·I.

H OIKONOMIA 1949
ANAnTYSH KAl NOMIL:MATIKH
1950 - tva xpovo lJe:ra rn An~n lOU E~I<PUAfou Kal t~1 xpovnr uerd tnv ATTEABUBEDWOll -TO £MUVIKO 89VI1<6 £Iooonpa Eix€ Errovf).fJel oro rrpurrOAeplKO TaU £rrrrreoc. Opw<;, n rtpooooc rtou £fxe ouvreAemei riro v eufJpouorn xci Sev QVQIpouos tva 8epe),l(lltie<; vsvovo« n EMQOO e~aKOA01JeOUOeva dVUL ~.l!Oqrru)XIl , wpa .. LIJPQlWva ~Ie lITTOAOVIOPOU<; rnc erroxric, TO KOTd K€<P0ArlV e8vIK6 1:106011uo Bev ~em.'.pvouoe TO 130 SOMPIO (Bop~opeoo<.;,a. 89). To cvttcrotxo lleve9n rirov 400 ooMpro ylO. m Tepuuviu, 600 ylO rn fOAAlO KOI 1..600 VIa 11<; HilA. Eu<; opxt<; 'O1!; OEKQ£T10<; TOU '50, o ovpomcoc roueocetxe OBcmO~O(joo BEon O'TIlV eAAllvlIol 01«ovouto Kat n peYUAfl TTAEIOV6TnTa 'rrov KOTOiKWV rnc x6lpa<; ~ouoe oe X(tlPIO KOI 1<WpOrr6A£II;;K(lTcu lu}vlO.OOO KOTOiKooV. H cvponKn TTopayhlvrt cvnrrpooorrraue rrepfrrou to 30% TaU AKo86ptOLOU EYX(iJplOU Ilpo'i6vl.O<; (A£D) KOI ormoxoxorioe to 58% TOU OIKOVOPIKcl)1) evepvou TTAn8uoIJou (ITfv01<OC;1). rue; urrnpsotec aVQAOyOUO£ TT£piTTOU '[0 PIOO TaU AETl Kat TO l/4m<; OUVOAIKrl<; OTTO.oxoAllon<;. To pepfow OLO AEIl TaU eupirrspou ~3!Opl1XaVIKOU roueo (rrou cru~lTIeptAOp~6Vel usrorrctnon, evepyelo, KmOCTKEtI€<; KOI oouxeto) ritov p6AI<; 20% KOi 'W ll£piOl6 TOU OT11V orrOOX6A[}(Jn 18% .. H uerortournxri ~lO~lI1xovto K0geou,[[1 anonoAOUV1QV, KO'tO KUPIO Myo, OTTOKJ..o50uC;tnc Aey6p£vnc; <<EAQ(I)POC;" PIOo

1974
IYNllEtH E1II\A.MI - £OK, O1H:; 9 IOuA(OU 1961. Ana aplO1Epa 0 unoupv6~ E~W'tEPIKWV Eu. Apt.pwqJ, o UIlOUPVOC; LwtOVIOj.lOU

L:TA8EPOTHTA

T

Ap. npW!Onono50KTl<;, ovrmpoE'Opoc; H)C;
Ku(3epVllOll<; nov. KavEfJ.onouAoc.;, 0 unoupyOc.; EeVIK~c.; OIKovOlliac.;
Kat

0

me fJ.. n:PIJav{ac.;
o unoupy6c.;

Aouvrl3tX'Epxcpt

unxovlcc.

EE;wtEPIKWV lOU BEA'YIOU nWA AVp( L[10QK.

0, yeVlKt~ Tda£l~ m~ nep,6oou
To 1973, 11rmporruvo &11<6voe1XE OAM~E1. Mlrro~u 1950 KGI 1973, TO AIm KQTQ K£cpaArl (oe aTO8epet; ,[Ipt<;) stxe rraptrrou T£1pOITAOmaoOd. H EAAllVLKtl OIKOVOlLio KUPlOpXOUvTQVnAEOV oTT6 m plOllnxovlo Kal nc urrnpeotec KOI n TIAEIOVOT11TO "((J.lV KQ'(OlK(o.)V '01<; xwpOC; ~OUOE rnc erne n6AEl!;. I:1:0 optic; rnc otKOeTlo<; TOU '70, TO nooocro TaU 0YP011KOU Topta (}"[O AEH eixE rtepropioret oro 16% KOl TO rrooooro TOU om ouvOAllm ortooxoxrion, KOVTQOLD40%. H oupptxvroon tou «eIOIKOU ~6pou<;" TOU OYPOl:IKOU tOjJEO OTIW OIKOVOlJfO oev ocpelA6TOv 0'[0611 OUTO" slxe TIOIjJ€l vet 0vcrrrnoceroi. Tnv-rreptooo 1950-73, 0 OYPOTlKO<;Lope.a<; onpefwo€ 10X£II;, oe. oxeon pI!: TO TIOp£A96v, pUe~IOUC;.u;yeEluvoll". H Ils1won TooV ~Isplof(o.)v TOU OCPEIAOVTOV 010 on O! 6).).01 ouo '[0l Il€i<; ovamuoooVTuvToxun;:(>C1. H ~a9Hl OlQPOprJlT1Kn aAAOYll U1'.;TTeploSolI 1950-73 111:0V11 ~non rou (IEIDIKOU P6pouc;" TaU EUPUTepou.PIOI·HlXOVlKOU Wilen. To llepfOlO tou '1'01973 eq)t3oo£ vo OVtITTPOcrWTTEutl TO 35% tOU AETI KOL va 01l0OXOAEf to 27% TaU OIKOVOjJIKc.O<;; svepvou TIAIl-

npoK!Opelov Hvw~vwv
<PWtOPWOpTEp.

