Vegetation Regeneration around Burned Trees, Stumps and Logs shown through Species Diversity and Richness in Slash

Bust Sites, 2009

Logs (5) Stumps (47) Trees (105)

Species Diversity 4.20 2.42 1.47

Species Richness 57.60 22.04 8.08

During a forest fire approximately 8-10% of the heat generated is radiated downward to the forest floor (A. C., Cilimburg, and Short. K. C., 2005). Extensive soil heating takes time and is most likely to occur beneath heavy fuels, like large-diameter tree stumps and logs, which can smolder for days or weeks. In general, an enduring, low-intensity fire in logging slash will have more severe effects on forest soil than a fire that burns more intensely but rapidly…through tree crowns (A. C., Cilimburg, and Short. K. C., 2005). Recovery to pre-fire conditions may take only as long as necessary for soil biota to reestablish and surface organic matter to reaccumulate. In the meantime, the physical, chemical, and biological changes in forest soil will be

manifest in post-fire plant establishment and growth (A. C., Cilimburg, and Short. K. C., 2005).

Cited Literature: A. C., Cilimburg, and Short. K. C. . "Forest Fire in the Northern Rockies U.S. Soils - Direct effect of fire." Forest Fire in the U. S. Northern Rockies - A Primer. 1 Aug. 2005. 8 Sep. 2009 <http://northernrockiesfire.org/effects/soildire.htm>. Additional Available Literature: DeBano, L. F., S. M. Savage, and D. M. Hamilton. 1976 . The transfer of heat and hydrophobic substances during burning. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40:779-782. Hungerford, R. D. 1989. Modeling the downward heat pulse from fire in soils and in plant tissue. Pp. 148-154 in Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Ottowa, Canada. Hungerford, R.D., M.G. Harrington, W.H. Frandsen, K.C. Ryan, and G.J. Niehoff. 1991. Influence of fire on factors that affect site productivity. In A.E. Harvey and L. F. Neuenschwander, editors, Proceeding of the management and productivity of western Montane forest soils. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-280. Neary, D.G., C.C. Klopatek, L.F. DeBano, and P.F. Ffolliott. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management 122:51-71. Raison, R. J., P. K. Khanna, and P. V. Woods. 1985. Mechanisms of element transfer to the atmosphere during vegetation fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15:132-140. Steward, F. R. 1989. Heat penetration in soils beneath a spreading fire. Unpublished paper on file at: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, Montana.

Wells, C. G., R. E. Campbell, L. F. DeBano, C. E. Lewis, R. L. Fredriksen, E. C. Franklin, R. C., Froelich, and P. H. Dunn. 1979. Effects of fire on soil, a state-ofknowledge review. USDA Forest Service, Washington Office, General Technical Report WO-7.