1

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION

OF INDIA

PRE AMB LE

WE, TH E PEOP LE OF I ND I A, havin g so le mnl y r es ol ve d to c ons titu te Indi a into a SOV E RE I GN SO CI ALI ST SEC U LAR D EMO CR ATI C R EP UB LI C and to se cu re to al l its c iti ze ns : JU S TI CE , soc ia l, ec ono mic and politi ca l; LIB ERTY of thought, e xp re ss ion, be lie f, fa it h a nd wo rs hip; EQ U ALI TY o f s ta tus and o f opportun it y; a nd to pro mo te a mo ng th e m all FR ATER NI TY as su rin g the di gni t y of th e individu al and th e uni t y a nd int e gr it y o f th e N at ion; IN OU R C ON S TI TU EN T ASS EMB LY th is t we nt y- s ixth d a y o f No ve mbe r, 1949, do H ERE BY AD OP T, EN AC T AN D GI V E TO O UR SE LV ES TH IS C ON S TI TU TI ON .

2

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I THE UNION AND

ITS TERRITORY
1. N a me and te rr it or y of t he U ni on. —(1 ) India , tha t i s Bha ra t, sh all be a Un ion of St at es . (2) Th e St at es a nd th e te rr itor ie s the re o f sh al l b e a s sp ec i fi e d in the Fi rs t S che dule . (3) Th e t er rito r y of Ind ia sh al l co mp ri se — (a) the te rr ito rie s o f the St at es ; (b) the Union t er rito ri es s pe ci fie d in th e Fir st Sch edu le ; a nd (c ) su ch othe r te rri tor ie s as m a y b e a cqu ir ed. 2. A d mi s si on or e st abli s h me nt of new S tate s . —P ar lia men t ma y b y la w a d mi t into the Un ion, or e st ab lis h, ne w St at es on su ch te r ms and condi tion s a s it thin ks fi t. 2A. [Si kk im to be a sso cia ted with the U nion.] Re p. by the Con st itut ion (Th ir ty - si xth Am end men t) Ac t, 1975, s. 5 ( w. e. f. 26- 4-1975). 3. F or mati on of new S tate s and alt er ati on of are as , boundar i es or na me s of ex is ti ng St at e s. —P ar lia men t ma y b y la w— (a) fo r m a ne w St at e b y s ep ar at ion of t er ri tor y fr o m an y St at e or b y unit ing t wo or mor e Sta te s or pa rt s of St at es or b y unit ing an y te rr itor y to a pa rt of a n y Sta te ; (b) inc re as e th e ar ea of a n y Sta te ; (c ) di mini sh the a re a o f an y St at e; (d) alt er th e bounda rie s o f an y St at e; (e ) a lte r the n a me of an y Sta te : P rovid ed th at no B ill fo r th e purpo se sha ll be int roduc ed in ei the r Hou se o f P arli a men t e xce pt on th e r ec o mme nda tion of the Pr es iden t and unle ss , wh er e th e propos al con ta ined in the Bi ll a ffe ct s th e a re a , boundar ie s or n a me of an y of the Sta te s, th e Bil l has be en re fe rr e d b y the P re sid ent to the Le gis la tu re of th at St at e for e xp re ss in g its vi e ws the re on wit hin su ch p eriod as ma y b e spe ci fi ed in the re fe re nc e or wit hin su ch fur th er per iod a s th e Pr es iden t m a y a llo w and the pe riod so sp ec i fi ed or al lo wed ha s expi re d. Exp lanation I. —In thi s ar ti cl e, in c la us es (a ) to (e ) , “ St at e’’ inc lude s a Un ion t er rito r y, but in the provis o, “ St at e’’ doe s not in clud e a Union t er ri tor y. Exp lanation II. — Th e po wer con fer r ed on P arl ia me nt b y cl aus e (a) in clud es the powe r to for m a ne w Sta te or Un ion te rr ito r y b y unitin g a pa rt o f an y St at e or Union te rr ito r y to an y oth er St at e or Union te rr ito r y. 4. Law s ma de unde r art ic le s 2 and 3 t o provi de f or t he a me nd me nt of t he Fir st and t he F ourt h S che dul es and s uppl e me nt al, inc i de nt al and c ons e que nti al mat te r s. —(1 ) An y l a w r e fer re d to in ar ti cl e 2 or ar ti cl e 3 sh al l cont ain su ch provis ion s for the a me nd men t of th e Fir st Sch edu le and th e Fourth Sch edu le a s ma y be nec e ss a r y to gi ve e ffe ct to the pro vi si ons o f th e l a w and ma y al so con ta in su ch supp le me nt al , inc ide nta l a nd 2

con sequ en tia l provis ion s (inc ludin g provis ion s as to r ep re se nt ation in P arli a me nt a nd in the Le gi sl at ur e or Le gi sl at ur es of the St at e or Sta te s a ffe ct e d b y suc h l a w) as P arli a men t ma y dee m ne ce s s ar y. (2) No su ch l a w as a fo re s ai d sha ll be de e med to be an a me nd men t o f thi s Con st itut ion fo r the purpos e s of ar tic le 368.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART II CITIZENSHIP

5. C it iz e ns hi p at t he c o mme nc e me nt of t he Cons ti t ut i on. — At th e c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution , e ve r y per so n wh o ha s his do mi ci le in th e te rr itor y o f Indi a and — (a) wh o wa s born in th e t er ri tor y o f Indi a; or (b) eith er o f who se par ent s wa s born in th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia ; or (c ) who ha s bee n ord ina ri l y re sid ent in the t er rito r y of Ind ia for not l es s tha n fi ve ye ar s i m med ia te l y pre c edin g su ch co m men c e men t, sh al l be a ci tiz en o f Indi a. 6. R ig ht s of ci ti ze ns hi p of ce r t ai n pe r s ons w ho have mi g r at e d t o I ndi a f ro m Pa kis t an. — Not wit hs tand ing an yt hin g in a rt ic le 5, a p er son who h as mi gr at ed to the t er ri tor y of Indi a fr o m the te rr itor y now in clud ed in P a ki st an sha ll be de e med to be a ci ti ze n o f Indi a at th e co mme n ce men t o f thi s Cons ti tution i f— (a) he or e ith er o f his pa re nt s or an y o f hi s gr andp ar ent s wa s born in Ind ia a s de fine d in the Go ver n men t o f Indi a Ac t, 1935 ( as or igin al l y e na ct ed ); an d (b) (i) in th e c a se wh e re such pe rs on h as so mi gra te d be fo re th e nin et ee nth d a y of Ju l y, 1948, he ha s be en ord ina ri l y r es ide nt in th e t er ri tor y of Indi a sin ce th e dat e of hi s mi gr a tion , or (i i) in the ca s e wh er e su ch per son ha s so mi gr at ed on or a ft er th e nin et ee nth d a y of Ju l y, 1948, he ha s be en r e gi st er e d as a c it iz en o f Indi a b y an offic e r appo inte d in tha t beha l f b y the Go ve rn me nt o f the Do mi nion of Ind ia on an appli ca ti on ma d e b y hi m the re for to su ch o ffi c er be fo re th e co mme n ce men t o f thi s Cons titu tion in th e fo r m and ma nn er pr es c rib ed b y th at Go ve rn me nt : P rovided th at no pe rson sh al l be so r e gi st er e d unl es s he ha s bee n r es id ent in th e t er ri tor y o f Indi a for at le as t s ix mon ths i mme di at el y pr ec e ding the da te o f his app lic at ion. 7. R ig ht s of ci ti ze ns hi p of ce r t ai n mi g r ant s t o Pa kis t an. — No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in ar ti cl es 5 and 6, a pe rson wh o ha s a fte r the fi rs t da y o f Ma rch , 1947, mi gra te d fro m the t er rito r y of India to the t er ri tor y no w inc lude d in P akis tan sh al l not be de e med to be a c iti ze n of Ind ia : P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll a ppl y to a pe rson wh o, a ft er h aving so mi gr at e d to the te rr itor y no w in clud ed in P a ki st an, h as re turn ed to th e t er rito r y o f India unde r a p er mit fo r re se tt le me nt or pe r man ent re turn i ssu ed b y or unde r the au thori t y of a n y la w and eve r y su ch per son sha ll for th e purpo se s o f cl au se ( b) o f a rt ic le 6 be de e med to ha ve mi gr at ed to the t er ri tor y of Indi a a ft er the nine te en th d a y of J ul y, 1948. 4

8. R ig ht s of ci ti ze ns hi p of ce r t ai n pe rs ons of I ndi an or igi n res i di ng out si de I ndi a. — No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in a rt ic le 5, a n y p er son wh o or e ith er o f who se p ar ent s or a n y o f who se gr andp ar en ts wa s born in Indi a as d e fi ned in the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a Ac t , 1935 (a s or igina ll y e na ct ed ), and wh o is ordin ar il y re si din g in a n y count r y outsid e Ind ia a s so de fi ne d sh al l be dee me d to be a cit iz en o f Indi a if he has b een r e gi st er ed a s a ci ti ze n o f Indi a b y th e diplo mat ic or c onsu la r rep re se nt at ive o f India in the count r y wh er e he i s fo r the ti me bein g r es idin g on a n a ppli ca tion mad e b y hi m the re for to suc h diplo ma ti c or consu la r r ep re se nt ati ve, wh e the r b e fo re or a fte r the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Con st itut ion, in th e for m and ma nn er pre sc ri bed b y the Go ver n men t o f th e Do mi nion of Ind ia or th e Go ver n men t o f Ind ia . 9. P er s ons vol unt ar ily ac quir i ng c it iz e ns hi p of a fore ig n St at e not t o be c iti ze ns .— No p er son sh al l be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia b y vir tu e o f a rt ic le 5, or be de e med to be a ci ti ze n o f Ind ia b y vir tu e of a rt ic le 6 or a rt ic le 8, i f h e h as vo lunt ar il y ac qui re d th e ci tiz en ship o f an y for ei gn St at e. 10. Cont i nuanc e of t he r ight s of ci tiz e ns hi p. —E ve r y pe rson wh o is or i s de e med to be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia under an y o f th e for e going pro vi sion s o f thi s P ar t sh al l, subj ec t to the pro vi si ons of an y la w th at ma y be ma d e b y P ar lia men t, cont inue to be suc h c it iz en. 11. P ar li a me nt to reg ul ate the r ig ht of c it iz e ns hi p by l aw. —No thin g in th e fo re goin g provis ion s of th is P art sh al l d ero ga t e fro m the po wer o f P ar lia men t to ma ke an y provis ion wit h r es pe ct to the a cqu is ition and t er mi na tion of c it iz en ship and al l othe r m at te r s re la tin g to ci tiz en ship .

5

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

6

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART III FUNDAMENTAL

RIGHTS
G en er al 12. De fi nit ion. —In this P art, unl es s the c ont ext oth er wi se r equi re s, “th e St at e ’’ inc lude s the Go ver n men t a nd P ar lia men t o f Indi a and the Go ver n men t a nd th e Le gi sl at ur e of e a ch of the St at es a nd a ll lo ca l or oth er a uthor iti es wi thin th e t er ri tor y o f Indi a or und er th e con tro l of th e Go ver n men t o f Indi a. 13. Law s i nc onsi st e nt w ith or i n de rog at i on of t he f unda me nt al r ig ht s. — (1) Al l l a ws in fo rc e in th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia i mme di at el y be for e th e co m men c e me nt o f this Cons titu tion, in so fa r as the y ar e incon si st ent wi th th e pro vi si ons o f this P art, sha ll, to the exte nt of suc h inc ons is ten c y, b e void. (2) Th e St at e sha ll not ma ke an y l a w wh ic h t ake s a wa y or a br idges the r ights con fer r ed b y thi s P ar t and a n y l a w mad e in cont ra ven tion o f this c la us e sha ll , to the e xte nt of th e cont ra ven tion, be void. (3) In this a rt ic le , unle ss th e cont ext oth er wis e r equi re s, — (a) “ la w” in clud es an y O rdin an ce , ord er, b ye- l a w, ru le , re gula tion , noti fi ca tion , c us to m or us age h avin g in th e te rr itor y o f Indi a the for c e o f l a w; (b) “l a ws in fo rc e ” in clud es l a ws pa ss ed or mad e b y a Le gi sl at ur e or oth er co mpe t ent au thor it y in th e te rr itor y o f Indi a be for e the c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion and not pr eviou sl y r epe al ed , not with st and ing th at an y su ch la w or an y par t the reo f ma y not be th en in op er ation e ith er a t a ll or in p ar tic ula r ar e as . (4 ) No thing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll appl y to an y a me nd me nt o f this Con st itut ion ma d e unde r a rt ic le 368. Righ t to Equal ity 14. E quali ty bef ore law. — Th e Sta te sh al l not den y to an y pe rs on e qua lit y be fo re the la w or the e qua l prot ec tio n of the la ws wit hin th e t er ri tor y of Indi a. 15. Prohi bi ti on of di s cr i mi nati on on grounds of re lig ion, r ac e, cast e , s ex or pl ac e of bi rt h. —(1 ) Th e Sta te sha ll not dis cr i mi na te a ga in st an y c it iz en on ground s onl y o f re li gi on, ra ce , ca s te , se x, pla ce o f bi rth or a n y o f th e m. (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l, on gr ounds onl y of r el igion, r ac e , c as te , s e x, pla ce o f bir th or an y o f th e m, be subje ct to an y di sa bil it y, li abi lit y, re st ri ct ion or c ondit ion wi th re gar d to— (a) a cc e ss to shop s, public re st au ran ts , hote ls and pl ac e s o f public e nte rt ai n ment ; or (b) th e us e o f we l ls , t anks, bath ing gh at s, road s a nd pla ce s of publi c 6 r es or t ma in ta ined wh oll y or pa rt l y out o f St at e fund s or dedi ca te d to th e

use o f th e ge ne ra l public . (3 ) Nothin g in this a rt ic le sha ll pre vent the Sta te fro m ma ki ng an y spe ci al provis ion fo r wo me n and chi ldr en. (4) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e or in c lau se (2) of ar ti cl e 29 sh all pr eve nt the St at e fr o m ma kin g an y s pe ci al provis ion for th e ad va nc e me nt of an y so ci al l y a nd edu ca tion al l y ba c kwa rd c la ss e s of ci ti ze ns or fo r the S che dule d C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es . 16. E qual ity of oppor t unit y in mat t e rs of pu bl ic e mpl oy me nt . — (1) The r e sh all be equ al it y o f opportun it y fo r a ll ci tiz en s in m at te r s re la tin g to e mpl o yme nt or a ppoint me nt to a n y offic e und er the St at e. (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l, on gr ounds onl y of r el igion, r ac e , c as te , s e x, d es ce nt, pl ac e of birth , r es id enc e or an y of the m, be in eli gi bl e fo r, or di sc ri mi na ted a gain st in re sp ec t of, an y e mpl o yme nt or o ffi c e unde r th e St at e. (3) Nothin g in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt P ar lia me nt fro m ma ki ng an y la w pr es cr ib ing, in r ega rd to a c la ss or c la ss e s of e mp lo ymen t or appoin t men t to a n offi ce unde r th e Go ve rn me nt of, or a n y loc al or oth er a utho rit y wi thin , a S ta te or Union te rr itor y, an y re quir e me nt a s to re sid en ce wit hin th at St at e or U nion te rr itor y pr ior to s uch e mpl o yme nt or appo int me nt. (4) Nothin g in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt th e St at e fr o m ma kin g a n y pro vi si on fo r the r es e r va ti on of appo int men ts or pos ts in fa vou r o f a n y b ac kwa rd cl as s o f c iti ze ns whi c h, in th e opin ion o f th e S ta te , i s not a dequ at el y r ep re se nt ed in th e se rvi ce s unde r the St at e. (4 A) Noth ing in thi s a rt ic le s ha ll pre ven t th e Sta te fr o m m a ki ng an y pro vi si on for re se r vat ion in ma tt e rs o f pro mot ion, wit h c ons eque nti al s en iori t y, to an y c la ss or c la s se s of pos ts in the s er vic e s under the St at e in fa vou r of th e Sch edul ed C as te s and th e S chedu le d Tr ib es whi ch , in the opinion of the Sta te , a re not ad equ at el y rep re s ent ed in th e s er vic e s und er th e Sta te . (4B ) No thing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll pre vent the Sta te fro m c ons ide rin g a n y un fi ll ed vac a nc ie s of a ye a r whi ch ar e r es er ve d for bein g fil le d up in th at ye ar in a c co rdan ce wi th an y provis ion for r es er va tion m ad e under cl aus e (4 ) or c la us e (4 A) as a s ep ar at e c la ss of va c an ci es to be fil le d up in an y su cc e ed ing ye a r or ye a r s and suc h c la s s of va c an ci es sha ll not be c ons ide re d toget he r wi th th e va ca nc ie s of the ye a r in wh ic h th e y a re be ing fi ll ed up for d ete r min ing th e ce il ing o f fi ft y p er ce nt. r es er va tion on tot al nu mbe r of va c an ci es o f th at ye a r. (5) Nothin g in this ar ti cl e sh al l a ffe c t th e ope ra tion o f an y l a w wh i ch pro vi de s th at th e in cu mb en t o f a n offi ce in conn ec ti on wit h the a ffai rs o f a n y re li gi ous o r deno min at iona l in sti tution or an y me mb er of th e go ver ning bod y the re o f sha ll be a pe rs on pro fe ss in g a pa rti cul ar r el igion or belon gi ng to a pa rti cul ar d eno mi na tion.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