06-1

TOY XPYI:A~Jl rOPMNO AOY

I.i:TOPIA TOY NEOY EAAHNILMOY
auapou. Em OI6.OUlJlO nou Ei!;£"(6.{ouJle, n ei\AnVLKn 1310llnXayfo £uyon6n.K£_ arr6 TO Vpriyopo EQ1AeK"(plo~16 me xwpoe;; KOl 0"(0 OLfVOPIK6 rnc TTpOCITe8n.Kov apKE'IEq.ley6AEc,; povooe<;, TTOU evtoxucov tn Seon "(oe;Aey6~levne;; <1130PLOC; !3tOllnxaVtor;:». o Te1:POTTAOOlQOIlOC; KetO KE<pOA.UV tou eiooonl1010e; ETTI"(eux6llKe xdpn orouc OUOUlIlQDKa ullJnAOUc; puellouc,; ovamu~nc;: nou onust("SnKOV mv srxooneuc 1953-73. Em OIOPK£16 1:ne;, 0 peaOC; pu8Jl6c,; ou~non~ TaU AEn rirnv 6,9% TO xp6vo (pIC OTT6n~ KaA1.hepe~ em06oel~ OTOV xoouo), Ilore rrpiv I1 J.lETO xwpa Sev n YVWPI08 1:600 TQXe[c,;pUeJ.lOU~ ovclTnu~ne; vic "(600 lleYOAO XPOVlK6 8100<npo. EI81Ka TIlV E-VoeKonlo 1963-1973, 0 puep6e; uvomu~oe; tne; 01KovoJ.lioC; elTtto:xuv9nK8 KO1QyMSE oro 7,8% 10 xpovo, AVOP80(1 m:1~x6>pec;-pEAo rou OOLA, n errtoooa T01.J-rllD.1:avn OeLfrepnKoAuu:pn ue1:6 urro sxeivnv m<;; Irmmvlcc, 01 ullmMTepOi pu8J.l-oi ov6mu~ne; me; EJJ..aooc,;oey E:~6}.el*avJ l3ej301o, rn ol0<{)op6 I310TIKOUerrrrreoou rrou 'rn xwpli;;e orro TIC;TIAOUmec; oisovourec. H OIO<{)Opo rirnv noAU ~L8y6An, YLa va urrope! va KOAUcp8Ellltoo oe I.no ersoonerto, E~ol"([oC; TWV ulIJuA6repwv pu91lwV 6IlwC;, n orroorcon orro 1:1<; oucovouiec mrrtc; ).lElW8nK8 opomu:6. 01 TIOpOnclVw avomU~loKtC; em06aelC;; £nLl:Eux9nKov J.lETIOpOAAnAn ouvxporncn TOU n.An9Wp10l-lOU oe xapnA6. emm:oa. Mlna orro plO q>6.on rmperrsrupsvnc vopiourrnxric ovorcpoxnc, rrou Suipxeoe IltxPI TO 1954, 11 CITOgep6mTo crroxcrccrdflruce KOI BLoTnpu9uKe IlEXPI"(o 1972. Em Blo.pKelo mc;m:p1680u ] 95572, 0 pEooe; opOC; tnc oU~l1anc; TOU YEVIKOU eTfI1TEBouTWV 111lWVritcv 2,5% W xp6vo. TeAOe;, n avoTTTU91Bev oo.oynae ae6~uvan TaU xpoVIOU rrpol3Ar'i)lOTOC; me £Mnvucric:; oucovoutoc, "(au £AAeiIJP010r;; one; rpexouoec OUVoAAo.yee; rnc pe ro 8~w"(epIK6. To EAAelPPo KOAum6mv, ouVr'l9wc; ue suxspero, OTTO TIC;ovrovouec etcpote; IBIWTIKWV K£<pOAOfwv. H euvouoi YLOmv EMMia '(POTT-nTTOUrmpay 1:0 npO-VI-LOTOIlnu TO 1953 oev 11lOV OUtE npooloyeypaPllevn orrre cutovonm KOI, 6mtlc; OIOTIlCIT(.l)OOUj.lE, CITOTTPW"(O 1.1106 ne; OEKOT eriac; TOU '50 n ruxn me eAAnvuuic:; oisovoutcc ~PIOKOTQV CITl1VK6tjm TOU ~upoq)lou. AC; cpxloouue 61--1we; ~MTToytal,;" tnv Kot6m:oon rnc 01KOVOPIOC; TOV ermopro Tnc:;M~n~ 10 u Epcp UA(Ol) noMpou.

OrNAKAL:

1

MEPIAIA TON TPIONMEfAAON TOMEON TH!: OIKONOMIAI: .rIO AID1 KAI THN AllADC.OAH.I:H
A. ME BAtH 'I'D nOEouroEYMMETOX1:IE TOYTIPoIomm: TOY!: r:TO ABU (YIlOAOIU:MOI EE 1: A@EPBETIMEETOY 1970).

]950 Aypo'[tJ(~ "[OJ.lEa~
BlO~VLK6~"[oJ.lt_Q~

1973 15,5 34,5 50,0 ]00,0

28,0
20,0 5~,0 100,0
(1976),

Topto.~
!UVOAO

unnpeOlG)V

unra EOvuwf l\oyap1QGllo11958'75

B. ME RAUl TO rrm:::OITO TOYI: I:TON OJI(ONOMIK!ll: :ENEPro IIAHGTI:MO
1951·

I

1971
41,0 27,0 32,0 100,0

1981

Aypo1lK~"[oJJEa~
BlOJlI1XOVLK6~ "(o".u~OC;

58,0
18,0

29,0
31,0 40,0 100,0

Top£Q~ unnpeouilv
!:OVOAO
flHfH: Anoypaqlst;; OMBuO'IJOu.

