineer is INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS interested in sound reproduction or the conversion of electrical or mechanical energy into acoustical energy. mechanoacoustical or electromechanoacoustical systems. constituent parts of a circuit. In an electrical circuit the number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of independent closed meshes or circuits. cal. Elements are the meshes. Mathematically the elements electric circuit in an electrical network are the coeffi- cients in the differential equations describing the network. Acoustical systems in which the dimensions are small compared to the wavelength are vibrations in a single dimension. the system is If only a single variable said to have a single degree of freedom. Electrical circuit theory is the branch of electromagnetic theory which deals with electrical oscillations in linear electrical networks. as for example. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of theory is use of the terms "circuit" and "network" in the literature is not estabThe term "circuit" is often used to designate a network with several branches. The number of independent variables required to completely specify is the motion of every part of a vibrating system a measure of the is number needed of degrees of freedom of the system. Vibrations in one dimension occur in mechanical systems made up of mechanical elements. induct- ance and capacitance. This involves acousti- electroacoustical. ^ The term "single dimension" implies that the movement or variation occurs along a path. Of course. The mechanical engineer is interested in the development of various mechanisms or vibrating systems involving masses. . The branches or meshes are composed of elements. ' The lished. Electrical elements are resistance. The use of complex notation has been applied extensively to electrical circuits. springs and friction.^ trical An elec- network is a connected set of separate circuits termed branches or A circuit may be defined as a physical entity in which varying magnitudes may be specified in terms of time and a single dimension. various assemblies of masses. this operational method can be applied to any analytically similar system. springs and brakes. When the based upon Maxwell's dynamics the network forms a dynamical system in which the currents play the role of velocities. In a field problem there is variation in two or three dimensions. the development of vibrat- ing systems and the control of sound vibrations.

Therefore. it is logical to apply this knowledge to the solution of vibration problems in other fields by the same theory as that used in the solution of electrical circuits.. The principal objective in this book is the establishment of analogies between electrical. Hanle {JViss. There is no claim that the analogies as outlined in this book are the only ones possible. Verojf a. Therefore. SiemensKonzern. every electrical. However. and the Standards of Electroacoustics. 4. For example. particularly in the solution of certain specific problems. 4. In this book. In addition. the author has attempted to outline the essentials of dynamical analogies ' from the standpoint of the engineer or applied scientist. d. Finally. mechanical or acoustical system as may be considered a combination of mechanical or acoustical elements. any mechanical or acoustical system electrical may be reduced to an network and the problem may be solved by electrical circuit theory. XI. mechanical and acoustical systems so that any one familiar with electrical circuits will be able to analyze the action of vibrating systems. That is to say. up the mechanical and electrical.INTRODUCTION a mechanical or acoustical system acoustical elements. circuit. Soc. No. it is only logical to conform with the recognized standards and preponderance of usage. and electrical engineering books employing analogies to explain alternating current phenomena use analogies as defined in this book. and the engineer's familiarity with electrical circuits. ^ The analogies as outlined in this book are formal ones due to the similarity of the differential equations and do not imply that there is any physical similarity between quantities occvipying the same position in their respective equations. and ratio of pressure to displacement. Differential equations are used to show the basis for the analogies between electrical. Acous. Vol.1 of 1942. particularly electrical circuits. all communication. However. the analogies as defined in this book conform with the American Standard Acoustical Terminology z24. Amer. mechanical and acoustical systems. mechanical impedance has been defined by some authors as the ratio of pressure to velocity. 1933) have proposed analogies in which mechanical impedance is defined as the ratio of velocity to force. the text has been written and illustrated so that the derivations may be taken for granted. Institute of Radio Engineers. In view of the tremendous amount of study which has been directed towards the solution of circuits. No. Every analogy possesses certain advantages. role in setting in setting 3 may be looked upon as mechanical or Kirchhoff's electromotive force law plays the same up the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does acoustical equations. — . analogies as defined in this book are universally employed in the technical and scientific journals. I) and Firestone {Jour. in the past. Vol. ratio of force to displacement.

A fundamental frequency is the lowest comFundamental Frequency ponent frequency of a periodic quantity. period. Frequency. a constant. generally called simply In general a periodic function can be expanded into a series of the form.4 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS A few of the terms used in dynamical analogies will be defined in listed below will be defined in subsequent is 1. y = /('') = ^0 + ^1 sin (co^ + ai) + ^2 sin (2iox + 0:2) + • • • j yf' s is where co. and the and a's are constants which may be positive. component the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency is ratio of — called the second harmonic. a is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. A harmonic is a component of a periodic quantity which For example. are written to conform with the analogous existing standards. is subsequent cycles were identical with The frequency is the the cycle per second. + T). is is would occur per unit of time if the cycle under consideration. —A periodic quantity jy is an oscillating quantity the values of which recur for equal increments of the independent variable. — The time required for one cycle of a periodic quantity the The unit the second. or zero. or which tity comprises a cycle. is that frequency which is In a driven ^ Approximately one-half of the definitions in this chapter are taken from the American Standards Association standards. equals 2x divided by the period T. Periodic Quantity. Definitions ^ this section. The remainder. Cycle. Octave. The unit —An octave — is the interval between two frequencies having a two to one. reciprocal of the period. a positive constant. then is j has the property that y — f{^) = f(x the period of jy. —The basic frequency of a periodic quantity considered to be the most important. Terms not sections. — The number of cycles occurring per unit of time. If a periodic quantity a function of ^. Basic Frequency. which have not been defined at this time by any standards group. a period of jy. The small- est positive value of T'ls the primitive period ofy.2. . This called a Fourier series. Harmonic. all is the frequency. negative. where T. set —One complete of the recurrent values of a periodic quanPeriod.

Wavelength. the dyne. The inThe unit is is — Mechanomotive Force). Electromotive Force. Maximum Force {Maximum force is the maximum absolute that cycle. Subharmonic. . usually a periodic quantity in an electrical. The unit the dyne. Dyne. —The effective electromotive force is the mean square of the instantaneous electromotive force over a com- plete cycle between two points. — The peak electromotive force for any speciabsolute value of the instantaneous the maximum electromotive force during that cycle. The wavelength of a periodic wave in an isotropic medium is the perpendicular distance between two wave fronts in which the displacements have a phase difference of one complete cycle. Effective Electromotive Force. —The maximum electromotive force absolute value of the instantaneous electromotive force during that cycle. force between two points is —The instantaneous electromotive the total instantaneous electromotive force. Instantaneous Electromotive Force. force. The unit is the abvolt. — — Abvolt. A subharmonic is a component of a periodic quantity having a frequency which is an integral submultiple of the basic fre- would it — quency. stantaneous force at a point the dyne. Effective Force {Effective is the total instantaneous force. —A dyne is the unit of force or mechanomotive Instantaneous Force {Instantaneous Mechanomotive Force). time interval The is unit is the abvolt. The unit is the dyne. —The maximum value of the instantaneous force during Force). is Maximum the maximum Peak fied Electromotive Force. Note: The term "subharmonic" is generally applied in the case of a driven system whose vibration has frequency components of lower fre- quency than the driving frequency. The unit is the abvolt. The root unit the abvolt. —The effective force the root mean square is of the instantaneous force over a complete cycle. Peak Force {Peak Mechanomotive specified interval is —The peak force for any the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous is force during that cycle. A wave is a propagated disturbance. Wave. —An abvolt is is the unit of electromotive force. mechanical or acoustical system.DEFINITIONS system it 5 periodic waves in general be the driving frequency while in most would correspond to the fundamental frequency. Mechanomotive Force).

—The peak sound unit is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure in that interval. Instantaneous Sound Pressure {Instantaneous Acoustomotive Force). the abampere.6 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Dyne Centimeter. Abampere. The unit is the dyne per — square centimeter. — The unit Maximum torque is the Torque {Maximum Rotatomotive Force). The maximum sound pressure for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous sound pressure during that cycle. dyne per square centimeter. —A dyne per square centimeter dyne centimeter. the root mean square is Torque {Effective Rotatomotive Force). The maximum maximum absolute value of the instantaneous torque during — that cycle. The unit is the dyne centimeter. Maximum Sound Pressure {Maximum Acoustomotive Force). the dyne centimeter. Effective pressure at a point is the total instantaneous pressure at the point minus the static pressure. An abampere is the unit of current. the dyne per square centimeter. The unit is Peak Sound Pressure {Peak Acoustomotive pressure for any specified time interval is Force). —The instantaneous current The unit is at a point is the total instantaneous current at that point. . —A dyne centimeter is is the unit of torque or rotato- motive Instantaneous Torque {Instantaneous Rotatomotive Force). —The effective — sound pressure at a point is the root mean square value of the instantaneous sound pressure over a complete cycle at the point. the Dyne per Square Static Pressure. The unit is the dyne per Sound Pressure {Effective Acoustomotive Force). The the — Instantaneous Current. The effective torque is of the instantaneous torque over a complete cycle. Peak Torque {Peak Rotatomotive Force) The peak torque — for a speci- fied interval is the maximum The unit Centimeter. Effective the total instantaneous torque. is the unit of sound pressure or acoustomotive force. in a The static pressure is the pressure that would exist medium with no sound waves present. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. absolute value of the instantaneous torque is during that cycle. — The instantaneous sound square centimeter. —The instanThe unit is taneous torque at a point the dyne centimeter. force.

—The — effective angular velocity at a point the root mean square Angular the value of the instantaneous angular velocity over a Velocity. The maximum current for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous current during that cycle. Maximum given cycle is The unit is the radian per second. at a point is —The instantaneous angular velocity The is the total instantaneous angular velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter per second. Peak Current. —The peak current for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous current in that interval. is Centimeter per Second. Effective Velocity. The unit is the centimeter the root —The — effective velocity at a point is mean square value of the instantaneous velocity over a complete cycle at that point. Effective Angular Velocity. Maximum Current. per second. Cubic Centimeter per Second. radian per second is the unit of angular Instantaneous Angular Velocity. Peak Angular time interval is —The peak angular velocity The unit is The the radian per second. Maximum Velocity. is velocity in that interval. for any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous angular the radian per second. unit is the radian per second. the centimeter per second. The unit is the abampere. —A centimeter per second the unit of velocity. complete cycle at the point. Peak Velocity. the abampere. current. —A cubic centimeter the unit of volume . The maximum velocity for any given cycle is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous velocity during that cycle. Instantaneous Velocity. is Radian per Second.DEFINITIONS Effective Current. The unit is the abampere. —The peak velocity —A for any specified time interval is the maximum The unit absolute value of the instantaneous velocity in that interval. —The instantaneous velocity at a point the is is total instantaneous velocity at that point. The unit is the centimeter per second. The maximum angular velocity unit is for any maximum Velocity. 7 is —The effective current — at a point the root mean square value of the instantaneous current over a complete cycle at that point. velocity. absolute value of the instantaneous angular velocity during that cycle.

This is the part responsible for the dissipation of the imaginary part of the energy. given cycle Maximum Volume Current. which. The unit the abohm. trical —Electrical resistance is the real part of the elec- impedance.-W is impedance. where both systems are considered concurrently. —The instantaneous volume current at volume current at that point. —Electrical capacitance when by an electrical system is that coefficient which. The unit is the abfarad. —The maximum volume current for any is the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume The unit is current during that cycle. — ^The word "mechanical" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the word "rotational" is ordinarily used as a modifier to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. multiplied The 1-k unit in is Electrical Capacitance. a point is is the total instantaneous The unit is the cubic centimeter per second. the cubic centimeter per second. electrical — Electrical reactance The unit in 2. To avoid ambiguity in this book. The unit is the mechanical ohm. gives the positive imaginary part of the is electrical impedance.8 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Instantaneous Volume Current. Mechanical Rectilineal Impedance^ {Mechanical Impedance) Mechanical rectilineal impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating force applied to the system by the resulting linear velocity in the direction of the force at its point of application. the words "mechanical rectilineal" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rectilineal displacements and the words "mechanical rotational" are used as modifiers to designate a mechanical system with rotational displacements. second. is the abohm. —The effective volume current at a point The unit is the root mean square value of the instantaneous volume current over a the cubic centimeter per complete cycle at that point. —Inductance multiplied by an system is that coefficient the abhenry. . is —Electrical impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating electromotive force applied to the system by the resulting current. Effective Volume Current. electrical Inductance. Electrical Impedance. the cubic centimeter per second. is Electrical Resistance. for Peak Volume Current. when times the frequency. The unit the abohm. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the electrical impedance. times the frequency. time interval is —The The peak volume current is any specified the maximum absolute value of the instantaneous volume unit current in that interval. Electrical Reactance.

This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mechanical Rotational Resistance {Rotational Resistance). Mechanical Rotational Reactance {Rotational Reactance). Mechanical is the imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. unit is the rotational ohm. Mass. Mechaniis the real part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechan- ical rotational impedance. The unit is the gram centimeter to the second power. the radian per centimeter per the complex quotient dyne. Acoustical Impedance. is —Mechanical The the real part of the mechanical rotational imped- This is the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. rotational reactance — Moment of Inertia. The unit is the mechanical ohm. Compliance. is the reciprocal of the negative imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. when multiplied by lir times the frequency. rotational resistance ance. —Acoustical Impedance is of the pressure applied to the system by the resulting volume current. The unit is the rotational ohm. Mass in a mechanical system is that coefficient which.DEFINITIONS 9 Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance {Mechanical Resistance^. when multiplied by times the frequency. The unit is the acoustical ohm. when cal rectilineal resistance — — — multiplied by liv times the frequency. when multiplied by times the frequency. Rotational Compliance. The unit is the mechanical ohm. is in a 1-k mechanical system that coefficient which. ' See footnote S. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rotational impedance. page I . tional — — Rotational compliance The unit is in a mechanical rota1-k system is is that coefficient which. — Compliance The unit is the gram. Moment of inertia in a mechanical rotational system is that coefficient which. gives the positive imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rectilineal Reactance {Mechanical Reactance) Mechanical rectilineal reactance is the imaginary part of the mechanical rectilineal impedance. Mechanical Rotational Impedance ^ {Rotational Impedance) Mechanical rotational impedance is the complex quotient of the alternating torque applied to the system by the resulting angular velocity in the direction of the torque at its — point of application. The unit is the centimeter per dyne.

the reciprocal negative imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. An acoustical system is a system adapted for the transmission of sound consisting of one or all of the following acoustical elements: acoustical resistance. Electrical System. inertance and acoustical capacitance. moment of inertia and rotational compliance. A mechanical rotational system is a system adapted for the transmission of rotational vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rotational elements: mechanical rotational resistance. the fourth power. an element in a mechanical rectilineal. —An electrical system is a system adapted for the all transmission of electrical currents consisting of one or of the electrical elements: electrical resistance. . Mechanical Rotational System. —Acoustical capacitance when multiplied an acoustical sys- tem is is that coefficient which. In the same way. This the part responsible for the dissipation of energy. by "l-w times the frequency. and rotational compliance. inductance and electrical capacitance. mass and compliance. inertance and acoustical capacitance. moment of inertia. mass and compliance. The elements in an acoustical system are acoustical resistance. A mechanical rectilineal system is a system adapted for the transmission of linear vibrations consisting of one or all of the following mechanical rectilineal elements: mechanical rectilineal resistance. unit is The the centimeter to the fifth power per dyne. Mechanical Rectilineal System. inductance and electrical capacitance. The elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are mechanical rectilineal resistance. Acoustical Reactance. Acoustical System. mechanical rotational or acoustical Element? —An system defines a distinct activity in its part of the system.10 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Acoustical Resistance. The unit is the gram per centimeter in to Acoustical Capacitance. Inertance. The elements in a mechanical rotational system are mechanical rotational resistance. gives the positive imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. is — Inertance Itt an acoustical system that coefficient which. defines a distinct activity in element or circuit parameter in an electrical system its part of the circuit. the acoustical ohm. —Acoustical The unit in reactance is is the imaginary part of the acoustical impedance. when multiplied by times the frequency. The elements in an electrical circuit are electrical resistance. — — — ^ Elements are defined and described in Chapter II.. The unit is the acoustical ohm. —Acoustical is resistance is the real part of the acoustical impedance.

pressure or volume current. the number of bels denoting such a ratio being the logarithm to the base ten of this ratio. The abbreviation db is used for the decibel. For For a gain the reference power is is greater. mechanical rectilineal. The bel is the Decibel. — Transmission. For example. Transmission Loss {or Gain). cal rotational or acoustical —The transmission loss due to a system joining a load having a given electrical. The decibel is one-tenth of a bel. decibels When the conditions are such that ratios of voltages or ratios of currents (or analogous quantities velocities. with Pi and P2 designating two amounts of power and n the — number of decibels denoting their ratio K = 10 logio ^ p . torque. force. —Transmission in a system refers to the transmission of power. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance and a given electromotive force. torque or pressure is electrical. force. fundamental division of a logarithmic scale expressing the ratio of two amounts of power. voltage. Either of these systems may be electrical. decibels n 20 logio ^ ^2 ) decibels where tively. power delivered to the load under some reference condition.DEFINITIONS 11 Transducer. mechanical or acoustical. A transducer is a device actuated by power from one system and supplying power in the same or any other form to a second system. angular velocity. the number of decibels by which the corresponding powers differ is expressed by the following formulas: w = = 20 logio T . velocity. mechani- impedance and a source having a given mechanical rectilineal. pressures or such as forces or velocities. current. expressed by the logarithm of the ratio of the power delivered to the load to the a loss the reference power smaller. torques or angular volume currents) are the square roots of the corresponding power ratios. /1//2 and ^i/(?2 are the given current and voltage ratios respec- .

inductor and capacitor. Resistance changed into heat by Energy is lost by the system when a charge q is driven through a resistance by a voltage Resistance is the circuit element which causes dissipation. An tinguished from the devices. 5. is defined as A. t 2.1 Equation resistance ' states that the electromotive force across an electrical is proportional to the electrical resistance and the current.1. II Introduction element or circuit parameter in an electrical system defines a disIn an electrical system these elements are resistance. inductor and capacitor idealized to have only resistance. — Electrical energy is the passage of an electrical current through a resistance. electrical. As indicated in the preceding chapter. In this procedure. 12 .' 2. is the study of mechanical and acoustical systems facilitated by the introduction of elements analogous to the elements of an electric circuit. and current through the resistance.1 where e / = = voltage across the resistance. 2. the vibrating systems. See footnote page 8. They are distinct activity in its part of the circuit. first step is to develop the elements in these It is the purpose of this chapter to define and describe mechanical rectilineal. in abohms. resistor.CHAPTER ELEMENTS 2. e. inductance and capacitance. inductance and capacitance is a circuit element. in abvolts. e rs^-. Electrical Resistance. in abamperes. mechanical rotational and acoustical elements. Electrical resistance rs.2. A resistor.

13 Mechanical rectilineal energy motion which is opposed by linear resistance (friction).RESISTANCE B. rectilineal resistance Equation 2. Equation 2. Mechanical rotational energy is C. Mechanical rotational resistance (termed rotational resistance) vr. is defined as r^ — = y 2. mechanical rotational resistance is displaced by an angle (^ by a torque/^. in rotational ohms. in centi- meters per second. Mechanical Rotational Resistance.2 Jm — u = applied mechanical force. and velocity at the point of application of the force. in radians per second. is defined as Vm where = — u 2. In a mechanical system dissipation is due to friction. in dynes. Energy is lost by the cal resistance. energy is changed into heat by the passage of a fluid through an acoustiThe resistance is due to viscosity. and angular velocity at the point of application about the axis. Energy is lost by the system when a mechanical rectilineal resistance is displaced a distance ^ by a force/jf Mechanical rectilineal resistance (termed mechanical resistance) ru. is — changed into heat by a rectilinear in mechanical ohms.3 states that the driving torque applied to a is mechanical rotational resistance proportional to the mechanical rotational resist- ance and the angular velocity. is driven through an acoustical resistance by a system when a volume X pressure p.3 where Jr d = = applied torque. D.2 states that the driving force applied to a mechanical is proportional to the mechanical rectilineal resist- ance and the linear velocity. in dyne centimeters. changed into heat by a rotational motion which is opposed by a rotational Energy is lost by the system when a resistance (rotational friction). At this point the Acoustical former type of acoustical resistance will be considered. Mechanical Rectilineal Resistance. . In an acoustical system dissipation — may be due to the fluid resistance or radiation resistance. Acoustical Resistance.

in = width of the meters. New . slit in the direction of flow. in acoustical ohms. volume current. in centi- w = w = /= Any length of the 2wf.. 'Olson. resistance. is defined as VA P = ~ 2. However. in addition to the resistive component. tive 2A=^^+i-777 1H ^^'~Sld where /i 1 Ijiw . to ratio of acoustical resistance acoustical reactance can be obtained by a suitable value o( d. slit normal to the direction of flow." D. 1940. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams per cubic centimeter. the ratio of the two components is a function of the dimensions. and U= Equation resistance current. Then the value of acoustical resistance may can be obtained by an appropriate value of w and /.14 ELEMENTS Acoustical resistance r^. 6pww 2.5 = viscosity coefficient. a narrow and metal. a reaccomponent. 1. slit normal to the direction of flow. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. or cotton or silk cloth are a few examples of systems which exhibit acoustical There is also.4 states that the driving pressure applied to an acoustical is proportional to the acoustical resistance and the volume The transmission of sound waves or direct currents of air through small is constrictions viscosity. York.86 X 10"'* for air. in dynes per square centimeter. d= / thickness of the centimeters. primarily governed by acoustical resistance due to slit. A tube of small diameter. and frequency in cycles per second.4 where p — pressure. Van Nostrand Co. 2. density. This is illustrated by the following equation for the acoustic impedance ^ of a narrow slit. in centimeters. The same expedient be employed in the case of any acoustical resistance in which the is resistance due to viscosity.

INDUCTANCE. It decreases when the current decreases. Equation 2. which opposes a change of velocity. in dynes. Inductance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in current. and driving force. 15 Inductance. is defined as 2. ciated with moment of — Mechanical rotational inertia in is.3. MASS. energy is associated with Mechanical rectilineal energy is. Inertance A. It remains con- stant when the velocity a constant. It It when is the angular velocity decreases. MOMENT OF INERTIA. in when the angular velocity a constant. that during linear when the velocity decreases. Electromagnetic energy is associated with inductElectromagnetic energy increases as the current in the inductance increases. in centimeters per second per second. increases as the linear velocity of a acceleration. 2. is Inductance L.7 states that the driving force applied to the mass is pro- portional to the mass and the rate of change of linear velocity. in grams. It remains constant ance. Mass. Moment gram (centimeter)^. in abvolts. Mass. Equation C. in abhenries. is remains a constant of inertia /.6 states that the electromotive force across an inductance is proportional to the inductance and the rate of change of current. = di Ldt ^ 2. Mechanical rotational energy increases as the angular velocity of a moment decreases of inertia increases. given by dd .7 fM = where du/dt du m^ = Jm = acceleration. Moment of Inertia. inertial energy is asso- the mechanical rotational system. in abamperes per second. — when the current in the inductance defined as e is a constant. and rate of change of current. Inductance. that during angular acceleration. B. Mass is the mechanical element Mass m.6 where e di/di = = electromotive or driving force. Moment of Inertia. INERTANCE 2. — Mechanical mechanical It decreases is rectilineal inertial mass in the rectilineal system. mass increases.

in grams per (centimeter)*. volume current. Acoustical energy increases as the volume It decreases current of an inertance increases. medium grams per cubic centi- ^ Olson.16 ELEMENTS = angular acceleration.9 M— p = dU/dt = grams per (centimeter)*.8 states that the driving torque applied to the moment of inertia is proportional to the moment of inertia and the rate of change of angular velocity. in centimeters. is defined as p = where M—dt 2." D. over which the driving pressure acts to drive the mass. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. Inertance M. New . The inertance of a circular tube is pi where R = / radius of the tube.10 m = S = mass. in cubic centimeters per second per second. is. York. Equation 2. effective length of the tube. Inertance is the acoustical element that opposes a change in volume current. in centimeters. in dynes per square centimeter. cross sectional area in square centimeters. Van Nostrand Co. in radians per second per second. decreases. It when the volume current remains constant when the volume current is a constant. that tion. inertance. Inertance.. —Acoustical inertial energy is associated with inertance in the acoustical system. ^ may be expressed as m M=—^ where 2. in rate of change of 2. = length plus end correc- and in the tube. in dyne centimeters. where ddj dt and Ju = torque. and driving pressure. 1940. in grams.9 states that the driving pressure applied to Equation Inertance an inertance is proportional to the inertance and the rate of change of volume current. in p = density of the meter. D.

Methe the chanical energy increases as the spring compressed. Rotational Com- pliance. Rectilineal Compliance. is It decreases as the spring is allowed to expand. Electrical 17 Capacitance. electrical capacitance is Equation 2.13 states that the charge on an force. Electrical Capacitance. abvolts.4. It is a constant. . — Mechanical is rectilineal potential energy is associated with the compression of a spring or compliant element. and applied force. —Electrostatic energy is associated with the separation of positive and negative charges as in the case of the charges on the two plates of an electrical capacitance.14 states that the linear displacement of a compliance proportional to the compliance and the applied force. Rectilineal Compliance. constant and stored when the charges remain unchanged. is defined as i = Ce-: „ de dt l. when is spring remains immovably compressed. It decreases as the charges are brought together and the electrostatic energy released. Rectilineal compliance mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied force. Electrical capacitance is the electrical circuit element which opposes a change in voltage. Rectilineal compliance Cm (termed compliance) in centimeters per dyne. Acoustical Capacitance A. in centimeters.14 = Jm = displacement. in dynes is Equation 2. in abfarads. and electromotive force.12 may be written = where q e k f' m idt = -~r 2. in abcoulombs.13 Le = — charge on electrical capacitance. Electrostatic energy It is increases as the charges of opposite polarity are separated.n Equation 2. and stored. proportional to the electrical capacitance and the applied electromotive B.CAPACITANCE AND COMPLIANCE 2. Electrical capacitance Cg. is defined as fM = jr where x 2.