17. A boli ti on of U nt ouc habi li ty. —“ Un touch abi lit y’’ is a boli she d a nd i ts pra ct ic e in an y for m i s for bidd en. Th e en for ce men t o f an y di sa bil it y a ri sin g out of “U ntou ch abil it y’’ s ha ll be an o ffen ce punish abl e in a c co rdan ce with l a w. 18. A boli ti on of ti tle s. —(1 ) No t itl e, not bein g a mil it ar y or ac ad e mic di stin ct ion, sh all be con fe rr ed b y the St at e. (2) No ci ti ze n o f Ind ia sh al l a c ce pt an y ti tle fr o m an y fo re i gn St at e. (3) No pe rson wh o i s not a c it iz en o f India sh al l, whi le he hold s an y o ffi c e of pro fi t or t rus t unde r th e Sta te , a c ce pt wi thou t the cons en t of th e P re sid ent an y ti tl e fro m an y fo r ei gn St at e. (4) No pe rson holdin g an y o ffi c e of pro fi t or t rus t und er the St at e sh al l, wi thout th e cons en t o f th e P re sid ent , a c ce pt an y pr es en t, e mo lu me nt, or o ffi c e o f an y ki nd fro m or und er an y for ei gn St at e. Right to Free dom 19. P rote c ti on of c er t ai n rig hts reg ar di ng f re e do m of s pe ec h, e tc .— (1 ) Al l ci ti ze ns sh al l h ave th e r ight — (a) to fr ee do m o f sp ee c h a nd e xpr es si on; (b) to as s e mbl e pe ac e abl y a nd wi thou t a r ms; (c ) to fo r m as s oc ia tion s or union s; (d) to mo ve fre e l y throu ghou t th e te rr itor y o f Indi a; (e ) to re si de and s et tl e in an y p art o f the t er rito r y of India ; and * * * * * (g) to pra ct is e an y pro fe ss ion , or to c ar r y on a n y oc cupa tion , tr ade or bus ine ss . (2) Nothin g in sub- cl au se (a) of cl au se (1) sha ll a ffe c t th e ope ra tion of a n y e xi st ing l a w, or pr e ve nt th e St at e fr o m ma kin g an y l a w, in so far a s su ch l a w i mp os es re a son abl e r es tr ic tion s on the exe rc is e of th e ri gh t c on fe rr e d b y the s aid sub -c la us e in th e inte re st s o f the so ver ei gnt y and int e gr it y o f Indi a, th e s e cu rit y o f the St at e, fr ie ndl y r el at ions wit h fo re i gn St at es , publ ic orde r, d ec en c y or mo r al it y, or in r el at ion to con te mpt of c ourt , d e fa mat ion or inc ite me nt to an offe nc e. (3) No thing in sub -c la us e ( b) of th e sa id cl aus e sh al l a ffe c t the op er ation o f an y e xi st in g la w in s o fa r a s it i mp os es , or pr e ve nt th e St at e fr o m ma ki ng a n y la w i mpo sin g, in the int er e st s of the so ve r ei gn t y and inte gri t y o f Indi a or public ord er, re as onab le r es tr ic tion s on the e xer c is e o f the ri gh t c on fe rr e d b y the s aid sub -c la us e. (4) No thing in sub -c la us e ( c ) of th e sa id cl aus e sh al l a ffe c t the op er ation o f an y e xi st in g la w in s o fa r a s it i mp os es , or pr e ve nt th e St at e fr o m ma ki ng a n y la w i mpo sin g, in the int er e st s of the so ve r ei gn t y and inte gri t y o f India or publi c ord er or mor a li t y, r ea s onab le re st ri ct ions on th e e xer ci s e

8

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of the ri gh t c on fe rr e d b y th e sa id sub- cl au se . (5) Nothin g in sub- cl au se s ( d) and ( e ) o f th e s aid cl aus e sha ll a ffe c t th e op er ation of an y exis ti ng la w in s o fa r a s i t i mp os es , or pr e ve nt th e St at e fr o m ma kin g an y l a w i mpo sin g, re a son abl e r es tr ic tion s on the exe rc is e of a n y of th e ri gh ts con fer re d b y th e sa id s ub- cl aus es e ith er in the inte re st s of th e ge ne ra l publi c or for the prot ec tion o f the int er e st s of an y Sch edul ed Tr ib e. (6) No thing in sub -c la us e ( g) of th e sa id cl aus e sh al l a ffe c t the op er ation o f an y e xi st in g la w in s o fa r a s it i mp os es , or pr e ve nt th e St at e fr o m ma ki ng an y la w i mpos ing, in th e int er e st s o f the ge ne ra l publi c, re as ona ble r es tr ic tion s on the e xe r ci se o f th e ri gh t con fe rr ed b y th e s ai d sub- cl au se , a nd, in pa rt icu la r, noth ing in the sa id sub -c la us e s ha ll a ffe c t th e ope ra tion o f an y e xi st in g l a w in so fa r as it r el at e s to, or pre ven t the Sta te fro m ma ki ng a n y la w re la tin g to,— ( i) the pro fe ss ion al or te chn ic al qual i fi ca ti ons n ec es s ar y for pr ac ti sin g an y pro fe ss ion or ca rr yin g on a n y o ccup at ion, tr ade or bus ine ss , or ( ii) th e c ar r yi ng on b y th e Sta te , or b y a corpo ra tion o wn ed or c ontro ll ed b y the St at e, o f an y tr ad e, busin es s , indust r y or se rvi ce , wh et he r to th e e xcl us ion, co mpl et e or par tia l, o f ci ti ze ns or othe r wi s e. 20. Prot e ct ion i n re s pec t of c onvi ct i on for off e nc e s. —(1 ) No p er son sh al l be convic t ed o f an y o ffen ce e xc e pt for vi ol at ion of a la w in for c e a t th e ti me o f th e co m mi ss ion o f the Ac t ch arge d as an offe nc e, nor be sub je ct ed to a pena lt y gre a te r th an th at whi ch mi ght ha ve bee n in fli ct ed und er the l a w in fo rc e a t the ti me of th e co mmi s si on o f th e o ffen ce . (2) No pe rson sha ll b e pros e cut ed a nd punish ed for th e s a me offe nc e mo re than onc e. (3) No pe rson ac cu se d o f a n y offe nc e sha ll b e co mpe ll ed to be a witn es s a gai ns t hi ms el f. 21. Prot e ct ion of lif e and per s onal li be rt y.— No per son s ha ll be d epri ved of his li fe or pe rson al lib er t y exc ep t ac co rdin g to pro ce dur e e st ab lis hed b y la w. 1 22. Prot e ct ion ag ai ns t arres t and det e nti on in ce rt ai n c ase s . —(1 ) No p er son wh o i s ar re st ed sh al l b e d et ain ed in cu stod y wi thou t b eing infor me d, a s soon as ma y be, of the gr ounds for such a rr es t nor sha ll he be den ied th e r ight to c onsu lt, and to b e d e fe nde d b y, a l ega l pra ct it ione r of hi s choi ce . (2) E ve r y pe rson who i s a rr e st ed and det ai ned in cus tod y sha ll be produ ce d be fo re th e nea re s t ma gis tr at e wi thin a pe riod of t we nt y- fou r hours o f su ch ar re st e xcl udin g the ti me nec e ss a r y fo r th e journe y fr o m the pla ce o f ar re st to the cour t o f th e ma gi st ra te and no s uch per son sh al l be det ain ed in cu stod y be yond th e sa id per iod wi thou t th e autho rit y o f a ma gi st ra te . (3) No thing in c la us es (1 ) and (2) sh all app l y—

9

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

_______________________________________________

1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( a) to an y p er son who for th e ti me b eing i s an

e ne m y a lie n; or ( b) to an y pe rson wh o is ar re st ed or det ai ned under an y l a w pro vi ding fo r pre ven ti ve det ent ion. (4) No la w provid ing for pre vent ive d ete ntion sh al l a uthor is e the d ete ntion o f a pe rson fo r a lon ge r pe riod than th re e month s unle ss — ( a) an Ad vis or y Boa rd con si st ing o f pe rson s who ar e, or ha ve be en, or ar e qu ali fie d to be appoin ted as , Jud ge s of a Hi gh Cou rt h as repo rt ed b e fo re th e e xpir at ion of th e sa id per iod of th re e mon ths tha t the re i s in it s opinion su ffi c ie nt ca us e for su ch de ten tion: P ro vide d th at nothin g in this sub -c la us e sha ll au thor is e the de ten tion o f an y pe rs on be yond the ma xi mu m per iod pr es cr ib ed b y an y la w ma de b y P arli a men t unde r sub -c la us e (b) o f cl au se (7 ); or ( b) such pe rs on i s det ain ed in a c co rdan ce with th e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e b y P ar lia men t und er sub -c lau se s ( a) and (b) o f cl au se (7 ). (5) Whe n an y per son i s de ta ined in pursu an ce of an orde r ma d e und er a n y la w pro vi d in g for pr eve nti ve d ete ntion , the autho rit y ma kin g th e ord er sh al l, a s soon as ma y be, c o mmun ic at e to such per son th e ground s on whi ch th e ord er has be en ma de and sha ll a ffor d hi m th e ea rl ie st opportun it y o f ma ki ng a r ep re se nt at ion a gai ns t th e orde r. (6) No thing in c la us e (5) sh al l r equi re th e autho rit y ma ki ng an y suc h ord er as is re fe rr ed to in tha t c lau se to di sc los e fa c ts whi ch suc h autho ri t y c ons ide rs to be a ga in st the publi c int er es t to di sc los e. (7) P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w pre sc ri be — ( a) the ci rc u mst an ce s unde r wh ic h, and the c la ss or c la s se s o f c as e s in wh ic h, a per son ma y be d eta ine d fo r a pe riod longer than thr ee mo nths unde r an y la w pro vid ing fo r pre ven tive det en tion wi thout obt ain ing the opinion o f a n Ad vis or y Boa rd in a c co rdan ce wi th th e pro vi si ons o f sub- cl au se ( a) of c la us e (4) ; ( b) th e ma xi mu m pe riod fo r whi c h an y p er son ma y in an y c la s s or c la ss e s o f ca s es be det ain ed unde r a n y la w providin g fo r pr eve nti ve d ete ntion ; a nd ( c ) the proc edu re to be fo ll o wed b y an Ad vi so r y Boa rd in an inqui r y und er sub- cl au se ( a) of c la us e (4) . Right again st Exp loita tion 23. Prohi bit i on of tr aff ic i n hu man be i ng s and f orc e d l abour. —(1 ) Tr a ffi c in hu ma n be ings and b egar and oth er s i mil ar fo r ms o f for c ed labou r a re prohib it ed and an y con tr a ve ntion of thi s pro vi sion sha ll b e an o ffen ce puni sha ble in ac c ord anc e wi th la w. (2) Nothin g in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt th e St at e fr o m i mpo sin g c o mpu lso r y s er vic e fo r public purpos es , a nd in i mp os ing suc h se r vi c e th e

11

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Sta te sh al l not ma ke an y dis cr i min at ion on gr ounds onl y of

r el igion, r ac e, c as t e or cl as s or an y of the m. 24. P rohi bi ti on of e mpl oy me nt of c hil dre n in fact or ie s, e tc . — No chi ld b elo w th e age o f fou rte en ye ar s sh al l be e mp lo ye d to wor k in a n y fa c to r y or mi ne or en ga ge d in a n y oth er h az ar dous e mplo yme nt . Righ t to F re edo m of R el igion 25. F re e do m of c ons c ie nc e and free prof es si on, pr act ic e and propag ati on of rel igion. — (1) Subje ct to public orde r, mo r al it y and he al th a nd to the oth er pro vi sion s of this P art , a ll pe rs ons ar e equ al l y ent itl ed to fr e edo m o f cons ci en ce and the r ight fr e el y to pro fe ss , pr ac ti se and prop a ga te re li gion . (2) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll a ffe c t the ope ra tion of an y e xi st ing l a w or pr eve nt the St at e fro m ma kin g an y l a w— ( a) r egul at ing or r es tr ic tin g a n y ec ono mic , fi nan ci al , poli tic al or oth er s ec ul ar a ct ivit y wh ic h ma y b e a ss oc ia te d with r el igious pr ac ti c e; ( b) pro vid ing fo r soc ia l we l fa r e a nd re for m or the thro win g op en of H indu re ligiou s ins titu tions o f a publi c cha ra c te r to al l c la ss e s and s ec ti ons o f Hindu s. Exp lanation I. —The we ar in g and ca rr yin g o f ki rpan s sha ll be de e med to b e in clud ed in th e pro fe s si on o f th e Si kh r el igion. Exp lanation II. —In sub- cl au se (b) of cl au se (2) , the re fe re nc e to Hindu s sh al l be cons tru ed as includ ing a re fe re nc e to per son s pro fe s sin g th e S ikh, J ai na or Buddhi st re li gi on, and the re fe r en ce to H indu r el igiou s in st itut ions sh al l be cons tru ed ac c ordin gl y. 26. F re e do m t o man ag e relig ious aff air s .— Subje ct to publi c orde r, mo ra li t y and he alth , e ver y re li gi ous deno min at ion or a n y se ct ion the reo f sh al l have th e ri ght — ( a) to e st abl ish and ma i nta in ins titu tions for re li giou s and ch ar ita bl e purpo se s; ( b) to ma na ge i ts o wn a ffai r s in m at te r s of re li gion ; ( c ) to o wn and a cqui re mo vab le a nd i m mo va ble prop er t y; and ( d) to ad mi nis te r su ch prope rt y in ac co rda nc e wit h l a w. 27. Free do m as t o pay me nt of t ax e s f or pro moti on of any par ti c ul ar rel igion.— No pe rs on s ha ll be co mp e ll ed to p a y a n y ta xe s , the proc e ed s of whi c h a re spe ci fi ca ll y a pprop ri at ed in pa yme nt o f e xp en se s fo r th e pro mot ion or ma i nt ena nc e o f an y pa rt icu la r r el igion or r el igiou s d eno mi na tion. 28. F re e do m as to at te nda nc e at re ligi ous i ns t r uct ion or re ligi ous w or s hi p i n c e rt ai n e duc ati onal inst it uti ons .— (1 ) No r el igiou s in stru ct ion

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA sh al l be provide d in any edu ca tion al in sti tution who ll y ma i nt ain ed out o f St at e fu nds . (2) Nothin g in cl au se (1) s ha ll a ppl y to a n edu ca tion al inst itut ion whi ch i s ad min is te re d b y the Sta te but ha s be en e st ab li she d unde r an y e ndo wme nt or tru st whi ch r equi re s tha t re ligiou s ins tru ction sh al l be i mp ar te d in su ch in sti tution . (3) No pe rson at tend ing an y educ at iona l in sti tution re co gn is ed b y th e St at e or re ce i vi ng aid out of St at e fund s sh al l be r equ ir ed to t ake par t in a n y r el igiou s inst ruc tion th at ma y be i mp ar te d in su ch ins titu tion or to a tt end an y re li gi ous wor sh ip th at ma y be condu ct ed in such in sti tution or in a n y pr e mi se s a tt ac hed th er eto unl es s suc h p er son or, if suc h p er son i s a mi nor, hi s gu ard ia n h as gi ve n hi s cons en t th er eto . Cu ltur al and Educ ationa l Righ ts 29. P rote c ti on of i nt ere st s of mi nor it ie s. — (1) An y se c tion o f the c it iz en s r es id ing in the t er rito r y of India or an y p art th er eo f h aving a di stin ct lan gu a ge , s cr ipt or cu ltur e o f its own sh al l ha ve th e ri gh t to c ons er ve the s a me . (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l be d enie d ad mis s ion into an y e duc at iona l in sti tution ma i nt ain ed b y th e Sta te or r ec e ivin g a id out o f Sta te fu nds on ground s onl y o f r eli gi on, ra c e, c as te , lan gu a ge or a n y of th e m. 30. R ig ht of mi nor it ie s t o es t abl is h and ad mi ni st er e duc ati onal i nst it uti ons. — (1 ) All mino ri tie s, wh e th er bas ed on r el igion or l an gu age , sh al l ha ve th e r ight to e st ab lis h and a d mi ni st er educ at iona l in sti tution s o f th ei r c hoi ce . (1 A) In m a ki ng an y la w pro vi ding for the co mpul sor y ac qui sit ion o f a n y prop er t y of an educ at iona l ins titu tion es ta bli sh ed and ad mi ni st er ed b y a mi nor it y, r e fer r ed to in c lau se (1), th e S ta te sh al l e nsu re th at th e a moun t fi xed b y or d ete r min ed unde r su ch la w fo r th e ac quis it ion o f su ch prope rt y i s such a s would not re st ri ct or ab rogat e th e right gu ar an te ed unde r that c la us e. (2) Th e St at e sha ll not, in gr an ting aid to educ at iona l ins titu tions , di sc ri mi na te aga ins t an y edu ca tion al inst itut ion on the gr ound tha t it i s und er the ma na ge men t o f a mi nor it y, wh et he r bas ed on r el igion or l angua ge.