24.0
100,0

• To oreixetn nit;; AnoypoqJ-Ilt;; TOU 1951 £xouV cvcnpoocppoorat tun we", vo EfvUl OUYKp[OlP-Q IlE amd TWV E1T6~levwv Anoypucpwv. H ovcnpoocpuovn £YIVE IlE ~aon TOUt;; vnOAOYIOJ.JOUC;rrou n8f,IICXOVTOl <!"to 8niJoo[£uJ.lO TDt;;ELVE, Kupr6J1epa A"1TO'I"~.lutmra 'T(i)!J TeJ.eu-ra:f(tJli A'lTO),P'ltpcJli nJ.nfJUCf/)OfJ KaJ Bpeullru" ArrQa:t6...1nlJll{' Ell &'I.MSr, 1967, A9nv(lI, 00-. 16-18.

AKA8API:ETO EfX.OPIO nroro» (ABU) KAJ :810TIKO EIIDIEAO
1:rnvm::pfooo EIOIKU, 1953-73, TOABJI ou~ov6TQV_JlE-p£OO ernoio
E.IXE

pu91l0 6,9% KOI evt6c;; 21 nc.l)v Emtoxuv9n;KE ov(imu~n<;

um:ptEtpOTIAOOm08ef. me;

oro li16.CfIT11l0 1963·1973 a-pu8IloC;; qv61lTu~ne;
KQ1avnA8a CITO7,8%. H oruounxavn rimv 0 eupmepo<; ~lol.mxa vt~6<; roueoc, TIOU

ea

onuafroce pu8Jloue; Jltye9uvom;
t<pepov rrnporrsriotou ~10TII.<OUernnEoou.

TQXUTepauc;;OTTO AEIT. O: 'rOU

em06oEu; OU'tEC;; rirov on6 TI<;KaAUu:pec;; orov 1(60).10 1<01 jlEyt8ouc;; ptl8llou<; av6Boll

tau j.1EOOU
Xwpwv

H uviootrrro 6pwc;; OUI OIOVOI.HlTaU
uno nov rreptooorspev

H KATAI;TA1:H
TIll: OIKONOMl.Al;: 1949-51
To 1950, 01 rreprocorepsc orro TIe;KQ"(aO'tpo(~ee; nou etxov npoKo.Mo£1 n KOTOxrl ,KOt0 E;.tcpUAIO etxov orroxorooroeet KOl to e9vI 6 £106 nuo, n aypoLlKo KOI n ~IOJlnXOvIKn TTOPUiVWYn., f~ e

elo08tlJlOTOC; nTOV u4lni\6tepn rnc L'!.lf[1J<I1<; URWTTnc;;. E

60

H 01 KONOMJA

1949 -1974

$£1 erne; Tp{mE.~ee;.To yeyov6e; 6T! n xpuori Afpo elxe "ivel to KUPIO ].IeOOolOKpamon<; nAOVTaU xpcronos Tn ~nmorl me os uovum t~apan ](01 rrfe~£ mv 1lj.Ul rnc TIPOI; "(0 £110VW. Koew<; 6Ilb)c;' n Aipo rirnv tcuroxoovc KOl TO pap6Jle'IpO rcov nAnHWplOUKWV npoaOOKtWV, n ov~norrrncupricmc anot£Aouo£ oriao Ylli VEee;au~ooel<; TlJlcilv. AUTEe;,ue m oElpa roue, OVO'IpOqJOOOTOuaov rn ~thnon Alpcilv. To ororxefomc T,.E oelxvDuv 6Tl TO Em 1946-5], n ~Ihnan Atpwv rrcpsustve olltfWl:n. To 1949, n TTE TIOUAnOE 500 xlAlo6e<; KOPPOUQ, TO 1950 rtepi 10 1,8 £KOWJ.lJlUPIO Kat TO 1951 rrspt to 1,5 EKOTOppUPIO (TtE, 1978,. 0.295). I-I cnpoauuto TOU KOlVOU va KQl:08th.el Tie; orrorcpreuceic TaU ou<; LpQlle~e~n"(o:vn OMn 6Wn TOU 161011 voproucroc, To OUVOAOTuW KOT08em:(I,)v ml~£l-lTTOPIKEI;Tp6n£~ee; OVTITIPOo(i'm£u£ tva !<.AUOpO "(wv nponoAquK@v KOTO8eoewv. 01 cruvoAll<ee; K01:o8to£lf,; 1:OU1951 ritOV (ere npe<; LOU 1938) IJOA1~ to 26% rtov rrpoTtO)..£IlIKWV (Tr:E, 1978, o. 296). n£ploo6n;po OTI6"(0 1l106 nov Koto8toewv aUTWV npoepxovtov arro 00Jl6010u<; oPYOV1opou<;, TrOUI.1TOV urtcxpeopevot eK TOU vouou vo KOTa8tTouv TO OI08£OIPQ roue 6tl~ '{ptine~e~ ..01 Vn6AOlTTe~ ri'IOV, Kupiwc;', KO'TOetaell; 6tjJ£we; peydAwv emX£IPr'tO£OOV. o eupu KOlV6 onouo[Q~£ crxe86v T novreAcilr;. To OTrOl:EAeojla nrcv n rropdxucn TOe;A£n:oupyioe;Tu)V TPQne~@v WI; unxovropev n).D06JplunKt~ ttuiaeu; aUyK€VTpooO'I1f,;rropcov KOt 6168eoo<; morcioeo ~ETaKoTOXtKoC; UnepnAneOOpIOJ.l.6e;stxe psv WV. Me oeoopevu my EMElljJn rroorov, to 1-1£.XaAlyoywynfler 11£ rn vopicprrnxn JlE'TOppUflJ.l.Lan TOU 1946 uMo olnAoflwplOTlK£C; rneostc Sev yoMl:epo Jltpoc; tnc xpnucrodomonc rnc 01etxov e~ou8crepwaBf. 0 llPOPISP0C;1:0U KOO'TOUe; KovoJlioC; (m:p'( 1:0 70% TWV rnctocsoiv) Ylv6" ~wrif,; uu~t19nKe K01:0 47,9% to 1947, 23,1% TO TOY oneu8efa<; on6 mv T.E pe £nUrrwan xpn1948, 6,4% TO 1949, 14j5% TO 1950 KOL9,9o/HO uoroc. Me.por; 'rtov mOl:U)<J£wv O.U"(WVOWXE'(W6TOV, ovon6q>EUKl:o. OTIlV rrvopd xpuoori ri 1951 (TTE, 1978, mVOKQf,; SO). 01 aU~llo£le; auoe wet; KepOOOKO'TTlKEe; Spurrtnpiorrrrec ernTee; uneoxcrrruv U1V aVHIyoovlernK6TU1:a TWV eMnvll<w\I TIpo'i6VTWV. Emnpoo8eTQ, eyxcilp Lee; Tefvovto<; TIt; nAu8wplouKec; meosic. To rrpoKOI BIE8veic; OVUTapOXEf,;(6nwc; 0 n6At~loe; OTIJV J}An~o rimv on [I olUKplOn nvdueoc am ~nmon KEq>aAOlooV vvnOlE~ 0 vd yKEe;KOI om ~riylQ Kopeo "(0 1950) OVO~WTr(jpwvov 1:1<; nAn8wprOTIKEC; toelf,;. Aut£<; ouvxprrtotlvtnv m pe ~OOlK6 epyoAeLO Tie;TIWMOelC; xpuawv AlPWV orro UlV 'hE (~lt~OW, TWV onotcov n TTE npoormaouoe va <ruYKpomoel rnv ov060 mf,;TI,m<; rnc i\ipoe), H 010lcilvlon lOU TfAo8wplallOlJ 0q>£IA6lQV oe ilia aelpd.. ncoovovnov. 0 rno OlO!lPWTIK6<; on6 ouronc ritnv n POSIOl)uOTIu.n:fa TOUKOIVUU rtpoc TIl 6pOXIl-I). 01 KaTompemlKEC; me; emrrroios«; eKonA@vovTOV rtportlorox ern A£IToupyio TOU "[pOTTr.~IKOUcoompcrcc.