D. cal is — Mechanical rotational potential energy is is associated with the twisting of a spring or compliant element. density.15 states that the rotational displacement of the rotational compliance is proportional to the rotational compliance and the applied force.18 Stiffness is ELEMENTS the reciprocal of compliance. in centimeters per second. defined in equation 2. in dyne centimeters. is the acoustic element which opposes a change in pressure. in grams per cubic centimeter. Acoustical energy increases as the compressed. and It decreases as the spring stored when remains immovably twisted.16 p s — = = velocity. Rotational Compliance. It is constant. p = where c c^ps 2. and applied torque. Acoustical capacitance the applied pressure. 1940.17 s = * Olson. with the compression of a gas is —Acoustical potential energy is is associated fluid or gas. . is defined as Rotational compliance where <^ Jr = = angular displacement. New York. in radians per centimeter per dyne. in a The condensation volume V due to a change in volume V V —^ - from V to 2. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering.17. C. Equation 2.. is It decreases as the gas allowed to expand.^ in dynes per square centimeter. in is The terms of the condensation. and stored when the gas remains immovably compressed. Acoustical Capacitance. Van Nostrand Co." p. allowed to unwind. Rotational compliance Cu-. D. is the mechanical element which opposes a change in the applied torque. It is constant. and condensation. Mechanithe spring energy increases as the spring is twisted. 9. in radians.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS The change in 19 is volume V— V' in cubic centimeters. From equations 2. Mechanical rectilineal resistance is represented by sliding friction which causes dissipation. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Elements Electrical. 2. in cubic centimeters. The electrical elements.1 illustrates elements have been defined in the preceding sections. Representation of Electrical. is 2. Mechanical rotational resistance is represented by a wheelwith a sliding friction brake which causes dissipation.21 F= volume. electrical resistance. schematically the four elements in each of the four systems. equal to the volume displacement. 2.5. = ^ F 2. in cubic centimeters.20 = X= tance sound pressure in dynes per square centimeter. and volume displacement.19 and 2. mechanical rectilineal. .18 the pressure P = Acoustical capacitance Ca is ~.20 the acoustical capacitance of a volume is Ca where 2.19 defined as P = ^r where p X 2. From equations 2. and 2. Mechanical Rectilineal.17. .20 states the volume displacement in an acoustical capaciis proportional to the pressure and the acoustical capacitance. inductance and electrical capacitance are represented by the conventional symbols. in cubic centimeters. Acoustical resistance is represented by narrow slits which causes dissipation due to viscosity when fluid is forced through the slits. These elements are analogous to electrical resistance in the electrical system. mechanical rotational and acoustical Fig.16. Equation 2. Vwhere V=X in cubic centimeters.18 X= volume displacement.X 2.

—^AA/V- -mm- -^ RECTILINEAL Hh ROTATIONAL ELECTRICAL Fig. is Moment of inertia in the mechanical rotational system represented by a flywheel. 2. rE . ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Graphical representation of the three basic elements in electrical.1.20 ELEMENTS Inertia in the mechanical rectilineal system is represented by a mass. move with the same phase These elements are analogous to inductance in the electrical system. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. Inertance in the acoustical system all is represented as the fluid contained in a tube in which the particles when actuated by a force due to pressure.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS 21 O < .

3 .22 ELEMENTS TABLE Electrical 2.

REPRESENTATION OF ELEMENTS TABLE 2.3— Continued Mechanical Rotational 23 .

^ The Tables 8. Table 2.3 uses mass M.2 depict analogous quantities in each of the four systems. Other quantities in each of the four systems may be expressed in terms of the dimensions of Table 2.^ A few of the most important quantities have been tabulated in Table 2. mass and time in the mechanical rectilineal system are charge.1 and 2. The corresponding analogous dimensions in the acoustical system are volume displacement.1. self-inductance. the rotational mechanical system are angular displacement inertia. it shows that the four systems are dynamically analogous. ELEMENTS and time. The above mentioned fundamental dimensions in each of the four systems are shown in tabular form in Table 2. In terms to the mechanical rectilineal system.1 page and list and 2. 2. The dimensions given in Table 2. Tables 2. Further. In the case of the electrical units dielectric and permeability constants are assumed to be dimensionless.2. .3.24 sions are mass.1. The corresponding analogous dimensions moment in of and time. and time. length L and time T.3 deviate from the procedure outlined in footnote 5. inertance and time.1. mechanical and acoustical systems given in Table 2. rectilineal system may be derived in of analogies the dimensions in the electrical circuit corresponding to length. 1.1 should not be confused with the classical dimensions of electrical. the standard modifiers for all four systems. length. These quantities are directly connected Other quantities in the mechanical terms of these dimensions.

namely. mass. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems.2. tems of a single degree of freedom provides another means of establishing the analogies between electrical. inductance and capacitance govern the movement of electricity. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom.CHAPTER III ELECTRICAL. establish and solve the differential equations for electrical. a consideration of the four sys- acoustical elements. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems may be looked upon as mechanical rectilineal. AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM 3. and compliance govern the movements of physical bodies in the same manner that resistance.1. 3. From these definitions it is evident that friction. mechanical rotational. and acoussystem of one degree of freedom is shown in Fig. mechanical rectilineal. 3. the derivation of the differential equation from the statement of the problem and the physical laws. These equations will show that the coefficients in the differential equation of the electrical system are elements in the electrical circuit. In any dynamical system there are two distinct problems. In one degree of freedom the activity in every element of the system may be expressed in terms of one variable. mechanical rotational or In other words.1. and the soluIt is the purpose of this chapter to tion of the differential equation. In the same way the coefficients in the differential equations of the mechanical rectilineal. Description of Systems of One Degree of Freedom electrical. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL. Introduction In the preceding sections the fundamental elements in each of the four systems have been defined. In the electrical system an electromotive force e acts upon an inductance L. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL. an electrical resistance Te and an electrical tical An 25 .

mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of one degree of freedom and the current.26 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM capacitance Ce connected in series. potential and heat energy. In the electrical. namely. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. The principle of conservation of energy states that the total store of energy of all forms remains a constant if the system is isolated so that it neither receives nor gives out energy. Cr = T. Electrical. Heat is a transient form of energy. In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force /m acts upon a particle of mass m fastened to a spring or compliance Cm and sliding upon a plate with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque fu acts upon a flywheel of moment of inertia / connected to a spring or rotational compliance Cr and the periphery of the wheel sliding rectilineal resistance vm- against a brake with a frictional force which velocity is proportional to the and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance vr. C.1. mechanical rotational. mechanical rectilineal. kinetic. mechanical rectilineal. Potential energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its configuration or deformation. velocity. 3. Kinetic energy of a system is that possessed by virtue of its velocity. In • ELECTRICAL X T p M L-** m RECTILINEAL I : ///>)»»//. In the four M wave of pressure p acts upon .The acoustical resistance r^ is due to viscosity. The principle of the conservation of energy forms one of the basic theorems in most sciences. FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. and acoustical systems energy will be confined to three forms. the acoustical system an impinging sound an inertance and an acoustical resistance va comprising the air in the tubular opening which is connected to the volume or acoustical capacitance Ca. in case of transfer of energy the total gain or loss from the system is equal to the loss or gain outside the system.

in grams per (centimeter)*. potential. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /.2 m = X mass. mechanical rectilineal. and heat energy during an interval of time is. mass of air in the opening. in centimeters per second. The kinetic energy Tkr is stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani2-^s!>" cal rotational system Tkr = where / 4> 3. in centimeters per second.4 M= m = S — m/S^. equal to the system. all the air particles in the opening move with the . mechanical rotational. and transformed into heat in the dissipative part of The heat energy is carried away either by conduction or radiation. the energy delivered to the system during that interval. in square centimeters. and velocity of the = mass m. in cubic centimeters per second. in grams. cross-sectional area of the opening. and current through the inductance L. = velocity of the air particles in the opening.3. electrical. in grams. X— X Sx = volume current. The lineal kinetic energy is Tkm stored in the mass of the mechanical recti- system Tkm 'iKM = where hmx"^ 2 3. The sum of the kinetic. the inertance. in radians per second. It is assumed that same phase. in abamperes. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke = where 2-^^ -^-l L = i — inductance. by the principle of conservation of energy.3 = moment of inertia. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical The system kinetic energy is Tka = iMX'^ where 3. in abhenries. 3.KINETIC ENERGY acoustical energy is 27 systems.

8 where X= Ca volume displacement. dyne.7 where Cr = = rotational compliance of the spring. in abfarads. = -. . = V/pc^= acoustical capacitance. s — stiffness of the spring. The potential energy rectilineal VpM stored in the compliance or spring of the is 1 mechanical system x^ I Lm where Cm = lA = compliance of the spring.. potential energy The Fpn stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system FpJ^ = -^ 2Cu 3. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the 1 acoustical system v2 v. in radians. and X = displacement. Potential The potential energy is Vpe stored in the electrical capacitance of the electrical circuit where Ce q = = capacitance. and <l> angular displacement. in grams per cubic centimeter.4. in (centimeters)® per V = volume of the cavity. in centimeters per second.28 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Energy 3. ^ 3. in cubic centimeters. in abcoulombs. and c = velocity of sound. in centimeters per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter. in dynes per centimeter. in centimeters. in cubic centimeters. p = density of air. and charge on the capacitance.

11 = T^A and VpA = \MX^ + ^ 3. Wr. Assume and forth that the frictional Jm upon the mass m as it slides back proportional to the velocity as follows: Jm = rMX 3. Dissipation XX MXX + -^ La v. +— + XX 3. mechanical rotational.5.16 The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is Be = where Ta / rsi^ 3.12 where We.14 dt Cm dWp -/ = dt I<t>^ ~^ Cr <j)^ 3.y- 3. in abohms. The total energy stored in the four systems may be written We = Tke + VpE = hLP + \^ 1 Le .18 . and current. . in abamperes. Wa are the total energies stored in electrical.17 = = is electrical resistance. The rate of change of energy with respect to time in the four systems rectilineal..DISSIPATION The tial 29 of the kinetic and poten- energies stored in the systems is the sum energy. may be written ^^ = dt Z/. mechanical Wm.15 dWA ~-^ = at 3.9 Wm = Tkm Tkr + + + ^PM = Imx^ VpR + 2 Cm 7^ 3.10 Wr = /?^A = i/02 +1 ^ \ 3.+ -^ = dt L-- + Ce -^ Ce 3 13 dWu —— - = mxx ^.: 3. and acoustical systems. force.

and X= 3.22 = acoustical resistance. and velocity. volume current in cubic centimeters per second. and angular velocity. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rotational system by the applied mechanical torque is The rate at which work is done or power delivered to <j)FRe^"^ = Jri^i. Equations of Motion The power delivered to a system must be equal to the rate of kinetic energy storage plus the rate of potential energy storage plus the power work is done or power deby the applied electromotive force is ^Ee-""* = eq. The heat is rate at which mechanical rectilineal energy Dm is converted into 3. the acoustical system by the applied sound pressure is XPe-""' = pX.6. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 3. The rate at which work is done or power delivered to the mechanical rectilineal system by the applied mechanical force is xpMf?''* = JmX. in radians per second. in acoustical ohms. in rotational ohms. in centimeters per second.20 /b = rR4> where vr 4> = = mechanical rotational resistance. The rate of decrease of energy {Tk + Vp) of the system plus the rate at which work is done on the system or power delivered to the system loss due to dissipation. in mechanical ohms. viscosity as the fluid forced through the narrow The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = r^X^ where ta 3.30 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM X where tm = = mechanical resistance.21 DR=fR4> = The acoustical energy is rR4? is converted into heat by the dissipation due to slits. The rate at which livered to the electrical system .19 as the pe- Dm = /mx = Assume that the frictional torque /r tmx^ upon the flywheel / is riphery of the wheel slides against the brake ity as follows: proportional to the veloc3.

24 mxx + -\- ru>i^ + 7^ + ~pr~ Cm + X = ~ Fm^^^^x 3.EQUATIONS OF MOTION by the external the four systems.29 MX + r^X + ^ The steady 3. — -—- JO^ Cm .32 „. q = I = — -— te -\-joiL : Ft''"' = e — 3.28 Acoustical XX MXX + taX^ + -tt = Ca P^'^^'X 3. Electrical forces 31 must equal the rate of dissipation of energy..26. 3.27 + rR4> +^ Fee'"'' 3.31 '^E Mechanical Rectilineal ^^^'"' X • = rm +jccm r- = Im Zm — 3.23 Lq Mechanical Rectilineal rEq Ee^"* 3.30 are Electrical = Pe^'"' 3.28 and 3. Writing this sentence mathematically yields the equations of motion for Lqq + + VE^ + + ff = Le jr = Le £*'"'? 3.30 state solutions of the four differential equations 3.24.25 mx Mechanical Rotational Tmx Piie'"^ 3.26 m+ Iii> ra^^ ^= = Fae''-"^ 3.

7. At this frequency the ratio of the current to the applied voltage or the ratio of the velocity to the applied force or the ratio of the angular velocity to the applied torque or the ratio of the volume current to the applied pressure is a maximum.37 The vector acoustical impedance is ZA = r^+icoTkf.4 + jwM — is — r- — 3. the velocity and force.35 The vector mechanical rectilineal impedance zm = rR-\- jwm — ~~- _7u 3. is -^ there will be a certain frequency at which the imaginary zero. and Cr.36 The vector mechanical rotational impedance is zr = rR-\. Resonant Frequency For a certain value of L and Ce.7^ Ca 3.38 3.34 The vector electrical impedance ze = rE + joiL - — is 3. and Af and Ca component of This frequency called the resonant frequency.jo>I — — 3. the impedance is m and Cm. the angular velocity and torque. and the volume current and pressure are in phase. At the resonant frequency the current and voltage.33 ^ = Acoustical X= r. .32 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Mechanical Rotational ^ = — ra+M :J<^ = ^zr 3.

KirchhofF's law is as follows: The algebraic sum of the electromotive The differential equations for forces around a closed circuit is zero. electric circuits with lumped elements may be set up employing KirchhofF's law. Kirchhofif's Law and D'Alembert's KirchhofF's electromotive force law plays the same role in setting the electrical equations as D'Alembert's principle does in setting up up mechanical and acoustical equations.40 Mechanical Rotational iWYcr Acoustical fr = iWmca Principle ' i= 3. mechanical rectilineal. ^ D'Alembert's principle as used here may be said to be a modified form of Newton's second law.8.43 Electromotive force of electrical resistance — dt 3.42 3. It is the purpose of this section to obtain the differential equations of electrical. .KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE in the four 33 The resonant frequency/r Electrical systems is It = iWLCe 27rV 7== 3.39 Mechanical Rectilineal Jr = i= mCM 3. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems employing Kirchhoff's law and D'Alembert's principle.44 Electromotive force of electrical capacitance 3.45 In addition to the above electromotive forces are the electromotive forces applied externally.Ce r^ 3. The electromotive forces due to the elements in an electric circuit are Electromotive force of self-inductance = —L—-= —L—r^ = — rg/ = — =—--.

Equation 3.49 „ . The above law may be used to derive the differential equation for the From Kirchhoff's law the algebraic sum of the electromotive forces around the circuit is zero.24. The equation may be written ^^ + rM^^-^ = at at C/i: Fm^''"' 3.51 where _/Af = F^e-'"' = external applied mechanical force . principle the algebraic of the forces applied to a body From D'Alembert's is zero. The above principle may sum be used to derive the differential equation of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The equation may be written L~ + TEt + -^ dt Ce where e = Et'''* 3A6 = £e^"' = the external applied electromotive force.1. namely. The mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rectilineal system are The differential equations for Mechanomotive Mechanomotive force of mass reaction = —ni~-^ dr d'^x 3.34 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM electrical circuit of Fig.50 In addition to the above mechanomotive forces are the mechanomotive forces applied externally.1.46 may be written and is the same as equation 3.48 force of mechanical rectilineal resistance = dx 3. the algebraic sum of the forces applied to a body is zero. mechanical systems may be set up employing D'Alembert's principle. 3.„ -ru— dt Mechanomotive force of mechanical compliance X = — — Cm 3. 3.

The rotational mechanical forces due to the elements in a mechanical rotational system are Rotatomotive force of moment of inertia reaction = — /—rs dr 3. Equation 3.54 Cr In addition to the above rotatomotive forces are the rotatomotive forces applied externally.57 Acoustomotive force of acoustical capacitance = — — Ca 3.1 may be written for the rotational sys- Z^ + <*2 ' rij-f '"' dt + ' ~= Cr i^ije^'"' 3. The acoustical pressures due to the elements in an acoustical system are Acoustomotive force of inertive reaction d^X = — Af —tit dr r^ 3.26.51 is the same as equation 3.53 Rotatomotive force of rotational compliance = — — <t> 3. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the mechanical rotational system.28.55 is the same as equation 3. Applying D'Alembert's principle the equation tem of Fig. D'Alembert's principle may be applied to the acoustical system.56 Acoustomotive force of acoustical resistance = — dx — d( 3.KIRCHHOFF'S LAW AND D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE 35 Equation 3.55 where /ij = pRe^"' = external applied torque. 3.52 Rotatomotive force of mechanical rotational resistance = -ru — at dcf) 3.58 In addition to the above acoustomotive forces are the acoustomotive forces applied externally. .

36 SYSTEMS OF ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Applying D'Alembert's principle. Equation 3. the equation for the acoustical system of Fig. further illustrate the analogies between electrical.59 is the same as equation 3. mechanical rectilineal.59 where p = Pe^"' = external applied pressure.30. and acoustical systems.1 may be written M^+r^^+^ = Pe-' dr Ca dt 3. .43 to 3. Equations 3. mechanical rotational. inclusively.59. 3.

Two Degrees first of Freedom The electrical consideration will be the systems shown in Fig. velocity. the purpose of this section to extend these analogies to systems of two and three degrees of freedom. 4.1. angular velocity and volume current response characteristics. 4. MECHANICAL ROTATIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL SYSTEMS OF TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of two degrees of freedom and the input current. L and an electrical resistance re in In the mechanical rectilineal system a driving force acts upon a 37 . Introduction analogies between the four types of vibrating systems of one It is The degree of freedom have been considered in the preceding chapter. In this chapter the differential equations systems will be obtained from the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies.1.CHAPTER IV ELECTRICAL. MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL.2.1. the dissipation and the application of Lagrange's for the four equations. MECHANICAL Electrical. 4. In the system an electromotive force acts upon an electrical capaci- -Hi ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL Fig. tance Ce shunted by an inductance series. mechanical rectilineal.

in cubic centimeters per second. in abamperes. in gram (centimeter)^ and = angular velocity of /. Tkm stored in the mass of the Tkm = lmx:i^ The system kinetic energy is mechanical rectilineal 4. The kinetic energy Tkr cal rotational stored in the moment of inertia of the mechani4.3 system is Tkr = where / <ji3 2l4>3 = moment of inertia. In the acoustical system a driving pressure p acts upon a volume or acoustical capacitance Ca connected to a tubular opening communicating with free space. The mass of fluid in the opening is the inertance and the fluid resistance produced by the slits is the acousti- M cal resistance r^4.In the mechanical rotational system a driving torque acts upon a spring or rotational compliance Cr connected to a flywheel of moment of inertia / and with the periphery of the wheel sliding against a brake with a frictional force which is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rotational resistance tr. X^ = volume in grams per (centimeter)* and current.4 M = inertance.38 SYSTEMS OF which 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM m sliding spring or compliance a frictional force Cj^i connected to a mass upon a plate with is proportional to the velocity and designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance r^.1 93 L = inductance. Tka stored in the inertance of the acoustical sys- The tem is kinetic energy Tka = where hMX^ 4. in branch 3. Kinetic Energy kinetic energy is The circuit Tke stored in the magnetic field of the electrical Tke where = i^?3' 4. and velocity of the mass m. . in centimeters per second. in radians per second.3.2 where x^ m = = mass. in abhenries. in grams. and = h = current.

4.5 where Ce 92 = = capacitance. in cubic centimeters. in centimeters. and displacement. in radians per dyne per centimeter. and charge on the electrical capacitance. in abfarads. . per dyne. The potential energy Vp^ij stored in the compliance or spring of the is mechanical rectilineal system VpM = where T TT in centimeters 4.9 = 4 = electrical resistance. 39 Potential Energy potential energy is The circuit VpE stored in the electric field of the electrical J^PE = ~^f~ 4. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and — current. and <i>2 angular displacement. in abcoulombs.DISSIPATION 4. The potential energy is Fpa stored in the acoustical capacitance of the acoustical system where Ca = acoustical capacitance.5. and X2 = volume displacement. in radians. 4. in abamperes. Dissipation The rate at which electromagnetic energy De is converted into heat is De = where rg rsh'^ = TEqz 4. The potential energy VpR stored in the rotational compliance or spring is of the mechanical rotational system where Cu — = rotational compliance of the spring. in qz ohms.6 Cm = X2 — compliance of the spring.

and Xs = volume 4. and angular velocity. VMXz^ in = = mechanical rectilineal resistance.i 4. 2 d<t>n dcj). in cubic centimeters per second.11 Dr = vr^^ where tr cj>z = = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. mechanical ohms. Acoustical d / dt dT\ d{T - V) I dD dXn \dXn/ dXn 2 . The rate at which acoustical energy Da is converted into heat is Da = rAXs^ where r.10 heat Dm = where Vm X2. in centimeters per second. Equations of Motion Lagrange's equations for the four systems are as follows: Electrical d /'dT\ dt d(Taqn V) 1 dD \dqn/ 2 dqn where n = number independent coordinates. Mechanical Rectilineal a dt /dT\ _ d{T-V) \dXn/ dXn ^IdD^^^^ 2 dXn ^_j^ Mechanical Rotational '<^-^''^^=A.12 = acoustical resistance. in radians per second. in acoustical ohms.6. current. and velocity. The heat is rate at which mechanical rotational energy Dr is converted into 4.40 SYSTEMS OF The rate at is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Dm is which mechanical rectihneal energy converted into 4.

17 ' I The electromotive force is The electromotive force applied to the inductance and electrical reis sistance in series given by equation 4.22.25 .1 is h = H Equation 4.19 may be written 9i = ?2 5'i = ?2 + + ?3 ?3 or 4.22 hi = The force applied to the / 4.21 4.23.7.24 Differentiating equation 4.14. 4. The relation for the currents in Fig. e = = Lqz-[.THE MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM 4. applied to the electrical capacitance in terms of the displacement given by equation 4.24 with respect to the time the velocities are •*i = •*2 -^s 4.8. Jm = mx^ + ruxz 4.20 4. 41 The Electrical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4.18. in the mechanical rectilineal system is the sum of the displacement of the mass placement of the compliance Cm- of Fig. 4. The force applied to the spring in terms of the displacement is given by equation 4.19 +k 4. at/jf.1 m and the dis- s^i = ^2 + + Xo.23 mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance is given by equation 4. The Mechanical Rectilineal System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4.13. The linear displacement.rsqz 4.17.

30 The pressure applied to the inertance and acoustical resistance is given by equation 4.27.42 4. p = MXa + vaXz 4.30.9. of the inertance M and the volume is displacement of the acoustic capacitance Ca- Xi = X2 + X3 4. at p. It is The volume displacement Xi is The vibrating piston the volume displacement of the vibratis not a part of the acoustical system.32 ing piston.28 Differentiating equation 4.31.1 is the sum of the angular displacement of the flywheel / and the angular displacement of the rotational compliance Cr.15.10. SYSTEMS OF The Mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM Rotational System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. merely the sound pressure source which produces the sound pres- sure p.26 ^ The 4. The angular displacement. at/^j. The volume sum of the volume displacement displacement. <Pi= 4>2 + + <t>3 4.28 with respect to the time the angular velocities are 4>i = 4>2 ^3 4. torque applied to the spring is given by equation 4. Fig. = = /03 + rij^g 4. The pressure applied to the acoustical capaciis tance in terms of the volume displacement the given by equation 4. in the acoustical system.26.27 The torque ance is applied to the flywheel and mechanical rotational resist- given by equation 4. . in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.16. 4.1.29 4. The Acoustical System Applying Lagrange's equation 4. 4. Jb /.

4.33. inclusive. + Xa Comparison of the Four Systems A comparison of the coefficients of equations 4.29 and 4.25. to mechanical rotational resistance. shows again that resistance. and to volume currents in the acoustical system. inductance.11.19. Fig. and compliance in the mechanical rectilineal system.35 + jwL) JuLm is -T—r The current 12 through the electrical capacitance Cg 4 = h — h = ejwCE The linear velocity *3 of the is 4. 4. given by ^3 JM is 4. to angular velocities in the mechanical rotational system. vm.37 The linear velocity X\ ntfM given by Jm ( tm Xi -T-— + jo^m + jcoCAf/ ) 4_3g JwLm .34 The total current /'i is given by n = (re t±EL 4.1 to 4.1. The current i^ through the inductance L and electrical resistance rg. and capacitance are analogous to mechanical rectilineal resistance. inertance acoustical system. mass. and to acoustical resistance.33 the electrical system are analogous to velocities = 4. 4.36 rectilineal resist- mass m r and mechanical ance.32 with respect to the time the 43 volume 4. moment of inertia and rotational compliance in the mechanical rotational system. A shows that currents in in the mechanical rectilineal system. is given by ^ «3 and acoustic capacitance in the comparison of equations 4. Fig.1. 4.COMPARISON OF THE FOUR SYSTEMS Differentiating equation 4.33 currents are Zi = ^2 4.

40 total angular velocity ^i at/i? given by /R\rB ^1 = —^ + jojl + -7-^ + jwl) ^— i^:^ ) 4. is . is = - 4>3 = fRJ(^CR 4A2 X3 through given by the inertance M and the acoustic ^3 = The total / ^ is . the difference between the volume currents at the input and output to the acoustical capacitance.. the difference in hnear velocity between the of the spring Cm. given by ^1 h The volume current resistance ta. X2 = Xi . given by *2 = *! — 'fs = /mJ<^Cm 4.44 + jwM) juLa -T-z^r is The volume current X2.1.43 volume current Xi at given by X.41 (rs The angular velocity 4>2. 4.39 The angular velocity <j!)3 of the moment of inertia / and mechanical rotational resistance rg. 4.44 SYSTEMS OF The is 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM two ends velocity X2. is given by k The = f". the difference in angular velocity between the is two ends of the spring Cn. Fig. 4.1. = pirA+ juM + ^— ) -^ Zff£iZ (rA 4.X3 = pjccCa 4.45 . Fig. 4.

|-/35^ |-vwv—p-/55ir^ I 1 ELECTRICAL P M. 1 tional systems of Figs. 4. 4.47 JuCe2 ZE3 rE2 + j<^L2 + 4. .3.12. 55 and 56 and Fig. A capacitive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal. Two Degrees cal Freedom and the Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies of Mechani- It is the purpose of this section to show two additional electrical arrangements of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectilineal. 54.2 For an explanation of the shunt mechanical rectilineal and mechanical rotaand 4.1 of Chapter V.^ mechanical rotation and acoustical analogies.= ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 4.2 are as follows: 4. see pages 53.CAPACITIVE COUPLED SYSTEM 4.48 JwCe3 Cr. 2^2 and z^s in terms of the elements of Fig. 5. The electrical impedances z^i. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.2. Electrical 45 Inductive and Capacitive Coupled Systems of Rectilineal.46 jwCi El ZE2 = = 1 4.

I2 and M2.49 2M2 2m3 = ^-prJwLm2 = rM2 4.2 are as follows: ZiJi = rui +ico/i + . and Zrz in terms of the elements of Fig.— JwLmz Zb.2 4.46 SYSTEMS OF The mechanical 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM in rectilineal impedances zmi.60 4. 2^2) and 2^3 in terms of the elements of Fig. mass.55 jwLai 4.52 Zij2 = —TT= rK2 4.57 The system shunt in Fig.56 ZA2 -T-z.2 are as follows: Zmi = rui + jwmi + ^—— 4.54 The acoustical impedances z^i.61 2^2 = j^l2 = jwM2 . 4. zm2 and zm3 terms of the elements of Fig. mechanical rectilineal.2 save that the electrical capacitance.3 is the as that of Fig.53 Zijs + y'0/2 + -T-zT- 4.- JuLa2 za3 rA2 ^— + iwMa + 7C0C43 same 4. compliance. 4. moment of inertia and inertance L2. 4. rotational compliance and and Ca2i are replaced by the shunt 1712. 4. Ce2. 4. Cm2i Cr2 inductance.58 2m2 ZiS2 = ji^m2 4.59 4. ze2 = j^L2 4. 4. The shunt electrical. mechanical rotational and acoustical shunt impedances are acoustical capacitance.50 + jwm2 + T-p.2 are as follows: ZAi = = = rAi +icoMi + r-— 4.51 The mechanical rotational impedances zm.