12

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31. [Co mpul sor y a cquis it ion of p rope rt y.] Rep. by th e Con st itut ion (F or ty -fou rth Am endm en t) Act , 1978, s. 6 ( w. e. f. 20- 6-1979). Saving of Ce rta in Laws 31A. S avi ng of l aw s provi di ng f or ac quis it ion of es t at es , e tc . — (1 ) Not with st andin g an yt hin g con ta ined in ar ti cl e 13, no la w providin g fo r — ( a) the ac qui si tion b y th e St at e o f an y es ta t e or of a n y r ight s the re in or th e e xtin gu ish me nt or modi fic a tion o f an y su ch ri ght s, or ( b) the ta ki ng over o f the ma na ge men t o f an y prop er t y b y th e Sta te for a li mi te d pe riod eith er in th e publi c int er es t or in orde r to s e cu re the prop er ma n a ge men t of th e prope rt y, or (c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or ( d) th e e xt ingui sh men t or mo di fi c at ion o f a n y ri gh ts of man a gin g a gen ts , se cr e ta ri e s a nd tr ea su re rs , ma n a gin g dire ct or s, di re ct or s or ma n a ge r s o f corpo ra tion s, or of an y vot ing ri gh ts of sha re hold er s th er eo f, or ( e ) th e e xt ingui sh men t or mo di fi c at ion o f a n y ri gh ts ac cr uin g b y vir tue of an y a gr e e men t, le as e or lic en ce for the purpos e o f se ar c hing for, or winnin g, a n y min er al or mi ne ra l oil, or the pr e mat ur e te r mi na tion or c an ce ll at ion o f an y su ch a gr e e me nt, l ea se or l ic en ce , sh al l be dee me d to be void on the gr ound tha t it is in cons is te nt wi th, or t ake s a wa y or a brid ges an y of the ri gh ts con fer r ed b y a rt ic le 14 or a rt ic le 19: P ro vide d tha t whe r e s uch la w i s a l a w mad e b y the Le gi sl at ur e o f a St at e, th e provis ions o f thi s ar ti cl e sha ll not appl y th er eto unle ss suc h l a w, h aving bee n r es e r ve d fo r the con sid er at ion of the P res ide nt, ha s re ce i ve d hi s as se nt : P rovided fu rth er tha t wh er e an y l a w ma ke s a n y pro vi sion fo r th e a cqu is ition b y th e Sta te o f an y e st at e and wh er e an y l and co mp ri se d the re in i s he ld b y a p er son unde r his per son al c ult ivat ion, it sh al l not be l a wful fo r th e Sta te to ac qui re an y por tion of such l and as i s wi th in th e ce il ing l i mi t a ppli ca bl e to hi m under an y l a w for th e ti me b eing in for c e or an y buildin g or st ruc tur e s tand ing the re on or a ppurt en ant th er et o, unl es s th e l a w re la tin g to the a cqu is ition of suc h l and, buildin g or st ruc tu re , pro vi de s fo r pa yme nt o f co mpe ns at ion at a r at e wh ic h sha ll not be le ss th an the ma r ket va lue th er eo f. (2) In this a rt ic le ,— ( a) th e e xp re ss ion ‘‘e st a te ’’ sha ll , in re la tion to an y lo ca l a re a , ha ve th e s a me me an in g a s th at expr es si on or it s lo ca l e quiva le nt h as in the e xis tin g l a w re la tin g to land tenu re s in for c e in tha t ar e a a nd sh al l al so in clud e—

13

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( i) an y jagi r , inam or mua fi or othe r s i mi l ar gr ant and in the St at es o f Ta mil N adu and K er al a, a n y jan mam r ight; (i i) an y l and held unde r r yo t war i se tt le me nt ; (i ii ) an y land he ld or l et fo r purpo se s of agri cu ltu re or fo r purpo se s an ci ll ar y th er eto , in clud ing wa s t e land , for e st l and, l and for pa stu re or s ite s of buildin gs and othe r s tru ctu re s o ccup ied b y c ult ivat or s of l and, a gr ic ultu ra l labou re rs a nd vil la ge a rt is an s; ( b) th e e xp re ss ion ‘‘r ight s’’, in re la tion to an e st at e, sha ll inc lude a n y ri gh ts ve st in g in a propr ie tor, sub -prop rie tor, under-prop ri eto r, t enur e- hold er, ra iy at, under-ra iy at or othe r in te r med ia r y and an y ri gh ts or pri vi le ge s in re spe ct of l and re venu e. 31B . Val i dat i on of ce r t ai n Ac ts and R eg ul ati ons .— Withou t pre judi ce to th e ge ne ra li t y of the provis ion s cont ain ed in a rt ic le 31 A, none of th e Ac t s a nd Re gula tion s sp ec i fie d in th e Nin th S chedu le nor an y of the provis ions th er eo f s ha ll be dee med to be void , or e ver to ha ve be co me void, on th e ground th at suc h Ac t, R e gu la tion or pro vi si on is incon si st ent wi th, or ta kes a wa y or abr idge s a n y o f th e ri gh ts con fer re d b y, an y pro vi si ons o f this P ar t, and not wi ths ta nding an y judgme nt , de cr ee or ord er of an y cou rt or Tr ibun al to the con tr ar y, ea ch o f the s ai d Ac t s and Re gula tion s sha ll , sub je ct to the powe r o f an y c o mp et en t Le gi sl at ur e to r ep ea l or a mend it, c ontinu e in for c e. 31C. S avi ng of l aw s givi ng e ff e ct to c er t ai n dire ct i ve pr i nc i pl e s. — No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing cont ain ed in ar tic le 13, no la w gi vin g e ffe ct to th e polic y o f th e Sta te to war ds s e cu ring 1 [ all or an y of the prin cip le s la id do wn in P art IV] sha ll be de e med to be vo id on the ground tha t it i s in cons is te nt wit h, or t ake s a wa y or a brid ges an y of the ri gh ts con fer r ed b y a rt ic le 14 or ar ti cl e 19; 2 and no law c ontain ing a dec lar ation that it i s fo r gi ving e ff ec t to such polic y shall be ca ll ed in que st ion in any cour t on the g round tha t i t do es not giv e ef fe ct to suc h pol ic y: P rovid ed tha t wh er e s uch l a w i s ma d e b y th e Le gi sl at ur e of a S ta te , th e pro vi si ons of this ar ti cl e s ha ll not a ppl y th er eto unle ss su ch l a w, ha vi ng b een r es er ved for th e con sid er at ion o f th e Pr es iden t, has r ec e ive d hi s a ss e nt. 31D. [ Saving of law s in res pe ct of anti -nationa l a cti vi ti es . ] R ep. by the Con st itut ion (F or ty -th ird Am end me nt) Ac t,1977, s.2 (w.e .f .13- 4-1978) . Righ t to Con sti tutiona l Re me die s 32. Re me die s for e nf orc e me nt of r ig ht s conf e rre d by this P ar t . —(1 ) The right to mo ve th e Supr e me Cou rt b y app ropr ia te pro ce e dings for the e n fo rc e men t of th e ri ght s con fer r ed b y thi s P art is gua ra nt ee d. (2) The Supr e me Cour t sh al l ha ve po we r to is sue dir ec tion s or orde rs or wr it s, inc ludin g wr it s in the n atu re of habea s co rpus , manda mus , proh ibitthe Constitution (Forty-secondand c er ti ora ri , wh4, for “the principles be approp ri at e, ion, quo war ranto Amendment) Act, 1976, s. ic he ver ma y specified in clause (b) 1. Subs. by

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

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or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591. 2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the provisions in italics to be invalid.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA for th e en for ce me nt of any of th e right s c on fe rr e d b y this P ar t. (3) Wi thout pr ejud ic e to th e powe rs con fer re d on the Supr e me Cou rt b y c la us es (1 ) and (2), P ar lia me nt ma y b y la w e mp o wer a n y othe r c our t to e xer c is e wi thin the lo ca l li mit s of its jur isd ic tion al l or a n y o f th e power s e xer c is ab le b y the Supr e me Cou rt unde r c la us e (2) . (4) Th e ri gh t gua ra nt ee d b y thi s ar tic le sha ll not b e s usp end ed exc ep t a s oth er wi se provide d for b y thi s Cons titu tion. 32A. [ Cons titu tional val idit y of Sta te laws not to be c ons ide red in p roc ee ding s under a rti cl e 32.] Rep . b y th e Cons titu tion (Fo rt y- third A me ndm ent ) A ct, 1977, s. 3 (w. e. f. 13- 4-1978). 33. Pow er of Par li a me nt to mo dif y t he r ig ht s conf e rre d by this P ar t i n the ir appl i c at ion t o Forc e s, et c. —P a rli a me nt ma y, b y l a w, de te r min e to wh at e xt ent an y o f the r ight s con fe rr ed b y th is P art sh al l, in th ei r a ppli ca tion to, — (a ) the me mb e rs o f th e Ar med Fo rc es ; or (b) the me mb e rs o f th e Forc es cha rge d wi th the ma i nt ena nc e of publi c orde r; or (c ) pe rson s e mp lo ye d in an y bure au or othe r organi sa tion e st abl ish ed b y the St at e fo r purpos e s of inte lli gen ce or coun te r inte ll igen ce ; or (d) pe rson s e mpl o yed in, or in c onne ct ion wi th, th e t el ec o mmun ic at ion s ys t e ms se t up for the purpos es o f a n y For ce , bur ea u or organ is at ion re fe rr ed to in c la us es (a) to (c ) , b e r es tr ic te d or ab roga te d so a s to ens ur e the prope r dis ch arge of th ei r duti es and the ma in ten an ce o f di sc iplin e a mon g the m 34. R es t ri ct i on on rig ht s c onf e rre d by t hi s P art w hile mar t ial law i s i n forc e in any are a. —No t wi th st andin g a n yth ing in the fo re goin g pro vi si ons of this P art, P arli a men t ma y b y la w ind e mn i fy an y per son in th e s er vic e o f th e U nion or o f a St at e or an y othe r per son in r es pe ct o f an y a ct don e b y hi m in conne ct ion wit h th e ma in ten an ce or r es tor at ion o f ord er in a n y ar e a wi th in the te rr itor y of Indi a wh er e ma rt ia l l a w wa s in fo r ce or va lid at e a n y se nt enc e pas s ed, punish me nt in fli ct ed, fo r fei tur e ord er ed or oth er a ct done unde r ma rt ia l la w in s uch a re a. 35. L egi sl at i on t o give e ff e ct t o t he provis i ons of this Part . — No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cons ti tution ,— ( a) P arl ia me nt sha ll h ave, and th e Le gis la tu re of a Sta te sha ll not h ave, po wer to ma ke la ws — ( i) wi th re sp ec t to an y o f th e m at te r s whi ch unde r c la us e (3) o f a rt ic le 16, cl au se (3) of ar ti cl e 32, a rt ic le 33 and a rti cl e 34 ma y be pro vi ded for b y la w mad e b y P arli a me nt; and ( ii) fo r pr es cr ib ing punish me nt fo r tho se ac ts whi ch ar e d ec la re d to be offe nc e s unde r thi s P art ;

15

a nd P arli a me nt sh al l, as soon a s ma y b e a ft er th e c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution , ma ke la ws for pre sc ri bin g puni sh men t for the a ct s re fe rr e d to in s ub- cl aus e ( ii) ; ( b) an y la w in for c e i mme di at el y be fo re the co m men ce men t o f th is Con st itut ion in the t er ri tor y of Indi a with r es pe ct to an y of the ma tt er s r e fer r ed to in s ub- cl aus e ( i) of cl au se ( a) or providin g fo r puni sh men t for an y ac t r e fer r ed to in s ub- cl aus e (ii ) o f th at c la us e s ha ll, subje ct to th e te r ms the re o f and to an y ad apt at ions and mod i fi ca ti ons th at ma y be ma d e the re in unde r a rt ic le 372, cont inue in fo r ce until al te re d or r ep ea le d or a me nde d b y P arl ia me nt. Exp lanation .— In thi s a rt ic le , the expr es s ion "la w in fo r ce '' ha s th e s a me me a nin g a s in a rt ic le 372.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IV DIRECTIV E PRINCIP LES OF STATE POLICY
36. De fi nit ion. —In this P art, unl es s the c ont ext oth er wi se r equi re s, ‘‘ the St at e ’’ ha s th e sa me me a nin g as in P ar t I II .

37. A ppli c at i on of t he pr i nc i pl e s c ont ai ne d in t his P ar t. — The pro vi sion s cont ai ned in this P ar t sh al l not be en for ce a bl e b y a n y cou rt, but the pr inc ipl es the re in l aid do wn ar e neve rth el es s fund a men ta l in th e gover na nc e o f the count r y and it sh al l be th e dut y o f the St at e to appl y th es e prin cip le s in ma ki ng l a ws. 38. S tate to s ec ure a s oci al or de r f or t he pro mot i on of w el fare of t he pe opl e. —(1 ) The Sta te sh al l st rive to pro mo te the we l far e o f th e peopl e b y s ec ur ing and prote ct in g as e ffe c ti vel y as it ma y a so ci al ord er in wh i ch ju sti ce , so ci al, e cono mi c and polit ic al , sha ll in fo r m a ll the in sti tution s of th e nat iona l l i fe . (2) The St at e sh al l, in p art ic ula r, st rive to mi ni mis e the inequ al iti es in in co me, a nd e nde a vou r to e li min at e inequ al iti es in s ta tus , fa c il it ie s and oppor tunit ie s, not onl y a mon gst indi vi dua ls bu t al so a mo ngs t gr oups o f p eople r es idin g in diffe r en t a re a s or en ga ge d in diffe r en t voc at ion s. 39. Ce rt ai n pri nc i pl es of pol ic y to be foll ow e d by t he Stat e. — The St at e sh al l, in pa rt icu la r, dir ec t its pol ic y to war ds s e cu ring— (a) th at th e c iti ze ns , me n a nd wo men equ all y, h ave the r ight to a n a dequ at e me an s o f li ve lihood ; (b) tha t the owne rs hip a nd con trol of the ma te ri al r esou rc e s o f the c o mmun it y ar e so dis tr ibute d a s be st to subs er ve th e co mmo n good; (c ) th at the ope ra tion of the e cono mic s ys te m do es not re sul t in th e c onc ent ra tion o f we al th and me an s o f produc tion to the co m mo n d etr i men t; (d) that th er e is equ al pa y for equa l wo r k for both men and wo men ; (e ) th at the he al th a nd s tr en gt h o f wor ker s , men a nd wo me n, and th e t ende r a ge of c hild re n a re not abu se d and that c iti ze ns a re not for c ed b y e cono mi c ne ce s si t y to en te r a vo ca tion s unsuit ed to thei r age or s tr ength ; (f ) th at chi ldr en ar e gi ven oppor tunit ie s and fa ci li tie s to deve lop in a h ea lth y man ne r and in condit ions o f fr ee do m and dign it y and tha t c hildhood a nd you th a re prot ec te d a gain st explo ita tion and a gain st mor al a nd ma t er i al ab andon me nt. 39A. E qual just i ce and f re e l eg al ai d. — Th e St at e sh al l s ec ur e th at th e op er ation of the le gal s ys te m pro mo te s just ic e, on a ba si s o f e qua l oppor tunit y, and sha ll, in pa rti cul ar, provide fr e e l egal aid, b y suit abl e l egis la ti on or s ch e me s or in an y oth er wa y, to en sur e tha t opportuni tie s for s ec ur ing jus ti ce ar e not deni ed to a n y c iti ze n b y re a son o f ec ono mi c or 17 oth er di sab ili ti es . 40. O rg ani s ati on of vil lage panc hay at s. — The St at e sha ll t ake s tep s to orga ni se vil la ge pan cha yat s a nd e ndo w th e m wi th suc h po wer s a nd a uthor it y a s ma y be nec e ss ar y to e nab le the m to fu nc tion a s uni ts o f se l fgove rn me nt.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