xnv q>SOOEI LO lTPOTTOAePll<O O TOU<; T1iTTEOo E (Tpdne~a mc; EAA6ooC;, 19781 00. 282-286). 3£KIVWVIQ(; OTT6 rn xaj.LnM ooempto 'rorv TTp6JTooV usTOKOTOXU(@Vxpovov, TO AETI onuekooe KOT.O 11£00 6po 'IaxdC; PU91l0UC;ou~nom;, TTOU, IlWC], O xcpoxrnpkovrcv OTTO pEYOAec; OIOKul':lfjverEI~. Ot £TTEvBuoelC;errtonc onll£ioooav ou~nnKJ~ TOon OAM ~I£ oxoun evrovorepec OIOKuIl6vm:le; (pSYOAn ou~oerD 1:0 1949-50, uetcoon "to 195152). Oi em:vouoeH; ovnrrpocerreucv Eva oxeTlKO XOIln.A6 rtooocro TaU AEn xrn rreptrrou TO Eva tptro TOUe;olOTi8tvro Ylo TIJV I<OAuljJn rcov ~lEy6Aoov orevccuxorv OVOYKWVrrou urrripxcv, To ~lei~ovnpopAnl1o TIOUovrll1el:c1lTTl~e n ETIEVOU1JKO Spcotnptotrrrc rirov on 01 ouvmoTmee; yIO).l11TTAn8oopiouKii xpnucrobornon tnc rirnv rreptopiouevec, To TIAdmo trov Snuoouov xm ).lEpOe; rov 101W1:I1<@V t enEYOUOeWv xpnuorobo"(OUVTQVorro K£cpQAmO rnc apeplKuvlJ<nc; poneelue; KOI, (fIJVEmi>e;, UKOAou90uaav TI1V ruxn rnc, 01 un6AolTtee; paKpoTIp69£0'J..Iee; 1{)IWTLKE<; £TTEVO'UOEU; xpnpctodotodvrcv ue EK600'n xpriJ.lOTOC;OTIO y Tpane(o me; IDJ.:6ooe; (1'TE). m To on, EO'TWKaj K08ucrtEpnJ.ltvo, n OIKOvopto EnovnA9E O'TOnpOTIOAEPIKO srnrreoo £1OO&rl~IOtOC;!'iTOVTIp60ooC;. H np600oe; (Junl 0I1Wf,;, rircv eu8pauOTIl KOt flo urropouce va 0vnorpcoet nrro Tlf,; lTOPOKOTWflq.l£AIWOEIC; (!Jvicoppomsc .

XAPTONOMIIMA

TWV5.000 6pmq.u.ilv, ue
xp.ovoJ,oy(o 1950. An610 },EUKWIlQ To XOPWVoJ1{o/1ora

me;

EM.66o(, A9r'iva,
1994,
0.

179.

01 'Cpan£{lKt~ KaTuOtlT£l~ KUI D xpnpaToo6mtJD. m~ oixovouias To xopuqmfo oUJlmwpmo 1:llt;suorncncc rtpoc
rn opa.x~ui nrnv 0 oTTo8noQuptapOe; xpuorov AIpwv KOI n onp09upio TOU 1<0lV0l1 va ernorps-

tLTOPIA

TOY NEOY EAAHNTL:MOY

PAtmtMA

AMnEAIOY.