The graph depicts the output response frequency characteristic.65 2^22^3 . 4.62 The velocity of the mass mi is Xi = fM(ZM2 ZmiZM2 + Zms) + ZmiZms + ZM2ZM3 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The angular velocity of the moment /r(ZR2 of inertia /i Zrs) is <^1 = - + ZriZR2 + ZRiZRa + Zs2Zb3 Mi is 4. An inductive coupled electrical system of two degrees of freedom and the mechanical rectihneal.3.64 The volume current of the inertance Xi = ZaiZA2 piZA2 + Zas) + ZaiZA3 + 4.63 ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.INDUCTIVE COUPLED SYSTEM The current in the 47 branch z^i is e{ZE2 ^1 == ZeiZE2 + Zes) + ZeiZE3 + Ze2ZE3 1 ] 4.

67 . = ZaiZA2 ^M^^ + 2.2 characteristic of the system shown in and 4. Ce2 and rg in the electrical system are equivalent to . Cb2 . 4. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems of three degrees of freedom. ZeiZE2 ] -f- Z£:i2£3 + Ze2Z£3 4.\. m2. Cm2 and tm in the mechanical rectilineal system. Mechanical Rectilineal. I2. mechanical rectilineal. 4.«i. 4.68 ZiJ2ZiJ3 The volume current of the inertance Ms is X. L. 4.66 mass m^ is = JmZM2 -^ . O *^l _ Cri 4i^i Cb2 ^2 Ca2 iJf '^2 '"a= ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Electrical.t 4.4. Electrical. The angular velocity of the moment of inertia lo.412^3 + 4. Cei.48 SYSTEMS OF The 2 AND 3 is DEGREES OF FREEDOM current in the branch z^s h = The velocity of the X3 .3. it Systems of three degrees of freedom are shown the procedures outlined in the preceding sections Following can be shown that RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL y To Fig.4. L2.13. Cm\. to /i. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Systems of Three Degrees of Freedom in Fig. is ^3 = Z/eiZB2 ^^^M^. Ca.^ + ZiJl2iJ3 + 4.69 ZA2ZA3 is The response frequency Figs. Cri.

X^ and to X4 in in the acoustical system.82 4. X2.89 . the linear velocity Xq. X3 rectilineal system.74 4. 4. 4>i. to 4>o.76 4. Xi. Xi. 4. h and in the the electrical system are equivalent to Xq. (h and 04 X2. the angular velocity ^ and the volume current Xq are given by to = e[(ZEi + Ze2){zB3 + ZBi) + ZE3ZE4] .81 ZAx —— >Mi ^-p7- 4.SYSTEMS OF and vr and rA h. nA where zei = .70 -^ xo = /rKzri 4. and Xi mechanical the mechanical rotational system and to Xq.87 ZMi = ru +jcom2 za4 rA +J01M2 4. h. M2.83 ZA2 4.71 00 = + 2722) (Zij3 + ZR4) + ZR3ZR4] *-/-i 7.88 4. The current to.75 2iS2 =iw/i 4. in the 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM These equations also 49 mechanical rotational system and to Mi.85 zmz = ^-^ 243 = = 4. i^ in show that /q. ^ zjji = . 4>2.86 4.84 4. Ca2 in the acoustical system. Cai.78 4.79 ZR2 = = = ^jwh 4.80 4.77 ZR3 = T^ rR 4.

1UU ^^^ pZA.. 01 4. the angular velocity ^2) and the volume current X2 are given by t2 = eZEl{ZE3 + 2^4) 7} Me „o 4.97 The current i2.90 4.98 . 02 = + Zr^ 4.92 4. 4. X2 = fMZMl{ZM3 fRZR\{zR3 Yt Hr + ZM'd .91 Hm = Hr = ZmiZm3ZM4: ZmZR3ZR4. the angular and the volume current Xi are given by e[ZE2iZE3 H = + ZEi) + ZE3ZE4:] ZAf^ZMi] 4.94 flE ^1 = /M[ZM2iZM3 = MzR2(Zr3 + ZAfi) + _.ZA3 + ZAi) 4>i 4.{ZA3jrZA. 4.99 r^r^ . + ZRi) + ZR^ZRil t.50 SYSTEMS OF He = 2 AND 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM ZElZEZ'ZEi + ZeiZe2{zE3 + ZEi) + ZmiZM2(.ZM3 + ZMi) 4. the linear velocity Xi. ZA1ZA3ZA4: + ZRiZE2izR3 + ZRi) + ZaiZa2(.93 Ha = The current ii.95 .) Ha ^_^^j .y6 -^--^-° Xi = — tlA 4. the linear velocity X2.

„.105 current 4. Xi — = JmZmiZmz i„_ 4.109 in this section mechanical rectilineal.103 4>z = —— 7} 4.106 . 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM by 51 the Hnear velocity x^. ^^^ 4. = The equations cal. show that the equations for the electrimechanical rotational and acoustical systems are similar and analogous. . the angular velocity ^3 and the are given volume current X^ iz = -ij^ He = 77 4.-riE . 4.102 X3 4.SYSTEMS OF The current /'s. J~iR X. the angular velocity 04 and the volume current X^ are given by li = eZElZE3 -.107 . the linear velocity X4.104 Xs = The ^^^ 4.

Such a characteristic is obtained when an inductance.1. prior to the introduction of the corrective network. Introduction corrective network is A a structure which has a transmission char- acteristic that is more or less gradual in slope. 5. It the purpose of this chapter to illustrate further analogies between electrical.1. and acoustical systems having similar transmission Electrical. characteristics. 52 .1 2^:2 The The follows electromotive force e across zgr is also the electromotive force across zei and Ze2is total current It the vector sum of the currents ii and «2 as h= h+h 5.2 ' The term "line" is used in this chapter to designate an electrical network which.^ an inductance. Two Mechanical Rectilineal. electrical capacitance or Another type of corrective network is combination of both connected with a line. Resistance may be introduced as a second or third element in either shunt or series corrective networks. mechanical rectilineal.CHAPTER V CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 5. Various types of resistance networks lar may is be used as attenuators or for matching dissimi- impedances. mechanical rotational. consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances.2. termed the input and output electrical impedances. Mechanical Rotational or Acoustical Impedances in Parallel Two electrical The is electrical impedances zei and 2^2 are shown in parallel in Fig. 5. impedance Zet of the two electrical impedances in parallel Z_EiZE2 given by Zet Zei + 5. electrical capacitance or the combination of both in series is shunted across a line.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL If 2. consists of a system of rigid massless levers and links with frictionless bearings at the connecting . that infinite the current /i It = i\- In the same way z^i is made in this branch is zero and the total current flows in ze2i that is. ir = 12- The mechanical rectilineal system.£2 is 53 zero and the total if made infinite the current 22 in this is. 5.1. branch is current flows in z^i. Fig.

must be in parallel. Zki and Zr2 in both illustra- . Gear 2 is free to rotate on its shaft. SAA. relations existing between//.1 with the same tions. The diameter of gear 6 is four times that of gear 7. The inside The outside diameter of the gear 4 is three times that of gear 5. Xt Differentiating equation 5. ^2. Fig. respectively. The gear 2 is keyed to the shaft /. the mechanical impedance zmt at point 1 \s „ „ .1. as for example.2 for the electrical system.3.. That is. </)r. diameter of the large gear 3 three times the gears 1 and 2. the differential used in automobiles and tractors. The gears 4 and 9 rotate on bearings in the ring gear 3.4 Since the same force /if exists at points 3 and 4 as the driving point and further since the velocity at 1 is the vector sum of the velocities at points 3 and 4. The gear 2 drives the ring gear 3. The ring gear 3 rotates freely on the shaft 8. ZMT If 23/2 is = Zm\ + Zm2 5. way if Z3/1 is made the system behaves the same as The mechanical planetary 2 rotational system. respectively. 5. There are other examples of epicyclic trains which connect mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. With these specifications the differential of Fig. The diameters of gears is i and 2 are equal. analogous to equation 5. 5. shown schematically in Fig. ^ Practically all rotational systems which connect two mechanical rotational systems in parallel are of the epicyclic train type. respectively. infinite there if is no motion at point 4 and were connected directly to the Zm2 In the same point 1. Gears 5 and 6 are keyed to the shafts 7 and <?.4 That is. respectively. SAA performs the same function as the planetary system of Fig. The diameter of gear 2 is one-half of the diameter of ring gear 3. Gears 4 and 9 drive the gears 5 and 6. consists of a system of gears. Equation 5. the linear velocity xt at / equal to the vector sum of the linear is velocities Xi and X2 at points 4 and 3. the mechanical impedances zm2 and zm\ at points 3 and 4.5 made infinite there the system behaves the same as can be no motion at point 3 and therefore if zj/i were connected to the point /. Z/jt. In this book the planetary system is used to depict and illustrate a rotational system which connects mechanical rotational impedances in parallel. </>!.54 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The linear displacement xt at 1 (for small amplitudes) is equal to the vector sum of the displacements Xi and X2 of points 3 and 4. = = xx -\- X2 5.3 Xt Xi is -\- X2 5.

IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL

The large gear 3-4 is free to The remainder of the gears

these conditions

if

55

rotate with

are

its

**axis coincident with gear /.
**

shafts.

keyed to the respective

Under

gear 7

is

held stationary the angular displacement of

gear 5

is

the

same

**as the driving gear 1.
**

is

Or

if

5

is

**held stationary the
**

1.

angular displacement of gear 7

**the same as the driving gear
**

it

In

all

the considerations which follow

is

assumed that the

ratios for the

\\\\\<\w£

x

Zri2I

^

m^

J2&

^ ti

END VIEW

Fig. i.\A.

Fig. S.l.

PLAN VIEW

Differential gear train

in parallel.

which connects two mechanical rotational impedances This system accomplishes the same results as the planetary system of

**various gears are as outlined above.
**

the gears are massless and that

rotational impedances zrx and

all

In addition

it is

assumed that

all

the bearings are frictionless. the

**Since the gears are massless, the torque at gears 7 and 5 for driving the
**

2ij2

is

same

as the applied torque.

This

Ze\

is

**analogous to the same electromotive force across the impedances
**

Ze2 in the electrical circuit.

4>t

and

**The angular displacement
**

angular displacement at

i>\

at gear 1

<i>-2,

is

equal to the vector

sum

of the

and

•Ar

**of the gears 7 and 5, respectively.
**

01

=

+

</>2

5.6

Differentiating equation 5.6,

<i>\

+

'J>2

5.7

That

5.7

is

is,

angular velocities

the angular velocity ^r at 1 is equal to the vector <^2 and <^i at the gears 5 and 7, respectively.

sum

of the

Equation

analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.

56

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

Since the same torque fa exists at gears 5 and 7 as the driving point 1 is the vector sum of the

7,

and, further, since the angular velocity at gear

**angular velocities at gears 5 and
**

Ziei

**the rotational impedances zr2 and
**

parallel.

at gears 7

ical

**and 5, respectively, must be in rotational impedance zet at gear / is
**

zrt

That

is,

the

mechan-

=

Zri

,

+

5.8

Zr2

If zr2

is

made

infinite there

the system behaves the same as

can be no motion at gear 5 and therefore if zri were connected to the shaft of

gear

1.

In the same way,

if Zri is

made

infinite there

if

is

no motion

at

**gear 7 and the system behaves the same as
**

to the shaft of gear 1.

Zr2 were connected directly

The acoustical system of Fig. 5.1 consists of a three way connector. The dimensions are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.

Therefore, the pressure which actuates the two acoustical impedances

the

is

same

as the driving pressure.

vector

sum

of the volume current

The total volume Xi and X2, that is

current

Xt

is

the

Xt = Xi

Equation 5.9

is

+

X2

5.9

**analogous to equation 5.2 for the electrical system.
**

is

The

input acoustical impedance

zat

If 2^2

=

Zai

,

+

5.10

Za2

in this

is

is

made

infinite, there is

no volume current

branch and of

course Zat becomes Zai.

In the same

becomes

is

za2-

Thus

it

will

**infinite zat be seen that the acoustical system of Fig. 5.1
**

if

way

z^i

made

analogous to the electrical system of Fig.

5.1.

5.3.

Shunt Corrective Networks

**In a shunt corrective electrical network an electrical resistance, inductance, electrical capacitance or a combination of these elements
**

across a line.'

^ The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances zei and z^s, termed the input and output electrical impedances. The shunt corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in parallel with the output electrical impedance 2^3.

is

shunted

**SHUNT CORRECTIVE NETWORKS
**

The output

given by

l3

57

is

current

i^

of a line shunted by an electrical network

=

ZjsiZB2

eZE2

+

ZjsiZjis

+

c 1 1 5.11

ZE2ZE3

where

**zm = ze2 = 2e3 =
**

e

**input electrical impedance,
**

electrical

output

electrical

impedance of the corrective impedance, or the

electrical electrical

network,

impedance

=

connected in shunt with the network, and electromotive force in series with the input electrical impedance.

The output

**velocity x^ of a mechanical rectilineal network which
**

is

is

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

X3

=

ZmiZM2

+ ZmiZms + Zm2ZM3

5.12

**where Zmi Zm2
**

zmz

= =

input mechanical rectilineal impedance,

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the corrective mechani-

cal rectilineal

network,

= = /m

**output mechanical rectilineal impedance, and mechanical driving force in series with the input mechanical
**

rectilineal

impedance.

of a mechanical rotational network

is

**The output angular
**

which

is

velocity

4>s

analogous to the shunt electrical network

given by

4>3

=

ZbiZR2

-^'^'^'

_^

+ ZriZB3 _^ +

5.13

Zr2ZB3

where Zm

2jj2

— = = =

input mechanical rotational impedance,

**mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network,
**

output mechanical rotational impedance, and driving torque in series with the input rotational impedance.

2^3

fa

58

CORRECTIVE NETWORKS

is

The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which analogous to the shunt electrical network is given by

X^ =

ZaiZA2

P^

+

Z.41Z.13

+

5.14

ZA2ZA3

where zai

= = 2.43 = p —

Za2

**input acoustical impedance,
**

acoustical impedance of the corrective network, output acoustical impedance, and driving pressure in series with the input acoustical imped-

ance.

5.4.

**Inductance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies
**

is

In Fig. 5.2 an inductance

shunted across a

line.

The

electrical

impedance of an inductance

where

is

ze2

— j<^L

5.15

= f= L =

co

ItJ,

frequency, in cycles per second, and

inductance, in abhenries.

if

**Equations 5.11 and 5.15 show that
**

inductance inductance

is

the electrical impedance of the

small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the electrical

**ances, the transmission will be small.
**

is

large

compared

to the input

and output

is

impedance of the electrical impedbe negligible.

ances, the attenuation introduced

by the inductance

will

**Since the electrical impedance of an inductance
**

characteristic

*

proportional to the

**frequency, the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the
**

of Fig. 5.2.

rectilineal

The mechanical

where

**impedance of the mass
**

ZM2

in Fig. 5.2

is

=

J<^f^

5.16

m =

mass, in grams.

When

5.2

''

the mass reactance in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

is

small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal imped-

verbal description and the depicted transmission frequency characterchapter tacitly assume preponderately resistive input and output impedances. Of course the equations are valid for any kind of input and outistics in this

The

put impedances.

2.17 show that the angular velocity of the flywheel will be relatively large and there will be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.INDUCTANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE ance. 5. I m I /7^ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL =J L.16 show that the velocity of the mass will be and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. in gram When the moment of inertia reactance in the mechanical rotational system of Fig.13 and 5.17 where / = moment of inertia. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. 5.2. 5. ^^^^.^^^^u^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system.12 relatively large 59 and 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies. reactance . The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.2 is =7'^^ (centimeter)^. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. rotational Inductance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical rectilineal. 5. is If the moment of inertia comparatively large the flywheel will remain practically stationary and the behavior will be the same as a directly coupled system. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zk2 in Fig.2 is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rotational impedance. equations 5. equations 5. 5.

42 = joiM 5.19 jwLe where Ce = electrical capacitance.19 the transmission will decrease with increase in frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.3 an electrical capacitance electrical shunted across a is line. in abfarads. the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. . in centimeters per dyne. from equations 5. The acoustical system of Fig.11 and 5. Equations 5.3. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency.60 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS moment of inertia is Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a proportional to the frequency. 5. Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. Therefore.3 is = T^ 5. 5. 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.2.20 where Cm = compliance.5.2. 5. the transmission will increase with fre- quency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.2 consists of a pipe with a side branch forming an inertance. At high frereactance of the inertance quencies the acoustical reactance of the inertance the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is large compared to wave flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of a branch. 5.2 is The acoustical impedance of the inertance in 2. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig. The electrical reactance of an electrical capacitance is inversely propor- tional to the frequency. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the compliance ZM2 in Fig. Fig. The impedance of an electrical capacitance 2iJ2 = T-— 5. 5. 5.14 and 5.18 where M= inertance. 5.18 show that at low frequencies the acoustical is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out through the hole.

12 to the and 5.3 is 1 2fi2 5. velocity of the compliance will be practically the At high frequencies the same as the input i ELECTRICAL rrL^ ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Fig.3.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SHUNT WITH A LINE The mechanical lineal 61 rectilineal reactance of the is compliance of the recti- system. velocity and there will be very little velocity transmitted to the load. The transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5. at Equa- tions 5.3.20 is shown in Fig. Electrical capacitance in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5. inversely proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational compliance of Fig.21 show that at low frequencies . 5. 5. 5.3 inversely proportional to Equations 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.20 show that will low frequencies the velocity at the input compliance be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. in radians per rotational dyne per centimeter. impedance of the rotational compliance of is the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.3.13 and 5. The mechanical the frequency.12 and 5.21 i^Cff where Cr = rotational compliance.

5.23. Since the acoustical tance reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency.12 = ^-^ 5. 5. and electrical capacitance. equations 5.6. 5.13 and 5. tional compliance there will At high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotawill be the same as the input angular velocity and be very little angular velocity transmitted to the load.23 where L = Ce = inductance. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected The mechanical rectilineal. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. 5. in abhenries. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series.62 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS the angular velocity at the input to the rotational compliance will be small and the behavior will be practically the same as that of a directly coupled system. At high frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capacitance is small compared to the acoustical impedance of the pipe and the sound is shunted out by the enlargement.22 where Ca = acoustical capacitance. in abfarads. The acoustical impedance of an acoustical capacitance is Z. . impedance of the electrical network is ze2 = j^L + jwLe -r-^ 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig. The shown in Fig. 5.11 and 5. mechanical rota- The electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.21 is The acoustical system of Fig. transmission characteristic of this system obtained from equations 5.14 and 5.3 consists of a pipe with an enlarged portion forming an acoustical capacitance. 5.4.3.4 in series across a line.22 show that the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. tional. At low frequencies the acoustical reactance of the acoustical capaciis large compared to the impedance of the pipe and the sound flows down the pipe the same as it would in the absence of the enlargement.3.

Cm = The output ELECTRICAL ^^^^^l^^^^^'-^^'. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne. in radians per dyne per centimeter.24 where m = mass. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. and Cu = rotational compliance.^ FREQUENCY m^^<^'\""^'n^u ""^"i"""^^'^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.24. in gram (centimeter)^. Inductance and electrical capacitance in series.25. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The mechanical system is 63 rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal Zm2 = j<^m + ^r-^ 5. 5.13 and .12 and 5. in grams.25 where / = moment of inertia. The mechanical system is rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational 2fi2 = j^l + ^-^ 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.4. The output angular 5.

5. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5.13 and 5. in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.23 show that there is no transmission at this frequency.14 and 5. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.26 where M= Ca = inertance.12 and 5. shows an inductance and electrical capacitance connected in The mechanical rectilineal. 5. 5.24 also is zero.64 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is za2 = J^M + T— and 1 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance no angular motion is transzero.7.2 and there is very little attenuation. 5.4. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance no motion is transmitted beFig. current can be obtained from equations 5. . The output volume 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and the electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is zero and equations 5.14 and At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of and there is very little attenuation. Equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)''.5 parallel across a line.26. in Fig. mitted because the torque required to actuate the resonant system is Equations 5. mechanical rotational also and acoustical equivalents are shown in Fig. acoustical capacitance.3 cause the force required to drive the resonant system 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown 5. Equations show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance there will be no transmission because the pressure at the input to the resonator is zero. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.26 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.25 also show that there is no transmission at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance.11 and 5.

" ^^^'^^'"^"^'^'^"" ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.27. in centimeters per dyne.12 and 5. line and the The graph The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Fig.5 is Zl/2 rectilineal = 1 juim .28 where m = mass.28. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. and compliance.27 where L = Ce = inductance.1 The output current can be obtained from equations 1 and 5. 5. depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. Cm = The output . in abfarads.INDUCTANCE AND FXECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 65 impedance of the electrical network of Fig. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in shunt with a mechanical rectilineal. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. ELECTRICAL M FREQUENCY Ikkkkkkkkm^^u^^^'. and electrical capacitance. 5.5.J^mCM 5. in grams. in abhenries. 5.5 is jo}L -£2 5.

.^MC.66 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. ^-'^ where M= Ca = inertance. velocity can be obtained from equations 5.5 is ZR2 = .29. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.28 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. in grams per (centimeter)*. Equations 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter.12 and 5.14 and 5.. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.3 and the transmission is again small. and acoustical capacitance. 5.29 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the resonant frequency.29 co^/Ge where / Cr = moment of inertia. current can be obtained from equations 5.27 show that the shunt circuit introduces no attenuation at the resonant frequency.13 and The output angular 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.30 also show that there is no attenuation due to the shunt system at the reso- tional impedance is coupled system.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Equations 5. The output volume 5.2 and the transmission is small. in gram (centimeter)^. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia with the rotational compliance the input to the spring will not turn because the mechanical rotainfinite and the behavior is the same as a directly Equations 5. 5.5 is joiM ''' = 1 . The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. 5. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the input volume current is zero because the acoustical impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a plain pipe. 1 - 5. and = rotational compliance.11 and 5.13 and 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the input to the spring does not move because the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the behavior is the same as a directly coupled system.30.

in Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in shunt with a line.6 shows an electrical resistance. inductance.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS nant frequency.31 where rg = L = Ce = electrical resistance. and electrical capacitance. 5.11 and 5. in abhenries. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. are 67 The transmission characteristics of the four systems shown in Fig.31.min. itance in series. in abfarads. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. Electrical resistance.6. in abohms. inductance and electrical capacrectilineal.5. The = rE -\- joiL + ^-— J(X:Le 5.6. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Series. The mechanical mechan- ELECTRICAL tkmu. ical rotational electrical and acoustical analogies are also shown impedance of the electrical network is ze2 in Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. 5. 5. 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. .tim ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. Electrical Resistance.^^rr ^^^^^ss^ A.8. inductance and electrical capacitance in series.

3 and there is very little attenuation. in grams per (centimeter)*.33 where vr = — mechanical rotational resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is zero. mass.12 and 5.34. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.11 and 5. in mechanical ohms. from equations 5.13 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system ZA2 is = rA-\- J^M + 1 -T-— JicLa 5. in rotational ohms. in radians per dyne per centimeter. inertance. The output volume 5. in grams.32 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rectilineal . in / = moment Cr gram (centimeter)^.2 and there is very little attenuation.32. in acoustical ohms.31 the transmission as Influenced by the network is governed by the electrical resistance.32 where Vm = = m Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. 5.14 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5. and rotational compliance. of inertia. current can be obtained from equations 5. compliance. Therefore. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. 5.12 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.33. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is 2«2 = r^j r + jo^I + ^^r 1 5. Therefore. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.34 where va M= = acoustical resistance. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. from equations 5.68 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system is zjf2 = ru + ji^m + . The output and 5.

5. quencies the same as that of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. in centimeters per dyne. in Fig.4. from equations 5. Therefore. in abhenries.6. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in abohms. mass.1/2 = 2 n IT^ ^"^° where rjf = m = Cm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in Fig. 5.11 and 5. inductance and electrical capaci- tance connected m parallel across a hne.35.7. governed by The transmission characteristic of these sys- tems is shown is in Fig. in mechanical ohms.36. and compliance. 5. in grams.33 the transmission as influenced by the mechanical rotational resonant frequency of the system is governed by the mechanical rotational resistance. nance the resistance tion as depicted 5. in This characteristic at the high and low freHowever. Therefore. and electrical capacitance. At the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Parallel.6. 5.13 and 5. 5.12 The output and 5. from equations 5. Electrical each of the four systems decreases the attenua- by the transmission Resistance.14 and 5. in abfarads. is At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the acoustical reactance zero.34 is the transmission as influenced by the acoustical system the acoustical resistance. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system is 2. inductance. .7 shows an electrical resistance. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown The electrical impedance of the electrical 2^2 = Ve — rn ^ 2 rELuLE — ^ Jf^L. in the region of resocharacteristic of Fig.9. + T ^--^^ where Ve = = L Ce = electrical resistance.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS system is 69 governed by the mechanical rectihneal resistance. The mechanical network is rectihneal.

70 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The mechanical rotational impedance of the rotational system jo^rRl is ZR2 rn — oi^rRlCn + jwl 5. in shunt with a line and the mechanical rectilineal. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system is JuvaM rA — coViMCa + jwM (centimeter)''. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.38. = = mechanical rotational resistance. in rotational ohms. inertance.7. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in / = moment gram (centimeter)^. acoustical capacitance. Electrical resistance. rotational compliance. The output and 5. The output volume current can be obtained from equations and . inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.13 ELECTRICAL Bsssssssm Mlk^UU<U^kkU ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in grams per and 5. of inertia. S. in radians per and dyne per centimeter.37.14 Ca = 5.37 where ru Cb. 5. in acoustical ohms.38 where r^ M= = acoustical resistance. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5.

At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. the mechanical rotational reactance is infinite and from equations 5. ° The term "line" is used to designate an electrical network which prior to the introduction of the corrective electrical network consisted of a generator in series with two electrical impedances Zei and zes.10. electrical impedance of the corrective electrical network. Fig.7. 5.2 and the transmission is small. 5. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. 5.36 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. the acoustical reactance is infinite and from equations 5. and electromotive force in series with the three electrical im- pedances. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. .5.7. The series corrective electrical network Ze2 is connected in series with the input and output electrical impedances z^i and Zes.7. 5.35 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Series Corrective Networks trical In a series electrical network an electrical resistance. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. 5. 5. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. Fig.13 and 5. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5.38 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance. inductance.7.12 and 5. 5.37 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.^ The output given by current i^ of a line containing a series electrical network is /3 = Zei -^—r+ + Ze2 5.11 and 5.7. termed the input and output electrical impedances. At the resonant frequency the electrical reactance is infinite and therefore from equations 5. 5. Fig. 5. eleccapacitance or a combination of these elements is connected in series with a line.14 and 5.39 Zil'S where zei ze2 Ze3 e = = = = input electrical impedance.SERIES CORRECTIVE NETWORKS 71 At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.3 and the transmission is again small. output electrical impedance. However.