41. R ig ht t o w or k, t o e duc ati on and t o pu bl ic as s is t ance in c e rt ai n c as es .— The Sta te sha ll , wit hin th e li mit s of it s e cono mic c ap ac it y a nd de ve lop me nt, ma ke e ffe ct ive provis ion for s ec ur ing the right to wo r k, to edu ca tion and to public a ss is ta nc e in ca s es of un e mp lo ym en t, old a ge, s ic kne ss a nd di sa ble men t, and in oth er c as e s of undes er ve d wa nt . 42. P rovis ion for j us t and hu ma ne condi ti ons of w or k and mat e r ni ty rel ie f. — Th e St at e sh al l ma ke pro vi si on fo r se cu rin g ju st a nd hu ma ne c ondit ions of wo r k and for ma t e rni t y re li e f. 43. L ivi ng w age, et c. , for w or ke rs . — Th e Sta te sh al l ende a vou r to s ec ur e, b y suit ab le l egis la tion or ec ono mic organi sa tion or in a n y othe r wa y, to a ll wo r ker s, a gri cu ltur al , indu st ri al or othe r wi s e, wor k, a li vin g wa ge , cond ition s of wo r k en sur ing a d ec ent s tand ar d o f li fe a nd ful l e njo ym en t o f l ei sur e a nd so ci al and cu ltur al opportuni ti es and, in p art icu la r, th e St at e sh al l e nde a vou r to pro mo te cot ta ge indus tri es on an indi vi dua l or c o- oper at ive b as is in rur al ar e as . 43A. Par ti ci pati on of w or ke r s i n ma nag e me nt of indus t ri es . — Th e St at e sh al l t ake s te ps , b y sui tab le l egis la tion or in an y othe r wa y, to s e cu re th e pa rt ic ipa tion o f wo r ke r s in th e ma n a ge men t o f und ert a kin gs, e st ab lis h men ts or othe r organi sa tion s en ga ge d in an y indu str y. 44. U ni f or m c ivil code f or the ci ti ze ns . — Th e St at e sh al l end ea vour to s ec ur e fo r th e cit iz en s a uni fo r m c ivil cod e throu ghou t th e te rr itor y o f Ind ia . 45. P rovis ion for free and c o mpul s or y e duc at i on f or c hil dre n. — Th e St at e s ha ll e nde a vou r to provid e, wi th in a p eriod of te n ye a r s fr o m the c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion, fo r fr e e and co mpul sor y e duc at ion for a ll ch ildr en until th e y co mp le te the a ge of fou rt ee n ye a rs . 46. Pro mot ion of e duc at ional and e c ono mi c inte res ts of S c he dul e d C ast e s, S che dul e d Tr i bes and ot her w e aker se ct i ons . — Th e Sta te sh al l pro mot e wit h spe ci al c ar e th e educ at ion al and ec ono mic inte re st s o f the we a ke r s e ct ion s of the peopl e, and, in p ar tic ula r, of the Sch edul ed C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Tr ib es , and sha ll prot ec t th e m fr o m so ci al inju st ic e and a ll fo r ms of e xploi ta tion. 47. D ut y of t he S tate t o r ais e the le vel of nut ri ti on and t he st andar d of livi ng and to i mprove publi c he alt h. — The Sta te sha ll re gar d the r ai sin g o f the l eve l of nut rit ion a nd th e st and ard o f livin g o f its p eople a nd th e i mp rove me nt o f publi c hea lth a s a mo ng its pri ma r y dut ie s and, in p art icu la r, the St at e sha ll e nde a vou r to brin g about proh ibit ion of th e c onsu mpt ion e xc e pt for me di ci na l purpos es o f in toxic at in g dr inks and o f dru gs wh ic h ar e inju rious to he al th. 48. O rg ani s ati on of agr ic ult ure and ani mal hus bandr y. — Th e Sta te sh al l end ea vou r to organi se a gr ic ul tur e and ani ma l hu sband r y on mod er n a nd sc ie nti fi c lin es and sha ll, in pa rti cul ar, t ake st eps fo r pre se r vi ng and i mpro vi ng th e bre ed s, and prohib itin g the s la ught er, of co ws and c al ve s a nd

18

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA oth er mi lc h and dr au ght c at tl e. 48A. Prot e ct i on and i mprove me nt of e nviron me nt and safe g uar di ng of f ore st s and w il d li fe . — The Sta te sha ll ende a vou r to pro te ct and i mpro ve th e envir on men t a nd to sa fe gua rd th e for e st s and wi ld li fe of the coun tr y. 49. Prot e ct ion of mon u me nts and pl ace s and obj ec ts of nat i onal i mpor t anc e. — It s ha ll be the obligat ion o f the S ta te to prot ec t e ver y mo nu men t or pl ac e or obje ct o f ar ti sti c or his tori c in te re st , de cl ar ed b y or und er la w mad e b y P arli a me nt to b e o f na tion al i mp ort an ce , fro m spo li at ion, di s fi gu re me nt , de st ruc tion, re mo val , dispo sa l or expor t, a s th e c as e m a y b e. 50. Se par at i on of j udi ci ar y fro m ex e c ut i ve . — Th e St at e sh al l t ake st eps to s ep ar at e the jud ic ia r y fr o m the exe cu ti ve in th e publi c s er vic e s o f the St at e. 51. Pro mot ion of inte r nati onal pe ac e and s ec ur ity.— The St at e sh al l e nde a vou r to — (a) pro mo te int er na tion al pe ac e and s ec ur it y; (b) ma i nt ain jus t a nd honor abl e re la tion s bet we e n n ation s; (c ) fos te r r esp ec t for int er na tion al la w an d tr ea t y obli ga ti ons in the d ea lings o f orga niz ed peop le s wit h on e a noth er ; a nd (d) enc our age s et tl e men t of in te rna tion al di spute s b y a rb itr at ion.

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PART IVA PART IVA FUND AMENTAL DUTIES
51A. F unda me nt al dut ie s. — It sh all be th e dut y o f e ver y c it iz en of Indi a — (a) to ab ide b y the Con st itut ion and re spe ct it s in sti tution s, th e N at ion al Fla g a nd th e Na tion al Ant he m; id ea ls and

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b) to ch er is h a nd fo llo w th e nobl e ide al s wh ic h

in spi red our nat iona l st ruggle for fre e do m; (c ) to uphold and pro te ct the s over e ignt y, unit y and int e gr it y of Ind ia ; (d) to d e fe nd the count r y and rend er na tiona l s er vic e wh e n ca ll ed upon to do s o; (e ) to pro mo te h ar mon y and the sp iri t of c o mmon broth er hood a mon gst a ll the peop le o f Indi a tr ans c endin g r el igious , lingui sti c and r e gion al or se c tion al di ve rs it ie s; to re nounc e pra ct ic e s de roga tor y to the di gni t y of wo me n; (f ) to va lu e and pre se r ve the r ich he rit a ge of our co mpo si te cu ltu re ; (g) to prot ec t and i mpro ve th e na tur al e nvir on ment inc luding for e st s, l ake s, r iver s a nd wi ld li fe, a nd to ha ve co mp a ss ion fo r li vi ng c re a tur es ; (h) to de velop the sc ie nti fic t e mp er, hu man is m a nd the spi rit of inqui r y and re for m; (i ) to sa fe gua rd public prop er t y and to abju re viol enc e; (j ) to st rive to war ds exc el le nc e in al l sphe re s of indi vi dua l and c oll ec ti ve a ct i vi t y so that the nation cons ta ntl y ri se s to high er le vel s o f e nde a vou r a nd a ch ie ve men t.

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PART V THE UNION C H A P T E R I.—T H E E X E C U T I V E
The P re si den t and Vi ce - Pres id ent 52. T he Pre si de nt of I ndi a.— The r e sh all be a P re sid ent o f Indi a.

53. Ex e c ut i ve pow e r of t he U ni on. — (1) Th e e xec uti ve po wer of th e Un ion sha ll be ve st ed in th e P re sid ent and sh al l be e xer c is ed b y hi m e ith er dir ec tl y or th rough o ffi c er s subo rdin at e to hi m in a c co rdan ce wi th thi s Con st itut ion. (2) Wit hout pr ejud ic e to th e gen er al it y of th e fo r e go ing provis ion, the sup re me co mma nd o f the De fe nc e Fo rc es o f th e Un ion sh al l be ve st ed in th e Pr es iden t a nd th e e xe r ci se the reo f sha ll be re gul at ed b y l a w. (3) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll — (a) be dee me d to t ra ns fer to th e Pr es iden t a n y fu nc tion s c on fe rr e d b y a n y e xis tin g l a w on th e Go ve rn me nt of an y Sta te or oth er au thori t y; or (b) pr eve nt P arl ia me nt fro m c on fe rr in g b y l a w fu nc tion s on a uthor iti es othe r th an the P re sid ent. 54. El ec ti on of Pres i de nt .— The P re sid ent s ha ll b e el ec te d b y th e me mbe r s of an el ec to ra l c oll e ge cons is tin g of— (a) the el ec t ed me mb er s o f both Hous es of P ar li a men t; and (b) the el ec t ed me mb er s o f th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl ie s o f the St at es . Exp lanation .—In thi s ar ti cl e and in a rt ic le 55, ‘‘ St at e’’ in clud es the N at iona l Cap it al Te rr it or y o f De lhi and th e U nion te rr itor y o f P ondi che rr y. 55. M anne r of el ec ti on of P re si de nt. —(1 ) As fa r a s pra ct ic ab le , the re sh al l be unifor mi t y in th e s ca l e o f rep re se nt at ion of th e di ffer e nt St at es at th e el ec tion o f the P re sid ent . (2) For th e purpos e of se cu rin g such uni fo r mi t y a mo ng the Sta te s int er s e as we l l as p ar it y bet we e n th e Sta te s as a wh ol e and the Union , th e nu mbe r o f vot es whi ch e a ch e le ct e d me mb er o f P ar li a men t and of the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f e ac h Sta te i s e nti tl ed to c as t at su ch el ec ti on s ha ll b e d ete r min ed in th e fo llo win g ma nn er :— (a) eve r y el e ct ed me mb e r of the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y of a Sta te sh al l ha ve a s man y vote s as the re ar e mu lt ipl es of one thous and in th e quoti en t obta ined b y dividin g th e popul ation of the Sta te b y the tota l nu mbe r of th e el ec te d me mb er s o f the As s e mbl y; (b) i f, a ft e r t a kin g the s ai d mul tip le s o f one thou sand , the re ma ind er i s not l es s than fi ve hundre d, then th e vot e of e a ch me mb e r re fe rr e d to 21 in sub -c lau se (a ) sha ll be fur the r inc re a se d b y one ; (c ) e ac h el ec te d member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding onehalf being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. (3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Explanation.— In this article, the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census. 56. Term of office of President.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that— (a) th e P res ide nt ma y, b y wr it ing unde r his hand add re s se d to th e Vic e- P res ide nt, re si gn hi s offic e ; (b) th e P res ide nt ma y, for vi ol ation of the Cons titu tion, be r e mo ved fr o m o ffi c e b y i mp ea ch me nt in the ma nn er pro vid ed in ar tic le 61; (c ) the P re sid ent sha ll , not wi ths ta ndin g th e e xp ir at ion of hi s te r m, c ontinu e to hold offi ce until his su cc e ss or en te rs upon his offi ce . (2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. 57. Eligibility for re-election.—A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office. 58. Qualifications for election as President.—(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he— (a) is a ci ti ze n o f Indi a, (b) has co mpl et ed th e age o f thi rt y- fi ve ye a r s, a nd (c ) i s qu ali fie d fo r el ec ti on a s a me mb e r of the Hou se o f th e P eopl e. (2) A p er son sh al l not be e li gi bl e for el ec ti on as P res ide nt i f he hold s a n y o ffi c e o f pro fi t unde r th e Go ve rn me nt of India or th e Go ver n men t of a n y S ta te or unde r a n y loc al or othe r autho rit y sub je ct to the con tro l o f an y o f th e s ai d Go ver n men ts . Exp lanation .—Fo r th e purpos es o f thi s ar ti cl e, a pe rson sh al l not be d ee me d to hold a n y offi ce o f pro fit b y re as on onl y th at he i s the Pr es iden t or Vic e- P re sid en t o f th e U nion or th e Go ve rno r o f an y St at e or is a Min is te r ei the r fo r the Un ion or for a n y Sta te . 59. Condi ti ons of Pres i de nt 's off ic e. —(1 ) Th e Pr es iden t sh all not be a me mbe r o f ei the r Hou se o f P arl ia me nt or of a Hous e of the Le gi s la tur e of a n y St at e, a nd i f a me mb e r o f ei the r Hou se of P arl ia me nt or of a Hous e of th e Le gis la tu re of an y Sta te be e le ct ed Pr es iden t, he sha ll be de e med to h ave va ca te d his se a t in th at Hou se on th e dat e on whi ch he en te rs upon his o ffi c e a s Pr es iden t. (2) Th e P re sid ent sh all not hold a n y othe r o ffi c e o f pro fi t.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(3) The P re sid ent sh al l be ent itl ed wi thout pa ymen t o f r ent to the use of his offic i al re sid en ce s and sh al l be a ls o ent itl ed to such e mol u men ts , al lo wan ce s and pri vi le ge s a s ma y be det er mi ned b y P arli a men t b y la w and, until pro vi si on in tha t beha l f i s s o ma d e, su ch e mo lu me nt s, a llo wa nc es and privil e ges a s a re s pe ci fie d in th e Se cond Sch edul e. (4) Th e e molu me nt s and al lo wan ce s o f the P re sid ent sh al l not be di min ish ed durin g his t er m of offic e . 60. O at h or aff ir mati on by t he P re si de nt. — Ever y P re sid ent and e ver y p er son a ct in g as Pr es iden t or di sch argi ng th e fu nc tion s of th e Pr es iden t sh al l, b e fo re ent er ing upon his offic e , ma ke and subs cr ib e in th e pre s en ce o f th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce o f Ind ia or, in his ab se nc e, th e s en ior- mo s t Judge o f th e Supr e me Cour t a vai lab le , an oath or a ffi r ma ti on in the fo llo win g fo r m, th at is to sa y— "I, A.B ., do s w e a r i n t h e n a me o f G o d t h a t I wi ll fa it h ful l y exe cu te
s o l e mn l y a ffi r m

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th e o ffi c e o f President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India.". 61. Proc e dure f or i mpe ac h me nt of t he Pres i de nt .— (1 ) Wh en a P re sid ent is to b e i mp e ac he d fo r vio la tion o f the Cons titu tion, th e ch arge sh al l be pre fe rr ed b y eith er H ous e of P arli a men t. (2) No su ch cha rge sh al l be pre fe rr ed unl es s— (a) the propos al to pre fe r su ch ch arge is cont ain ed in a re solu tion whi c h ha s be en mo ved a ft er a t le as t fo urt ee n da ys ' notic e in wri tin g s igne d b y not l es s tha n on e- fo urth o f the tot al nu mbe r of me mbe r s of the Hou se has b een give n o f th ei r int en tion to mo ve th e r es olut ion, and (b) such r es olut ion h as be en pa ss ed b y a ma j ori t y of not l es s than t wo- third s of the tot al me mb e rs hip of the Hou se . (3) Whe n a c ha rge has be en so pr e fer r ed b y e ith er Hous e of P arl ia me nt, th e oth er H ous e sh al l in ve st i ga te th e ch arge or c au se th e ch arge to be in ve s ti ga t ed a nd the Pr es iden t sh al l ha ve th e ri gh t to app ea r a nd to be r ep re se nt ed at su ch inves ti gat ion. (4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed. 62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. 63. The Vice-President of India.—There shall be a Vice-President of India. 64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—The VicePresident shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97. 65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office. (2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. (3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 66. Election of Vice-President.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. (2) The Vic e- P re sid ent sha ll not b e a m e mb er of e ith er Hous e o f P ar lia men t or o f a Hou se o f the Le gis la tu re o f an y St at e, and i f a me mbe r o f eith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt or of a Hous e o f the Le gi sl at ur e o f a n y St at e b e el ec te d Vi ce -P re sid ent , he s ha ll b e de e med to have vac a te d hi s se at in th at H ous e on th e dat e on whi ch he en te rs upon his o ffi c e as Vic eP re sid ent . (3) No pe rson sh al l b e e li gi bl e fo r el ec ti on a s Vic e- P re sid ent unle ss he— (a) is a ci ti ze n o f Indi a; (b) has co mpl et ed th e age o f thi rt y- fi ve ye a r s; a nd (c ) i s qu ali fie d fo r el ec ti on a s a me mb e r of the Counc il o f Sta te s. (4) A per son sh al l not be el igibl e for e le ct ion a s Vi ce -P re sid ent i f h e hold s an y offic e o f pro fit unde r the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a or th e Go ve rn me nt o f an y St at e or under an y lo ca l or oth er a uthor it y subj ec t to the cont rol o f a n y o f th e sa id Go ver n men ts .