H mocp(6a ).Ia~( IJE rev Karwo KOllO M61
ovnnooceneuov nEpIO'OQU:Po and 1:0 2/3 tWV OlNOAI.KWV E~aywywv TIle; xwpae;. H cpwroYPOCjl(o 5nlloOlEuETOI orov KO'ci}.OYO TIle; EK9EOT]<; napa500l0KE(
KaMtEPYfl€(.

A8r'iva, MouoElo Mr:tEVOKIl, 1978, ElK. 96.

62

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I H 01 KONOMIA
TTrO.

1949 - 1974

E~6)TEP1K£1,; CTVVQAAOytl,; KU~EpVn(Tn QVOKofvU)OE OTa O~lEp1Kav1K6 yrroopvato E~(A)tSptKwv on aouvQTOUO£ va aue~ OAOVexfqEI TIlV rrupoxri OIKOVOPIKiic; l1on6elOc;npoe; TnV EMaoo. 01 Auepucovot KQAOUVTOV va crrrot1rJp6uza OIKOvop.lKa ouotcouv TI Sa KOVOIJV evr6e; rrevre sP8oll6.Em OlOPKEIO 'tile; Tpl£Tlm; 1949-51, TO ONL60lo owv. H PpetO\llKTI j3onElelo 90 croucrouos one; OLKOVOI.llK6. CfuveXl~av va ~pioxovrm UTt6 31 Mcpttou "1947. H apepIKovlKr'i KlJpepVnon 01"1. n6 UlV nAEupd HJ.}VE~6ooov, 01 crtprruornA oVTE8paoe OKOpIOfo. rrl~ ] 2 Mcpnou, 0 npoKff'; 8on6.vE~ (ps rnv eupefn evvolO) Ecp9avov copoC; Truman eQiYVelAe 1:0 OPWVIJ110 «06V110» xovrd 01:0 50% TWV oonovwv "tou TOKTIKOV rrpoKOliO M6l0 10 KOYKpeOO Svtl<P1V€. TIl xoprivnunoAOYICfj.l0U KOl etxnv 8nl-1I0UPYl10EI Eva tem j3or'i8£loe; U4JOUc; 300 crxup6nMwo KEKUlI.uivoov oup<pep6VTwv, rrrpnEK. oOAopfu)v rtpoc m v TOOLKOOOTIWTU<WV KO] OLKOVOJlIKIJJV. Mem M~nTOU Ej.I!?MoSo. An6 aute, TO J 19 pnuumc <\luAiou, tBenKE (j.lE tOY rrnporpuvon TWV EKeK. OOMP10 errposerro vo EMn vlJni~ rrpcororrcov me; opepLKovlKIlC; KuIMpvnone;) SElla xpnmuorromaoov cuC; 10 oucovoufnc opoouKtie; rrEplKornjC; 'tWY oorrovwv mrroiv. LVKOVO~ll.Kr"iBon8ela,"(0 uvrouo 61-IWe;, 0 nOAEj.lOe; TIle; Kopeae; KO! n 6- otn~lL~6TUV n6Aomo ylo OTPOllWTl~uvoo tOU I.!JUXPOTTOAEJlIKOUKAfIlOTOe; oonynKOUc,; K01TOUI,;. O o'rnv onv 08 otporpri me; OIlEplKavIKI1C;HOAI'rlKl~j(;, IlQKUplOe;; 6YKOC;Tilt; apEplKOVlKrl "IaiUclOOvne; neplKonEI,; KOl 0 eMnvlK6e; rrpou0l1eP1KOVIKnc; j3on8eloc; ponOelO rrou nopEAol3e n EM660, nOAoYICf!J6e; ouvsxroe YO nWJl{~etUI TO p6poe; "IwvnoM u$nAwvmpmlwuKwvOOnOvcA>v. LTO TOI,;MenKE ~U~OooTOU CJXErrpoej3Aerre TIl xoprioxtAoe; TWV E~68wv, TO 6.Ma \1Ey6.Aa KOVOUAtO 810u Marshall. To O"X£OLO vnon nAouOIon6.poxne; OU)peov pOri8elOC;;at 16 IlTOV: 01 Bom.'ivee; vm "[Que;111090ue; reov Snuox61pel,; rnc Eupw1Tnc; YlO 1110nEpioBo recodporv otov unoMMwv (nou riTOV uev um:pdpl9pOl £TWV: 194B-52. To ~u~yeeoC;tnc cuapixovucric oM6. 6x!. .KoM Ql1etp6pEvOI) Kat 0\ ETTtBoniaw,; pongelae; 1TOUxopnvnanxe ornv EAMoo OLn rrpoc roue ovp6Te~ Kal TO s~aYWYIK6 sunopto, OU.'lPKBIOme; E~oetfac; 1947-52 nrov svrumoTo oKtAoe; TWV s068(1)v rimv EJ<.slvo nov O\QK6.To ouvoxixo rrood ritnv lleyoMTepo 0xWAOlve IolOf"(epa. 01 o6uvapfe~ rou ooposon6m.ouVOAQ 1:((1\1 ooveiuiv rrou elxe O1JV{H~EITO yu<ou j.lnxavlol10U (Kat KUp(U)~ OUTOUTIle; nusrn yeveari. TOU. 01 8e sone; cpopoMyfae;) Bev errsrpermv 0U"tS TIl cruA- sMnvLK6 Kpa'toe;an6 Trl.CJlEC; pote; touc (TTfvoKoe; 2) cvnrrpoocnrsuAOyrl Eno.pKou<;" 6YKOU ea68wv outa "[J1 8iKom KOTOVO!lr'iTu)V CPOPOAOYIKOOV j3apwv. EV'rOUTOI<;"/ TO T£A1K6 8np60"10 £MEIPI-IO tlTo\l1\oM pl.Kp6TEpa on6 Tn otOcpopa 8Qnovwv Kat eyxwplWv E0"68oov. To l.u:yoACrrepo ~LepOe; e; 8lOcpopd~ m 1 NAKAL 2 OUTll<; KaAU1IT6TOV orr6 rnv OPSP1KOVlKrl 13011To
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.-