= Zilfl + — Zil/2 + where Zmi Zm2 ZAf3 = = input mechanical rectilineal impedance.43 = p = 2. acoustical impedance of the corrective acoustical network.41 'J>3 = ZRI — + Z/S2 + Z/J3 where Zri 2K2 = = = = input mechanical rotational impedance. 5. and rotational driving torque in series with the mechanical impedances.42 Zas. = Jm = output mechanical rectilineal impedance.72 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output velocity x^. of a mechanical rectilineal network which is analogous to the series electrical *3 network is given by 5. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the corrective mechan- ical rectilineal network.41 input acoustical impedance. .40 ZM2. mechanical rotational impedance of the corrective mechanical rotational network. The elec- impedance of the inductance ze2 = j^L.11. The output volume current X^ of an acoustical network which is is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. and mechanical driving force in series with mechanical impedances. 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.43 where L = inductance. and driving pressure in series with the acoustical impedances. The output angular which is velocity 03 of a mechanical rotational network is analogous to the series electrical network given by 5. X3 = Z-U P + Z_12 + where = — za2 2.8 an inductance trical connected in is series with a line. in abhenries. 5. ZB3 Jr output mechanical rotational impedance. Inductance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. output acoustical impedance.

5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig.8 is = jo)I 5.8.8 is = j^m 5. impedance of the inductance is large compared to the input and output electrical impedances the current transmission will be small. 5. mechanical The graph depicts the transmission frequency The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mass zm2 in Fig. in grams. 5. Since the mechanical rectilineal impedance of a mass is proportional to the frequency. The mechanical rotational impedance of the flywheel zji2 in Fig. in gram (centimeters)^. 5. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown in Fie. 5. with a line and the mechanical rectilineal.44 where tn = mass. -nsim — RECTILINEAL # ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY MECHANICAL Fig. If the mass reactance is comparatively large the mass will remain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.39 and 5.8. Since the electrical impedance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency.8.43 show that inductance electrical is 73 if the electrical impedance of the small compared to the input and output electrical impedIf the ances the attenuation introduced by the inductance will be small.40 and show that if the mass reactance is small compared to the load or little driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mass will cause very reduction in the velocity transmitted to the load.45 where / = moment of inertia. 5.INDUCTANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE Equations 5.8 equations 5. characteristic. . 5. Inductance in series rotational and acoustical analogies.44 In the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.

Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies is In Fig.42 and 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.45 if show that the moment of inertia reactance is small compared to the load or driving mechanical rectilineal impedance the addition of the mo- ment of inertia will cause very little reduction in the angular velocity moment of inertia reactance is compararemain practically stationary and the velocity transmitted to the load will be small.46 show that at the low frequencies where the impedance of an inertance is small compared to input and out- put acoustical impedances the attenuation introduced by the inertance is small. If the tively large the flywheel will of Fig.8. Equation 5. 5. The electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance of Fig. 5. 5. 5. acoustical Equations 5. in abfarads. 5.8 is za2 = jo^M 5.48. The acoustical impedance of the inertance in Fig.47 where Ce = electrical capacitance.8 equations 5.46 where M= inertance.39 shows that if the electrical impedance of the electrical is large compared to the input or output electrical impedances. At the high frequencies the acoustical impedance of the inertance is large and the transmission is small.9 an electrical capacitance connected in series with a line.8 consists of a pipe with a constriction which forms an inertance. Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. the attenuation introduced by the electrical capacitance will be large. 5. Since the acoustical impedance of an inertance is proportional to the frequency the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. the transmission will decrease with frequency as shown by the characteristic transmitted to the load. If the electrical impedance of the electrical capacitance is small compared to the input and output electrical impedances the attenuation capacitance .41 and 5. The acoustical system of Fig.74 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS In the mechanical rotational system of Fig.9 is 2£2 = jwLe r- -5. Since the mechanical rotational impedance of a moment of inertia is proportional to the frequency. 5.12. 5.

9.40 and 5. is inversely proportional Equations 5. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of 1 Z.9 to the frequency.48 where Cm — compliance. 5.9 is ^R2 5. 5.ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE IN SERIES WITH A LINE will is 75 be small. . in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5. frequency characteristic.9. in centimeters per dyne.9 = 5. 5. is ance relatively large to motion. as the transmission will increase with frequency as shown by equation shown in Fig. 5. is 5. line and the mechanical rectihneal. Electrical capacitance in series with a mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. depicts the transmission The graph Equation 5. 5. 777^77 777777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig.47. Fig. Since the electrical impedance of an electrical capacitance inversely proportional to the frequency.48 show that at low frequencies the input velocity to the compliance is relatively small and there will be little transmission. At high frequencies the input velocity to the compliand therefore it introduces very little impedance Therefore the transmission characteristic will be shown in rotational The mechanical impedance of 1 Fig.9.l/2 Fig.48 shows that the mechanical impedance of the compliance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.49 J^Cr where Cr = rotational compliance.

42 = -r-— JwCa 5. Mechanical Rotational. and Acoustical Analogies Fig.9. is Therefore the transmission characteristic will be as shown in Fig. 5.9 consists of a stiffness controlled diaphragm. electrical capacitance in series The analogy shown is.10.13.51 where Ca It will = acoustical capacitance of equation 5. dyne. and per = area of the diaphragm.49 shows that the mechanical rotational impedance of the is rotational compliance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5.42 and 5. The acoustical impedance of Fig. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig.50.9 inversely proportional to the frequency. The acoustical capacitance of this system is Ca where Ca = CyS' in centimeters 5. 5.9 is 2. Equation 5. . 5. Equashow that the transmission will increase with increase of the frequency as shown by the characteristic of Fig. in (centimeter)" per dyne. 5. There is no simple purely acoustical system which with a line.50 = Cm = S acoustical capacitance.9. be seen that this system will not transmit a steady flow of a gas the electrical circuit of Fig.48 show is that at the low frequencies the input angular velocity to the rotational compliance large is relatively small and the transmission low. 5.51 shows that the acoustical impedance of an 5. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.9 will not transmit in the same way that direct current. 5. analogous to an in Fig. in square centimeters.76 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Equation 5. Equations 5. The mechanical rectilineal. At is the high frequencies the angular velocity of the rotational compliance relatively and it introduces very little impedance to motion. 5. compliance of the suspension system. that the mass of the diaphragm is small and the stiffness high so that the frecjuency range under consideration is well below the natural resonant frequency of the diaphragm and suspension.41 and 5.10 series with a shows an inductance and acoustical capacitance connected in line.51 is inversely proportional to the frequency. acoustical capacitance tions 5.

in grams. 5. in abfarads. WS^ /77777 ^77777 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. . The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic.53 where m = = mass.54 where / Cr = moment of inertia.39 and 5. in centimeters per dyne. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. Inductance and electrical capacitance in scries with a line and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5.10. in gram (centimeter)^. and electrical capacitance.10 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. and = rotational compliance. 5. and C_if compliance.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 77 impedance of the electrical network of Fig.53. in abhenries.40 and 5. 5.10 is ze2 = i^I + ^^~ 5.1/2 = j<^m + T-—- 5.52 jwCe where L = Ce = inductance. rectilineal.52. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The mechanical system of Fig.10 is ZJ52 = j^L 1 5. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.

5.42 and 5. and again the transmission is small.41 and 5.11 shows an inductance and series electrical capacitance in parallel rectilineal.78 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS The output angular velocity can be obtained from equations 5.53 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. Equations 5. The mechanical shown mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also in Fig. The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of ZA2 Fig.14. 5. 5.41 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.42 and 5.50. 5.52 show that the series circuit introduces no attenuation. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance the pressure required to actuate the resonant system is zero. 5. in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. The expression for the acoustical capacitance is given by equation 5. Equations 5. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.55. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance of these two elements in series is zero and equations 5.54.10. in (centimeter)^ per dyne.10 is = j^M + ^-7jwLa 5. in grams per (centimeter)*. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance the torque required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. and acoustical capacitance.55 also show that the attenuation introduced by the system is zero. At low frequencies the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.40 and 5. connected in with a line. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance the force required to drive the resonant system is zero and therefore the attenuation introduced by the system is zero.11. . The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. and the transmission is small. Equations 5. 5.8.54 also show that the attenuation is zero at the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Parallel.39 and 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.9 5.55 where M= Ca = inertance.

5.39 and 5.Sl (j?mCM where m = Cm = mass. 5. 5.56 co^LCe where L = Ce = inductance. 5. in centimeters per dyne.11 rectilineal is impedance of the mechanical rectilineal 2. Inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel.1/2 = 1 — S. 1 w-/Cfl 2 7-" •'••''^ .56. and electrical capacitance. The mechanical system of Fig. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.INDUCTANCE AND ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE The electrical 79 impedance of the ZE2 1 electrical network of Fig.11. in abfarads. and compliance. in abhenries. ^7^ELECTRICAL ymUULUWTO' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig.11 is - 5.40 and 5. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.11 is 2/22 = :. in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal.57.

Equations 5.11 equation 5. velocity can be obtained from equations 5. Equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and rotational compliance of Fig.39 and 5.42 shows that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5.11 is -. and = rotational compliance. 5. Equation 5.40 and 5. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.11 the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not rotate.41 The output angular 5.57 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. 5. 5. electrical capacitance in series with a rotational The mechanical also rectilineal. 5. mechanical and acoustical analogies are shown in Fig. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.80 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS Cr where / = moment of inertia. inductance and line. 5. in grams (centimeter)^. 5. and The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig.8 and the attenuation is small. .42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal.42 == 5. and acoustical capacitance. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance of Fig.11.11 the mechanical rectilineal impedance is infinite and the input to the spring does not move. 1 - ^^jv^ a)2MCi 5.15.58 show that there is no transmission at this frequency. in radians per dyne per centimeter. 5.12 shows an electrical resistance. Electrical Resistance. in (centimeter)'^ per dyne.59.58.56 show that there At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliis no transmission.12. ance of Fig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical impedance is infinite and equations 5.41 and 5.59 where M= Ca = inertance. The output volume current can be obtained from equations 5. in grams per (centimeter)*.9 and again the attenuation is small. 2. 5. The transmission characteristics of the four systems are shown in Fig.59 shows that the acoustical impedance is infinite.

graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in abfarads. compliance. inductance.61. in grams. The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in abhenries.60 J^Ce where = L = Ce = rj? electrical resistance.61 where Tm = mechanical rectilineal resistance. in centimeters per dyne. and electrical capacitance in series with and the mechanical rectilineal.THREE SERIES ELEMENTS The electrical 81 is impedance of the Z£2 electrical network of Fig.12 T = rE + jwL + 5. 5.60. m = Cm = mass.62 . c« ^vw^MHI ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL POTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fic. Electrical resistance.12 is rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system of Z)/2 = rM + jwm + .40 and 5. 5.12. The output current can be obtained from equations 5. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system is Zfl2 = Tij + jwl + T-^r 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. in mechanical ohms. 5. 5. in abohms. inductance a line 'J'hc The mechanical Fig. and capacitance.39 and 5.

40 and 5. where vr / = moment of inertia. the acoustical reactance is zero. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems introduces attenuation as depicted by the trans5.9 At low frequencies mission characteristic of Fig.12.12.12.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of Fig. Fig. 5. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.42 = TA -[-jwM + _.63 where va M= = acoustical resistance. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the series electrical reactance is zero. and Cr = rotational compliance. inertance. The transmission characteristic of these systems is shown in Fig. 5. 5. 5. current can be obtained from equations 5.63 the attenuation is due to the acoustical resistance.12.42 and 5. in radians per dyne per centimeter. Fig. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is zero. the mechanical rotational reactance is zero. Therefore.62.63. 5. At the resonant frequency of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.42 and the four systems behave the same as those of Fig.10.39 and 5.60 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Fig. from equations 5. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance.41 and 5. in rotational ohms.4 -T-z^ 5.61 the attenuation is due to the mechanical resistance.8. However. in acoustical ohms. 5. The output and 5. 5.12 is 2. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in gram (centimeter)^. and again the transmission is small.82 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = mechanical rotational resistance. Therefore. 5. Therefore. in grams per (centimeter)*.62 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance. . in (centimeter)^ per dyne. The output volume 5. from equations 5. from equations 5. This characteristic at the low and high frequencies is the same as that of Fig. Therefore. and the transmission is small. from equations 5.coC.12.

in series with a line and the mechanical rectihneal. 5.13 shows an electrical resistance. The electrical impedance of the ZE2 electrical network of Fig.13. 5. inductance. 5. 83 Parallel. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies Fig.39 and 5.16. in abohms. inductance line.13 is ZM2 = r. mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies are also shown in Fig. and electrical capacitance. and electrical capacitance in parallel in series with a The mechanical rectilineal. The graph depicts the transmission frequency characteristic. in Series with a Line Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in and the Mechanical Rectilineal.mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies.13 is jcorEL te veLCe + j<^L 5.THREE PARALLEL ELEMENTS 5. inductance and electrical capacitance in parallel. in abhenries. mm AAA/- L HH ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ACOUSTICAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5.13. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. The output current can be obtained from equations 5.M jw7'M in <^ KmC]\j -\- jwm 5. Electrical resistance.64. 5.64 where Ve = L = Ce = electrical resistance.65 . Electrical Resistance. in abfarads.

42 and At low frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig.66 the attenuation is due to the mechanical rotational resistance.8 and the attenuation is small.13. rotational velocity can be obtained from equations 5. in grams.65.84 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS = m = mechanical rectihneal resistance.13.39 and 5. / = moment of inertia in gram (centimeter)^. in where tm mechanical ohms. At the resonant frequency of the mass and compliance. and Cr = rotational compliance. Fig. Fig. Therefore.13 is = jo^rAM ~. current can be obtained from equations 5.41 and 5. and compliance. in centimeters per dyne. of the moment of inertia and the rotational compliance.64 the attenuation is due to the electrical resistance. Fig. inertance.13 is Ze2 = rn - 2 0) J^rgl j^ r^^^T rRlLB + jwl in rotational — — ^-^^ where vr = mechanical rotational resistance. mass. 5.9 and the attenuation is small. in radians per dyne per centimeter. The output and 5.41 The acoustical impedance of the acoustical system of za2 Fig. therefore. Therefore. from equations 5. the mechanical rotational impedance is infinite. from . in acoustical ohms.67 where r^ = acoustical resistance. 5.67.65 the attenuation At the resonant frequency is due to the mechanical rectilineal resistance. At high frequencies the systems behave the same as those of Fig. the mechanical rectilineal reactance is infinite.40 and 5. ohms. At the resonant frequency of the inertance and acoustical capacitance. Therefore. The mechanical rotational impedance of the mechanical rotational system of Fig. 5. At the resonant frequency of the inductance and electrical capacitance the electrical reactance is infinite and. in (centimeter)® per dyne. and Ca = acoustical capacitance.13. 5. 5. in M= grams per (centimeter)*. from equations 5. 5. 5.66. from equations 5.40 and 5. 5. The output volume 5. Cm = The output velocity can be obtained from equations 5. the acoustical reactance is infinite.

39 will be seen that the attenuation will be greater as the . and shunt networks are employed to introduce dissipation or attenuation in the electrical circuits. Referring to equation 5. that of Fig. Fig.14 Mechanical Rotational.67 the attenuation ance.13. Resistance Networks Series use of resistance networks in electrical circuits is well known. 5. 5.SERIES RESISTANCE equations 5. Electrical Resistance in Series with a Line and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 5. the low and high frequencies is the same as However. "T" and "tt" networks are a combination of series and shunt elements usually employed to introduce attenuation without mismatching impedances or for matching dissimilar impedances. 5. 5.17. 5. may be used in these systems to introduce dissipa- damping or attenuation.13. is NETWORK due to the acoustical is 85 resist- The transmission characteristic of these systems This characteristic at shown in Fig. in the region of resonance the resistance in each of the four systems decreases the attenuation as depicted by the transmission characteristic of Fig. In the same way mechanical and The acoustical resistance tion.18. and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in series shows an it with a line.11.42 and 5.

13 shows that the attenuation in the mechanical rotational system of Fig. rectilineal.42 shows that the atten- uation in this system will increase as the acoustic resistance made 5.15 Resistance in Shunt with a Line and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies electrical resistance in shows an it shunt with a line. Electrical Rectilineal. Fig.14 shows that in the acoustical sys- tem of Fig. that in the same way the attenuation in the Equation 5.15 the attenuation will increase as the is shunt acoustical resistance made smaller. Equation 5.14 shows a system of made larger. Equation 5. Equation 5.12 shows mechanical rectilineal system is of Fig. 5. 5. 5. The slits in series with input is and output acoustical impedances.11 will be seen that the attenuation in this case will be 7^V ELECTRICAL /77777 RECTILINEAL '^^^^^'^^^^^^"t^'^^^^^' ACOUSTICAL ROTATIOMAL MECHANICAL Fig. larger. Electrical resistance in shunt with a hne and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. greater as the electrical resistance is made smaller. 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance made smaller.86 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS is greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel acoustical system of Fig. . 5.15.19. Referring to equation 5.15 will be greater as the sliding resistance on the brake wheel is made smaller. 5.

16. acoustical systems of Fig. The mechanical rectilineal. "T" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical cal rotational rectilineal. In the same way equations 5. and 2^3 is the sum of rui. Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies type electrical network is shown in Fig.41 and the output impedances.14 apply to //y}}y/7 ^Z}}?}}/' 11 IL_ ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL AUkkkkkUkUkkkkUl ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. 5. respectively.16.20. and r^i and the input impedances.21. respectively.16. The "x" type of network may be used for the same purpose as the "T" network of the preceding section. *V "it" Type Electrical Resistance Rectilineal. and Zmz.12. mechani- and acoustical analogies. 5. 5. and is Tmi A "T" ze3- type electrical network applicable fE2 is by considering Ze2 in and 5.17. A and acoustical resistance systems equivalent to the electrical "x" .13 the mechanical rectihneal.11. wherein zm\. mechanical rotational. rm. Electrical Resistance Network and the Mechanical Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies shown in Fig. zri.11 is r^i to be added to Zei and rgi to be added to equation 5.TYPE RESISTANCE NETWORK 5. and zai is the sum of ^Mi. Equation 5. and r. 5. rui. 87 "T" Type Rectilineal. 5. "Zrz. 5. mechanical rotaelectrical tional.

14. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Transformers A transformer is mechanical ers are a transducer used for transferring between two impedloss. Electrical. 5.17. The performance of the mechanical rectilineal. In this case zei is the input impedance. me- chanical rotational.18. 5. 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transform- shown in Fig.88 CORRECTIVE NETWORKS network are shown in Fig. and acoustical systems may be obtained by similar considerations employing equations 5. This of course determines only the current in zesThis current is equal to the vector sum of the current in rE2 and the //}}J/// ^M2 /77777 77^y^T7 ELECTRICAL RECTILINEAL ^^^llll^JII ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. ances of different values without appreciable reflection rectilineal. rectihneal. Mechanical Rectilineal. ze2 is rE2. Equation 5. "x" type electrical resistance network and the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies. 5. and zes is tei in series with rE2 in parallel with the output impedance. .17. output impedance. 5. Electrical.22.11 may be used to predict the performance of the electrical system.12.13 and 5.

ACOUSTICAL Fig. and zei represent the electromotive force. The mechanical rectilineal transformer of Fig.70 where A^i A'2 = number = number of turns in the primary. 5.18 consists of a rigid massless lever with frictionless bearings. The force. current and electrical impedance on the primary side and ^2. 5. ii.18 the electromotive force. ei. 5. Electrical.69 ZE2 -~ (0 ZBI 5.18.68 5. mechanical rotational and acoustical transformers. and of turns on the secondary. ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL mechanical rectilineal. current and electrical impedance ratios on the two sides of the trans- former are N2 e-i M e\ 5. ^2 and 2^2 represent the electromotive force current and electrical impedance on the secondary side.TRANSFORMERS 89 In the ideal electrical transformer of Fig. velocity and .

acoustical transformer consists of stiffness two rigid massless diaphragms with negligible suspension coupled together as shown in Fig. angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance on the two sides of the rotational transdi former.79 . 5. /ri. <t>i and Ziji and//s2) <t>2 and 27^2 represents the torque. The torque. two sides of the volume current and acoustical impedance on the diaphragm combination are P2=^pi X2 = -? Xi So 5. 5. The 5.90 mechanical CORRECTIVE NETWORKS rectilineal impedance ratios on the two sides of the lever are Jmi = J /mi '2 X2 5. The pressure. /mi.18.18. 5.18. The mechanical less rigid rotational transformer.78 2^2 = I V J =2^1 5.77 5. angular velocity and mechanical rotasides of the gear train are tional impedance on the two fR2 = = = f Ai 5.71 = — xi 5. velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance on the two sides of the mechanical transformer.18. of Fig. •*! and 23/1 andyjif2) '*2 and 23/2 represents the force. consists of a mass- gear train.76 and ^2 are the diameters of the gears depicted in Fig.74 4>2 ik «2 I 5.75 2/J2 T i '^R^ 5.73 and 4 are the lengths of the lever arms depicted in Fig.72 2^2 /i = \j) ^Mi 5.

The acoustical transformer of Fig. In an acoustical system a horn may be used to transfer from one impedance to another impedance of a different value without appreciable reflection loss. As a matter of fact a horn ^ may be looked upon as an acoustical transformer.18 is not purely an acoustical system since it uses mechanical elements in the form of diaphragms. pi.ACOUSTICAL TRANSFORMERS Si and >S'2 91 are the areas of the X2 and za2 represents the pressure. two diaphragms. . transforming large pressures and small volume currents to small pressures and large volume currents or the reverse process. New York. "Elements of Acoustical Van Nostrand Co. 1940. volume current and acoustical imped- ance on the two sides of the acoustical transformer." D. ^ Engineering. 5.41 and p2.. For these and other properties of horns see Olson. Xi and 2.

mechanical rectilineal. p. Vol... No.. 1922. 92 . Electrical networks of this sort are called electrical wave filters/ as filters they pass certain frequencies freely and stop filters others. No. mechanical and acoustical wave filters so that the filter information on electrical wave may be used to solve It is prob- mechanical and acoustical systems. Wave analogous to electrical wave in may be de^ veloped and employed mechanical wave filters any wave motion system. 6. 20. 1922. Bell System Tech. Introduction The essential function of a wave filter is to let pass desired frequency bands and to highly attenuate neighboring undesired frequency bands. 528.. Vol. the purpose of this chapter to illustrate and describe the different types of electrical. The more frequently used types are designated as follows: Low Pass Wave Filters Filters High Pass Wave Band Pass Wave Filters Band Elimination Wave 1 Filters 2 Campbell. 2. are becoming very important all j'\coustical and for use in noise reduction and control of vibrations in types of vibrating systems.2. An electrical filter is a general type of electrical network in which a number of recurrent electrical impedance elements are assembled to form a recurrent structure. I. Stewart. 6. Jour.1. Types of Wave Filters The response characteristics of wave filters are widely different. Phys. G. mechanical rotational and acoustical wave filters. A number trical of books and numerous articles have been published on elecfilters. wave Therefore it is important to establish the analogies filters between lems in electrical.CHAPTER VI WAVE FILTERS 6. Rev. A. G. W.

Shea. velocities. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. The most important type of structure is the ladder type. that is. velocities. 6. velocities. It has been shown in treatises on wave filters that attenuation occurs when 21/22 is another combination 21/22 is negative and no greater in absolute magnitude Non-attenuation occurs when 21/22 is negative and is less Therefore. A band pass wave filter is a system which passes currents. A band elimination wave filter is a system which bars currents. A high pass wave filter is a system which passes currents." D. Van Nostrand Co. ^ Nostrand Co. The primary object is the determination of those combinations of reactances which will give a single or double transmitted band of frequencies. Johnson.. velocities. all angular velocities or volume currents of rents.RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FILTERS A low pass wave filter is 93 a system which passes currents. lie angular velocities or volume currents that between two cutoff fre- quencies /ci and/c2 and bars currents. angular velocities or volume currents that lie between the two cutoff frequencies Jex and Jc2 and passes currents. velocities. a certain combination of reactances in series with the line and The series reactance and in shunt with the line. velocities. shunt reactance are designated by Zi and 22. "Transmission Networks and Wave Filters. "Transmission Circuits for Telephonic Communication. Van New York. angular velocities or volume currents of down to a certain frequency bars currents. rent structure of the ladder type having series impedances 21 and shunt impedances 22 will pass readily only currents of such frequencies as will make the ratio 21/22 lie between and —4. positive and when than four. velocities." D. angular velocities frequencies from zero up to a certain frequency termed the cutoff frequency /c and which bars curand volume currents of all higher frequencies. *' . respectively.3. angular velocities and volume currents of all frequencies outside this range. velocities.. a non-dissipative recurin absolute magnitude than four. Response Characteristics of Wave Filters ^' * The ideal or non-dissipative filters consist entirely of pure reactances. New York. all frequencies from infinity termed the cutoff frequency /c and which angular velocities and volume currents of all lower frequencies.

1. mechanical rectilineal.1 zmi zri 6. 6. mechanical rectilineal.> <^A M Ca ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY ACOUSTICAL Fig. RECTILINEAL ELECTRICAL .8 .94 6.5 j'ojCe 1 ZM2 JwCm 1 6.3 ZAl = j(^M in the four 1 6.4 The impedance of the shunt arm ZE2 systems is 6. pass wave The impedance of the series arm zei in the four systems is = jo>L = ji^in = i"/ 6. 6.6 ZR2 6.7 1 Z42 = T j(x.2 6.4. Electrical.Ca 6. MECHANICAL mechanical rotational and acoustical low filters.1. mechanical rotational tical and acous- are shown in Fig. WAVE FILTERS Low Pass Wave low pass filters Filters Electrical.

when oip = = = = 6. mechanical rectilineal.17. 6. 6. coc = — 2Af2 V — .12 — Z^2 = MCicoc^ = 0.5. linear velocities. when coe 6.17 Equations 6.11 2A/2 — 2K2 /Cijojc^ = 0. 2A2 VMC^ . mechanical rotational. 6. when . and the cutoff 6. High Pass Wave wave Filters Electrical.1 are low pass filters transmitting currents.-^ = —ICrwc 2 = — 4. inclusive. cal high pass filters and acousti- are shown in Fig.16 — -^ = — MC4uc^ = — 4. when coc = .10 and show that the systems of Fig.=V/ 2iJl when wc = / 6. 6.14 VLCj '£ = — wCjfcoc^ = — 4.= -4 6. 6. .2. when ccc 6.= From and .HIGH PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 95 by .9 the constants of the systems. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between frequency/c where /c = coc/27r. when uc = 6.10 — — 0.13 — 2£2 zm^i = — ZCeojc^ = — 4.15 WC. — ZE2 = LCewc' = = mCMWc"^ = = 0. when coc 6.

96 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems 1 is "ii'i .

2£1 6.= -4 22 6.27 .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS The limiting frequencies are given 91 by .26 From the constants of the systems.= 22 and .

12.37 1 2^1 jwQAl 6. . 5.98 WAVE FILTERS The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is zei = joiLi + 1 6.36 Zri = jwli + = jwMi + 6.35 Zmi = jwmi + 1 1 6.38 For a description of the acoustical capacitance Cai see Sec.