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Exp lanation .— For th e purpo se s o f this a rt ic le , a per son sha ll not be de e med to hold a n y offic e o f pro fit b y r ea s on onl y th at he is the P re sid ent or Vic e- P res ide nt o f th e Un ion or th e Go ve rno r o f a n y St at e or is a Min is te r ei the r fo r the Un ion or for a n y Sta te . 67. Te r m of off ic e of Vi ce - Pres i de nt .— The Vic e- P res ide nt sha ll hold o ffi c e fo r a te r m of fi ve ye a rs fr o m the dat e on whi ch h e ent er s upon hi s o ffi c e: P rovid ed tha t— (a) a Vice - Pr es iden t ma y, b y wr it in g unde r hi s hand addr es s ed to th e P re sid ent , r es i gn his o ffi c e; (b) a Vi ce -P re sid en t ma y b e re mo ved fr o m his offic e b y a r es olut ion o f the Coun ci l o f St at es pa ss ed b y a ma jo ri t y o f a ll th e th en me mbe rs o f th e Coun ci l and a gre e d to b y the Hous e o f the P eople; but no re solu tion for the purpos e o f this c la us e sh all be mo ved unl es s at l ea st fou rte en d a ys ' noti ce has b een give n o f th e in ten tion to mo ve th e re solu tion; (c ) a Vic e- P res ide nt sh al l, not wit hs tand ing the expi ra tion o f his t er m, con tinu e to hold offi ce until his su cc e ss or en te rs upon his offi ce . 68. Ti me of hol di ng e le ct i on t o fi ll vac ancy in the off ic e of Vi c eP re si de nt and the te r m of of fi c e of per s on e le ct e d to fi ll c as ual vac ancy. — (1) An el ec ti on to fil l a va c an c y ca us ed b y th e e xp ir ation of the te r m of o ffi c e of Vic e- P res ide nt sh al l be co mp le te d be for e th e e xp ir at ion of th e t er m. (2 ) An e le ct ion to fi ll a va ca nc y in th e offi ce o f Vice - Pr es iden t o ccu rr ing b y re as on o f hi s de at h, r es igna tion or re mo val , or oth er wis e sh all b e h eld as soon a s pos sibl e a ft e r the o ccu rr en ce o f th e va c an c y, and th e p er son el e ct ed to fi ll the va c an c y s ha ll, subje ct to th e provis ion s o f a rt ic le 67, be ent itl ed to hold o ffi c e fo r th e ful l te r m o f fi ve ye a r s fr o m th e dat e on wh ic h he ent er s upon hi s o ffi c e. 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— "I, A.B ., do s w e a r i n t h e n a me o f G o d th at I wil l be ar true fai th and
s o l e mn l y a ff i r m

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a ll egi an ce to the Cons titu tion o f India as b y la w e st ab li she d and th at I wil l fa it h fu ll y dis ch arge th e dut y upon wh i ch I a m a bout to e nte r. " 70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may make such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter. 71. M at te rs rel at i ng t o, or c onne ct e d w ith, the e le c ti on of a P re si de nt or Vi c e- P re si de nt. —(1 ) All doubts and di sput es ar is ing out o f or in conn ec tion wi th the el e ct ion o f a P re sid ent or Vic e- P res ide nt sha ll be

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA inqui re d into a nd d ec ided by the Sup re me Court who se

d ec is ion s ha ll be fin al. (2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President. (4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him. 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence— (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force. 73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend— (a ) to th e ma tt er s wi th re sp ec t to whi c h P ar lia men t h as po we r to ma ke la ws ; and (b ) to the exe rc is e of su ch r ight s, au thor it y a nd juri sdi ct ion a s a re e xer c is ab le b y the Go ver n men t of Ind ia b y vir tu e o f a n y tr ea t y or a gre e me nt : P ro vide d th at th e e xe cut ive po wer r e fer r ed to in sub -c la us e (a ) sh al l not, s a ve as e xp re s sl y pro vi ded in this Con st itut ion or in an y la w mad e b y P ar lia men t, e xt end in an y S ta te to ma tt er s with re sp ec t to whi c h the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e ha s al so powe r to m a ke l a ws . (2 ) Unti l oth er wi se provid ed b y P arl ia me nt , a St at e and an y o ffi c er or a uthor it y of a Sta te ma y, not wi ths ta ndin g an yt hing in thi s ar ti cl e, con tinue to e xe r ci se in ma t te rs with r es pe ct to wh i ch P arli a me nt ha s power to ma ke l a ws for th at St at e such exe cu ti ve po wer or fun ction s a s the St at e or offi ce r or au thori t y the re o f could e xer ci s e i mme di at el y be fo re th e co mme n ce men t o f thi s Cons titu tion.

Coun ci l of Mi nis te r s 74. Counc i l of M inis te r s t o ai d and adv i se Pre si de nt. — (1) Th er e sh al l be a Coun ci l of Mini st er s with the P ri me Mini st er at the h ead to aid a nd ad vi se th e P res ide nt who sha ll, in the exe rc is e of hi s fu nc tion s, a ct in a c co rdan ce with su ch ad vi ce : P ro vide d th at th e P re sid ent ma y r equi re th e Counc il of Minis te rs to r ec ons ide r suc h a dvic e , eith er ge ne ra ll y or oth er wis e , and the P res ide nt sh al l ac t in a c co rdan ce with th e a dvic e t ende re d a ft er suc h r ec ons ide ra ti on. (2 ) Th e ques tion wh et he r an y, and i f so wh a t, a dvic e wa s tend er ed b y Min is te rs to the P re sid ent sh al l not be inqui red into in an y cou rt. 75. Ot he r provis i ons as to Mi ni st er s .— (1 ) The Pri me Min is te r sha ll b e a ppoint ed b y th e P re sid en t a nd th e othe r Min is te rs s ha ll be appoin ted b y th e Pr es iden t on the ad vi c e of the P ri me Mini st er. (1 A) Th e tota l nu mbe r o f Min is te rs , in cludin g the P ri me Mini st er, in the Coun ci l o f Min is te rs sh al l not e xc ee d fi ft e en pe r ce nt. o f the tot al nu mbe r o f me mb e rs of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e. (1B ) A me mbe r o f ei the r Hous e o f P arli a me nt belon gi ng to an y poli ti ca l p art y wh o i s disqu al i fi ed fo r b ein g a me mb er o f th at Hous e und er p ar agr aph 2 o f the Tenth S chedu le sh al l al so be disqu al i fi ed to b e a ppoint ed as a Min is te r under c la us e (1) fo r dur at ion o f th e p er iod c o mme nc in g fr o m the dat e o f his di squa li fic a tion t ill the d ate on wh ic h th e t er m o f his o ffi c e as su ch me mb e r wo uld e xp ir e or wh er e he c ont es ts an y e le ct ion to e ith er Hous e of P arl ia me nt b e fo re the expi r y o f su ch p er iod, ti ll th e dat e on whi ch he is de cl ar e d e le ct ed , wh ic he ver i s ea rl ie r. (2 ) Th e Min is te rs sh al l hold o ffi c e durin g th e pl ea su re o f th e P re sid en t. (3) Th e Counc il o f Mini st er s sh al l be coll ec ti vel y r es pons ible to the Hou se of th e P eople . (4 ) B e fo re a Minis te r ent er s upon hi s offic e , the P res ide nt sha ll a d mi ni st er to hi m the o aths of o ffi c e a nd of s ec r ec y a cc ord ing to th e fo r ms s et out fo r th e purpo se in th e Thi rd Sch edul e. (5 ) A Mini st er who for a n y per iod o f s ix c ons ec uti ve mon ths i s not a me mbe r of ei the r H ous e o f P ar li a men t sh al l at the expi ra tion o f that per iod c e as e to be a Mini st er. (6) Th e sa la ri e s a nd al lo wan ce s of Mini st er s sh al l be suc h as P arl ia me nt ma y fr o m t i me to t i me b y l a w d ete r min e and, unti l P ar li a men t s o d ete r min es , sha ll be a s spe ci fi ed in the Se cond Sch edu le . The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force.

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(3) In the performance of his duties the AttorneyGeneral shall have right of

audience in all courts in the territory of India. (4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine. Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. (3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. * * * * * 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister— (a ) to c o mmun ic at e to the P re sid ent al l de ci sion s o f th e Coun ci l of Min is te rs re la tin g to the a d mi ni st ra tion o f the a ffa ir s of th e Union and propo sa ls for le gi sl at ion; (b ) to fu rni sh su ch infor ma ti on r el at ing to th e ad mi ni st ra tion of the a ffa ir s o f the Un ion and propos al s fo r le gis la tion a s the P re sid ent ma y c al l fo r; a nd (c) i f th e Pr es iden t so r equ ir es , to sub mit for the con sid er at ion of th e Coun ci l of Mini st er s an y ma t te r on whi ch a de ci si on ha s be en t ake n b y a Mini st er but wh ic h has not be en cons ide re d b y th e Coun ci l. CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT General 79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. 80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of— (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and (b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories. (2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule. (3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA matters as the following, namely:— Literature, science, art and social service. (4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. (5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. 81. Composition of the House of the People.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consist of— (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and (b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),— (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions. (3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed, — (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census. 82. Readjustment after each census.—Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine: Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House: Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust—

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(i) the allocation of seats in the House of People

to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this article. 83. D ur ati on of Hous e s of Parl ia me nt. — (1) Th e Coun cil o f St at es sh al l not be sub je ct to dis solu tion, but as ne ar l y as poss ibl e one- thi rd o f th e me mb er s th er eo f sh al l re ti re a s soon as ma y b e on the e xpi ra tion o f e ver y se cond ye ar in a cc ord an ce wi th the pro vi si ons ma de in th at beh al f b y P ar lia men t b y la w. (2 ) The Hous e of the P eople , unle ss soon er di ss olve d, sha ll con tinue for fi ve ye a rs fr o m the dat e appo inte d for its fi rs t me et in g and no lon ge r a nd th e expi ra tion of the sa id pe riod of fi ve ye a rs s ha ll ope ra te a s a di sso lution o f the Hou se : P ro vide d th at th e s ai d p eriod ma y, wh il e a P rocl a mat ion o f E mergen c y i s in ope ra tion , b e e xte nded b y P arli a men t b y l a w for a p eriod not e xc ee din g one ye a r a t a ti me and not ext endin g in an y ca s e be yond a pe riod o f s ix mo nths a ft er th e P rocl a mat ion ha s ce as e d to ope ra te . 84. Q uali fi c at ion for me mbe r s hi p of P ar li a me nt .— A pe rson sh al l not b e qu ali fie d to be cho se n to fil l a se a t in P ar lia me nt unl es s he — (a) i s a cit iz en o f Indi a, and ma ke s and sub sc ri be s be fo re s o me p er son a utho ris ed in tha t b eha l f b y th e Ele ct ion Co mmi s sion an oa th or a ffi r mat ion ac co rdin g to th e for m se t out for th e purpo se in the Thi rd S che dule ; (b) i s, in th e ca s e of a se at in the Coun ci l o f St at es , not l es s th an thi rt y ye ar s o f a ge and, in the ca s e o f a se a t in th e Hous e of the P eople , not le ss than t went y- fi ve ye a r s of age ; and (c ) pos se s se s s uch oth er qual i fi c at ions a s ma y be pre s cr ibe d in tha t b eha l f b y or unde r an y la w mad e b y P arli a men t. 85. Se ss ions of P ar li a me nt, prorog at i on and di s s ol uti on.— (1 ) Th e P re sid ent sha ll fr o m ti me to ti me su m mo n e ac h Hou se o f P ar lia men t to me e t a t such ti me and pla ce as he thin ks fit , but s ix mo nths s ha ll not int er ven e be t we e n i ts l as t s it ting in one s es si on and the dat e appo inte d for it s fir st s it ting in th e next se s si on. (2) Th e P re sid ent ma y fro m ti me to ti me — (a) pro rogue th e Hous es or e ith er Hou se ; (b) di sso lve th e Hous e of the P eopl e. 86. Rig ht of Pre si de nt to addre s s and se nd me s s age s to H ouse s .— (1) The Pr es iden t m a y a ddr es s e ithe r Hou se o f P arl ia me nt or both H ous es a ss e mbl e d toget he r, a nd fo r tha t purpos e requ ir e th e at te ndan ce o f me mbe r s.

(2) The P re sid ent ma y s end me s s a ge s to e ith er Hou se of P ar lia men t, wh eth er wit h re sp ec t to a Bi ll th en pend ing in P arl ia me nt or oth er wi se , a nd a Hou se to whi ch an y me s s a ge is so se nt sh al l wi th a ll c onven ien t de spa tc h con sid er an y ma t te r requ ir ed b y th e me s s a ge to be t ake n in to c ons ide ra tion. 87. S pec i al addre ss by t he Pre si de nt. — (1) At th e c o mme nc e me nt o f th e fi rs t s es s ion a ft er ea c h gen er al el ec tion to the Hous e o f the P eopl e a nd at th e co m men c e me nt o f the fi r st se ss ion o f ea ch ye a r the P re sid en t sha ll a ddr es s both H ous es o f P ar lia me nt a ss e mbl e d to ge th er and in for m P ar lia men t o f th e c au se s o f it s su mmon s. (2) Pro vi sion s ha ll be mad e b y the rule s re gu la tin g th e pro ce dur e o f e ith er Hou se fo r the a llot me nt o f ti me for dis cus sion o f the ma t te rs re fe rr ed to in s uch add re ss . 88. R ig ht s of Mi ni st e rs and A tt or ne y- G e ner al as re s pec t s H ouse s. — E ve r y Mini st er and th e Att orn e y- Ge ne ra l of Indi a sh al l ha ve th e ri gh t to sp ea k in, and oth er wis e to ta ke p ar t in the proc ee din gs o f, ei the r Hou se , a n y jo int sit tin g of the Hou se s, and an y c o mmi tt ee of P ar lia men t o f whi ch h e ma y b e na me d a me mb er, but sh al l not b y vi rt ue of thi s ar ti cl e b e e nti tle d to vo te . O ffi ce r s of Parl iam en t 89. T he C hai r man and De put y C hai r man of t he Counc il of St at e s. — (1 ) Th e Vice - P re sid en t of Indi a s ha ll be ex off ic io Cha ir ma n o f th e Coun ci l o f St at es . (2) The Coun cil of St at es sha ll , as soon a s ma y be , choo se a me mbe r of th e Coun ci l to be D epu t y Ch ai r man th er eo f and , so o ft en as the offic e of D epu t y Cha ir ma n b eco me s vac a nt, th e Coun ci l sh al l choo se anoth er me mbe r to be De put y Cha ir ma n the re o f. 90. Vac ati on and res ig nat ion of, and re moval f ro m, t he of fi ce of D e puty C hair man.— A me mb er holdin g o ffi c e as De put y Ch ai r man of th e Coun ci l o f St at es — (a) sh al l va c at e hi s o ffi c e i f h e c e as e s to b e a m e mb er o f th e Coun ci l; (b) ma y a t an y ti me, b y wri ti ng unde r his hand add re ss e d to th e Ch ai r man , r es i gn his o ffi c e; a nd (c ) ma y b e r e mo ve d fr o m hi s offic e b y a re so lution o f the Coun ci l p as se d b y a ma jo rit y o f al l the the n me mbe r s of the Counc il : P rovid ed th at no r es olut ion fo r the purpos e o f c la us e (c) sh al l be mo ve d unl es s at l ea st fou rt ee n d a ys ’ noti ce has b een give n o f th e in ten tion to mo ve th e r es olu tion. 91. P ow er of t he D e puty C hai r ma n or ot her pe r s on t o pe rf or m t he dut ie s of t he of fi c e of , or to ac t as , C hai r ma n. — (1 ) Whi le th e offic e o f Ch ai r man is va c an t, or dur ing an y per iod whe n th e Vic e- P re sid ent i s a ct ing

31

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA a s, or dis ch argin g the fun ct ions o f, P re sid ent , th e dutie s o f th e o ffi c e sh al l b e p er for me d b y the D epu t y Ch ai r man , or, if the o ffi c e o f D eput y Ch ai r man i s a ls o va c ant , b y su ch me mb er o f th e Counc il of St at es as th e Pr es iden t m a y a ppoint for th e purpos e. (2) Dur ing th e ab se nc e o f the Ch ai r man fro m a n y s itt ing of th e Counc il o f Sta te s th e D eput y Cha ir ma n, or, i f he i s al so a bs ent , su ch pe rson as ma y b e d ete r min ed b y th e rule s o f proc edu re o f th e Coun ci l, or, i f no su ch p er son is pre se nt, suc h othe r pe rs on as ma y be de te r min ed b y the Counc il, sh al l ac t as Ch ai r man . 92. T he Chai r man or the D e puty C hair man not to pres i de w hil e a res ol ut i on f or his re moval f ro m of fi ce is unde r c onsi de r at i on. — (1 ) At a n y si ttin g of the Counc il o f Sta te s, wh il e an y r es olut ion fo r the re mo va l o f th e Vi ce -P re sid ent fro m hi s offi ce i s unde r con sid er at ion, th e Ch ai r man , or whi le an y re so lution for th e r e mo val of th e D eput y Cha ir ma n fr o m his o ffi c e is und er c ons ide ra tion, the Depu t y Ch ai r man , sh all not, thou gh he is pr es en t, pre si de , a nd th e provis ions o f c lau se (2) of ar ti cl e 91 sh all app l y in re la tion to eve r y su ch si ttin g a s the y app l y in r el at ion to a s itt ing fr o m whi c h th e Cha ir ma n, or, as th e ca s e ma y be, th e Depu t y Cha ir ma n, is a bs ent . (2) The Ch ai r man sha ll h ave the r ight to s pe a k in, and oth er wis e to t ake p art in the proc ee din gs o f, the Coun ci l o f St at es whi le an y re solu tion for th e re mo va l o f the Vi ce -P re sid ent fr o m hi s o ffi c e i s und er con sid er at ion in th e Counc il, but, not wi th st andin g an yt hing in a rt ic le 100, sha ll not be e nti tle d to vo te a t al l on such r es olut ion or on a n y othe r ma t te r durin g su ch pro ce e dings . 93. T he Spe ake r and D e put y Spe ake r of t he H ouse of t he P eopl e. — Th e Hou se o f th e P eople sh all , a s soon a s ma y be, choo se t wo me mb er s o f th e Hou se to be re spe ct i ve l y Spe ake r a nd De put y Spe ake r th er eo f and, so o ft en a s the o ffi c e of Spe ake r or De put y Spe a ke r be co me s va ca nt, th e Hou se sh al l choo se anoth er me mb e r to b e Spe a ke r or De put y Spe ake r, as th e ca s e ma y be. 94. Vac ati on and res ig nat i on of, and re moval fro m, t he of fi c es of S pe ake r and De put y Spe a ke r. — A me mb er holdin g o ffi c e as Spe a ke r or D epu t y Sp ea ker of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e— (a) sha ll va ca te his offi ce i f he ce a se s to be a me mb e r of the Hou se o f th e P eopl e; (b) ma y at an y ti me , b y wr it in g unde r hi s hand addr es s ed, i f su ch me mbe r i s th e Spe a ke r, to the D eput y Sp ea ker, and i f su ch me mb er is the D epu t y Sp ea ker, to the Spe a ke r, r es i gn his o ffi c e; and (c ) ma y be r e mo ve d fro m hi s o ffi c e b y a re so lution of the Hous e o f th e P eople pa ss ed b y a m aj or it y of al l th e then me mb e rs of th e Hous e:

32

P rovid ed tha t no r es olut ion for the purpo se o f c la us e (c) sh al l be mo ve d unl es s a t l ea st fo urt ee n da ys ’ no t ic e ha s b een gi ve n of th e int en tion to mo ve th e r es olut ion: P rovid ed fur th er tha t, wh en eve r th e Hou se of th e P eopl e is dis sol ve d, th e Sp ea ker sh al l not vac a te hi s offi ce unti l i mme di at el y be for e th e fir s t me e ti ng of th e Hous e of the P eopl e a ft er th e dis solu tion. 95. Pow er of t he De put y S pe ake r or ot he r pe rs on to per f or m t he dut ie s of t he off ic e of , or to act as , S pe ake r.— (1) Whi le the offic e of Sp ea ker i s vac a nt, th e duti es o f th e o ffi c e s ha ll be per for me d b y th e D eput y Sp ea ker or, if the offi ce of D epu t y Spe ake r is a lso va ca nt, b y suc h me mbe r o f th e H ous e of th e P eople a s the P re sid ent ma y appo int fo r the purpo se . (2) Du rin g th e a bs en ce o f th e Sp ea ker fro m an y si ttin g o f the Hou se of th e P eopl e the De put y Sp ea ker or, i f h e is al so ab se nt, such per son a s ma y b e d ete r min ed b y th e rule s o f proc edu re o f th e H ous e, or, i f no su ch pe rson i s pre se nt, su ch othe r per son as ma y b e d ete r min ed b y th e Hous e, sh al l ac t a s Spe a ke r. 96. T he S pe a ke r or t he De put y Spe a ker not to pre si de w hil e a res ol ut i on f or his re moval f ro m of fi ce is unde r c onsi de r at i on. — (1 ) At a n y s it ting of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e, wh il e an y r es olut ion for the r e mo val o f the Sp ea ker fr o m his o ffi c e is und er c ons ide ra tion , the Spe ake r, or whi le a n y r es olu tion fo r the r e mo va l of th e De put y Spe a ke r fr o m hi s o ffi c e i s und er c ons ide ra tion, the Depu t y Sp ea ker, sh al l not, thou gh h e is pre se nt, pr es id e, a nd the provis ions of c lau se (2 ) of a rt ic le 95 s ha ll app l y in r el at ion to e ver y su ch s itt ing as th e y app l y in r el at ion to a sit tin g fr o m whi c h th e Spe ake r, or, a s the c as e ma y b e, the De put y Sp ea ker, is ab sen t. (2) The Sp ea ker sh all have the ri ght to spe a k in, and othe r wi s e to t ake p art in the proc ee din gs o f, the H ous e o f th e P eopl e whi le an y re solu tion for hi s r e mo val fro m offic e is under cons ide ra tion in the Hous e a nd sh al l, not with st and ing a n ythin g in ar ti cl e 100, be en tit le d to vo te onl y in the fir st in st anc e on s uch re solu tion or on an y othe r ma t te r dur ing su ch pro ce ed ings but not in th e c a se of a n e qua lit y o f vo te s. 97. Salar ie s and al l ow anc e s of the C hair man and De put y C hair man and the Spe a ker and D e puty S pe ake r.— The r e s ha ll be paid to the Ch ai r man and th e Depu t y Cha ir ma n of th e Counc il of Sta te s, and to the Sp ea ker and the De put y Sp ea ker o f th e H ous e of th e P eople , s uch s al ar ie s a nd al lo wan ce s as ma y be re sp ec ti vel y fi xe d b y P arl ia me nt b y la w and , unti l pro vi sion in tha t beh al f is so ma de , s uch sa la ri es and al lo wa nc e s a s a re spe ci fi ed in th e Se cond Sch edul e. 98. Se cret ari at of Parl i a me nt .— (1) E ac h Hou se of P arl ia me nt sha ll h ave a s epa ra t e se cr e ta ri al s ta ff: P rovid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l b e c ons tru ed as pr e ve nt ing th e c re a tion of post s co mmo n to both H ous es o f P ar lia me nt .

33

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) P ar lia men t ma y b y l a w re gu la te the r ec ru it men t, and the c ondit ions o f se r vi ce o f p er sons appoin ted , to th e se c re ta ri al s ta ff o f e ith er Hou se of P ar li a men t. (3) Un til provis ion i s ma de b y P arl ia me nt under cl aus e (2), the P re sid en t ma y, a ft e r con sult at ion with th e Sp ea ker of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e or th e Ch ai r man of the Counc il o f Sta te s, as the ca s e m a y be, ma ke rul es r e gul at ing th e re cr ui t ment , and th e c ondit ions o f se r vi ce o f p er sons a ppoint ed, to the se c re ta ri al st aff o f the Hou se of th e P eople or the Coun ci l o f St at es , and an y rul es so ma d e sha ll ha ve e ffe ct s ubje ct to the pro vi si ons o f an y l a w ma d e unde r th e sa id cl aus e. Conduc t of Bu sin es s 99. O at h or aff ir mati on by me mbe r s .— E ve r y me mbe r o f ei the r Hou se o f P arl ia me nt sh al l, be fo re t a kin g hi s s e at , ma ke and sub sc rib e be for e the P re sid ent , or so me pe rs on appoin ted in tha t beh al f b y hi m, an oath or a ffi r mat ion ac co rdin g to th e for m se t out for th e purpo se in the Thi rd S che dule . 100. Vot i ng i n H ouse s, pow er of Hous e s to ac t notw it hs t andi ng vac anc ie s and quor u m. — (1) S ave a s othe r wis e pro vi ded in this Con st itut ion, a ll qu es tions at an y s itt ing o f e ith er Hous e or joint s it ting o f th e Hous es sha ll be de te r mi ne d b y a ma jo rit y o f vote s o f the me mbe rs pr es en t and vot ing, othe r than the Sp ea ker or pe rs on a ct in g as Ch ai r man or Sp ea ker. Th e Cha ir ma n or Sp ea ker, or per son a ct ing a s su ch, sha ll not vot e in the fi rs t ins tan ce , but sha ll ha ve and exe rc is e a c a st ing vot e in th e ca s e of an e qua lit y o f vo te s. (2) Ei the r Hous e o f P arl ia me nt sh al l h ave po we r to ac t not wi th st andin g a n y va c an c y in th e me mb er s hip the re o f, and an y pro ce ed ings in P arli a me nt sh al l be va li d not with st and ing th at it is di sco ver ed sub se quen tl y th at so me p er son who wa s not e nti tle d so to do s at or vo ted or othe r wis e took pa rt in th e proc ee din gs . (3) Un til P arli a men t b y l a w othe r wi s e pro vi de s, the quoru m to cons ti tute a me et in g of ei the r Hou se o f P ar lia men t sh all be one -t enth of the tota l nu mbe r of me mb er s of the Hou se . (4) I f at an y ti me during a me et in g of a Hous e the re is no quoru m, it sh al l be the dut y of the Cha ir ma n or Sp ea ker, or per son a ct in g a s s uch , e ith er to adjou rn the Hou se or to susp end the me e ti ng unt il the re i s a quoru m. D isqua lif ic ation s of M e mb er s 101. Vac ati on of s e at s .— (1 ) No pe rs on sh all be a me mb er o f both Hou se s of P arl ia me nt and pro vi sion sha ll be ma de b y P arl ia me nt b y la w for th e va c at ion b y a pe rs on wh o i s chos en a me mb e r of both Hou se s o f his s ea t in one Hous e or the oth er.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) No pe rs on s ha ll b e a me mbe r both of P ar lia men t a nd o f a Hou se of th e Le gi sl at ur e of a S ta te , a nd i f a p er son is cho se n a me mbe r both o f P arli a men t and of a H ous e o f the Le gis l atu re of a Sta te , th en, a t the e xpir at ion o f su ch p er iod as ma y b e sp ec i fi e d in rul es mad e b y the P re sid ent , tha t pe rson ’s se at in P arl ia me nt sha ll b eco me va c ant , unle ss he h as pre viou sl y re si gned hi s s e at in the Le gis la tu re o f the St at e. (3) I f a me mb er o f e ith er Hou se o f P ar lia me nt — (a) be co me s sub je ct to an y of the disqu al i fi ca ti ons m en tion ed in c la us e (1) or cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 102, or (b) re si gns his s ea t b y wr it in g unde r hi s hand addr es s ed to th e Ch ai r man or the Spe a ke r, as the ca s e m a y be, and hi s re si gna tion i s a c ce pt ed b y th e Ch ai r man or th e Sp ea ker, as the ca s e ma y be , hi s se at sh al l the reupon be co me va c an t: P rovid ed tha t in th e c a se of a n y re si gn at ion r e fer r ed to in sub -c la us e ( b), i f fr o m in for ma ti on r ec e ive d or oth er wis e a nd a ft er m a ki ng suc h inqui r y as h e thinks fit , th e Cha ir ma n or the Sp ea ker, a s the c a se ma y be, i s s at is fie d th at s uch re si gn at ion i s not vo lunt ar y or genu ine , he sh al l not a cc e pt su ch r es i gn ation . (4) I f for a per iod of s ixt y d a ys a me mbe r of ei the r Hou se o f P ar li a men t i s wi thout p er mi ss ion o f the H ous e ab se nt fr o m a ll me e ti ngs the reo f, th e Hou se ma y dec la re his se a t va c an t: P rovid ed th at in co mp utin g the s ai d pe riod o f si xt y da ys no ac c ount sh al l b e ta ken o f an y p eriod during whi ch the Hous e i s pro rogued or is adjou rned for mo r e than fou r c ons ec ut ive da ys . 102. Di s qual if ic ati ons for me mb e r s hi p.— (1) A per son sh al l be di squa li fie d for bein g chos en as , and for be ing, a me mb er o f e ith er Hou se o f P arl ia me nt — (a) i f h e hold s an y offi ce of pro fit unde r the Go ve rn me nt o f Indi a or th e Go ve rn me nt of a n y Sta te , othe r th an an offic e d ec la re d b y P ar lia men t b y la w not to disqu al i fy it s holde r; (b) i f he is o f unsound mind and s tand s so de cl ar ed b y a c o mp et en t c ourt ; (c ) i f h e i s an undis cha rge d in sol ve nt ; (d) i f he is not a ci tiz en o f Indi a, or ha s volun ta ri l y a cqu ir ed the c it iz en ship of a fo re i gn Sta te , or is unde r a n y a c kno wl ed gme nt of a ll egi an ce or adh er en ce to a for ei gn S ta te ; (e ) i f h e i s so disqu ali fi ed b y or unde r a n y la w mad e b y P arli a men t. Exp lanation .—Fo r the purpos es of thi s c la us e a pe rson s ha ll not b e d ee me d to hold a n offi ce o f pro fit under the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia or the Go ver n men t o f an y St at e b y r ea s on onl y th at he is a Mini st er e ith er for th e Un ion or for such St at e.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) A per son sh al l be disqu al i fi ed fo r b eing a me mb er of e ith er Hous e of P arli a me nt i f he i s so disq u al i fi ed und er th e Ten th S che dule . 103. De ci si on on que s ti ons as t o di s quali fi c at i ons of me mbe r s. — (1 ) I f an y que st ion a ri se s a s to wh e the r a me mb e r o f ei the r Hou se of P ar lia men t h as be co me s ubje ct to an y o f the di squa li fic at ion s men tion ed in c la us e (1 ) o f a rt ic le 102, the ques tion s ha ll b e re fe rr e d fo r the d ec is ion of th e Pr es iden t a nd hi s dec is ion sha ll be fin al . (2 ) B e fo re gi ving an y de ci sion on an y su ch que st ion, th e P res ide nt sh al l obta in th e opinion of th e Ele ct ion Co mmi s sion and sh al l a ct ac co rdin g to su ch opinion. 104. Pe nalty for s it ti ng and vot i ng bef ore ma ki ng oat h or aff ir mati on unde r art ic le 99 or w hen not qual if ie d or w hen di s quali fi e d. — I f a pe rson s it s or vot es a s a me mb e r of eith er H ous e of P arli a men t b e fo re he ha s co mpl ie d wit h th e re quir e me nt s o f a rt ic le 99, or whe n he kno ws tha t he is not qu ali fie d or th at he i s di squa li fie d fo r me mb er s hip th er eo f, or th at he i s proh ibit ed fro m so doing b y the pro vi sion s of an y la w ma d e b y P ar lia men t, he sha ll be li abl e in r es pe ct o f e ac h da y on whi ch he so s it s or vot es to a pen alt y o f fi ve hundre d ru p ee s to be re co ver ed a s a d ebt due to th e Union.

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Po we rs , Pr iv ile ge s and I mmun iti es of Pa rlia me nt and it s Me m be rs 105. Pow e rs , pr i vi le ge s, e tc ., of the H ous e s of Parl ia me nt and of the me mb e rs and c o m mi t te e s t here of. — (1 ) Subje ct to the provis ion s o f thi s Con st itut ion and to th e ru le s a nd st andin g orde rs re gula tin g the pro ce dur e o f P arl ia me nt , th er e sh al l b e fr e edo m of spe e ch in P ar li a men t. (2) No me mb e r o f P arli a men t sh al l be liab le to an y proc ee din gs in an y c ourt in re sp ec t o f a n y thin g sa id or a n y vo te gi ven b y hi m in P arli a men t or a n y co m mit te e the reo f, a nd no per son s ha ll be so li abl e in r es pe ct of th e publi ca ti on b y or unde r th e autho ri t y o f e ith er Hous e of P arli a me nt o f an y r epo rt, pap er, vot es or pro ce ed ings. (3) In othe r re sp ec ts , the po we rs , pri vi le ge s and i mmun iti es of e a ch Hou se of P ar li a men t, and of th e me mb er s a nd th e co mmi tt e es of e a ch Hou se , sh all be su ch as ma y fro m ti me to ti me be de fin ed b y P ar lia me nt b y l a w, and, until so de fin ed, sh al l b e tho se o f th at Hous e and o f its me mb er s a nd co m mit te es i m med ia te l y b e fo re the c o mi ng into for c e of se c tion 15 o f th e Cons titu tion (For t y- fo ur th A me nd me nt ) Ac t, 1978. (4) The pro vi sion s o f cl aus es (1 ), (2 ) and (3 ) sh al l app l y in r el at ion to p er sons wh o b y vi rt ue of thi s Cons ti tution have the right to spe a k in, and oth er wi se to t ake pa rt in the proc e ed ings of, a Hou se o f P arl ia me nt or an y

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA c o mmi tt ee the re o f as th e y a ppl y in r el at ion to me mb er s of

P ar lia men t. 106. Salar ie s and al l ow anc e s of me mbe r s. — Me mbe rs o f e ith er Hou se o f P arl ia me nt sh al l b e e nti tl ed to r ec ei ve su ch sa la ri e s and al lo wan ce s a s ma y fr o m t i me to t i me be de te r mi ne d b y P arl ia me nt b y l a w a nd, until pro vi si on in tha t r es pe ct is s o mad e , a llo wan ce s at suc h ra te s and upon su ch c ondit ions as we re i m med ia te l y b e fo re the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Con st itut ion a ppli ca bl e in th e ca se of m e mb er s o f the Con sti tue nt As s e mb l y o f th e D o mi nion of India . L egi slat iv e P roc edu re 107. Provi si ons as to introduc ti on and pas s i ng of B ills .— (1 ) Subje ct to the pro vi si o ns of ar ti cl es 109 and 117 wi th re sp ec t to Mon e y Bil ls and oth er fin an ci al Bi ll s, a Bil l ma y origin at e in e ith er Hou se of P ar li a men t. (2) Subje ct to the provis ions of a rti cl es 108 and 109, a Bi ll sh al l not be d ee me d to ha ve be en pas s ed b y th e Hous es of P ar lia men t unl es s it ha s bee n a gre e d to b y both Hou se s, ei the r wi thout a mend me nt or wit h suc h a me nd me nt s onl y a s ar e a gr e ed to b y both Hous es . (3) A Bil l pendin g in P arli a me nt s ha ll not l aps e b y r ea s on of th e pro roga tion of the Hou se s. (4) A Bil l p ending in th e Counc il of Sta te s whi ch ha s not be en pa ss ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e s ha ll not l aps e on a di sso lution o f the Hou se of th e P eopl e. (5) A Bil l wh ic h i s pendin g in the Hou se o f the P eopl e, or wh ic h havin g b een pa ss ed b y the Hou se o f the P eopl e is pendin g in the Coun ci l o f St at es , sh al l, s ubje ct to the provis ion s o f a rt ic le 108, lap se on a di sso lution of the Hou se of th e P eople . 108. Joint s it ti ng of bot h H ouse s i n c er t ai n c as e s. — (1) I f a ft er a Bil l h as be en pas s ed b y one Hou se and tra ns mit te d to th e othe r H ous e— ( a) the Bi ll is r ej ec te d b y the oth er Hou se ; or ( b) the Hou se s ha ve fin al l y dis agr ee d as to the a me nd men ts to be ma d e in th e Bil l; or ( c ) mor e th an s ix month s el ap se fr o m th e dat e of the re c ept ion of th e B ill b y th e othe r Hous e wit hout the B ill be ing p as se d b y it, th e P re sid ent m a y, unl es s the B ill has el ap se d b y re as on o f a dis solu tion o f th e Hou se of th e P eopl e, noti f y to th e Hou se s b y me ss a ge i f th e y a re s itt ing or b y publ ic n oti fic a tion i f th e y ar e not s it ting, his int ent ion to su m mo n th e m to me e t in a joint si ttin g fo r th e purpos e of d elib er at in g and vo ting on th e Bil l: P rovid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l a ppl y to a Mone y Bi ll. (2) In re c kon ing a n y such pe riod o f si x mon ths a s is r e fer re d to in cl au se (1 ), no a cc ount s ha ll be ta ken o f an y pe riod during whi ch the H ous e r e fer r ed to in sub -c lau se ( c ) of th at cl au se i s proro gu ed or a djourn ed fo r mo re than fo ur con se c uti ve da ys .