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orro mv aiopori

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I,lEX{H TO 1969 xupc

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rvorov Il€:"(O~u 4,7% KaL6,1%.An6to 1970 KOI £vrEu8ev, n OVEPy{O ~lElw8nKE <p96ybvtOt; oe <<E;UPWlTO"lxou rurtou»

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OV, Km6 J.liao opo, K(t "[0

1949 - 1974
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~e TOUe; atJVOAAOYPOTlKOUt; rropouc rrou xpnJlmOOOTOucmv TO nAdmo "CWV €.IOoyw yWv. Xcopie; cumv, TO e)J.nVIKO AEn bey So rlTOV Suvo"C6va
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urtoertuoxdsnonc rrou urtrioxe OTIlV EMo VI Kn. UnQlapO oMd Kat UlV au~non rocornc rrqpOYWYU<:OTmoC; me; epvootoc 600 KOI 'rev mpejlj.lQllKcOV ono06oswv noll (m~LeLWSm(Qv. OjlWC;, 0 pu9fJ6C; au~uonc; 1'OU 0YP0nKOU TOIl£O rnuv xOIl nA61EpOe; orto 0U16v'[ou AETI KOI, we; £K Tom-au, TO IlSpfOl6 TOu aTO AEll jlELWeOXE orro TO 30% oro ] 6%. fTopd TOm-O. TO £IOLK6 f36poe; LOU roueo ornv eeVlfcrllTOpOYWYr'i, rnv OnOQXOAom) KOI nc; e~ayUlyte; S~OKOAOu90UQS va efVOlj.lSydAO os oUYKplon lle6MEe; eupwno'iK£C; xepec. Meow lWV eyve.)O~eATlw"(IKWV 'epyUl"V, n 8K"TOOnTOU KOMlepY01JIJSVO u soacpoue; au~n9nKs CiL-l'TO30 OE 35EKm. orpsuuoro I.l£"'[o~ 1952 Klill 1973. :IlopaAAnAQ, au~ti-enKOv 01 ap8e.u6~tev.e<:;EKTCOEle; OI TO 1973 K OVCI11POawrre:uav TO 24.4% rev
KOAAISPYOVIJEVWV.

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£KlluoMwau<; runv 35 otpejl~aTQ_. AUld egeTOv EpndOla OTIlV ou~an rue nopo YWYlK6urrac;. 8ethspov: n avoolop8pwon "'[WVKaMIEpye.IOOV oev etxe yfVE1.,OUlV crrorrocaevn
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68

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fA 1949 - 1974

I

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H OIKONOMIA

1949 - 1974

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IITOPIA TOY N OY EAI\HNIEMOY

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Metartoumxri plopnxavia
1953-1973

Em oeKQeda 1953-62, 011800e;
eu101@1S pu91l6r,; o,u~nonr,;mr,; pemrtomnsric nopoywyri<; riTaV 8,6%.!mv 1 I etto 1963-73 (rnv KaT' e~oxnv «v"ITOxr) me; ~lOIJnxov(ar,;»), 0 pu6p6r,; atr[6~ tcpeaoe 01'0 11,5%. TO jJep(OIO me; jJEtartoinonr,; 010 AEn au~l'ienKe orro TO J 1.6% 'to 1953 oro 21 % ,(0] 973. EvcUlTc:umoKee; O)J(OYEr,; f,Xo~ov xopo Kat am O'UvGecm tn~ plOl-lnxavlKrle; rropoymyur,;. To 1954, n TIOpOOOG10Kn «eAocppu» ~lolillxavlo uvnnpocerreue ro 62%tou ~lolmXaV1KQU np(j'i6vTQ_~ evw OI·KAOOOI 1:4>V K€CPOAOtOUXlKWVKOt eV81U~LEorov aya9wv (xnf.lIKO, jJ8T.OAAoupyfo. ,,), IJOAIC;'to 26%. To 1973 n 8lKOVO £fXE evncrooeei. H ~l~OPl6 ~mlillxa'\l(a» ejxe ovtl3el 01045% evw n «8Aaq>pO» -fiXe TIEOel 01:0 42%. 01 T[OPOltOvW £{c:Ai~elr,; Ol!Iv&tov:rav ue rnv TTOPC:IO "(ooV plollnxo VlKtOV £m:vouoerov, rrou CTO'£OxuvOnxov j.lE'IOTO 1960. H emtdxuven onorsxouoe rnv Kupla BKOMWon 1:ne;ernruxroc me; nOAITl KO<;rnc eKl3lOpnxaVlOD<;. I--I mpoqlrl npoc rn ,,~opt6 ~lol-rnxovfo>:> tYlve Kupfwe; uno TnV myroo TOU ~tvou KeqloAOiou. Tn 3/4 TWV~tvmy ETIBVOUOcWV Ko.lw9uv8nKuv 010 rrpelr,; KA6S01l<; vroane; Ke<poAafou: E XnPlK6 rrpoY6mo. ~OPHl

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KUPIO QTlJO~U1X(rVn n0.U oonyouoe TIlV dV000