45 midii = rn2CM2 IiCri = I2CR2 6. a)c2 L2CE1 or 1 1 '«>C2 LiCe2 . . 6.48 VL2CJS2 = 0.41 W Cb2-^2 ^^^ 1 6. when wci = — VLiCei .lfi)^ ^ -..47 MiCai = M2CA2 — ZiS2 =0. _ 4.49 — Z«2 ZAl 2.42 co^C^sAfa The limiting frequencies are given by ?1 = and ^ = -4 L2CE2 6. — — / 1 6. when coci = = 6.52 \^LiCi E2 ZAfl - -4. a)C2 — m2tMi = 4.50 V/iGji 0.43 Let LiCei = 6. = — 7= / 6.12 =0.44 6. 2. „ when coci = .BAND PASS WAVE FILTERS 2iJ2 1 99 — - 6.46 6. V/2Cfl2 —= Z£l when wc\ — . —= Z£2 — 4. = 1 .51 VM2C42 = . —7== VMiCai .V/2 when WC2^WiC. UCe\ (1 6. when ^ (1 — WC2 LiCex) .

^C2'MiCaxY = --—.57 LiCe2 1 WC'2 Tn^ f \Cm2 + ntiCMi 1 1 V WiC.i/2 1 1 C0C2 6.54 /iCb2 /iCri V/jCj R2 . (1 .53 —= ZiJ2 -4. + LiCei LxCe2 1 1 6. ZA2 or 1 WC2 MiCa2 + 1 6.59 WiCi/i •\/»ZiC. or i^C2 ~ 1 1 ]_ 6.100 or '^C2 WAVE FILTERS ± y/miCi . —= 2. when j-r~ <^C2 -'2(>i21 = 4.1/2 <xCm2 mxCux 6.58 and WC2 = + OTlCv2 1 1 6.55 MiCax VMiCa It will one less than be noted that uc2 has two values. the upper and lower cutoff frequencies coci- are given by ' UC2 = Q. one greater than uci and Therefore.41 . when .56 'V LiCe2 1 and ^C2 U = ' LiCe2 + 1 LiCei + 'V 6.v/2 1 6. -4.60 ^iCb2 ^iCbi 'N//iCk2- . <^C2 '^2(^Al 4.

67 o?CaxMx systems is The impedance of the shunt arm in the four 2£2 = = J j'^Li UiCe2 6. inclusive.69 . show that the systems of Fig. Band Elimination Wave Filters Electrical.63.64 CeiLi 6.68 ZM2 J J(^fn2 uCm2 6.56 to 6. angular velocities or volume currents of all frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies /c2' and/c2".41 = 1 JcoMi - 6.65 jccmi Za/i ^CMimi j^I\ Zffil 6.7.62 VMiCa2 1 ind (^02 Vi^ MiCa2 6. The impedance of the series arm in the four systems is 7coZi Zei CO 6.66 1 ^^Cu\Ix 2. 6. mechanical rectilineal.BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS and 1 101 <^C2 I\Cr2 1 + IiCi 1 1 6. 6.61 Rl 1 VhCB2 1 0>C2 = MiCa2 + MiCai 1 6.63 MiCai VMiCa •12 Equations 6.3 band pass filters transmitting currents. where /c2' = <^C2 I'^t^ and/c2" = coc2'72'r.4. mechanical rotational tical and acous- band elimination wave filters are shown in Fig. are 6. linear velocities.

74 6.ll 22 Let L\Ce\ = L2CE2 6.70 Za2 JC0M2 — 6. mechanical rectilineal. Electrical. 6.73 miCMi = m^CMi I\Cu\ 6.71 BOTATrONAL MECHANICAL Fig.4.75 = I2CR2 6. mechanical rotational and acoustical band elimination wave filters.102 WAVE FILTERS ZiJ2 = j<^l2 = J 6. The limiting frequencies are given ?i by = and ^ = -4 22 G.76 .

or.78 —= ZR2 0.79 ^— = ZA2 0. when ojci = and 01^4 = 00 6.42 -4. MiCa2 — UlC ^ = . when uci = and cca oo 6. I\Cr2 Zr2 (1 n \ WC -'iWnj 2r or coc = 4/1 Cj iji 6.82 . M\Ca\) 4.80 Two of the Hmiting frequencies are determined by wci and wa above.1 when(1 miCj ""1^^^ ZM2 or ojc — = 4. . —= Zr\ -4. 6. —= zei -4. when (1 .83 —= Z^l 2. when oici = and wa = =0 6. . when (1 .BAND ELIMINATION WAVE FILTERS 103 —= ZE2 0. 6. when wci = and coc4 = = oo 6. when.-4.77 —— = ZM2 0. i^C miLMl) = VotiCi/2 + ]6wiCm T — — ± 'VmiCM2 7. .84 . LiCe2 Ze2 — '^C ^li-El) 2r n \ VLiCe2 + 16LiCei ± VLiCe2 Zmi .

104

WAVE FILTERS

other two limiting frequencies are

The

CdC2

=

.

r

^

>

D-O-"

and

tocs

=

o.oo

C0C2

=

^

^

,

O.O/

and

^cz

=

-.

7;

o.t

WC3

CHAPTER

7.1.

VII

TRANSIENTS

Introduction

Transients embrace a wide variety of physical phenomena. An elecis the current which flows in a circuit following an electrical disturbance in the system. A mechanical transient is the rectilinear

trical transient

or angular velocity which occurs in a

disturbance in the system.

An

acoustical transient

mechanism following a mechanical is the volume cur-

rent which flows in an acoustical system following an acoustical dis-

turbance in the system.

with

electrical,

dition.

The preceding sections have been concerned mechanical and acoustical systems in a steady state conThe formulas and expressions assume that the systems are in a

volume currents have become con-

**steady state condition of operation which means that the currents,
**

linear velocities, angular velocities or

The steady state solution is only one part of the solution because immediately after some change in the system the currents or velocities have not settled into a steady state

stant direct or periodic functions of time.

condition.

Electrical, mechanical

to all types of varying

**and acoustical systems are subjected and impulsive forces. Therefore, it is important
**

to impulsive

to

examine the behavior of these systems when subjected

forces as contrasted to steady state conditions.

of a vibrating system may be analyzed by solving the equations of the dynamical system. In other words find the currents or velocities of the elements which when substituted in the differential equations will satisfy the initial and final conditions. The

The behavior

difi^erential

**solution of the differential equation
**

state term

may

The

be divided

'

**into the steady
**

is

and the transient term.

operational calculus

of great

value in obtaining the transient response of an electrical, mechanical or acoustical system to a suddenly impressed voltage, force or pressure.

^ Usually these parts are obtained by solving the differential equation for a particular integral and a complementary function.

105

106

TRANSIENTS

general analysis used by Heaviside

is

The

applicable to

any type of

**vibrating system whether electrical, mechanical or acoustical.
**

calculus.

electrical,

It is the

The

response of a system to a unit force can be obtained with the Heaviside

purpose of this section to determine the response of mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational and acoustical

**systems to a suddenly applied unit electromotive force, force, torque or
**

pressure respectively.

7.2.

The Heaviside Operational Calculus

^^ '• ^

Heaviside's unextended problem is as follows: given a linear dynamical system of « degrees of freedom in a state of equilibrium, find its response when a unit force is applied at any point. The unit function, 1, depicted in Fig. 7.1, is defined to be a force which is zero for / < and unity for

t>

0.

aT

t=

o

electromotive force, force, torque or pressure

/

Fig. 7.1.

The

unit function.

The

is

zero

before and unity after

=

0.

The response of a dynamical system to a unit force is called the indicial admittance of the system. It is denoted by A(t). A{t) represents the current, linear velocity, angular velocity, or volume current when a unit electromotive force, force, torque or pressure is suddenly applied in a

system which was

initially at rest.

In the Heaviside calculus the differential equations are reduced to an algebraic form by replacing the operator dj dt by the operator p and the

operation / dt by 1/^.

Tables of operational formulas have been com-

**piled which serve for operational calculus the
**

^

same purpose that

tables

Carson, "Electric Circuit Theory and Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Co., New York. ' Bush, "Operational Circuit Analysis," John Wiley and Sons, New York. Berg, "Heaviside's Operational Calculus," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Book

*'

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

of integrals serve the integral calculus.

modified, divided or combined

107

Operational formulas

may

be

This

is

similar to

**by various transformation schemes. integration by parts or change of variable in the
**

Direct Heaviside Operational

integral calculus.

The procedure

equation

in the

Method

to be

**followed in obtaining an operational solution of an ordinary differential
**

is as follows: Indicate differentiation with respect to the independent variable by means of the operator p. Indicate integration by means of \/p. Manipulate p algebraically and solve for the dependent variable in terms of p. Interpret and evaluate the solution in terms of

known

7.3.

operators.

**Transient Response of an Inductance and Electrical Resistance in
**

Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal, Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies

The

differential equation of

**an electromotive force,
**

series, as

electrical resistis

ance and inductance connected in

shown

in Fig. 7.2,

L -~

where

di

-{-

.

tei

=

e

7.1

at

r/j

L = = i = e =

inductance, in abhenries,

electrical resistance, in

current, in abamperes,

abohms, and

**electromotive force, in abvolts.
**

for the operator d/dt,

Let the symbol p stand becomes

then equation

7.1

Lpi

-f rEi

=

e

7.2

The

electrical

admittance

is

e

te

+

Lp

7.3

If ^

=

for

/

<

electrical indicial

and unity for / > 0, then the ratio i/e is called the admittance designated as Asit). The electrical indicial

admittance

is

VE

+

Lp

4 = (ajj + p)L 7. velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force.2.6 Je(0 = ^ (1 Te e-^-i') 1. The equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and mass. 7. shown in Fig. 7. Response of an electrical resistance and inductance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. The current is zero = 0. ELECTRICAL RECTrLINCAL I PTaHM ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. . The graph depicts the current.2.5 is ^Eit) = ^ 1 (1 ") 7. rectilineal resistance. From the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7. 7. in grams.8 where m = = /m — V mass. unit torque and unit pressure.1 for / The response characteristic is shown in Fig. respectively.5 where aE = Te/L.2. in dynes. is dv m~ + tmV at = jM mechanical ohms. in centimeters per second. 7. in tm = mechanical linear velocity. unit force.108 TRANSIENTS may be written AE{i) 1 Equation 7. and driving force. The current increases for values of / > and approaches the differential value l/rg.

and = torque.10 Tm + ^1 nip 7.11 au = ru/fn- From the tables of operational formulas the solution ^i/W = or J.13 for The response characteristic is shown in Fig.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The operational equation becomes 109 mpv If/v/ + tmv / = Jm 7. ohms.2. 1/riv/. The operational equation becomes Ipe + rne^jR 7.j{t) -^ muM (1 (1 - e"-'") 7. 7.14 d Jr = moment of inertia.2. in radians per second. 7.9 > then the ratio v/Jm is called admittance designated as AMif)the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal indicial admittance is = for / = and unity for rectilineal indicial AM{i)= Equation 7. in gram (centimeter)^. as shown in Fig. = mechanical rotational resistance. I^ + rRe=fR at where / rj{ de 7.15 for / < and unity for t > Q then the ratio O/Jr is called the If//j = mechanical rotational indicial admittance designated as AR(t).12 = — - e"^') 7. in dyne centimeters.10 may be written ^^^W=7[otM where ^T^l -t p)m is 7. . in rotational = angular velocity. The velocity is zero The velocity increases for values of / > and approaches the / = 0. value The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and moment of inertia.

From is the tables of operational formulas.17 where aji — Vr/ I. ""^ {au ^—^rA + P)I 7. 7. The differential resistance equation of a sound pressure driving an acoustical and inertance.18 ^R{t) -^ (1 - 6-T^') 7.110 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^^W=-4-77l Tr + Ip Equation 7. The acoustical indicial admittance Ji{t) ' ^ = TA ^ + Mp 1 7.21 ^ = for / < and unity for / > is 0.20 where M= ta inertance.16 may be written ^B{t)=-. in grams per (centimeter)*. The angular velocity increases for values of > and approaches the value l/rg. = acoustical resistance. 7. in dynes per square centimeter. in cubic centimeters. is M^+rAU=p dt 7. The angular / velocity zero for = 0. the solution of equation 7. and p = sound pressure.17 ^R{t) or =~{l= is 6-"') 7.22 .2.2.16 7. in acoustical ohms. U = volume current.19 Tr The is response characteristic / shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. then the ratio U/p is called the acoustical indicial admittance designated as AA{t). The operational equation becomes MpU+rAU = p If 7.

26 where Ce te / e = = = = electrical capacitance.2.4.28 ve . electrical resistance series.27 t_ -ocEt AE^t) = rs = ^-r„CE 7. {(XA + P)M where a^ = rAJM.3.w = where «£• y^^ + 1 1 = prE^E r~. the solution of equation 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies connected in e The and differential equation of an electromotive force. 7. Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. From is the tables of operational formulas. in abfarads. The electrical indicial admittance is ^. 7.TRANSIENT RESPONSE Equation 7. in abvolts. as electrical capacitance shown in Fig.22 111 may be written. electrical resistance. in abohms.-r 1 + P)rE {oiE 7. the solution of equation 7. 7.27 — XIteCe- From IS the table of operational formulas. and electromotive force.25 The response is characteristic zero for t = 0. is shown The volume current The volume / current increases for values of > and approaches the value l/r^.23 AA{t) or = MaA - - (1 - 6--') 7.e-^ in Fig. is = rEi + -p7 /' I idt i 1 . current.24 JA{t) = " (1 . in abamperes. 7.

7. unit torque and unit pressure. ELECTRICAL p 1_ =rA Ca : ACOUSTICAL ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL Fig. is The for / shown in Fig.112 TRANSIENTS response characteristic 0.29 Cm = tm = V = /m = compliance. in mechanical ohms. velocity. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. unit force.y = l/rjfCv/. in centimeters per dyne. From the tables of operational formulas. Response of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series and the analogous mechanical rectilineal. and The mechanical rectilineal admittance 1 ^ is ^M{t) = 1 PCm + PtmCm = {oiM P ^ + 7. shown in Fig.3. 1 is Jm = tmV where +^ r \ 'odt 7.3. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. force.31 . mechanical rectilineal resistance. The graph depicts the current. The differential equation of a force driving a mechanical rectilineal as resistance and compliance. in dynes. linear velocity. respectively.30 — ocMt Aiiit) ~ r< = rM Tm 7. 7. the solution of equation 7. in centimeters. / The current is l/rg = The current decreases for values of > and approaches the value zero as a limit. 7 3.30 P)rM where a.

7.33 where aR = IIvrCr. is p = where Ca Ta rAU+^ fudt 1. in dyne centimeters. 7. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. and torque. is shown in Fig.34 The is response characteristic / 1/rB for = 0. .3.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The response is 113 characteristic 0. From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.3. fR = rBd+— I edt Cij J 7. 7. in cubic centimeters per second. in dynes per square centimeter. > and ap- proaches the value zero as a The differential equation of a torque driving a mechanical rotational is resistance and rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter. as shown in Fig. volume current. The differential equation of a resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an acoustical capacitance.W=T^^1 = + prRtR 1 —fr^l {uR + p)rR 7. in rotational ohms. in radians per second. and sound pressure. rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ^.32 where Cr vr fu = = = = rotational compliance. The angular velocity The angular velocity decreases for values of / > and approaches the value zero as a limit.2S = = U= p = acoustical capacitance. in acoustical ohms.3. mechanical rotational resistance.3. The Hnear / velocity 1/rif for t = The velocity decreases for values of limit. as shown in Fig. 7.33 AR{i) = Tr = Vr 7. acoustical resistance. is shown in Fig. angular velocity.

in current. The electrical indicial admittance is 4eW = Lp^ Let TE + rEp + ~ 1 7. Mechanical Rotational and Acoustical Analogies The differential equation of an electromotive force. The volume current decreases for values of / limit. 1 7.114 TRANSIENTS acoustical indicial admittance is The A.3. inductance and electrical capacitance connected in series. electrical resistance. in abhenries. (a + ^ Pfa . is shown 7. in abohms. > and approaches the value zero as a 7. as in Fig. in electrical capacitance.5. .39 = ^77^ J^f-'E . Transient Response of an Electrical Resistance. abamperes. 7.36 where aa = ^ItaCa- From is the tables of operational formulas the solution of equation 7.{t) = 1 ^^^ + PvaCa 1 = . J L-j where + rsi^--: dt Ce / J idt = e L = rs = Ce = / = e = inductance.37 The response is l/r^i characteristic shown The volume current for / = 0.4.36 ( AA{t) = TA is = TA in Fig.38 ^. 7. abohms. in abvolts. electrical resist- ance. Inductance and Electrical Capacitance in Series and the Mechanical Rectilineal. 7. and electromotive force.

velocity. respectively.4.^. 7. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems to a unit electromotive force. The graph depicts the current. unit force. angular velocity or volume current as a function of the time for unit excitation. for te^ < AL/Ce is shown in Fig. 7.40 co£^ From the tables of operational formulas. series Response of an electrical resistance.45. The response sinusoid. inductance and electrical capacitance in and the analogous mechanical rectihneal. 7. then the solution becomes ^E{t) = —r e-"^' sinh fe/ 7. the solution of equation 7. unit torque or unit pressure.41 : f ELECTRICAL ROTATIONAL ^ MECHANICAL Fig. It is a damped If Te^ > AL/Ce.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The electrical indicial 115 admittance is LwE ip + as)^ + 7.40 4eW = 7 L03E — e"""' sin w^t 7.4.42 where fe = \/<^£ V"^' LCe is The response for this condition shown in Fig. .

116 If te^ TRANSIENTS = AL/Ce. in rM = mechanical Cm = X = X — X = Jm = compliance. 7. 1 AC.47 . in centimeters per second.44 7 may /" be written 1 m-^ The mechanical + dt tmv + 7:r 'M C J / ^^^ — Jm is '7-45 rectilineal indicial admittance AMit) = mp^ 1 7. mechanical lineal resistance and compliance is shown in Fig. in centimeters.46 + tmP + -pr ^M Let O-M = tm m '' mLM admittance is The mechanical rectilineal indicial ^-« = -^ r. ^ ^7^ mwM {P + + ^M oim) 2 1 7. in dynes. velocity.43 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. v for x. in centimeters per second per second. then sin cast approaches cob/ and the solution is Jj^{t) = - e"""^' 7. in grams.4 as recti- mx where + tmX + -p.Cm X = Jm mechanical ohms. in centimeters per dyne. displacement. rectilineal resistance. The differential equation of a force driving a mass. Substituting equation 7. 1 A\ m = mass. and driving force. acceleration.

in radians.TRANSIENT RESPONSE From the tables of operational formulas the solution is 117 Auii) = is £-""' sin mit 7. vr = mechanical rotational resistance. rRd^~ fedt=fR + ""' + + &J 'R l.4_S. in rotational ohms. equation 7. = angular displacement.si . is of inertia. in radians per second. lAA. 7. If rM^ — Am/ Cm then sin oimI approaches oiMt and the J^[t) solution is = - m e-""" 7.51 = moment of inertia. mechanical rotational resistance and rotational compliance. in radians per dyne per centimeter.50 The response for this condition is shown in Fig. as shown in /0 where / + rij0 + ~ =/ij 7.49 ftv/ M = \ fe' V B^f^ mCi M The response of this condition is shown in Fig. then the solution becomes Am {t) where € ~ ""' sinh fe/ 7. in grams (centimeter). 7. If tm^ for r^^ < '^m/Cu shown in Fig.4C The differential equations of a torque driving a moment Fig.48 The response sinusoid. It is a damped > '^in/Cu. in dyne centimeters.4. in radians per second per second. 4> = angular acceleration. <J) Substituting 6 for 4>. Cr = rotational compliance. and 4> Jr = driving torque. 7.51 1 may be written de '^^ 7. = angular velocity.

. 7. .^2 _ is The response If rR^ for this condition shown in Fig.4C. Ii^R (P \2^ + cxr)^ + .55 The response for tr"^ < ^I/Cr shown in Fig. then the solution becomes ^ieW where ^^j =7^ «"'""sinh/3/e^ 7. If rR^ > AI/Cr.53 Let aR = tr j -I The mechanical rotational indicial admittance is ^i^» = -V- .57 The response for this condition shown in Fig. lAA.45. It is a damped sinusoid. = '^I/Cr.54 From the tables of operational formulas the solution is AR{i) = -rl^R is €-"•'' sin coij/ 7. then sin wrI approaches dORt and the solution is AR{t) = is J e--' 7.56 ^PR = Jo. WR^ 2 1 7.118 TRANSIENTS rotational indicial admittance is The mechanical ARif) = ^ J- 1 7. 7.

58 may I be written M— +rAU + ~ La if' The acoustical indicial admittance is Udt =p 7.59 ^A{t) = rl Mp^ 7. and pressure.TRANSIENT RESPONSE The shown differential equation of a 119 resistance sound pressure driving an acoustical and an inertance connected to an acoustical capacitance. acoustical resistance. in dynes per square centimeter. in (centimeter)^ per dyne. acoustical capacitance. in acoustical ohms.4. in grams per (centimeter)^. at equation 7. volume current. in cubic centimeters per second. as in Fig.58 M= = Ca = X= p — r^ inertance. is MX + rAX\~ = p where 7.60 Let OCA The acoustical indicial admittance is . 7. Substituting U for X.

Step function approximation. solution is that the response to any arbitrary force can be obtained from the unit force solution by a single integration of Duhamel's integral.63 where /3a = -YaA MCa is The response If r4^ for this condition shown in Fig. Arbitrary Force In the preceding sections the response of various combinations of elements to a unit force has been obtained. then sin oj^/ approaches and the solution is ^A{t) = is M ^ — acAt IM 7. cca^ = 4M/Ca. 7. 7.4C The response for this condition shown in Fig. 7. then the solution becomes 1 ^a(() Li3a ' sinh 0Af 7.5. The value of the unit force t=o Fig.6.45.120 IfrA^ TRANSIENTS > 4M/Ca. .

7. integral. all being of the unit type. etc. = an electromotive force eg is impressed upon the sys- A time Ui later. current due to eo is ^q-^^Wj where ^eU) is the The current due to the electromotive «. the total current at the time « u=t i = / is = = eoAEit) +^^AeAE{t - u) 7. as shown in Fig. etc.68 ..66 The above expression may be transformed into different The integral may be transformed by integrating as follows: / Jii forms.67 U = A{tdV = de{ii) V= Making follows e{u) the above substitutions.u)du du 7.5. UdF = Uv\Jo Jo u) f VdU 7. The curve can be assumed to be made up At / of a series of unit type electromotive forces. can be extended to apply to mechanical and acoustical systems.ARBITRARY FORCE It is 121 the purpose of this section to illustrate the proof and use of this discussion will be confined to the electrical system. t — u being the time elapsed since the unit electromotive force Ae was turned on. an electromotive force ^2 is added. tem. an electromotive force ei is added. is force which begins at time obviously AeAsit — u). The indicial electrical admittance.65 ^ d — e{u)du du /t AE{t J — u) -y e{u)du du 7. 7. a time «2 later. The current at a time / is then the sum of the currents due to e^ at i = 0. <?i at / = Ae. «i. Let the arbitrary electromotive force be represented by the curve of Fig.5. The This proof. Therefore. a new expression for the current e{u) — 4e(/ . as in the case of the preceding sections.

Since number of problems in these fields involve impulsive forces the use of analogies makes it possible to use the tremendous storehouse of information on electrical systems for the solution of problems in mea great chanical and acoustical systems. 7. angular velocity and volume current in the mechanical mechanical rotational and acoustical systems are analogous Therefore to the equation for the current in the electrical system.69 fR{u) — AR{t .28 4g(/) is = — e"c^' 7.68 force a fundamental formula which shows the mathe- matical relation between the current and the type of electromotive and the constants of the system.72 .70 p{u)— AA{t du in\ The following general conclusion can be stated as follows: The indicial admittance of any vibrating system determines within a single integration the behavior of the system to any type of applied force. The important conclusions regarding Duhamel's integral are as follows: The indicial admittance of an electrical network determines within a single integration the behavior of a network to any type of electro- motive force. and acoustical systems are V as follows: =fM{t)AM{(y) + / fM{u) — Auit . The indicial electrical admittance from equation 7. The Heaviside calculus then becomes an important tool in the solution of transient problems in mechanical and acoustical systems.u)du 7. mechanical rotational rectilineal. As an example illustrating the use of Duhamel's integral consider an electromotive force Ee"^* impressed on the electrical circuit of Fig.3 consisting of an electrical resistance and electrical capacitance in series. Duhamel's integrals in the mechanical rectilineal.u)du du u)du 7. The velocity. In other words a knowledge of the indicial admittance is the only information necessary to completely predict the performance of a system including the steady state.122 TRANSIENTS is Equation 7.

.

The most common driving systems in use to-day for converting electrical variations into mechanical vibrations are the electrodynamic.CHAPTER 8. the mag- netostrictive and the piezoelectric. Electrodynamic Driving System A moving coil or dynamic driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces are developed by the interaction of currents [-VW—/OOJTH ZCN CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW . It is the purpose of this chapter to consider the electrical and mechanical characteristics of these driving systems. 8.2.1. the electromagnetic. the electrostatic. VIII DRIVING SYSTEMS Introduction electromechanical or electroacoustic transducer or driving system is An a system for converting electrical vibrations into the corresponding me- chanical or acoustical vibrations.

in dynes. termed motional electrical impedance. the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with ru. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in for an acoustical system. developed by the motion of the is conductor e = BIx 8. and current. the mechanical rectilineal coil is impedance of the vibrating system at the voice zm = zmi ' + zm2 8. It is customary to labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. it is located. From the mechanical circuit ' of Fig.2 where x = velocity. and Ca with vr. in centimeters per second. length of the conductor. The system due to the interaction of is the current in the voice coil and the polarizing field Jm = where Bli 8. abohms.1.1. label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). The latter convention will be used in this chapter. in using analogies in actual practice. m and Cm for a mechanical rectilineal system.1 and 8. The force. in abvolts. circuit will be used instead of network.2 i = (S/)2 4- 8-3 jM - = zem in 8. From equations 8. The electromotive force. due to motion.However. In the illustrations in network have been labeled M .ELECTRODYNAMIC DRIVING SYSTEM in a is 125 conductor and the magnetic 8.5 the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical rE. field in which depicted in Fig.4 where Zem = electrical impedance.1 B = / = / = flux density. 8. When there is only one path. in gausses. L and Ce. in centimeters. in abamperes. I and Cr for a mechanical rotational system and with va-.