(3) Whe re th e P re sid ent has unde r c la us e (1) noti fie d his int en tion of s u mmon ing th e Hous es to me e t in a joint si ttin g, n eith er Hou se sh al l proc ee d fu rth er wi th th e B ill , but the P re sid ent ma y a t a n y ti me a fte r th e dat e of hi s noti fi c at ion su mmon th e Hous es to me e t in a joint si ttin g for th e purpo se spe ci fi ed in the noti fi c at ion and, i f h e doe s so, the H ous es sh al l me et ac co rdin gl y. (4) I f a t th e joint sit tin g o f the t wo Hou se s the Bil l, wi th su ch a me nd me nt s, i f an y, a s a re a gre e d to in jo int sit tin g, i s p as se d b y a ma j ori t y of th e tota l nu mb er o f me mb e rs o f both Hous e s pre se nt and votin g, it s ha ll be dee med fo r th e purpo se s o f this Cons titu tion to h ave b een pa ss ed b y both Hou se s: P rovid ed tha t at a joint s itt ing— ( a) i f th e B ill, havin g bee n pa ss ed b y on e Hous e, ha s not be en p as se d b y the othe r Hou se wit h a men d men ts and r etu rned to the Hous e in wh ic h it or igina te d, no a me nd men t sh al l be propo se d to th e Bi ll oth er th an suc h a me nd me nt s ( i f an y) as a re mad e ne ce s s ar y b y the de la y in th e p as sa ge o f the B ill ; ( b) if the Bi ll has b een so pa ss ed and r etu rned , onl y su ch a me nd me nt s a s a for es a id sha ll be propos ed to the Bi ll and suc h oth er a me nd me nt s as a re re le van t to th e ma tt er s wit h re sp ec t to wh ic h th e Hou se s have not a gr e ed; a nd the dec is ion o f th e p er son pre si din g a s to the a me nd me nt s whi ch ar e a d mi s sib le unde r this c la us e sha ll be fin al . (5) A joint s itt ing ma y be he ld unde r thi s ar ti cl e a nd a B ill pas s ed th er ea t, not with st andin g th at a dis solu tion of the Hou se o f the P eopl e has int er ven ed s inc e the Pr es iden t noti fie d his inte ntion to su mmon the H ous es to me e t the re in. 109. Spe ci al proce dure in res pe ct of M one y B ill s. — (1 ) A Mon e y Bi ll sh al l not be int roduc ed in the Coun cil o f St at es . (2) Aft e r a Mone y B ill ha s bee n p as se d b y the Hou se of th e P eople it sh al l be tra ns mi tt ed to th e Coun ci l of St at es fo r its re co m men da tion s and th e Coun ci l of St at es sh all wit hin a per iod of fou rt ee n da ys fr o m the dat e o f its re ce ip t of th e Bi ll r etu rn the Bil l to th e Hou se of th e P eople wit h its r ec o mme nd at ions and th e H ous e of th e P eople ma y th er eupon ei the r ac c ept or r ej ec t al l or an y o f the r ec o mme nd at ions o f the Coun ci l o f St at es . (3) I f th e Hou se of th e P eopl e ac c ep ts an y o f the r ec o mme nd at ions of the Coun ci l of St at es , th e Mon e y Bi ll sh al l be dee me d to h ave bee n pa ss ed b y both Hou se s wit h th e a men d men ts re co m men de d b y the Coun ci l o f St at es a nd a c ce pt ed b y th e H ous e of th e P eople . (4) I f th e Hous e of the P eopl e do es not ac c ept an y o f th e r ec o mme nd at ions o f the Coun ci l o f St at es , the Mone y B ill sh al l b e d ee me d to ha ve bee n p as se d b y both H ous es in th e for m in whi ch it wa s p as se d b y th e Hou se of th e P eopl e wit hout a n y of th e a me nd men ts re co m men ded b y th e Counc il of Sta te s.

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(5) I f a Mone y Bil l p as se d b y the Hous e o f th e P eopl e and t ran s mit te d to the Counc il o f Sta te s fo r it s r ec o mme nd at ions is not r et urn ed to the Hou se of th e P eople wit hin the s aid pe riod o f fo ur te en da ys , it sh all b e de e med to have be en pa ss e d b y both Hous e s a t th e e xp ir ation of the sa id p eriod in the for m in wh ic h it wa s pa ss ed b y th e Hous e o f the P eopl e. 110. D ef i ni ti on of "M oney B ill s' '.— (1) For th e purpos es o f th is Ch apt er, a Bil l sh all be de e me d to be a Mon e y Bi ll i f it con ta ins onl y pro vi si ons de al ing wi th a ll or a n y of th e fo llo win g ma t te rs , na me l y:— ( a) the i mp os ition, abo lit ion, re mi s sion , a lt er at ion or r e gu la tion of a n y t a x; ( b) th e re gula tion of the borro win g o f mon e y or th e gi vin g of an y gua ra nt ee b y the Go ve rn me nt o f Ind ia , or th e a me nd men t o f th e l a w wit h r es pe ct to an y fi na nc ia l obli ga ti ons under ta ken or to be unde rt a ke n b y th e Go ve rn me nt of Ind ia ; ( c ) th e cu stod y of the Conso lida te d Fund or th e Cont inge nc y Fund of Ind ia , th e pa ymen t of mo ne ys into or the wi thd ra wa l of mo ne ys fr o m a n y su ch Fund; ( d) the app ropri at ion of mo ne ys out of th e Conso lid at ed Fund o f Ind ia ; ( e ) th e de cl ar ing o f a n y e xp endi tur e to be expe nditu re ch arge d on th e Con solid at ed Fund of Indi a or th e in cr ea si ng o f th e a moun t of an y su ch e xp endi tur e; ( f) th e r ec e ipt o f mon e y on a cc ount of the Cons olid at ed Fund o f Ind ia or the public ac c ount o f Ind ia or th e cu stod y or is sue of su ch mo ne y or th e a udit o f the a cc ount s of th e Union or of a S ta te ; or ( g) an y ma tt er in cid ent al to an y o f the ma t te rs spe ci fi ed in s ubc la us es ( a) to ( f) . (2) A Bil l s ha ll not b e d ee me d to be a Mon e y Bil l b y re as on onl y th at it pro vi de s fo r th e i mpo sit ion o f fi ne s or oth er p ecun ia r y pen alt ie s, or fo r th e d e mand or pa ymen t of fe e s for lic en ce s or fe e s fo r s er vic e s re nde re d, or b y r ea son th at it provid es for the i mp os ition, abo lit ion, re mi s sion , a lt er at ion or r egul at ion o f an y t ax b y an y lo ca l autho rit y or bod y for loc al purpo se s. (3) I f a n y qu es tion ar is es wh e the r a Bi ll is a Mone y B ill or not, the d ec is ion o f th e Sp ea ker of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e the reon sh al l b e fi na l. (4) The r e sh al l be endor se d on e ve r y Mone y Bil l wh e n it i s tr an s mit ted to th e Coun ci l of St at es unde r ar ti cl e 109, a nd whe n it is pr es en te d to the P re sid ent for a ss e nt unde r a rt ic le 111 , th e ce rt i fi c at e of the Sp ea ker o f th e Hou se of th e P eople s igned b y hi m tha t it i s a Mone y Bi ll. 111. A ss e nt to B ills .— Whe n a Bil l ha s be en pa ss e d b y the Hous es o f P ar lia men t, it sha ll b e pre s ent ed to th e P re sid ent , and th e P re sid ent sha ll d ec la re e ith er th at he as s en ts to the Bi ll, or tha t h e wi thho lds as s en t th er e fro m:

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P rovid ed tha t the P re sid ent ma y, as soon a s po ss ible a fte r the pr es en ta tion to hi m of a Bil l for as s ent , r etu rn the Bi ll i f it is not a Mone y B ill to the H ous es wit h a me ss a ge requ es ti ng tha t the y wil l r ec ons ide r th e B ill or an y s pe ci fi ed pro vi si ons the reo f and , in pa rti cul ar, wi ll cons ide r th e d es ir abil it y o f introdu ci ng a n y s uch a me nd men ts a s he ma y re co m men d in hi s me ss a ge, a nd wh en a Bi ll is so r etu rned , th e Hous es sha ll r ec ons ide r the B ill a cc ord ingl y, a nd i f th e Bil l i s pas s ed a ga in b y th e Hous es with or wi thout a me nd me nt and pre se nt ed to th e Pr es iden t for as s ent , th e Pr es iden t sh al l not wi thhold a ss en t the re fro m. P ro ce dure in Financ ial Ma tt er s 112. A nnual f inanc i al s tat e me nt .— (1 ) The Pr es iden t s ha ll in r es pe ct o f e ver y fi nan ci al ye a r ca us e to b e la id be for e both th e Hou se s of P arl ia me nt a st at e men t o f the e st i mat e d re c eip ts and e xp end itur e o f the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia fo r th at ye a r, in this P art r e fer r ed to as the "a nnua l fi nan ci al s ta te me nt ''. (2) Th e e st i mat es of e xpend itu re e mbod ied in the annu al fin an ci al s ta te me nt sh al l sho w s ep ar at el y— ( a) the su ms r equi re d to me e t e xp endi tur e des cr ib ed b y thi s Con st itut ion as e xp endi tur e ch arged upon th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f Ind ia ; a nd ( b) the su ms r equi re d to me e t othe r expe nditu re propo se d to be ma de fr o m th e Conso lid at ed Fund o f Indi a, a nd sha ll dist ingui sh e xp endi tur e on re venu e a c coun t fro m oth er e xpend itur e. (3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India— (a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office; (b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People; (c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt; (d) (i) the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court; (ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court; (iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation to any area included in a Governor's Province of the Dominion of India; (e) the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India;

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(f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or

award of any court or arbitral tribunal; (g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged. 113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.—(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the House of the People, and the House of the People shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President. 114. Appropriation Bills.— (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the House of th e P eople ; a nd (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final. (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.— (1) The President shall— (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 112, 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or grant. 116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in res pe ct of th e es ti ma t ed e xpend itu re fo r a p art o f an y fin an ci al ye a r p endin g the co mpl et ion of th e proc edu re pr es cr ib ed in a rt ic le 113 fo r the vot ing of su ch gr ant and th e pa ss ing o f th e la w in a cc ord an ce wi th th e pro vi si ons o f ar ti cl e 114 in re la tion to th at e xp endi tur e; ( b) to ma ke a gr an t for me et in g an une xp ec te d de ma nd upon the r es our ce s o f Indi a wh e n on ac coun t o f th e ma gn itud e or the inde fin ite c ha ra ct er of th e se r vi ce the de ma nd ca nnot be st at ed wit h th e det ai ls ord ina ri l y gi ven in a n a nnua l fi na nc ia l s ta te men t; ( c ) to ma ke an exc ep tion al gr an t wh i ch for ms no p art of the cur re nt s er vic e o f an y fi nan ci al ye ar ; a nd P ar lia men t s ha ll have po wer to au thor is e b y l a w th e withd ra wa l o f mo ne ys fr o m th e Cons olid at ed Fund o f India fo r the purpo se s fo r wh ic h th e s ai d gr ant s ar e ma de . (2) Th e pro vi sion s of ar tic le s 113 and 114 sh al l have e ffe c t in r el at ion to th e ma ki ng of an y gr an t unde r c lau se (1 ) and to a n y l a w to be ma de unde r th at c la us e a s the y have e ffe ct in re la tion to the ma kin g o f a gra nt wi th r e ga rd to an y e xpend itur e m en tion ed in th e annu al fin anc ia l s ta te me nt and th e la w to be ma d e fo r th e a uthor is at ion of a pprop ria tion o f mon e ys out o f th e Conso lida te d Fund o f Indi a to me e t su ch e xp enditu re . 117. S pec i al provi si ons as t o fi nanc ial B ill s.— (1) A Bil l or a me nd men t ma ki ng provis ion fo r a n y of th e ma tt e rs sp ec i fi e d in sub -c lau se s ( a) to (f ) o f c lau se (1) of ar tic le 110 sh al l not be int roduc ed or mo ve d e xc ep t on the r ec o mme nd at ion o f th e P re sid en t a nd a B ill ma kin g su ch provis ion sh al l not b e int roduc ed in the Coun ci l o f St at es : P rovid ed th at no r ec o mme nd at ion sh all be r equi re d unde r this cl au se fo r th e mo vin g o f an a men d men t ma ki ng pro vi si on fo r the r educ tion or a boli tion of a n y ta x. (2) A Bil l or a me nd men t sha ll not be dee me d to m a ke pro vi sion for a n y o f th e ma t te r s a fo re s ai d b y re as on onl y th at it provid es for the i mpos ition o f fin es or oth er pe cuni ar y pena lt ie s, or fo r th e d e mand or pa ymen t of fe es for li ce nc es or fe e s fo r se rvi ce s rend er ed , or b y r ea son that it pro vid es for th e i mpos ition , abo lit ion, r e mi s si on, a lt er at ion or r egul at ion of an y ta x b y a n y lo ca l autho ri t y or bod y fo r loc al purpo se s. (3) A Bil l whi ch, if en ac t ed a nd brought in to ope ra tion, wo uld in vol ve e xpend itur e fro m th e Con sol ida te d Fund of India s ha ll not b e p as se d b y e ith er Hou se of P ar lia men t unl es s th e P re sid ent ha s re co m men de d to tha t Hou se the con sid er at ion of th e Bil l.

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P ro ce dure Ge ne ral ly

118. R ule s of proc e dure. — (1) Ea ch Hou se of P ar lia me nt ma y ma ke ru le s fo r r egul at ing, subje ct to th e pro vi si ons o f thi s Cons titu tion, it s pro ce dur e and the condu ct o f it s busin es s. (2) Unti l rul es ar e mad e unde r cl au se (1) , the rule s of proc edu re and s ta nding orde rs in fo r ce i mme di at el y b e fo re th e c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion wi th re sp ec t to the Le gi sl a tur e of the Do min ion o f Indi a sh al l h ave effe c t in re la tion to P ar li a men t subj ec t to suc h modi fi ca tion s a nd a dap ta tion s as ma y be ma de th er ein b y the Ch ai r man of th e Counc il of St at es or th e Spe ake r of the Hou se o f th e P eopl e, a s the c as e ma y be . (3) Th e P re sid ent, a fte r con sul ta tion wit h the Cha ir ma n of the Counc il o f St at es and the Spe a ke r o f the Hou se of th e P eople , ma y ma ke rul es a s to the pro ce dur e wit h r es pe ct to joint s itt ings o f, and co m mu ni ca tion s bet we e n, th e t wo Hou se s. (4) At a joint s itt ing o f th e t wo Hou se s th e Sp ea ker of th e Hou se of th e P eopl e, or in his a bs en ce su ch pe rson as ma y b e det er mi ne d b y rul es of pro ce dur e mad e und er cl au se (3 ), sh all pr es ide . 119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.— Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House of Parliament in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 120. Language to be used in Parliament.— (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom. 121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.— No discussion shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided. 122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.— (1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers. CHAPTER III—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT 123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.—(1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and ( b) ma y be withd ra wn a t a n y ti me b y th e P res ide nt. Exp lanation .— Whe re th e Hous es of P ar li a men t a re su mmo ned to r ea s se mb le on diffe r en t d ate s, th e per iod of s ix we e ks sha ll be re c kon ed fr o m th e la te r of tho se d ate s for th e purpos es of thi s cl au se . (3) I f a nd so fa r a s an Or dina nc e unde r th is ar ti cl e ma ke s an y pro vi si on whi c h P ar lia men t wo uld not unde r this Con st itut ion b e c o mp et en t to en ac t, it sh al l be void . * * * * * C H A P T E R IV. — T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A RY 124. Es tabl is h me nt and c ons ti t uti on of S upre me Cour t. — (1 ) Th er e sh al l be a Supr e me Cour t o f Ind ia cons is tin g o f a Ch ie f Ju st ic e o f India a nd, unti l P arli a me nt b y l a w pre sc ri be s a la rger nu mbe r, o f not mo r e th an s e ve n 1 oth er Jud ges . (2) E ve r y Jud ge of th e Supr e me Cou rt sha ll be appo inte d b y the P re sid ent b y war r an t unde r his hand and se al a ft e r c onsu lta tion with suc h o f th e J udges of th e Supr e me Cou rt and of th e Hi gh Cou rts in the St at es as th e Pr es iden t m a y d ee m ne ce s sa r y for the purpos e and sh al l hold offi ce unti l he att ai ns the a ge o f si xt y- fi ve ye a rs : P rovid ed th at in the c a se o f a ppoint me nt o f a Jud ge oth er than the Ch ie f Ju st ic e, th e Chie f Ju sti ce of Ind ia sh al l al wa ys be con sul te d: P rovid ed fu rt he r tha t— ( a) a Judge ma y, b y wri tin g und er hi s hand addr es s ed to the P re sid en t, re si gn hi s offic e ; ( b) a Judge ma y be r e mo ve d fr o m hi s offic e in the ma nn er pro vi ded in cl au se (4 ). (2 A) Th e ag e of a Judge of th e Supr e me Cour t sh all be de te r min ed b y su ch au thori t y and in su ch man ne r as P arli a men t ma y b y l a w pro vid e.