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[949 -1974
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'Ooov aepopa 01'0 8n~1601Q OIKOVOIJl-K0,TO Ko8eOLWe; rcov OUVlOYJl010PXWV ouvxpdrnos TIe;;KO.TOvO)"WTIKee; am"ivtc; we; nO(JoOT6 TOU 5 AETI KOI emroxuve 'to pu8j.l6 au~nonc; T{&W 1l6CJ1wveTIeVOUOeWV ue pdMOV rrsvixpd orroTEAtopmu. Tin Eva bloomjJa, n eI(JObn~IOTIKr'i rroxrnKJi TOe;OU<LOTopioe; 0811ynoE O€ au~rioelC;; PIa8wv, TTOUOUJlPOOI~av 11£mv ou~nan TUe;;TIOpaycJ.lYIK6TDTO<;. :mv rtopsto 6pwc;:, n nOAITlKrl ! oxArlpuve. An6 TO 1969 J.I£XPITO 1973. t'1T1X£Ipri8nKE n ouvxpdtnon rorv ou~n(JEwv cov pl08wv Of TToao(J'[O a 108mo X0J.ln),,61epo OTTO TIC;; ou~nerEIC; rnc napaYWY1K61mac;. 01 npawoTlKEe;orrodoxsc auvtxl~av va oVepXOVTGI OAUl n 6vo06<; roue 5ev riruv nMo" TO Jl yl.'iAIl, 600

on-

o rE!lpnOI

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6EV n p6XapE va aOK~crE! OIKOVOI-UKr1O"llIK~. n
E~Ol'r(Q<; tile;

mwcrne; U)e; Kul3tpVl1ar1e; 1OU, tov IOUAIO!OU 1965.
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82

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H 01 KONOMIA 1949 - 1974
€nETpem: n cruvexl'6~levn roxeto ou~nrrn tnc rrcpcvcivixotntnc. H OlJv(:nEIO rirov n lJ£iwon TOU ,.H:PI010U ml) epyocrloe;; oro e8VIK6 £lcr68nj..IO KOI n cvneroixn ou~nrrn TaU I.U:,ploiou rmv KepMiv. To 1973 ul1l'\p~e 'to (:,,[0<; oro orrofo on~l£l(;)enKEn Kopucpwrrn '[wv rroooctov 1<£POOqJopfoe;;oxe06v ae 6AOUe;;roue rouetc 00p86.vOYAou-MnEMoe;;, 2(03). Lm vourcprrrornctrctucn ocpaipo 01 E~EAf~ele;;ntov OpaIJOnKon:pEc;;.:Em 810PKEI0 me 01xroroptc; 6PXlOE va KAOvi~E'tOI 0 avnrrAn8wP10UK6C;; npOaOVOTOAlUp6r; rnc vopLapmIKO.e;; nOAIt:lKrle;;. To Em 1966-67, an~leIW81l1<e em~p68uvan "[wv puelJwv av6mu~ne;; t nr; 011<0\10lJioe;;Kal Ileiwon tWV enevouaewv (KUplO, reov enevouoewv ae KOTolldee;;). lIap6.Mo),O, n EAEuan rnc 01Kt010pioe;;, 0 apa~O-lOpatlA lv6e;;rroAepOe;;106),10<; 967) xm OKI)TTPlOKrl kpkm (No( 1 EIJ~plOe;; 1967) rrpoxdxaouv oepaee;; avoAr'i4Jslf;; KaTO(:)tOEWV. H VOIJIOI.lOt:lKrl TtOAITIKr.l orpcenK£ npoe; ertextntucti KoteU9uvon: TO oprc TWV OT£YOatlKwV Sovekov au~r'i8rtKOV KOI zrrrtpdrmxe OTIC; Tpom:<ec; va xopnvotiv pe.aonp68E0110 86\1elO oe OLKOOO).lIK€e; £TTlXElpOOSIe;; Kd.lIJOKpolTp68Eapo OE TOUplO'TIKEC;. To 1968 11 OIKOvouto etxs opxfosr va ovcxnurrret, H OIKTOTOpfo 61lw~ Imlo1wKf va e~oo(poMaSI AO'iKn ovoxri Ileao orro 1.11 V emroxuvon TIll;' o,,6mu~u<;,. Fr' QUTO Kal ouvexros mv ETTE.KTOUKI'i 110AtnK11KOI aTO errousvc TEaO'epO, Xp6VLO. To orrQ"[EAeapo rimy n errrrdxuvon 'tOOV pu8pwv ovomll~n<;oA)'6 1<01 n lInep8sPl1QvO"Il T1W 01KOVOlJfo<;,. npaypou, TO S'toc,;1973 onon:Ae.i UlV xopuqxoon me llaKpa~ avanTu~laKn<; rropstcc TOC; e),)..11vlKI1<; OIKOVOllfo<;. I:u~ICP(dVO OllulC; fIE

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rou

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'COJlEO ,,[OUTOUPI0"IJOV

o£lPO epywv. UTTooollr'i«;;.Arro TO 1963 KOI p£:16,rn OK'U1QAI1 me; xpn].lQ1O'MTnenc; TO.V'[OUPIITPOI,) tnv rrripe o euplhepo<;, TpOTTE~n(6e; Olleae;. 01 T rnO'rwOEW lOU TSA€.UTOfou rrpoe; TOv KAMo au~nellKav onuo vtl1<Q om & 10pKElQ'[ne; oncrmopfoc;. nap6MnAQ, 9sorrf01nKO;V 1-1I0 osrpd orro mmWllKO KOl cpOPOAOytKO xtvntoc. rrouf:v86ppuvqvrnv em:K'tocrl1 1111;~evo.soxeIOKnc;; UfrOOOj.lOC;(ITCluMnouAor;, 1999, Keep. 1). AUT6 6vtwe; auvE~n Q).Ui.oST'1ynaeae unep.ol!VKEvrp.won moue; Ql1lloepli'leh':1:6noue; rrpoopiopou,

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1959.
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pou TIlV

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H 01 KONOMIA 1949 - 1974
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1949
195,0 195] 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958

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1959
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92