126 DRIVING SYSTEMS = the total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the conductor. The normal electrical impedance zek.3. which the mechanical There are three general types of . driving system is almost universally used for types of and horn loud speakers. in abohms.8 The motional electrical impedance as given by equation may be represented as in series with the blocked or damped electrical impedance 8. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. The blocked electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input when the mechanical rectilineal system is electrical The motional ence between its blocked. that is. in 8.6 is electrical impedance due to motion from equations and zem = 8. in chanical ohms. = — the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the voice coil and suspension system.3. 8. all of the conductor.1.8 where z^i = damped and electrical impedance of the voice coil. Zem = motional impedance of the voice abohms. and Zm2 the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. 8. in ZjVfi where zm mechanical ohms. Zen in abohms. me- The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the voice coil is ZM = — X 8.6 The 8. in the absence of motion. The dynamic direct radiator 8.7 Zm impedance of a transducer is the vector differnormal and blocked electrical impedance.4 8. in mechanical ohms. The normal electrical impedance of a transducer is the electrical impedance measured at the input to the transducer when the output is connected to its normal load. of the voice coil is = zbi + Zem coil. Electromagnetic Driving Systems a driving system in A magnetic driving system is forces result from magnetic reactions.

the driving force frequency is twice the frequency of the impressed current to the coil. Assume that all the reluctance . the polarized reed type and the polarized balanced armature type. Since there is no polarizing flux. The unpolarized armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature. 8. Unpolarized Armature Type.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS 127 magnetic driving systems. A. namely. the unpolarized armature type. Consider the system shown in Fig.2. The armature is spaced at a small distance from the pole piece wound — with insulated wire carrying the alternating current.

in abvolts.14 e = ^r 8. . in centimeters.13 and 8. the total flux is <f>T Aa. centimeters away — A(f>T = a Ci 8. and a = normal spacing. C = l-^nA. n = number of turns. A = area of the center pole. then from equations 8. generated due to motion e = n— dt ^Ci X 8. in square centimeters. is where / = current in the coil. in dynes.14 \i Ax is small compared to a. the total flux 4>T + ^(t>T = a Ci — 8.128 DRIVING SYSTEMS that the armature is Assume displaced from its normal position a is dis- tance A«' centimeters towards the pole.15 The force on the armature.13 At — {Ax)^ At is The voltage.10 £iX Now let the armature be displaced a distance from the pole. in abamperes.11 -\- Ax is The difference in flux for these two conditions 2C/A.12 The change in flux with respect to time A(f>T Ci a^ Ax 8.v 2^"^^ = -^-77:X2 a^ — (Ax) is 8.

mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in mechanical ohms.17 for the current in 8. and time.20 — X From equations 8. in seconds. The mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature is Zm = /m 8.16 e 1 X ^ 4 .19 in where Zm Zmi = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature.17 where /max CO = = /= / = amplitude of the current in abamperes.16. the force on the armature is Im = '.V/ = 2a/ 1 + Zm2 8.2.18 Equation 8.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS If the current in the coil is 129 sinusoidal.21 . Substituting equation 8. 4iryfa 71 «'^max Sin^ CO/ A ^ 2 * max (|-|cos2co/) ' 8. 2irA frequency in cycles per second. nC^P 8. in mechanical ohms.18 shows that there is a steady force and an alternating driving force of twice the frequency of the impressed current. 4TrJa*/M .15 and 8. mechanical ohms. then the expression for the current can be written i = «max sin OJ/ 8. 8. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Z. and Zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load.

22 = motional electrical impedance. and impedance of the coil. Therefore. electrical load including The normal impedance Zen. saws. in gilberts. . in oersteds. due to the permanent magnet is given by <^i = M ^ and 8. in square centimeters. = number of turns.21 From zem = where zem n 27r2«4^2-2 a zm i 8. A reed armature driving system consists of an electromagnet operating directly upon an armature of steel frequency. vibrators and clippers.19. and Zm = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the the armature. of the coil is = zbi + Zem 8. / = current. as given The motional electrical impedance represented as in series with the blocked or damped is by equation 8. a = spacing. in centimeters. in maxwells. B. ^ = area of center pole. = reluctance of the magnetic circuit.23 may be electrical impedance twice the frequency of of the coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. in abohms. pole piece The steel armature is spaced at wound with insulated wire carrying flux a small distance from a the alternating current and supplied with steady The flux. for the reproduction of sound. 8.20 and 8. in abamperes. in abohms. 8.3.23 where z^i — damped electrical Zem = motional electrical impedance of the coil. Zen in abohms. for converting electrical variations into however. filing — as in Fig.2. The unpolarized driving system supersonic generators. in abohms. Polarized Reed Armature Type. 8. a simple driving system mechanical vibrations of double is used for low frequency machines.24 where M — magnetomotive i?i force of the magnet. The frequency of vibration of the armature the impressed electrical current.130 DRIVING SYSTEMS equations 8. in mechanical ohms. this system cannot be used It is. from the poles of a permanent magnet.

r ^^' L r^M COIL WS^ 1 a POLE 1 Zmi ARMATURE MAGNET . in 131 oit maxwells.axsin wt n coil. due to the sinusoidal current /max sin in the given by <P2 = 47rM„. reluctance of the alternating magnetic circuit. frequency. in abamperes.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The coils is flux. 27r/. o-^-i where N— / = /?2 = = /= t = CO number of turns in the current in the coil. in oersteds. and time.

32 „ . For these reasons the polarizing flux should be last quency and the twice the frequency of the alternating current.132 DRIVING SYSTEMS as the alternating current term represents a force of Referring to equation 8. in abvolts. due to the steady field. sidered. the flux will now be 4>x + A. Let the armature be deflected a distance A^ towards the pole.Also <t>i must be large compared to (^2) in order to reduce second harmonic distortion.30 This change in flux with respect to the time d<t.i MAdx a at coil at The electromotive force.^ . in centimeters. in square centimeters. through the armature is electrical made as large as The motional If all possible. the flux. in gilberts.^1 = fl MA — A* 8. generated in the is due to this deflection of the armature e = A^-^ = at ^(^1 NMA ——X a ^^ 8.28 Now let the armature be pulled away from the normal position a distance of A. impedance of this system will now be conis assumed to reside in the air gap.29 Ax two conditions is The difference in flux through the armature for these 2A4>i = MA7" a MA . in maxwells.26 it will be seen that the driving force is proportional to the steady flux 4>i. Ax -\- Ax . the flux will be 4>i - Act>i = MA -—-— a -\- 8. = IMAAx ^ IMAAx 5— y—r2 = a^ — (Ax)^ a -^ is 8. spacing between the armature and pole. the reluctance 4>i = a 8..27 where M = magnetomotive = A= a force. __ . and area of the pole.

33 From the mechanical circuit of Fig.32 and e i = — X 8.3.34 where zm Zjv/i = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance at the armature rectilineal directly above the pole piece.38 a Zm .36 Jm R\R2a^ From equations 8. in mechanical ohms. 8.35 and 8. 8. The mechanical rectilineal impedances zm.35 8. _x_ _ M^N^ 8.33. ~ 8. fu = MNi ~r — .. and zmi are referred to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece. assuming Ri = i?2 zem — ""o 8.24 and 8. and ZAf2 = rectilineal impedance of the load in mechanical ohms. total mechanical impedance with reference to a point on the armature directly over the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNE'nC DRIVING SYSTEMS equation 8. in me- chanical ohms.34.37. in abohms. ZAfi.26 becomes 133 Leaving out the steady force and the force of twice the frequency.36 ZeM — TT^ 2 RiR2a Zj^f where z^m — °-37 = Zm = motional impedance. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system Zj>f = 2Afl + 2jW2 8. The mechanical the pole piece is rectilineal impedance of the armature directly above Zm Combining equations 8. mechanical mechanical impedance of the armature. From equations 8.

134 DRIVING SYSTEMS tem.38 is similar to equation 8. 8. in abohms. The motional of the electrical represented as in series with the blocked or impedance as given by equation 8. in abohms. and impedance of the coil. Polarized Balanced Armature Type. The preceding |-^vM WS^ Zen ME.3. in abohms.38 may be damped electrical impedance coil as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. sibilities in —There are innumerable pos- the design of a magnetic driving system. Equation 8. This driving system is not generally used in loud speakers.7 for the electrodynamic sysThe normal electrical impedance Zen. C.39 where zei = damped electrical electrical Zem — motional impedance of the coil. The most common example of this driving system is the bipolar telephone receiver where the diaphragm is the armature. of the coil is Zen ~ zei -\- zem 8. ARMATURE MAGNET .

2((^i + <^2) 2(<^i — <t>2) <j)l4>2 ' %'wA i'wA tA ''' or ^. which the coil energizes. in dynes. and yf effective area. The steady is usually supplied by a permanent magnet. at the poles (Fig.41 where N= i number of turns current in the in the coil. in the force was passed through It is interesting to note that in the case of the balanced arma- ture the second harmonic term cancels out due to the push pull arrange- ment. in dynes. at the four poles acting upon the in the coil is armature due to a current . in square centimeters. The motional impedance of this system will now be considered. in abamperes. Let the armature be deflected clockwise a distance of Ax from the poles.= -^ when a sinusoidal current In the case of the simple reed driving system a second harmonic term appeared the coil. The sum of the forces. i?2 = = coil. in maxwells. in maxwells. 8. the to the alternating current winding wound around due The armaThe armature. of the pole piece.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS A ture typical balanced armature driving system field is is 135 shown in Fig. The . in oersteds. at the poles due to a current in the coil is 02 = -^- 4TrA^/ 8.4) -^- = ib ''' due to the permanent where 4>i = = total flux. at each pole magnet.4. 8. it is located so that in the equilibrium is with the steady forces. and reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The steady magnetic field is force. The flux.

and zm2 impedance of the load. in square centimeters.4. assumis ing that the entire reluctance exists in the air gap. <^i + A01 = l(a MA — 8. through the armature to the right and upward.136 flux.49 = — — total mechanical mechanical mechanical rectilineal impedance. NMA —^x a^ 8. 8. in abvolts. rectilineal impedance of the armature. .47 at a at a is The electromotive force. in mechanical ohms.44 A. of the steady field. the mechanical rectilineal is impedance of the vibrating system ZM = ZMl where Zm zmi + Zm2 8.48 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in gilberts. flux through the armature to the left and downward is MA 2(a + DiX) The 8. MA^x or MAl^x a^ is — {Axy The change in flux with respect to the time M dx MA — = -x— = —^ X d<^ 8.44 flux through the armature is the difference between equations and 8. and effective area of a pole piece.45.v) where M = magnetomotive a force. A The = = spacing between the armature and pole. in merectilineal chanical ohms. in centimeters. in DRIVING SYSTEMS maxwells. in mechanical ohms. generated in the coil e = N-i^ = dt ^di.

Zm\.ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVING SYSTEMS The mechanical The mechanical pole piece is 137 rectilineal Impedances Zm.50 and 8. rectilineal impedance at the armature directly over a ZM Combining equations 8.50.43 =-^ 8. . and Zm2 are referred to a point on the armature directly above a pole piece.

In actual practice it for to reduce the stiffness system will occur below 100 cycles. c STATIONARY PLATE DIAPHRAGM . system of Fig.4.138 DRIVING SYSTEMS the large magnetic forces. motion picture film recording and for facsimile printers. Therefore. the stiffness of the centering system must be relatively large. Electrostatic Driving System An electrostatic driving system is a driving system in which the Consider the mechanical forces result from electrostatic reactions.5 consisting of a vibrating surface moving normal to ^ 'em 1 Ze. galvanometers. when this driving system is used for a loud speaker the response will fall off quite rapidly below the resonance frequency. difficult appears very sufficiently so that the resonance of the 8. 8. This driving system is used for loud speakers.

ELECTROSTATIC DRIVING SYSTEM Assume voltage is 139 that the polarizing voltage f is ^'o = frnax sin wt. in statvolts. then is the second term which causes the moving surface to vibrate with a velocity which corresponds to the impressed electromotive force. generated due to motion I = — dt is 8. the fourth term will be negligible. The fourth term is force of the frequency of the impressed voltage. motive Cq is large . in dynes. in statfarads. ^o^max sin wt .59 and 8. The force. on the condenser is q considered. is The current.60 From equations 8. The second term is an alternating in the and third terms Steady forces. in statfarads. and that the alternating between the plates is 8-5o JM = .62 .57 numerator of equation 8. in statcoulombs.59 where = Ce = e^ potential difference between the plates. ((?o + ^max sin ' wifA era 2 <?0^ JM = The first + 2(?of max sin CO/ — +— ' i^^max OTra 2 2^^max COS 2wt A 8. and capacity per unit area.60 the generated current dCE dx dx dt The capacitance of the condenser. eoe The motional impedance of this system will now be The charge. = CeCq 8. is Cei = A — 4Tra 8.57 represent an alternating force of twice the frequency of the impressed voltage. in dynes. in statamperes. The useful force. If the polarizing electro- compared to the alternating electromotive force d^max sin oj/.

140 DRIVING SYSTEMS h.61. ohms. .68 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating rectilineal system.66 47r«^ Substituting equation 8. 47r(a — 8.63 Now let the movable plate be deflected a distance Ax towards the fixed plate. rectilineal mechanical The mechanical impedance at the plate is ZM = — X 8.x Let the movable plate be deflected a distance plate. 8.5. is 1 = - — is 5 X 8. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system zm = zmi where Zm Zmi + ZM'i 8. the generated current.69 . 4ir(<2 + . away from the fixed The capacitance is /j Cei - ACei = . Ax) 8.(Axf] 47r«' with respect to x is 8.66 in 8. in mechanical ohms.67 From the mechanical circuit of Fig. in Zm2 mechanical ohms.65 The change in capacitance dCEi (ix 1^^ 8. mechanical impedance of the vibrating in plate.64 Ax) is The difference between the two conditions ^^^•1 JAx ^ y4Ax = T^^T-77:72T ^ 7-2 4w[a^ . in stat- amperes. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. . The capacitance Cei is + ACei = y-.

in stat- Zem = motional ohms. electrical impedance of the condenser. Means must be provided to keep the electrodes separated without. in statohms.68.70 167rV eo ^ _^ A where Zeu = = zm motional electrical impedance. 8. and total mechanical rectilineal impedance presented to the vibrating surface including the vibrating surface.72 zem In where zei = damped and electrical impedance of the condenser.69 and 8. The motional electrical impedance as given by equation 8.58 and 8.67 141 t e^A^ X From equations 8. at the same time. electrical network in Fig. driving system has been employed as a loud speaker which case the moving electrode radiates directly into the air.5. of the condenser Zen is = ZeiZeM ZjSI „ -.5. statohms. adding a large stiffness. 8. In a bilateral or push pull arrangement the movable electrode is placed between two stationary plates and the in The condenser large steady forces are balanced out.72 may be represented as in parallel with the blocked or damped electrical im- pedance of the condenser as depicted by the 8. + . The normal electrical impedance zeN} in statohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM From equations 8. Magnetostriction Driving System A magnetostriction driving system is a driving system in which the mechanical forces result from the deformation of a ferromagnetic mate- . 8.

The term "Joule effect" is phenomena in which a change in linear dimensions occurs when a magnetic field is applied along a specified direction.142 rial DRIVING SYSTEMS having magnetostriction properties. 8. Consider the system shown in Fig. The term "Villari effect" is applied to the phenomena in which a change in magnetic induction occurs when a mechanical stress is applied along a applied to the specified direction. current is applied to 2m .6. Assume that the rod is clamped so that no motion is possible and that a.

and area of the rod. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in current in the abamperes. and constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. coil. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. frequency. e = MJ^ dt 8. in cycles per second. The electromotive force. 8. in gausses.75 K= R = constant representing the dynamical Joule magnetostriction effect. this stress may be considered to be the driving force. in square centimeters. N= = w = f= t = / number of Iwf.X JR 8. in seconds. in square centimeters. is If the rod allowed to vibrate. B = The magnetic 47rif „ B = -—. in abvolts. and time.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The relation 143 between flux and the current is B = -— where RJ 8. due to is the Villari effect. . in abamperes.77 where x K = = total extension of deformation.74 and ehminating the steady force. turns in the coil. induced in the winding. in centimeters.76 where A'^ A = number of turns. /m = where AwNiK —R— sm . induction is of the nickel rod. = cross-sectional area and magnetic induction. CO/ 8.73 Combining equations and 8. current.74 N= = R= /i = / number of turns.

is zm = where Zm zmi ZAfi + zif2 8. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be small compared to the wavelength. length of the rod. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod. from the mechanical circuit of Fig. is Under these condi- a compliance given by Cmi = where -^ EA 8.80 A= = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. 8. in square centimeters. and Young's modulus. and Zm2 = mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters.82 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. rectilineal impedances zm.144 DRIVING SYSTEMS voltage. in abvolts. in mechanical ohms. in mechanical ohms. is The induced e = —K X -— 8.78 From equation 8.6.75 JmR ^tNK In the above consideration tions the rod it has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length of the rod.81 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system. The mechanical to one . za/i and zm2 ^fe referred end of the rod with the other end rigidly fixed. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = -^-^ JUiLmi 8.

in mechanical ohms.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM The mechanical rectilineal 145 is impedance at the end of the rod ZM = — X 8. 8.6. constant representations of the three systems depicted by the mechanical networks in Fig. .83 From equations 8. and mechanical rectilineal impedance load upon the rod. including the effective mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.82 and 8. The normal impedance of the coil is Zen = Zfii + Zem and 8. The mass mi in Fig. The damped impedance and the motional impedance are effectively in series.84.7 are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod.85 and depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. New York. 8. 8.84 Zm Zm = = motional electrical impedance. in abohms — equation 8. is assumed to be a In general..79. 8. as shown by equation 8. 8. The three most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and loaded on the other. 1942. Van Nos- trand Co.6).83 zem where Zem = —K r^ 8. a rod free on one end and loaded on the other and a free rod. The damped impedance of the coil of most magnetostriction systems comprises a resistance in series with an inductance (Fig.7 is given by mi ^ = — plJ 8." D. total in abohms. in abohms.86 Mason. The lumped In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength.85 where z^i Zem = damped impedance of the voice coil. = motional impedance. magnetostriction driving systems ^ are operated at resonance. "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave Filters.

87 A= = = E / cross-sectional area of the rod. in grams per cubic centimeter. in square centimeters. length of the rod. and Young's modulus.87 is The compliance given by equation ance given by equation 8. and cross section of the rod. in centimeters. in square centimeters. 8. in Fig. in centimeters.80.7. is where p The compliance Cmi. length of the rod.146 DRIVING SYSTEMS = / = A= density of the rod material. given by Cmi where = 2 7-^ 8. 8. 8/7r^ times the static compli- z'"i .

8. 5000 6000 Magnetostriction in nickel. 8. that is. The mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm at /if can be obtained from The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8. The vibrating system of Fig.7. X = 4^.7C A and B given in Fig. Young's modulus. pedance can then be determined from the electrical circuits of Fig.7. 8. 8. The normal electrical imthe mechanical networks of Fig.MAGNETOSTRICTION DRIVING SYSTEM due 147 is to resistance. EA and 8.84. The vibrating systems to produce sound Or 2000 3000 4000 FLUX DENSITY IN GAUSSES Fig. The magnetostrictive constant may be determined from the deformation-flux density characteristic. in square centimeters. in dynes. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. 8. . is The deformation per unit length. The elongation per unit length as a is function of the flux density for nickel shown in Fig. 8. A= E = area.7C is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. due to a force.88 where Jm = total force. This load designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance tm in Fig. air load and support resistance. 8.8. 8.7 are usually employed waves in liquids or gases.

89 K = magnetostriction constant. B = A= From and area. the data of Fig. Piezoelectric Driving System is A piezoelectric driving system a driving system in which the me- chanical forces result from the deformation of a crystal having converse 1 ^EN 1 Ze. in square centimeters.6. 8.8 and Young's modulus. 8. c„ .. flux density. equations 8.89 the deformation per unit length is X = KB -— 8. .90 The magnetostrictive constant K can be determined from the above equation.148 DRIVING SYSTEMS force is The magnetostrictive fu = where KAB 8.88 and 8.

in square centimeters. in dynes. E = Young's modulus. in centimeters. due an applied force. in centimeters.92 X From = 8. equations 8.91 where K= Jm = constant of the crystal. due to the application of a force.PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM The charge.91 and 8. is .V ^ = EA — ^-^ 8 92 where Jm = force. q is 149 = KJu 8. and The displacement. 6. in dynes. X to 10~* for quartz. 4 = length of the crystal.4 force.93 . and A = cross-sectional area. in statcoulombs.

and total mechanical rectilineal impedance including the crystal.102 = Zm — motional electrical impedance. 8.99 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the vibrating system.101 From equations 8. 8. The dimen- sions of the crystal are The mechanical rectilineal assumed to be small compared to the wavelength.100 = = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. in square = length of the crystal. is Under these a compliance given by Cmi = wher^ 1^ EJ 8. in mechanical ohms.9.150 DRIVING SYSTEMS it In the above consideration conditions the crystal has been assumed that the stress and driving force are uniform over the length 4 of the crystal.97. The mechanical to rectilineal impedances z\j. / centimeters. 8.98 ^ = cross-sectional area of the crystal. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.101 ZEU = where Zem Z^2e-2^2 ^^ 8. in mechanical ohms. . from the mechanical circuit of Fig. and zm2 mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. in mechanical ohms. in centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance of the ZMi crystal is = -^7^ JuLmi 8.100 and 8. impedance at the end of the crystal is ZM — = fu X 2 /. zmi and z. in statohms.vf2 are referred one end of the crystal with the other end rigidly fixed. is zm = zmi where zm zmi + zm2 8. and E = Young's modulus.

**PIEZOELECTRIC DRIVING SYSTEM
**

The normal

electrical

151

impedance of the

Zen

crystal

system

is

=

^

1

+ JCoLeiZem

,

„

8.103

where zem

Cei

= =

**motional impedance, equation 8.102, and capacitance of the crystal in the absence of motion.
**

the motional impedance are effectively shown by equation 8.103 and depicted by the electrical

is assumed to be In general, piezoelectric driving

**The damped impedance and
**

in parallel as

circuit in Fig. 8.9.

**In the above considerations the length of the crystal
**

a small fraction of the wavelength.

systems are operated at resonance. The three most common systems ' are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the other, a

on one end and loaded on the other and a free crystal. The lumped constant representations of the three systems depicted by the

crystal free

mechanical networks in Fig. 8.10 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal.

The mass mi,

in Fig. 8.10,

is

given by

»2i

=

^

is

8.104

where p

=

**density of the crystal, in grams per cubic centimeter,
**

the crystal, in centimeters, and

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters.

in Fig. 8.10,

4 = length of

^=

The compliance Cmi,

given by

Cmi

where

//

le

= -T^z

84

8.105

= = E=

cross-sectional area of the crystal, in square centimeters,

length of the crystal, in centimeters, and

Young's modulus.

8.105

is

**The compliance given by equation
**

pliance given

^

S/tt^

times the static com-

by equation

8.98.

Mason, "Electromechanical Transducers and Wave

Filters,"

D. Van Nos-

trand Co.,

New

York, 1942.

152

DRIVING SYSTEMS

The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm2- In the case of a free crystal, Fig. 8. IOC, the only load is the dissipation due to resistance, that is, air load and support resistance. This load is designated as the mechanical rectilineal resistance Tm in

Fig.

8.

IOC.

Cei

_

Cmi

^yi

z

Ze.

f

"V

c

'Ml.

_ifc;

z

7^^

4

SYSTEMS

El l*-EI

VIBRATING

Fig. 8.10.

other.

MECHANICAL NETWORKS

ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

Piezoelectric driving systems. A. Crystal fixed on one end and loaded on the B. Crystal free on one end and loaded on the other. C. Free crystal, that is, a light load on both ends. In the electrical networks: zen, the normal electrical impedance of the crystal, zem, the motional electrical impedance of the crystal. z_bi, the damped electrical impedance of the crystal, zei = \/Jo>Cei- Cei, the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. In the mechanical networks;/.if , the driving force. zm2, the

mechanical

rectilineal

impedance of the

crystal,

impedance of the mechanical load, zmi, the mechanical rectihneal mi and Cui, the effective mass and comphance of the crystal.

The vibrating systems ^ and B in Fig. 8.10 are usually employed to produce sound waves in liquids or gases. The vibrating system of Fig. 8. IOC is usually employed as an element in a filter or as a frequency standard. For the latter use it is important that the load be very small. The mechanical rectilineal impedance zm at/,if can be obtained from the mechanical networks of Fig. 8.10. The motional electrical impedance Zem can be obtained from equation 8.102. The normal electrical impedance can then be determined from the electrical networks of Fig.

8.10.

CHAPTER IX

GENERATING SYSTEMS

9.1. Introduction

A mechanical electrical generating system is a system for converting mechanical or acoustical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations. The most common generating systems in use to-day for converting mechanical vibrations into the corresponding electrical variations are the electrodynamic, the electromagnetic, the electrostatic, the

piezoelectric

to describe the electrical

and the magnetostriction. It is the purpose of this chapter and mechanical characteristics of these generat-

ing systems.

9.2.

Electrodynamic Generating System

A

moving conductor or a moving

coil

generating system

is

is

a gener-

ating system in which the electromotive force

developed by motion

of a conductor through a magnetic

field.

The

**voltage, in abvolts, due to the motion of the conductor in the
**

field. Fig. 9.1, is

e

magnetic

=

Blx

9.1

where

B = / = X =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters, and
**

velocity of the conductor, in centimeters per second.

is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system, and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. 9.1. In the mechanical circuit ^ zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical

The

velocity of the conductor

force, the

portion of the vibrating system actuated by/if including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the coil at the voice coil. Jm represents the

^See footnote

1,

page 125.

153

154

GENERATING SYSTEMS

force at the voice coil. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.7 of the chapter on Driving Systems, is

mechanomotive

zme

where

=

{Blf

9.2

Ze

B = / = Ze = Zei = ze2 =

flux density, in gausses,

**length of the conductor, in centimeters,
**

Z£l

+ Ze2,

impedance of the voice coil, in abohms, and impedance of the external load, in abohms.

MAGNET

electrical

electrical

MECHANICAL CIRCUIT

(-WV

'WS^

**CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
**

Fig. 9.1.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Electrodynamic generating system. In the mechanical circuit:/^/, the external zi/, the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/,if zme, the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. In the electrical circuit: e, the internal electromotive force generated in the voice coil, z^i, the damped electrical impedance of the voice coil. joiLi. Li and tei, the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the ZA'i = TEi voice coil. Zei, the electrical impedance of the external load.

driving force,

.

+

The

velocity of the voice coil

is

Jm

zm

+ Zme

9.3

From

volts,

is

equations 9.1 and 9.3 the generated electromotive force, in ab-

=

B/x

=

2a/

BI/m

+

9.4

Zme

3. electromotive force A "1 COIL n -iS ARMATURE MAGNET . There are two general types of magnetic generating systems. 9. namely. Electromagnetic Generating Systems magnetic generating system is a generating system in which the is developed by the charge in magnetic flux through a stationary coil.ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS The generated trical 155 electromotive force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance zei of the voice coil and the electrical impedance 2^2 of the external load.1. 9. as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. the reed armature type and the balanced armature type.

is The velocity of the armature.38 of the chapter on Driving Sys- tems is zme = "i a where <^i 9. electrical electrical Ze2 impedance of the coil.8 The generated electromotive trical force is effectively in series with the elec- impedance Zei of the coil and the electrical impedance ze2 of the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig. coil.2. . in centimeters. in square centimeters. in centimeters per second. N= a 2£ zei number Z£l of turns on the spacing between the armature and pole. in centimeters per second. 9.156 GENERATING SYSTEMS where M = magnetomotive ^= a X N= = = number of turns in the coil. force. The vibrating system is shown in Fig.2. the zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/:vf including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. due to the steady field. spacing between the armature and pole. In the mechanical circuit The velocity of the armature force. and velocity of the armature. in maxwells. through the armature. in abohms. in centimeters. and impedance of the external load. in gilberts. is governed by the mechanical driving mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8.6 ze = = = = = total flux. and + ZE2. 9. and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system. 9. area of the pole. in abohms. fu represents the mechanomotive force at the armature.

r~ .ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATING SYSTEMS 157 B.3. due to the deflection of the armature. Balanced Armature Generating System. flows through the armature. In the simple generating system of the preceding section both the steady magnetic flux and the change in flux. 9. Consider a balanced armature type of generating system in which only the alternating flux flows longitudinally through the armature as — shown in Fig.

in statamperes. of the alternating magnetic circuit. and ze2 = electrical impedance of the external load. in gilberts. Generating System condenser or electrostatic generating system is a generating system which the electromotive force is developed by the relative motion between two differently electrostatically charged plates. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. zei = electrical impedance of the coil. = total flux in the air gap at one of the poles.158 GENERATING SYSTEMS The vibrating system is shown in Fig. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the armature. ZE = Zei + Ze2. in maxwells. i?2 = reluctance. in oersteds. in centimeters.4.52 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^ME where A'^ (^ = AN^M 2ra^R2ZE — ^-^^ = number of turns in the coil.67 of the chapter on Driving Systems is ^. in centimeters per second.3. M. in abohms. is The /m Zm + 9.11 zme From equations 9. in abohms. of the magnet. 9. a = spacing between armature and pole. 9. generated by the motion of the movable plate of the condenser from equation 8. Electrostatic by the electrical circuit in Fig. in A . = magnetomotive force.11 e = NMJ X a^ = NMAJm "^ a^{zM is + zme) — 9.3. Jm represents the mechanomotive force on the armature. The current. as depicted 9.12 The generated electromotive electrical force effectively in series with the electrical impedance Ze\ of the coil and the impedance ze2 of the external load. velocity of the armature.9 and 9.

electrical and impedance of the external load. J r ^p 1 -W»-l|l|l|l|i DIAPHRAGM CErTL . in statfarads. in centimeters per second.stationary "plate . in centimeters. in square centimeters. due to the electromotive force e across z_b2 the electrical impedances z^i and of Fig. Z£iZi'2 Ze 1 2J51 = = = JuiCei Ce\ Ze2 electrical capacitance of the condenser. and velocity of the X movable plate. in statohms. spacing between the plates. in statvolts.14 where e = electromotive force. The current.4 e is t2 9. in statamperes. in statvolts.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM where e 159 = = = polarizing voltage. 9. ^= a area of the plate.

71 of the chapter on ZME = .17 the electromotive force across z^i and 9.15 and 9. = Zm /^^ + 9. depicted by the electrical network of Fig. in square centimeters.17 zme e From equations 9.4. across the = - CqAx ^ zjj — 9. e. ^ \ira^{%M + 9. electrical impedance of the external load. The mechanical rectilineal impe- dance due to the Driving Systems electrical is system from equation 8.16 = = A= eo polarizing voltage. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by /m including the mechanical impedance of the movable plate. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. electrical and 9. is The velocity of the movable plate.4. is Ze2 in parallel. in centimeters. X in centimeters per second.160 GENERATING SYSTEMS force.15 The velocity of the movable plate is governed by the mechanical driving force. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the movable plate. in statvolts. area of the plates. a spacing between plates.18 Zme) . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.^2 16r where 4 ^E 9. Ze = Z£l 1 + 'ZE2 Ce\ Ze2 = = capacity of the generator. 9. in statohms.14 the generated electromotive impedances zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts. in statfarads.

= jwLei 1 ^^ JoiA \ 47r« 9. e across ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9.25 Comparing equations 9.21 in 9.23 in 9.25.2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems.24 and fi 9.23 Substituting equation 9.ZE2 \ \Zei + Ze2/ g^g The electrical capacitance of the is condenser Cei from equation 8. epx ( Ze2 ajw \zei + Ze2/ is 9. .62 of the chapter on Driving Systems Cei A = -— 9.24 2£2/ The electromotive ZE2 is force e in terms of e\ and the impedances Ze\ and e\ZE2 9.26 . = — a CnX 9.19.22 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X — 9.E1 = -r—.ELECTROSTATIC GENERATING SYSTEM The electromotive force ei in series 161 will pro- with z^i and Z£.20 The electrical impedance ze\ is 7.15 may be written ^^epJx/ 4irfl^ ZE.22. = ^(---^) a \Ze1 + 9.21 Substituting equation 9.

the electrical impedance of the magnetic flux due to the deformation of a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties.27 . zei. The volt- age. Equation 9. from equation 8. the voltage e vary with frequency depending upon the nature of load Z£29. 9. 9. In the mechanical circuit: zm. The magnetostriction magnetic generator.5. ZEi. the damped electrical impedance of the z^i = r_Bi + juLi.26 and an internal impedance zei. consists of a coil surrounding a circuit which includes a ferromagnetic material having magnetostriction properties. the internal electromotive force generated in the coil. Magnetostriction Generating System is A magnetostriction generating system the electromotive force is a generating system in which developed in a stationary coil by a change in fM MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MAGNET 'ei '-I r^M /{JT" 'SW— ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT Fig. the total mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by/iif. However. coil. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the external load. is ^tNK 9. L\ and rE\.5. Magnetostriction generating system.26 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude across the load is may independent of the frequency. developed in the coil due to deformation of the rod. shown in Fig. In the electrical circuit: e.78 of the chapter on Driving Systems.5. coil. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. in abvolts. zme.162 GENERATING SYSTEMS electrostatic generating The system may be considered to consist of ei a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force as given by equation 9.

. force. where A'^ = number of turns in the coil. 9. and = velocity at the point of application of the driving force to the rod. electrical electrical wavelength. The velocity of the rod is governed by the mechanical driving system. in abohms. and Z£l Ze2 = = = + Z£2) impedance of the coil.79 or 8. K= R = Ze Zei magnetostriction constant. It is /m including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the /m represents the mechanomotive force on the assumed that the force /m is the same at all points along the length of the rod and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the rod.29 where A = = E= / cross-sectional area of the rod. length of the rod. in centimeters.5. K= X constant representing the dynamical Villari magnetostriction effect. in square centimeters. The mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. the mechanical impedance of the mechanical system and the mechanical impedance due to the in Fig. electrical The vibrating system is shown In the mechanical circuit zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by rod. - £ 9.MAGNETOSTRICTION GENERATING SYSTEM where 163 N= R = number of turns in the coil. in centimeters per second. The dimensions of the rod are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the rod is a compliance given by Cu. and impedance of the external circuit. reluctance of the magnetic circuit. in abohms. and Young's modulus. reluctance of the magnetic circuit.84 of the chapter on Driving Systems is magnetostriction rod.

the external load as depicted by the electrical circuit in Fig.28.31 = = total mechanical rectilineal impedance. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. to be a In general. . The mass m-i and compliance Cm\. in Fig.32 the generated electromotive force.32 From abvolts.86 and 8.30 For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = zmi where Zm Zmi zji/2 + zm2 9. in centimeters per second. mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.6. magnetostriction generis assumed The two most common systems are as follows: a rod fixed on one end and driven on the other and a rod free on one end and driven on the other. equations 9.6. From the above constants and the driving force /u the velocity in the mechanical circuit can be ating systems are operated at resonance. The load on the end of the rod is the mechanical rectilineal impedance zm2.33 The generated electrical electromotive force Zgi of the coil effectively in series with the electrical impedance and the impedance ze2 of 9. are valid near the resonant frequency of the rod. 9. In the above considerations the length of the rod small fraction of the wavelength. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig. at the driving X = Zm -^^^+ zme 9.87 in the chapter on Driving Systems. in is iirNK/M (zm + zme)R is 9.164 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the rod zmi is = T-— 1 jwCmi rectilineal 9.The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme due to the electrical circuit is given by equation 9. ohms. are given by equations 8. in mechanical ohms.27 and 9.5. in mechanical The point is velocity of the rod. in mechanical = ohms. 9.

mi and Cmi. ^Ei the electrical impedance of the external electrical load. 9. the driving force.4 X 10~* for quartz.6. generated The h = —.6. zei. length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. z ZMl*f 1" ^El*<^ T Zmi-*- i Emi m. Piezoelectric Generating System A piezoelectric generating is electromotive force system is a generating system in which the developed by the deformation of a crystal having converse piezoelectric properties. Rod free on one end and driven on the other. A. in centimeters per second.34 K ^ X = constant of the crystal. in centimeters. In the mechanical networks: /m. where KEJ — •* 9. 6. in Fig. = = length of the crystal. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the rod.7. the internal electromotive = force generated in the coil.27 and the velocity. in square centimeters. zei. the effective Zjv/i.6 can be obtained from equation 9. -l 'El**^ e I VIBRATING Fig. In the electrical circuits: e. 9. in centimeters. consists of a suitably electric properties fitted The crystal generating system. by the motion of the crystal from equation 8. E= 4 = Young's modulus.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM determined. 2_bi j<^Li. 9. cross-sectional area of the crystal. Li and tei.94 of the chapter on Driving Systems is current. SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Magnetostriction generating systems. mass and compliance of the rod. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. + 9. zme. the damped electrical impedance of the coil. shown ground crystal having converse piezo- with appropriate electrodes. the other. . ZMi. and velocity of the crystal. the damped inductance and electrical resistance of the coil. in statamperes. Rod fixed on one end and driven on B. 165 The open circuit electromotive force e of the electrical circuit of Fig.

the damped trical electrical impedance of the capacitance of the crystal. the total mechanimpedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by 2me. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical .34 force e.7.36 The velocity at the end of the crystal is governed by the mechanical driving force. ical rectilineal }m- In the electrical circuit: zu.166 GENERATING SYSTEMS current. \/Jo}Ce\- = Since there crystal the is sum no external current applied to the electrodes of the of the currents ii and ii is zero. electrical and 9. z^'i zei. In the Piezoelectric generating system. in statamperes. across the = KEAx —— - ZE 9. 2£ Zei I + ZE2 ZEI j'wCei Cei 2e2 = = electrical capacitance of the crystal. 9. the damped electhe electrical impedance of the external load. From equations 9. 2_b2. ELECTRODE MECHANICAL CIRCUIT [ffi Cji /^7777777777777 r e ELECTRICAL NETWORK X Fig. in statvolts. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical network. crystal. electrical the electromotive force generated across the crystal. circuit: e. in statohms.35 the generated electromotive impedance Zei and Ze2 is e in statvolts.35 Ze where e = electromotive force. Ce\. electrical and impedance of the external load. in statfarads. due to the electromotive force e across is The the electrical impedances z^i and Ze2 e i2 9.

in square centimeters. The mechanical impedance due to the electrical system from equation 8. /m represents the mechanomotive force at the end of the crystal. the crystal. electrical impedance of the external load. 4 = length of the crystal. In the mechanical circuit Zm represents the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the mechanical portion of the vibrating system actuated by Jm including the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. length of in centimeters.37 K = constant of the crystal 6.38 Ze = ZeiZe2 zei + zj. 9.4 X 10~* for quartz.7. in centimeters. Cmi where = ^ EA 9.2 ZEi = —TTJo:Lei 9. in centimeters. and „ „„ 9.39 Cei Ze2 = = capacitance of the generator.97 or 8. rectilineal The mechanical impedance of the ZMi crystal is = ^-^rJwLmx 9. in statohms.102 of the chapter on Driving Systems is zme = where 7^ — ze 9. The vibrating system is shown in Fig. in centimeters. E = Young's modulus. It is assumed that the force/iif is the same at all points along the length of the crystal and that the phase of the amplitude is constant along the crystal. length of the crystal. The dimensions of the crystal are assumed to be a small fraction of a Under these conditions the crystal is a compliance given by wavelength.40 A= 4 = cross-sectional area of the crystal.41 . and E= Young's modulus. in statfarads. A = area of the electrode.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM 167 system and the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical system.

7.42 = = = mechanical rectilineal impedance. in mechanical ohms.36 may be written e = KEJx —— 4 / ( zeiZe2 ~- \ 1 \zei + „ f 9.43 the electromotive force across z^i and by the electrical network of Fig.43 From Ze2 in parallel. zm2 in mechanical ohms. 9.4 ''' D = dielectric constant of the crystal.168 GENERATING SYSTEMS rectilineal For the conditions under consideration the mechanical pedance of the vibrating system is im- zm = where Zm zmi ZiWi + zm2 9.36 and 9. = ^^^'^f-^ 4(zm + 9. and mechanical rectilineal impedance of the load. is .= where i. in mechantotal ical ohms. The velocity at the end of crystal. in centimeters per second.44 Zme) will pro- The electromotive force ei in series with Zei and Ze2 which duce the electromotive force generating systems. The electrical impedance "El z^i is = 1 4ir4 j<j>Cei jo^AD 9. e across Ze2 is of interest in the design of Equation 9. Ze2/ is The electrical capacitance of the crystal JD ^. is X = --^^ Zm + zme 9. depicted equations 9.45 . mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal.47 .

48.104 and 8. The two most common systems are as follows: a crystal fixed on one end and driven on the other and a crystal free on one end and driven on the other. The load on the end of the crystal is the mechanical The mechanical rectilineal impedance zme rectilineal impedance 2:^/2- . in Fig. However.49 in 9. 9.48 The amplitude in terms of the velocity X = X ~ 9.51 Ze2 Comparing equations 9. e.52 The piezoelectric generating system may be considered to consist of e\ as a generator having an internal or open circuit electromotive force given by equation 9. In general piezoelectric generating systems are operated at resonance. 9.105 in the chapter on Driving Systems. The lumped constant representations of the two systems shown in Fig.51.47 in 9.8.50 The electromotive force terms of e^ is . the voltage e across the load may vary with frequency depending upon the nature is of the load Ze2In the above considerations the length of the crystal assumed to be a small fraction of the wavelength. AttKEx / e Ze2 \ Ze2/ D e in \zei + 9.PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATING SYSTEM Substituting 9. = _^i^_ ZEI + 9. == -^ AwKEx 9.52 shows that this electromotive force is independent of the frequency if the amplitude is independent of the frequency.8 are valid near the resonant frequency of the crystal. 169 e = Air KEx / \ze\ ze2 \ Ze2/ jwB + is 9.52 and an internal impedance Ze\. are given The mass m\ and compliance Cmu by equations 8. Equation 9.50 and 9.45.49 Substituting 9.

9. the mechanical rectilineal impedance due to the electrical circuit. crystal. .vf the velocity in the mechanical cuit can be determined. Zm2. the driving force. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the external mechanical load. OTi and Cmi> the Ziifi. the damped electrical impedance of the zei = \/joiCeiCei. A. In the electrical circuits: e. Piezoelectric generating systems. effective mass and compliance of the crystal. zme. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the crystal. r^ i_X VIBRATING SYSTEMS MECHANICAL NETWORKS ELECTRICAL NETWORKS Fig. the damped electrical capacitance of the crystal. 9.8. zei. The electromotive e across the crystal of the *-MI Zme J X CjIze.8 can be obtained from equation 9. Crystal fixed on one end and driven on B. the electrical impedance of the external load.37. Crystal free on one end and driven on the other. ze\. the other. electrical network of Fig. In the mechanical networks: Jm.45 and the velocity.170 GENERATING SYSTEMS to the electrical circuit is due given by equation 9. From the above cir- constants and the driving force /. the electromotive force generated across the crystal.

1 Ballentine. /2') iz set of electromotive forces ex" . . p. i^' .E. mechanical rotational and acoustical systems. electrical circuit theory which can be applied to mechanical and acoustilineal.CHAPTER X THEOREMS 10.R. ^2 > ^3 • ^n all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points work." 171 . Proc. No. Reciprocity Theorems A. S. linearity in the relations between electromotive forces and currents and complete reversibility in ^1) ^2) ^3 • • . Electrical Reciprocity Theorem. 929. electrical capacitance and electrical resistance. I.. Vol. mechanical rectimechanical rotational and acoustical systems have been described There are other dynamical laws that are well known in in this book. produce a current distribution z'l'. /s" .1 This theorem is valid provided the electrical system is invariable. the elements. Then 10. .2. z„". ' 10. in the invariable netin e^' of the and let a second same frequency as . e^" . and provided the electromotive forces ^n are all of the same frequency. Introduction of dynamical laws common to electrical.1. and superposition theorems to electrical. A number cal systems. 6. In an electrical system composed of the electrical elements of inductance. It is the purpose of this chapter to illustrate the applica- tion of reciprocity. let a set — of electromotive forces ^i .. 1929. Thevenin's mechanical rectilineal. . the first produce a second current distribution n n zi". e^' . "Reciprocity in Electromagnetic and Other Systems. 17. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.

and currents depicted in the electrical system of Fig. as illustrated in the electrical 10.1.172 THEOREMS system of Fig.1. e" and /'. equation 10. o e .2 = /'/' where e' . e'i" In the simple case in which there are only two electromotive forces.1 becomes 10. /" are the electromotive forces 10.

rotational velocity distribution n <j!>i"./fl3 . =/a/V 10.4 of "The dv — + -grad^o at ^ 10. New . 10." D. • • 173 -JMn are In the simple case in which there are only two forces. London. C.. ^ Olson. //ea' Jun all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system. '4>^" . York. 1926. fB2" .' and let a second set of torques Jrx' Jru" of the same frequency as the first produce a second • • '<i>n .6 velocities depicted . ^2'.1. as illustrated mechanical rotational system of Fig. 1940./ij„ are all of the same . let a set of torques/iji'. /m" and x' x" are the forces and velocities depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig.4 where /^f'.1. and provided the applied torques /iji. MacMillan and Co. 145. Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem? Elements of Acoustical Engineering" 1 — From = equation ^ 1. • distribution ^i'.5 becomes fR'^"=fR'4>' where /ij in the 10./7j2'. .RECIPROCITY THEOREMS the elements. /ji/2.7 p Rayleigh. Mechanical Rotational Reciprocity Theorem./m3 all of the same frequency./b' and (J)'. In a mechanical rotational system composed of mechanical rotational elements of moment of inertia. produce a rotational velocity — . 10./ij2..3 becomes fu'x" . fli" are the torques and angular 10. as illustrated in the mechanical rectilineal system of Fig. II. p. . in the In the simple case in which there are only two torques. equation 10. . rotational compliance and mechanical rotational resistance. 10. equation 10. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. and provided the applied forces /mi. <l>n" Then n j= 1 y= 1 This theorem is valid provided the mechanical rotational system is invariable. mechanical rotational system of Fig.fRi" • 4>2.1.1. Van Nostrand Co. "Theory of Sound. D. 4>2" . . frequency. linearity in the relations between torques and rotational velocities." Vol. contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device.

in an acoustical system comprising a medium of uniform density and propagating irrotational vibrations of small amplitude. v' grad po „ = 10. - p 1 . 10.10 of "The Elements of Acoustical Engi- ^ ypo ot + - divy = 10.9 and 1. .10 From neering" equations 1.—. 10. p" and particle velociand v" Multiply equation 10..+ dv' . a pressure p' produces a particle velocity v' and a pressure p" produces a particle // iv"p' - v'p")nds = 10.12 over a region of space gives // velocity v".1. equation 10. equation 10.8 If p and V vary as a harmonic of the time. 0' dt dt p v" grad po .10 div {v"pq' v'pq") =0 10.14 where the surface integral is taken over the boundaries of the volume. as illustrated in the free field acoustical system of Fig.9 and 10. p"v' 10. 1 . 10. dv" — .5 becomes v' grad po" - -v' grad po" P = 10. .4 by the p and v of the other set.1.15 v' .8. v" are the pressures and particle velocities depicted in the free field acoustical system of Fig. .13 If.9 There is the following relation: V grad^ = div vp — p div v 10.174 THEOREMS . then {v"pq' - v'pQ")ds = 10.12 is for a point. In the simple case in which there are only two pressures.11 From equations 10.. y" .14 becomes ^V' = where p' p" and . ties v' Consider two independent sets of pressures p' .12 Integration of equation The relation of equation 10. 10.

pressures and volume currents. produce a volume current distribution Xi. equation 10. . . . . . ./". n n 2] (A^/*/' + Pi^i') J= = Z) (/m/'^Z + 3= 1 P/'X/) 10. as illustrated in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. 10.1. produce pn. However.16 becomes ." a second volume current distribution Xi". which there are only two pressures. pn are all of the in In the simple case p'X" = p"X' . .^2"j/'3" of the same frequency as the first. .16 This theorem is valid provided the acoustical system is invariable. X^ X^.1. E. X2". pz same frequency. velocities. . . .17 where p' p" and X' X" are the pressures and volume currents depicted in the acoustical system of lumped constants in Fig. as follows: the above theorem can be restricted to lumped constants • • In an acoustical system composed of inertance. . contains no internal source of energy or unilateral device. let also. . 10. . n n Y^Pi'xr 3= 1 =Y^prxi i= 1 10.19 . x" p" and X" represent a second set of such forces. and a set of pressures pi' pn act in the acoustical system with the resultant velocities Xx xj in the mechanical system and with the resultant volume currents Xi Xn in the acoustical system.18 In the simple case in which there is only one force in the mechanical system and one pressure in the acoustical system /m'x" = p"X' 10. . . and volume currents and complete and provided the applied pressures p\. . . Mechanical-Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. pi. Then — . . In an interconnected mechanical-acoustical system let a set of forces/if i' JMn act in the mechanical system. . X^" Xn" Then . 10. X2. . . linearity in the relations between pressures reversibility in the elements. acoustical capacitance and acoustical resistance let a set of pressures p\ p2 pz Pn all harmonic of the same frequency acting in n points in the system.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS The above theorem is 175 applicable to all acoustical problems. and let a second set of pressures ^i".

Electrical-mechanical-acoustical. fun act in the mechanical system with the resultant currents system and with the resultant velocities X\ system. en and a set of forces /mi' i\ . Acoustical-mechanical-electrical-mechanical-acoustical. . Reciprocity in the following systems depicted above: A.S.Jm" and x" represent a second set of electro- motive forces. L.2^. px L. . . — In .21 . F..176 THEOREMS Equation 10. . HX* E p"X D Fig. Mechanical-acoustical. 10. The 10. n Then 10. Electrical-Mechanical Reciprocity Theorem. currents. C. Electrical-mechanical-acoustical-mechanical-electrical.2. in in the electrical Xn in the mechanical e" .20 Y^ iejil' + Jm/x/') y= 1 = 23 {e/'i/ + fu/'x/) j= 1 In the simple case in which there electrical is only one electromotive force in the system and one force in the mechanical system e'i" = Jm"x' 10. P"X' i" L. let also. P"X' tn\ B M . mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. E. .19 states that if a unit force/jif' in the mechanical system produces a certain volume current X' in the acoustical system. i" . forces n and velocities. Electrical-mechanical. B. . D. .S.S. electrical-mechanical system let a set of electromotive forces act in the electrical system. then a unit pressure p" acting in the acoustical system will produce a velocity x" in the mechanical system which is numerically the same as the volume current previously produced in the acoustical system. . an interconnected e\ .

For the simple case of a pressure p' in a sound field producing a current i' in the electrical system and a voltage e" in the electrical system producing a volume current X' in the sound field the reciprocity relation may be written //'{p'X")ds = Equation 10. e"i' 10. Electrical-Mechanical. then a unit force /iif" in the mechanical system will produce a current i" in the electrical system which is numerically the same as the velocity previously produced in the mechanical system. 2D. volume current X" The electrical-mechanical-acoustical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig. Then it is converted back into acoustical energy by means of a loud speaker or an electrical. e'i" = e"i' 10.Acoustical-Mechanical-Electrical Reciprocity In most cases in the reproduction of sound the original sound converted into electrical energy by a microphone which is usually an — acoustical. Electrical-Mechanical. they will also hold the three systems interconnected in the order electrical. mechanical.23 . iprocity relations hold in electrical-mechanical — Since rec- and mechanical-acoustical systems.2C. 10. This may be expressed as If both connecting medium. me- chanical. then an equal electromotive force /' in the microphone will produce the same current /" in the loud speaker. as shown in Fig.2fi. field. a generator of electromotive force e" produces. at a point in a sound than a numerically equal pressure in the sound will produce a current i' in the electrical system equal field at that point to the previously produced volume current X" in the sound field.RECIPROCITY THEOREMS cal 177 Equation 10. microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the air is the 10. acoustical.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. . The electrical-mechanical reciprocity theorem is illustrated in Fig.23 states that a if. is H. mechanical. G. Theorem.22 in the electrical system of a loud speaker. This type of system embraces practically all electroacoustic transducers. electrical transducer. and if an electromotive force e' in the loud speaker will produce a current i' in the microphone.21 states that if a unit electromotive force e in the electrisystem produces a certain velocity x' in the mechanical system. acoustical transducer. 10.

178 I. where ze is the electrical impedance of the circuit measured between the two points prior to connecting ZeB.Acoustical Reciprocity Theorem. then an equal pressure at the same same volume current point in the vicinity of the loud speaker will produce the in the vicinity of the micro- X" at the same point phone. THEOREMS Acoustical-Mechanlcal-EIectrical-Mechanical. This may be expressed as p'X" 10. Thevenin's Electrical Theorem. If both microphone and loud speaker are reversible and the two connected electrically. where Za' is the acoustical impedance at the — X point prior to connecting za- . Thevenin's Mechanical Rotational Theorem. = p"X' 10. and if a pressure p' at a point in the vicinity of the microphone will produce a volume current — X' p" at a point in the vicinity of the loud speaker. If an acoustical Impedance za be connected at any point in an acoustical system. D. tional impedance zr be connected at any point in a mechanical rota- — tional system. If an electrical impedance Ze be connected between any two points in an electrical circuit. the resultant velocity of this mechanical rectilineal imped- ance is the product of the velocity and mechanical rectilineal impedance Zm' of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rectilineal impedances Zm and zm' If a mechanical rotaC. lineal — If a mechanical mechanical recti- impedance Zm be connected at any point in a rectilin- eal system. 10.24 Thevenin's Theorems A. as shown in Fig. the current / — through this electrical impedance is the electromotive force e between the points prior to the connection divided by the sum of the electrical impedance ze and the electrical impedance ze .2£.3. the volume current in this acoustical impedance is the pressure p at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the acoustical impedance Za and the acoustical impedance za' . Thevenin's Mechanical Rectilineal Theorem. the resultant angular velocity of this mechanical rotational impedance is the product of the angular velocity and mechanical rotational impedance zr of the system both measured at the point prior to the connection divided by the sum of the mechanical rotational impedances Zr and Zr'. Thevenin's Acoustical Theorem.

angular velocity or The or the volume current any point is electromotive force. velocities. forces. mechanical rectilineal.SUPERPOSITION THEOREM 10. Each source. Consider the simultaneous action of a number of electromotive forces. Superposition 179 Theorem throughout an at electrical. torques or pressures distributed me- chanical rectilineal. save the one being considered. must be replaced by a unit of equivalent internal electrical.4. mechanical rotational or acoustical system. velocity. forces. angular velocities or volume currents or electro- motive exist if forces. torques or pressures at these locations which would each source were considered separately. current. mechanical rotational or acoustical impedance. torque or pressure at a location the sum of the currents. . force.