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TI/..iec; n OKOAOu8ool1£vn orro TIe; Kuj3epVrl<1EIC; "(oue; ,e9VU(lmlKn» (nationalistic) nOAIT\Xll. 'Orrwe; ovacpep9nKE KO! OTTIV £IO"oywyn, 'to TtAoe; me; npwmt; jJEtOTTOAEjJIKlit; rrEp16Bou ~pnxe tnv £AAIlV6K'tma VOUTLA(O OTI]\I rrporrn Sean 'me; nOYK601l1OC;vaunAiClKlic; iepupxloc. H OV01TTU~n TaU O'tOAOUrirov onO"CtAEo~IO rrov errrtuxnuevov orpcmvucov rrou ecpdp~looav 01 'EAAllVEt; E(1l0nA1CTTee;, orrolec 10Ue; srretpe01 WOVva a~lonouiaovvTQ IOloin:pa opvcvomxd K01 OLOlKOTtKo xnpuxrnpurrucd TWV ernxeipuoewv TOUt;, vanrroxmrrouv a VTOYWVIOllK6 nAeovexrnuo
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'Ouranla •. LuMoyr\ Prosperity Bay Shipping co.,

Ko8eOLwc;. 0 a.v, 89/67 rporronotrulnxe KOI snEKt08nK£ om ouvsxem ue 'tout; a. v. 378/1968, v.27/1975 Kat v.814/1978 KOl CTu~rm::pl£Aa~E KOI

Aouenoav n EAAnv6K'tnm vouuMa a.uveXl(J€ o\lamu~lOxrt 111t; rtocero KOl rrOpEj.l€1 OlOVE SEp6 OTrlV Kopuqnl. TIA Nm: 0EOTOKAl:

Emxetpricrelt; rrou mJVOEOVTOl J1ern VOUTl),LOKl1 UTI080j.Ui. H lcrxUC; TWV rtnporrdvoi voucov npoarOTEUE'tOI orro TO EUVToY).la TOU KpUTOUC;. Oi ernxetpries«; TOU o. v. 89/67 Kill 'rorv olO.cp6pwv Tponono111oerov TOU, £iva I urroxpewj1tvec; va er-

• B I SA lor
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oovouv otnv EAMoa tvo optouevo rroco auPh. D The Is, New School for octal Research, voM6WOTOe; vic 10 t~oOO AELTOupy(oe;nov ypo- [ 1979. (pefmv 'IOUe;KOl EIVO! ""CeAefw~noAAoVIl£VEC; 0- GeUna Harlaftis, Greek SlIipol!lIIersolld Greece, 1945o n6 ~opoAoyra eloo8flllolo~, ltAI1 Kat f:lmpopt<;: 1975, London, Athlone Press, 1993.
rtpoc TO 0.0116010
KOl

the case o{Greek shipping,

eAtyxouC;

cvrtoroixouc

€."[I'IIPI@V(l:rrap"[\wmc;, x.x.). To npOv0l11OK6 Ko8eCTTellc; Ael'IoupyfoC; nou 8n1-Houpvnoov QrrOTEAem:: xfvrrrpo vic eYKmamoan OtOV Jlsipctdonuovnsoc apl8110u eTIIXelprioseiv KQt crUV€~aASOUI Snpioupvlo evoc emxeipnpcuxou neplj36MoVToC; rrou evvoouos -C11 VOUTlAIOKn opoO"mpl6Tmo, OlOIX£lO.TTOU fie Tn OElpa tau 0\JVtj30A£ om onllLoupy(a opxstellv vewv emxeipriosrov. To 0\1"0},0 oxeoov teov aMooonwv VOUTlAIUKfi>vemxerprioerov'ncu A£:Iroupvouoov OlOV nElpOla1<0T6 Tn ol6pKEIa me; m:p1680u rirov e1arpi£c; 1'OUu.v. 89/67. H VOUTIAIQKI1 TTO}.I'tIKr1 TCilV eAAnvIK(,)V KU13epvooEwV, as OX£Oll pe TnV £Mnvllol cnucto KOI TO geOj.lIK6 n}\oI01o AE1Toupy[ac; T.WV emxeiprioeorv, rrnpzixs 'to rr)..ofolO Via mv 0810TWV avwvupwv TOPOKTlJ AEltO'upyia T(AlV VOUUA\OKWV emXEI-

I

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v6vlJ.lun KOl15101Knun "TOO" £Mnv6J<TIrcoov voirnAIOK")V emxsionceco , 1969-1990". OlooK"topuci 1:i1OtPI~r't, Fluvemornuro TInpQ1w<;. 1997. fu'ivvnii; ElE01:0K{II;,T(;. XapAmhn, Eurro'plw ..&1,111111Kt~ 1I(JU11.<11C1.Kt, £:1TIXlSI(Jlio"f.lr 1945-2000. Opyal'W01J. %(KnUI7 «at OTpamYI/(ir, Af)dva, E!\lA, 2004.

I

M.a. A{i)ii;,nopefa

npo; mil KOPUcpl!. H ItemTTOAt~/lII(li IIC/uTL1ia Utll' &1JlliIlWII, ] 945-2000, AIl!'lva. £K0601:'1<; AKprta~, 2000.

B. Metaxas, Tile Economics ofTrall!fJ Shipping. London, The Atholone Press, 1971.

r. E. I:TIQPUWUl~,
n£lpOld~,

aun,,1ta/({~ E"(Wpeftr A.N.89/67,

94

pi'io£UJv. Bcotcrnxc ornv apXJ'i me un TfOpelll3oon<; TOU KPO,OUC; ern "aunAro, n anoia, 6nwc; tXEI eK'tIpn9er (Car ounis, 1979, a. 197), AE.t10upynoe we;rrpotrrtoflsort Via m v eK~let6A-

£K86o£l<; LtOllpI86.Kn,

r~EAivo XapAOt.hn, ia:ropi'a e.,Unl!6kl1lTlJ{, Nail' n;tfar. 190~·-206rO/., Af)dva £K86o: a; NCQl£An, 200] .

mr

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