This the application of acoustic principles an improved muffler has been developed in which the following advantages have been obtained: smaller size.CHAPTER XI APPLICATIONS 11. by acoustical capacitances. However. a few typical examples described in this chapter will serve to illustrate the principles and method. Automobile Muffler the exhaust of an automobile engine contains The sound output from all audible frequencies in addition to frequencies below and above the audible range. principles relating to electrical. Employing these fundamental principles the vibrations produced in mechanical and acoustical systems due to impressed forces work which cal electrical is may be solved as follows: Draw the electrical netanalogous to the problem to be solved.2. muffler is quite effective.1. However. mechanical recti- mechanical rotational and acoustical analogies have been established in the preceding chapters. issues from the exhaust without increasing the The original mufflers consisted essentially of a series of chambers which increased progressively in volume. The purpose of a muffler is to reduce the audible exhaust all audible sound which sound output. Introduction The fundamental lineal. Solve the electri- network by conventional electrical circuit theory. higher attenuation in the audible frequency range and reduc- ideal muffler should suppress 180 . The idea was to allow the gases Actually it was a series of to expand and thereby reduce the noise. analogies in the solution of problems in mechanical and acoustical systems is beyond the scope of this book. In this procedure any problem involving vibrating systems is reduced to the solution of an electriA complete treatment of the examples of the use of cal network. Convert the answer into the original system. An exhaust back pressure. 11.

When there is only one path. Acoustic resistance is obtained by employing slit type openings into the side chambers. in using analogies in actual practice the conventional procedure is to label the elements in the analogous electrical network with r. in the audible frequency range.1 can be designed so that the subaudible frequencies CROSS-SECTIONAL Fig.AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER tion of engine 181 back pressure. .u. ' may be ascer- From these data and the terminating acoustical impedances the in the preceding chapters the elements in the electrical L and Ce. From these data the amount of suppression required in each part of the audible spectrum tained. 11. 11. circuit will be used instead of network. m and Cm for the mechanical rectilineal system. The main channel is of the same diameter as the exhaust pipe. 11.1. In the illustrations network have been labeled r/j. are not attenuated and at the same time introduce high attenuation ideal.1. This procedure will be followed in this chapter in labeling the elements of the analogous electrical circuit. VIEW ACOUSTICAL NETWORK Cross-sectional view and acoustical network of an automobile muffler.However. there is no increase in acoustical impedance to direct flow as compared to a plain pipe. with rft. It is customary to label this network with the caption "analogous electrical network of the mechanical system" (or of the rotational system or of the acoustical system) or with the caption "mechanical network" (or rotational network or acoustical network). In order not to impair the efficiency of the engine it is important that the muffler does not increase the acoustical impedance to subaudible frequencies. Therefore. In a development of this kind the nature of sound which issues from the exhaust is usually determined.M and Ca for an acoustical system. /and Cu for a mechanical rotational system with rA. The latter convention will be used in this chapter. in Fig. The system of Fig. The terminations fore it is at the two ends of the network are not There- necessary to use shunt arms tuned to different frequencies in the low portion of the audible range. A cross-sectional view of the muffler is shown The acoustical network ^ improved shows that the system is essentially a low pass filter.

system the unpolarized type described in section 8. The driving The actuating CUTTING HEAD /1IIIIIII III! "eiLi.3. 11. . serves as a guide in directing the appropriate changes.3. changes are required to compenIn this empirical work the acoustical network network can be developed. sate for approximations. 11. Electric Clipper An electric clipper is is shown schematically in Fig.182 APPLICATIONS In general.2.

3 is almost universally used for radio and phonograph reproduction. in mechanical Jm = driving force. the mass and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the air load.4. Then the motional electrical impedance can be determined from equation 8. 11. the electrical resistance and inductance of the voice coil. force can be determined /m 11. zem. and .3. nii and r." I"*. the electrical resistance of the generator or vacuum rEi and Li.3 as follows: mined from the electrical circuit of Fig. electrical dynamic loud speal<er.w2. In the mechanical circuit: m\. MECHANICAL CIRCUIT circuit Cross-sectional view. the mechanical rectilineal resistance and compHance of the suspension.DIRECT RADIATOR LOUD SPEAKER 11. 11. The current in the voice coil can be deter- The mechaniThe mechani- |-A/W-AMr^KR^-j ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT "1| . rMi and Ci. 11. 11. in dynes. The velocity can be determined from the mechanical circuit of Fig. Direct 183 Radiator Loud Speaker The direct radiator type loud speaker shown in Fig. the open circuit voltage of the generator or vacuum tube..1 Zmt where zmt = total mechanical impedance at the point/if ohms. cal circuit of this cal rectilineal loud speaker is also shown in Fig. impedance at the point /^ can be determined from the mechanical circuit.3.7. the mass of the cone. radiator tube. the motional electrical impedance of the driving system. 11.1. In the electrical circuit: and mechanical circuit of a direct e.! <^Z W fM BAFFLE CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW Fig. The mechanical driving from equation 8.3. . teg.

11. "Elements of Acoustical Engineering. F. Rotational Vibration Damper These rotational In reciprocating engines and other rotating machinery rotational vibrations of large amplitude occur at certain speeds. COMPLIANCE Cn C -^ fqit:HfeFRICTION/ BEARING RESISTANCE To 2 VIEW ROTATIONAL NETWORK ' END VIEW Fig. In the mechanical network: A. In this book all types of acoustical vibrating systems are analyzed by the use of analogies. These systems include microphones. the purpose of this section to describe one of these systems for con- trolling the vibrations in a rotational system. ^ The object is to select the constants so that the is given by equation 11.YWHEEL I. the mechanical rotational resistance between the damper vibrations are sometimes of such high amplitude that the shafts will after a ers is fail few hours of operation. comphance of the damper. . the moment Cg. shown ^ in Fig.184 APPLICATIONS in ergs. MOMENT OF INERTIA I2 . FX. is used to control the vibrations of the For a specific description of and expressions for the elements of the mechanisystem see H.5. loud speakers. 11. m.4. in centimeters per second. phonograph pickups. SIDE Flywheel and vibration damper. of inertia of the flywheel. New York.. measuring cal systems.4.2 power output as independent of the frequency over the desired frequency range. is The sound power output. Van Nostrand Co. the rotational li the moment inertia of the damper. telephone receivers. in mechanical ohms. Olson. etc." D. A number of rotational vibration dampIt have been developed for reducing these rotational vibrations. The simple vibration fly- damper. velocity of the cone. given by 11. 1940. and the shaft. 11.2 P = where tm X rMX^ = = mechanical radiation resistance.

The shunt mechanical vibration. For these conditions may be isolated from the base or floor upon which it is placed by introducing a mechanical isolating network. for use in absorbing rotational vibrations.vF.SA. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical circuit: mi. ciple of the device.MACHINE VIBRATION ISOLATOR wheel. B. The driving force/i. z. where a is the radius at the point of attachment of the spring. Jm. the mass of the machine. zmf. Isolator is Machine Vibration The vibration of a machine transmitted from its supports to all parts of the surrounding building structure. isolator. Machine vibration vibration the machine may be so intense that it is intolerable. W. The may also be analyzed by the use of analogies. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four damped spring mountings. 11. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: m\./ is due to the . Machine mounted upon an isolating system. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine.5.The rotational compHance is Cr = CmI c? . the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. A machine mounted directly on the floor is shown in Fig.SA. Cm /4 and 4rM . The mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network for vertical vibrations is shown in Fig. Machine mounted directly upon the floor. /jf. A consideration of the mechanical rotational network illustrates the prin- This is one example of the many types of vibration action of these dampers systems 11. is The moment of inertia coupled to the flywheel by a spring of compliance Cm.6. the mass of the machine. A. In many instances this MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL CIRCUIT MECHANICAL SYSTEM NETWORK Fig. 185 The damper consists of a moment of inertia I2 rotating on a shaft with a mechanical rotational resistance tr. This system forms a shunt mechanical rotational system. rotational circuit is tuned to the fre- quency of the Since the mechanical rotational impedance of is a shunt resonant rotational circuit very high at the resonant frequency the angular velocity of the vibration of the flywheel will be reduced. W.

Since there are four supbecome Cm/4 and Avm in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network for vertical vibrations. shown in Fig. these values springs. consists of the following elements: nii. the vibrating driving force developed by the machine. 11.7. the compliance and mechanical mi. 11.r„2 BACK VIEW Fig.186 APPLICATIONS The mechanical network shows that the vibrations of the machine. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four rubber feet.5^ is due to the mass of the machine. The compliance and the mechanical recti- lineal resistance of the support is Cm and rm. Cui/'i and 4rii/2. only isolation in the system of Fig. The mechanical network depicts the action of the shunt circuit in reducing the force of the vibration transmitted to the floor Zmp11. 11. . mi.6. the mass of the motor and comrectihneal resistance of the four damped springs.55 the machine is mounted on damped ports. In the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network: zmf. important that the vibra- "COMPRES- / MOTOR AND r zl SOR m.RUBBER ^ MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL SYSTEM ^FOOT CM2. the mechanical rectilineal impedance of the floor. the mass of the motor and tion tude as possible. pressor. Jm. 4 DAMPED Cm2 SPRING wr''^»^M LC FLOOR Zmf . MECHANICAL NETWORK Mechanical refrigerator vibration isolator. In the simple isolating system shown in Fig. Cmi/4 and 4rjif 2.6. 11. Mechanical Refrigerator Vibration Isolator is In the mechanical refrigerator a motor Since the refrigerator is a home appliance it is used to drive a compressor. and noise produced by the motor and compressor be as low in ampliThese vibrations may be suppressed by the use of an The mechanical system. the mass of the case. isolating mechanical network.

The mechanical network illustrates how the shunt circuit elements C. The driving force at each of the four legs is/vf. The shunt circuit elements Cjv/i/4 and 4rMi also reduces the force delivered to the case of the refrigerator and thereby lessens the air-borne noises. . Since there are four isolating supports for the motor and compressor and four feet on the refrigerator. the elements in the shunt circuits become Cmi/4 and ArMi for the isolating supports and C?/if2/4 and 4rM2 for the rubber feet in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. The instrument may be table legs are isolated from the building vibrations by means of a mechanical network of the type in Fig. 4rM2 reduce the force delivered to the floor. Any instrument support directly con- nected to the building tion to the instrument. the compliance and the mechanof the rubber feet. The mechanical network of Fig. the elements in this shunt circuit become Cm\/'^ and irux and the driving force becomes AJm in the mechanical rectilineal system and the mechanical network. Of course.SHOCKPROOF INSTRUMENT MOUNTING compressor.8.v/i/4. the mechanical rectilin- eal resistance of the floor. Since there are four legs and four isolating supports. shown The instrument mounted on resiliant sup- ports which are both a compliance Cmi and nti. Very often these instruments must be used entire structure is in buildings in which the vibrating. 11. a resistance rjni- This supis port reduces the vibration of the table further lineal resistance in the The instrument isolated recti- by the compliance Cm2 and the mass ^2. the system in Fig. zmf. 187 Cmi and rui. The velocity of the mass ^2 is very small compared to the velocity of the floor due to the series mass elements and shunt compliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance elements.7 depicts the vertical modes of vibration. Cm2 and ^1-/2. rM2 A mechanical form of a dash pot is used to damp the vibrations of the mass OT2.7. will vibrate and will in turn transmit this vibraUnder these conditions the performance of the instrument will be erratic. the mass of the case. the compliance and the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the springs W2. 4rAf 1 and Cm"2/4. 11. ical rectilineal resistance and damping material entwined in the springs. 11. Shockproof Instrument Mounting In order to obtain the maximum accuracy and reliability from galvanometers and other similar instruments of high sensitivity it is necessary that the mounting for the instrument be free from vibrations. The mechanical network illustrates the action of the vibrating system.

A The vibrating system consists of the following elements: />/. in general. Cm2. Automobile Suspension System riding qualities of an automobile all The depend primarily upon the types of vibration. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the dash pot. m-i. 11. the compliance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four feet. the compliance and mechanical rectilineal re- . VIEW SYSTEM NETWORK Shockproof instrument mounting. mum. In the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network: i/M. 11.v/3. 11. the compliance of the spring suspension. engine. wheel and axle. body. the mass of the frame. Cif i/4 and 4rM i. r. m2. the vertical motion the most violent and troublesome.9. rM2i the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorber. both rectilineal and rotational. the driving force at each tire.7. the mass of the tire. the compliance of the spring. The system depicted in the mechanical rectilineal system and mechanical network of Fig. L-4f„-l MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE Fig. Cms a-nd r. This system has many degrees of freedom. the combined driving force at the four legs. degree of isolation of the passenger from the principal sources of vibration is One of due to the uneven contour of the road over which the automobile travels. Cm2. the compliance and me- chanical rectilineal resistance of the mi. 11.7 APPLICATIONS may vibrate in many other modes which may be solved by is similar analysis but. etc.v/2. the mass of the instrument and carriage.8. tmi.8 assumes that the forces at each of the four wheels are equal in both amplitude and phase and that vibrations occur in a vertical line. designers is The objective of automobile to reduce the vibration of the passenger to a practical mini- schematic view of an automobile is shown in Fig. Cmi and tires.u 11.

the compliance of the springs. the driving force. the combined driving force at the four tires.8. A low frequency oscillation with very little damping occurs due to the resonance of the mass ^2 of the body with the compliances Cm2 and Cmi of the springs and tires. A high frequency oscillation occurs due to the resonance of the mass »?2 of the wheels and axles with the compliances Cmi arid Cm2 of the tires and springs. Cji/2/4. mi. 4?ni. the mass of the four tires. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the four tires. Cms and r. and mechanical netCAfi/4 and 4r. the mass of the passenger. the compHance and mechanical rectihneal resistance of the cushion. 11. ^mz and W3 because these are single units in the schematic The mechanical rectilineal resistance of the tires is quite small. Cms. springs and shock absorbers. rectilineal resistance of the springs is The mechanical exceedingly small. view.\f 1. Cmi/4 and 4r. there is no change in the case of the Qj""' -Mr .i/a. . the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the four shock absorbers. However. the mass of the passenger. the mass of the frame. the elements corresponding to these parts in the mechanical rectilineal system work are as follows: 4/3/. In the mechanical rectihneal system and mechanical network: 4/j/./ifi the comtires.AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSION SYSTEM sistance of the cushion. Since there are four tires. 189 m^. SYSTEM NETWORK Automobile suspension system. This oscillation This resonance is excited by sharp discontinuities such as cobblestones. m^. the compliance of the four springs. fn2. pliance and mechanical rectilineal resistance of the Ciif2/4. the mechanical rectilineal resistance of the shock absorbers. This oscillation is excited by a wavy road bed and becomes very violent when the speed divided by the wavelength corresponds to the resonant frequency. 4:rM2. wheels. body and engine. I 'mi MECHANICAL RECTILINEAL MECHANICAL SCHEMATIC VIEW Fig. 4rif 2.

An acoustical resistance. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one acoustical ohm when a pressure of one dyne per square centimeter produces a volume current of one cubic centimeter per second. mechanical rotational resistance. an appropriate ratio of compliance of the vibration problems in an automobile may be solved by the use of analogies. the explicit verbal definitions of these terms is listed below. For example. As already indicated. The individual effects may be superposed and the gross effect of all vibrations obtained. pitching or swaying motion. each wheel may be excited separately which may introduce a rolling. Most of the forces. mechanical rotational and acoustical ohms have been defined in the tables on pages 21.6. 22 and 23 and under the definitions of these impedances. 11. Acoustical Ohm. that is. developed at the tires. To avoid any possibility of ambiguity. Mechanical Ohm.190 APPLICATIONS becomes so violent in the absence of damping that the wheels leave the road. It has been found that by the use of such damping means. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one rotational ohm when a torque of one dyne centimeter produces an angular velocity of one radian per second. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one mechanical ohm when a force of one dyne produces a velocity of one centimeter per second. In these cases the information on transients in electrical circuits may be applied to the mechanical system as outlined in Chapter VII. Both of these expedients have improved the riding qualities as can be seen from a consideration of the mechanical network of Fig. the compliance of the springs could be increased by use of "softer" springs and the compliance of the tires increased by the use of balloon tires. These uncontrolled oscillations require the introduction of some form of damping for reducing the amplitude. The above brief description illustrates how one and rotational. which controls the oscillations. — — —A — . A system has been developed in the form of the hydraulic shock absorber. A mechanical rectilineal resistance. an automobile has several modes of vibration. reactance or impedance is said to have a magnitude of one abohm when an electromotive force of one abvolt produces a current of one abampere. A further improvement in riding qualities has been obtained by the use of better designed cushions. are of the impulsive and not the sinusoidal type. mechanical rectilineal. Supplementary Note: Electrical. Rotational Ohm. All of these may be analyzed by the use of analogies. Electrical abohm. An electrical resistance. both rectilineal Cm3 to mechanical rectilineal resistance tm^.

INDEX

Abampere, 6

Abvolt, 5

Acoustical,

Compliance, 61,75

9, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 60,

rectilineal, 9, 17, 21, 22, 60, 75

capacitance, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

rotational, 9, 17, 18, 21, 23, 61, 75

**impedance, 9, 23 narrow slit, 14 ohm, 9, 10, 23, 190
**

reactance, 10, 23

resistance, 10, 13, 23

**Corrective networks, 52 resistance, 85
**

series,

86

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88 wave filter, 92

**shunt, 86 "T" type, 87 "tt" type, 87
**

series, 71

Acoustomotive

effective, 6

force, 6,

35

instantaneous, 6 6 peak, 6

maximum,

Angular velocity,

effective, 7

capacitance and analogies, 74 inductance and analogies, 72 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 78 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 76 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 83 resistance, inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 80 shunt, 56 capacitance and analogies, 60 inductance and analogies, 58 inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies, 64 inductance and capacitance in series and analogies, 62 resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel and analogies,

instantaneous, 7 maximum, 7 peak, 7 Applications, 180 Arbitrary force, 120

**Automobile muffier, 180 Automobile suspension system, 188
**

Basic frequency, 4 Blocked electrical impedance, 126

Capacitance,

acoustical, 10, 17, 18, 21, 23, 62, 76

electrical, 8, 17, 18, 22, 23, 60,

69

resistance, inductance

74

and capaci-

**Capacitive coupled systems and analogies, 45 Centimeter per second, 7 Clipper, electric, 182
**

191

tance in series and analogies, 67 Coupled systems and analogies, 45 Cubic centimeter per second, 7

192

Current,

effective, 7

INDEX

Electrical,

instantaneous, 6

maximum,

peak, 7 Cycle, 4

7

**impedance (Cont.) motional, 126 ohm, 8, 22 reactance, 8, 22
**

resistance, 8, 12,

22

system, 10, 25, 37 transformer, 88

principle, 33

D'Alembert's

Decibel, 11

Definitions, 4

wave

filter,

92

Electric clipper, 182

Differential gear train, 55

**Dimensions, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Dissipation, 29, 39 Driving systems, 124 electrodynamic, 124
**

electromagnetic, 126 electrostatic, 138

**magnetostriction, 141 piezoelectric, 148
**

polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127

Electrodynamic, driving system, 124 generating system, 153 Electromagnetic, driving system, 126 polarized balanced armature, 134 polarized reed armature, 130 unpolarized armature, 127 generating system, 155 balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 Electromotive force, 5, 22, 33

effective, 5

Duhamel's Dyne, 5

integral, 120

instantaneous, 5

maximum,

peak, 5

Electrostatic,

5

Dyne Dyne

centimeter, 6

per square centimeter, 6

Effective,

driving system, 138 generating system, 158

**acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

Element,

10, 12, 19, 21, 22,

23

acoustical, 13, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23

electrical, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22 mechanical rectilineal, 13, 15, 17, 21, 22 mechanical rotational, 13, 15, 18,

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

mechanomotive

force, 5

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

21,23 Energy,

kinetic, 27, 38

potential, 28, 39

8

volume current,

Electrical,

Epicyclic gear train, 54

abohm,

8, 22,

190

22, 23, 60, 74

**Equation, Lagrange's, 40 Equation of motion, 30, 40
**

Filters,

capacitance,

8, 17, 18,

impedance,

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

8,

wave

21,

(see

wave

6,

filters)

Force,

22 acoustomotive,

5,

35

INDEX

Force (Cont.) arbitrary, 120

effective, 5

193

Instantaneous (Cont.)

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

5,

electromotive,

21, 33

mechanomotive

force, 5

instantaneous, S

rotatomotive force, 6

maximum,

5

5,

sound pressure, 6

34

torque, 6

velocity, 7

6,

mechanomotive,

peak, 5 rotatomotive,

33

volume current,

8

Frequency, 4

basic,

4

**Instrument, shock proof mounting, 187 Integral, Duhamel's, 120
**

Introduction,

1

fundamental, 4 resonant, 32

Joule

effect,

magnetostriction, 142

Gear

train, 54, S5

**Generating systems, 153 electrodynamic, 153
**

electromagnetic, 155

Kinetic energy, 27, 38 Kirchhoff's law, 33

**balanced armature, 157 reed armature, 155 electrostatic, 158
**

magnetostriction, 162

piezoelectric, 165

Lagrange's equations, 40

Law,

Kirchhoff's, 33

Line, 52, 56, 71

Loud

speaker, 183

Machine

Harmonics, 4

Heaviside Operational Calculus, 106

Impedance,

acoustical, 9, 23

electrical, 8,

vibration isolator, 185 Magnetostriction, driving system, 141 generating system, 162 Mass, 9, 15, 21, 22, 58, 73

Maximum,

acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7

current, 7

**22 blocked, 126 normal, 126
**

motional, 126

electromotive force, 5

force,

mechanical, 8, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, 8, 22 mechanical rotational, 9, 23 parallel, 52 rotational, 9, 23 Inductance, 8, 15, 21, 22, 58, 72 Inductive coupled systems and analogies, 46 Inertance, 10, 15, 16, 21, 23, 60, 74 Inertia, moment of, 9, 15, 21, 23, 59, 73 Instantaneous, acoustomotive force, 6

34

force, 5

mechanomotive

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

torque, 6

velocity, 7

volume current,

Mechanical, impedance,

8

8, 22,

23

ohm,

8, 9,

22, 190

reactance, 9, 22, 23

rectilineal

impedance,

8,

22

194

Mechanical (Cont.) rectilineal reactance, 9, 22

rectilineal resistance, 9, 13,

INDEX

Parallel,

22

**system, 10, 41 filters, 92 resistance, 9, 13, 22, 23 rotational impedance, 9, 23 rotational reactance, 9, 23
**

rectilineal

rectilineal

wave

rotational resistance, 9, 13, 23 rotational system, 10, 42 rotational

**impedances, 52, 64, 69 acoustical, 52, 64, 69 electrical, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rectilineal, 52, 64, 69 mechanical rotatomotive, 52, 64, 69 Peak, acoustomotive force, 6 angular velocity, 7
**

current, 7

wave

filters,

92

iso-

transformer, 88

electromotive force, 5

force, 5

**Mechanical refrigerator vibration
**

lator, 186

mechanomotive

force, 5

Moment

73

of inertia, 9, IS, 21, 23, 59,

electrical

rotatomotive force, 6

sound pressure, 6

impedance,

125,

Motional

torque, 6

velocity, 7

126 Muffler, automobile, 180

volume current,

Period, 4

8

Narrow

slit,

14

52,

Periodic quantity, 4

125,

Networks,

2,

181

(see cor-

Piezoelectric,

rective networks)

acoustical, 52, 125, 181

electrical, 52, 125, 181

**driving system, 148 generating system, 165
**

"it" type network, 87

**mechanical rectilineal, 52, 125, 181 mechanical rotational, 52, 125, 181
**

resistance corrective, 85

series corrective, 71

**Planetary gear train, 54 Potential energy, 28, 39
**

Pressure,

sound,

6, 21,

23

**shunt corrective, 56 Normal electrical impedance, 126
**

Octave, 4

static, 6

Quartz

crystal, 148, 165

Ohm,

acoustical, 9, 10, 23, 190

electrical, 8, 22,

**Radians per second, 7
**

Reactance,

acoustical, 10, 23

190 190

mechanical,

8, 9, 22,

rotational, 9, 23, 190

One

degree of freedom, 25 25

acoustical, 25

electrical,

**22 mechanical, 9, 22, 23 mechanical rectilineal, mechanical rotational,
**

electrical, 8,

9, 9,

22

23

rotational, 9

**mechanical rectilineal, 25 mechanical rotatomotive, 25 Operational Calculus, Heaviside,
**

106

**Reciprocity theorems (see theorems) Resistance, acoustical, 10, 13, 23
**

electrical, 8, 12,

22

172 mechanical rotational. 22. 6 14 pressure. 23 Theorems. 22 mechanical rotational. 178 acoustical. acoustical. 61. 6 mechanical rectilineal. electrical-mechanical. 88 mechanical rotational. 85 rotational. 179 Thevenin's.INDEX Resistance (Cont. 9. electrical Superposition theorem. 9. 21. 178 electrical. 45 electrical. 6 Stiffness. 105 arbitrary force. acoustical. 13. 21. 173 acoustical-mechanical-electrical- mechanical-acoustical. 6 6 Series corrective networks (see corrective networks) Shock proof instrument mounting. 11 instantaneous. 178 mechanical rotational. 23 mechanical. 177 reactance. reciprocity. 25 three degrees of freedom. 18. 9. 187 Torque. 22. 9. 10. 6 peak. 10. 32 Rotational. 6. 13. 41 electrical capacitance in mechanical rectilineal. 42 one degree of freedom. 45 instantaneous. compliance. 28 Subharmonic. automobile. 9. 6 maximum.) 195 Table. 23 maximum. 6 maximum. 22 networlcs. 23 mechanical-acoustical. 173 superposition. 122 . 37. 6. 9. 21. 176 75 electrical-mechanical-acoustical. 6 peak. 10. 13. 35 effective. 178 electrical. 9 resistance. 23. 178 mechanical rectilineal. 6 Static pressure. 13. 175 Rotational vibration damper. 23 23. peak. 13. 88 Transient response. 10. 88 mechanical rectilineal. (see cor- effective. 6 Transducer. ohm. 9. 188 Systems. 17. 88 electrical. 184 Rotatomotive force. impedance. 107 Transients. 6. 178 Three degrees of freedom. resistance and electrical capacitance in series and analogies. 114 inductance and electrical resistance in series and analogies. 21. 6 instantaneous. 41 mechanical rotational. 171 Resonant frequency. 171 acoustical. 9. 120 Duhamel's integral. 6 Sound effective. 23 mechanical rectilineal. 18. 111 electrical resistance. 42 inductance and series coupled. 5 Transformer. 179 Suspension systems. 48 two degrees of freedom. 37 and analogies. 23 Shunt corrective networks rective networks) Slit. 190 177 electrical-mechanical-acousticalmechanical-electrical.

"X" isolator. 21. 8 8 "T" type network. 92. 93. 146.) INDEX Villari effect. 184 186 Young's modulus. 8 instantaneous. 148 machine isolator. 7 Vibration. 23. magnetostriction. 167 . 5 filters. peak. 23 Transmission. 94 response characteristics. 143. 11 loss. gain. peak. 144. 97 93. 95 low pass. 7. 7. 93. 149. 23 effective. 185 mechanical refrigerator rotational damper. Two 87 degrees of freedom. 22. 37. 7 linear. Wave band elimination. 106 Units. band pass. 92. 8. 11 effective. Heaviside's Calculus. 92. 101 instantaneous. 150. 106 163 Volume current. 163. 147. 165. 22 angular. 24 Velocity. 151. 20. 45 Unit function. cut quartz crystal. 93 22 7 Wavelength. 8 maximum. 93. 106 unit function. 7 Wave. 7. high pass. 92.196 Transients (Cont. 5 maximum.

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