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(3) A per son sh al l not b e qual i fi ed fo r a ppoint me nt as a Jud ge of the Supr e me Cou rt unle ss he is a ci ti ze n o f Indi a and — ( a) has be en fo r a t le as t fi ve ye a rs a Judge o f a Hi gh Cou rt or of t wo or mo r e su ch Court s in s uc ce s sion ; or ( b) has be en fo r a t le as t ten ye a r s an ad vo ca te of a H igh Court or of t wo or mor e su ch Cour ts in suc c es si on; or (c ) i s, in th e opin ion o f th e P re sid en t, a dist ingui shed jur is t. Exp lanation I. —In thi s c la us e "H igh Cou rt '' m e an s a Hi gh Cou rt wh ic h e xer c is es , or wh ic h at an y ti me be fo re th e co m men ce men t of th is Con st itut ion e xer c is ed , ju ris dic tion in an y pa rt of th e te rr ito r y o f Ind ia . Exp lanation I I. —In co mput ing for the purpos e o f this c la us e the pe riod dur ing wh ic h a p er son has be en an ad vo ca te , an y pe riod durin g whi ch a p er son h as he ld jud ic ia l o ffi c e not in fe ri or to that o f a dis tr ic t jud ge a ft e r 1. Now “twenty-five”, vide Act 22 of 1986, s. 2 h e b ec a me a n a dvoc at e sh al l b e in clud ed. (4) A Judge o f th e Sup re me Cour t sh al l not be r e mo ve d fr o m hi s offic e e xc ept b y an ord er of the Pr es iden t pa ss ed a ft er an addr es s b y ea ch Hous e o f P arl ia me nt suppo rt ed b y a ma jo ri t y o f th e tota l me mb er sh ip o f th at Hou se and b y a ma jo ri t y o f not le ss th an t wo -thi rds o f th e m e mb er s o f tha t Hou se pr es en t and vot ing ha s be en pr es en ted to the Pr es iden t in th e sa me s es s ion fo r su ch re mo va l on th e gr ound o f pro ve d mis be ha vi our or in ca pa ci t y. (5) P arli a men t ma y b y la w r egul at e th e pro ce d ur e for the pre se nt at ion of a n add re ss and for th e inve st iga tion and proo f of th e mi sb eha viou r or in ca pa ci t y of a J udge unde r cl aus e (4 ). (6) E ve r y pe rson appo int ed to be a Jud ge of the Supr e me Cou rt sh all , b e fo re he en te rs upon his offi ce , ma ke a nd s ubs cr ibe b e fo re th e P re sid ent , or so me per son appoin ted in tha t b eha l f b y hi m, an oa th or a ffir mat ion a c co rding to th e fo r m se t out for th e purpos e in the Th ird Sch edu le . (7) No pe rson who ha s held o ffi c e as a J udge o f the Supr e me Court sh al l pl ea d or a ct in an y cou rt or be fo re a n y a utho rit y wi thin th e t er ri tor y o f Ind ia . 125. S al ari es , et c. , of J udg es .— (1) Th er e sh al l be paid to the Jud ge s o f th e Supre me Cour t such s al ar ie s a s ma y be det er mi ne d b y P arli a me nt b y l a w a nd, until provis ion in th at beh al f is so mad e , suc h s al ar ie s a s a re sp ec i fie d in th e Se cond Sch edul e. (2) Ever y Jud ge sh al l be enti tl ed to su ch pr ivil e ge s and a llo wa nc es and to s uch right s in r es pe ct of le a ve o f abs en ce and p ens ion as ma y fro m ti me to ti me b e d ete r min ed b y or unde r la w mad e b y P arli a men t and, until so d ete r min ed, to suc h pr ivil e ge s, a llo wa nc es and ri ght s as a re spe ci fi ed in the S ec ond S che dule : P rovid ed tha t neith er th e pri vi le ges nor th e al lo wan ce s o f a Judge nor hi s r ights in re sp ec t o f le a ve o f a bs enc e or pen sion s ha ll b e var ie d to his

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA di sa dvan ta ge a ft er his a ppoint me nt. 126. A ppoi nt me nt of ac ti ng C hi ef J us ti ce .— Wh en the o ffi c e of Chi e f Ju st ic e o f Indi a is vac a nt or wh en th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce is, b y r ea s on o f ab se nc e or oth er wis e , unabl e to pe r fo r m the duti es o f his o ffi c e, th e dutie s of the o ffi c e sha ll b e pe r fo r med b y s uch one o f th e oth er J udge s o f the Cou rt a s th e Pr es iden t m a y a ppoint for th e purpos e. 127. A ppoi nt me nt of ad ho c J udg es .— (1) I f a t an y ti me the re should not b e a quoru m o f the Judge s o f the Sup re me Cou rt a vai la bl e to hold or c ontinu e an y se s sion o f the Cou rt, th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce of Ind ia ma y, with th e pr e viou s con sen t of th e Pr es iden t a nd a ft er consu lt at ion wi th the Ch ie f Ju st ic e o f the H igh Cou rt c onc er ned , re que st in wri tin g the a tt enda nc e a t th e s itt ings of the Court , as an ad hoc Judge, fo r suc h pe riod a s ma y be ne ce s sa r y, of a J udge o f a Hi gh Cou rt dul y qu ali fie d fo r a ppoint me nt as a Judge o f the Sup re me Court to be de si gn at ed b y th e Ch ie f Ju st ic e o f Indi a. (2) It sh al l be th e dut y of the Judge wh o ha s b een so de si gn at ed, in pr iori t y to oth er dutie s o f his o ffi c e, to a tte nd the si ttin gs o f th e Sup re me Cou rt a t th e ti me and fo r th e pe riod for whi ch his a tt end anc e is r equi re d, a nd whi le so att end ing h e sh al l have a ll th e ju ris dic tion , po wer s and pr ivil e ge s, a nd s ha ll dis ch arge th e dutie s, o f a Jud ge of the Supr e me Cou rt. 128. A tt e ndanc e of re ti re d J udg es at s it ti ng s of the S upre me Cour t. — Not wit hs tand ing an yt hin g in th is Ch ap te r, th e Chi e f Ju sti ce o f Ind ia ma y a t an y ti me, wi th th e pre viou s con se nt o f th e P re sid ent , re que st an y p er son who ha s held th e offic e o f a Jud ge of th e Supr e me Cou rt or o f th e Fed er al Cou rt or wh o ha s he ld th e offi ce o f a Jud ge o f a Hi gh Court and i s dul y qu ali fie d fo r appoin t men t a s a Jud ge of th e Supr e me Cou rt to s it and ac t as a Jud ge of the Supr e me Cou rt, and e ver y suc h p er son s o r equ es te d s ha ll, whi le so sit tin g a nd ac tin g, be e nti tl ed to su ch a llo wa nc es a s th e P re sid ent ma y b y orde r de te r min e and have al l th e jur isd ic tion, po wer s and pr ivil e ge s o f, but sh all not othe r wi s e be de e med to be, a Jud ge of tha t Cou rt: P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll b e de e med to re quir e a n y su ch p er son as a for es a id to s it a nd ac t a s a Jud ge o f th at Court unle ss he c ons ent s so to do. 129. Supre me C ourt t o be a c ourt of rec or d. — The Supr e me Cour t sh al l b e a c ourt of re co rd and sha ll h ave al l the powe rs o f su ch a cou rt in clud ing th e powe r to puni sh fo r cont e mpt o f it se l f. 130. S eat of Supre me Cour t. — The Supre me Cour t sha ll si t in D elh i or in s uch othe r pla ce or pl ac e s, as the Chi e f Jus ti ce of Indi a ma y, wi th th e a ppro va l of the P res ide nt, fr o m ti me to ti me , appo int. 131. Or ig inal j ur is di ct i on of t he Supre me C our t. — Subje ct to the pro vi si ons of this Cons ti tution, the Supre me Cou rt s ha ll, to the e xcl us ion o f an y oth er cou rt, ha ve ori gi na l ju ris dic tion in an y dispu te — ( a) bet we en th e Go ver n men t o f Ind ia and one or mor e St at es ; or

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( b) bet we en th e Go ver n men t of Ind ia and an y St at e or St at es on one sid e and one or mo re othe r Sta te s on th e oth er ; or ( c ) bet we en t wo or mor e St at es , i f a nd in so fa r as the dispu te in vol ves an y ques tion ( whe the r of la w or fa c t) on wh ic h the e xi st en ce or e xte nt of a l e ga l ri gh t d epend s: P rovided th at the s aid jur isd ic tion sh all not e xt end to a di sput e ar is ing out o f an y t re at y, a gre e me nt , co ve na nt, enga ge me nt, sanad or oth er si mil ar in st ru men t whi c h, havin g be en ent er ed into or exe cu ted be for e the c o mme nc e me nt of thi s Cons ti tution , cont inue s in op er at ion a ft e r s uch c o mme nc e me nt , or whi ch provide s tha t the sa id jur isd ic tion s ha ll not e xte nd to su ch a disput e. 131A. [ Ex clu si ve jur isd ic tion of th e Suprem e Cour t in rega rd to qu es tions as to con sti tutiona l v alid it y of C ent ral law s. ] Rep . b y th e Con st itut ion (F or ty -th ird Am end me nt) Ac t, 1977, s . 4 (w. e. f. 13-4- 1978). 132. A ppel lat e j uri s di c ti on of S upre me Cour t in appe als fro m Hig h C ourt s i n c er t ai n c as e s. — (1) An app ea l sha ll li e to th e Supre me Cour t fr o m a n y judgme nt, de cr e e or fin al orde r of a Hi gh Cour t in th e t er ri tor y o f Ind ia , wh et he r in a c ivil , c ri mi na l or oth er pro ce ed ing, i f the H igh Cou rt c er ti fi es und er ar ti cl e 134A tha t th e ca s e invol ve s a sub st ant ia l ques tion of l a w a s to the int erp re ta tion o f this Con st itut ion. * * * * * (3) Whe re su ch a ce rt i fi c at e is gi ven, an y pa rt y in the ca s e ma y app ea l to th e Supre me Cour t on the ground tha t an y suc h qu es tion as a for e sa id ha s b een wr ongl y de cid ed. Exp lanation .— For th e purpo se s o f this ar ti cl e, the e xpr es si on “ fi na l ord er ” includ es an orde r de cid ing an is sue wh ic h, i f de cid ed in fa vou r of th e appe ll ant , wo uld be suffi c ie nt fo r the fi na l di spos al o f th e ca se . 133. A ppel lat e j uri s di c ti on of S upre me Cour t in appe als fro m Hig h C ourt s i n regar d to c ivil mat t e r s. — (1) An app ea l sha ll li e to th e Supre me Cou rt fr o m an y judgme nt , de cr ee or fi na l orde r in a c ivil proc ee din g o f a H igh Court in the t er rito r y of Ind ia i f th e Hi gh Cour t ce rt i fi es under a rt ic le 134 A— ( a) th at th e c as e involve s a sub st ant ia l que st ion of l a w of gen er al i mpor ta nc e; and ( b) that in the opinion o f the H igh Cou rt the s ai d qu es tion nee ds to b e d ec ided b y the Supr e me Cou rt. (2) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in a rt ic le 132, an y pa rt y app ea lin g to the Sup re me Court unde r cl au se (1 ) m a y urge as on e o f th e ground s in s uch a ppe al th at a subs ta nti al que st ion of l a w a s to the int erp re ta tion o f this Con st itut ion h as be en wron gl y dec id ed. (3) No t wi ths ta nding an yth ing in thi s ar ti cl e, no app ea l sh al l, unle ss P ar lia men t b y la w othe r wi s e pro vid es , lie to th e Sup re me Cour t fr o m th e

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA jud gmen t, d ec re e or fi na l orde r o f one Jud ge of a Hi gh Cour t. 134. A ppel late j uri s di c ti on of S upre me Cour t i n reg ar d to cr i mi nal mat t e rs .— (1 ) An a ppe al sha ll l ie to the Supre me Cou rt fr o m an y judgme nt , fi na l orde r or se nte nc e in a c ri min al proc ee din g o f a H igh Cour t in th e t er ri tor y of Indi a if the Hi gh Cou rt — (a) ha s on app ea l re ver s ed an orde r of ac quit ta l of a n a c cu sed p er son a nd s en ten ce d hi m to dea th; or (b) ha s wit hdr a wn for t ri al be for e its el f an y c as e fr o m a n y c our t subo rdin at e to i ts au thori t y and has in su ch tri al con vi ct e d th e ac cu se d p er son a nd s en ten ce d hi m to dea th; or ( c ) ce rt i fi es under a rt ic le 134 A tha t the ca s e i s a fi t one fo r app ea l to the Supr e me Court : P rovid ed tha t an appe al und er sub -c lau se ( c ) sh al l l ie subj ec t to suc h pro vi si ons as ma y be mad e in tha t beh al f unde r c lau se (1 ) of a rt ic le 145 a nd to su ch condit ions a s the H igh Cou rt ma y e st abl ish or re quir e. (2) P arli a men t ma y b y la w con fe r on th e Supr e me Cour t an y fur th er po wer s to ent er ta in and hea r a ppe al s fr o m an y judgme nt , fin al orde r or s en ten ce in a c ri min al pro ce ed ing of a H igh Court in the t er rito r y of Ind ia sub je ct to su ch condit ions and li mi ta tion s as ma y b e s pe ci fie d in su ch la w. 134A. C e rt if ic ate f or appe al t o t he Supre me C ourt .— Ever y H igh Cou rt, pa ss in g or ma ki ng a judgme nt , d ec re e, fi na l orde r, or sen te nc e, r e fer r ed to in cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le 132 or c la us e (1) o f ar ti cl e 133, or c la us e (1) o f ar ti cl e 134, — ( a) ma y, i f it de e ms fi t so to do, on it s o wn mo tion ; a nd ( b) sh al l, i f an or al appli ca ti on is mad e, b y or on beh al f of th e pa rt y a ggri e ve d, i mme di at el y a ft er the pa ss ing or ma ki ng of su ch judg men t, d ec re e, fi na l ord er or s ent en ce , d ete r min e, as soon a s ma y be a ft er su ch pa ss ing or m a ki ng, th e que st ion wh et he r a ce rt i fi c at e of the na tur e re fe rr ed to in c la us e (1) of ar ti cl e 132, or c lau se (1) of ar tic le 133 or, as th e ca s e ma y be, sub -c la us e ( c ) of c la us e (1 ) of a rt ic le 134, ma y be gi ven in re sp ec t of th at c as e . 135. Juri s di c ti on and pow e rs of t he Fe der al C our t un der ex is ti ng law t o be ex e rc is abl e by t he S upre me Cour t. — Un til P arli a men t b y l a w oth er wi se provide s, th e Supre me Cour t sha ll al so ha ve juri sdi ct ion a nd po wer s wi th re sp ec t to a n y m at te r to wh i ch the pro vi sion s of ar ti cl e 133 or a rt ic le 134 do not a ppl y i f jur isd ic tion and powe rs in r el at ion to tha t ma t te r we r e exe rc is a bl e b y the Fed er al Cour t i mme di at el y be for e th e c o mme nc e me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion under an y e xi st in g la w. 136. Spe ci al l eave to appe al by t he Supre me C ourt .— (1 ) No t wi th st andin g an yt hin g in th is Cha pt er, th e Supre me Cour t ma y, in its di sc re tion , gr an t sp ec i al l ea ve to appe al fr o m a n y judgme nt , d ec re e, d ete r min at ion, se nte nc e or orde r in a n y c au se or ma t te r pa ss ed or ma de b y

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA a n y cou rt or tribun al in th e t er rito r y o f Ind ia . (2) No thing in c la us e (1) sh al l a ppl y to a n y judgme nt, de te r min at ion, s en ten ce or ord er p as se d or ma de b y an y c ourt or tr ibuna l c ons titu ted b y or und er an y la w re la tin g to the Ar me d For ce s. 137. R e vi ew of j udg me nt s or or de r s by t he S upre me C ourt .— Subj ec t to the pro vi si o ns of an y la w mad e b y P arl ia me nt or an y rul es ma d e unde r a rt ic le 145, the Supr e me Cou rt sh al l h ave po wer to re vie w an y jud gmen t pronoun ce d or ord er ma d e b y it . 138. E nl arg e me nt of t he j uri s di ct i on of t he S upre me Cour t. — (1) The Sup re me Court sh al l have su ch fu rt he r juri sdi ct ion and power s wi th re sp ec t to an y o f the ma t te rs in th e U nion Li s t as P ar lia men t ma y b y la w con fer. (2) The Supr e me Cour t sh al l ha ve su ch fur th er juri sdi ct ion and po wer s wi th re sp ec t to a n y ma tt er a s th e Go ver n men t o f Ind ia and th e Go ver n men t o f an y St at e ma y b y spe ci a l a gr e e me nt con fer, i f P arli a men t b y l a w pro vi de s for th e e xe r ci se o f s uch juri sdi ct ion and po wer s b y the Sup re me Cou rt. 139. Conf e r me nt on t he S upre me Cour t of pow er s to is s ue c e rt ai n w rit s.— P ar lia men t ma y b y la w con fer on the Supr e me Cou rt po we r to i ssu e di re ct ions , ord er s or wri ts , in cludin g wri ts in the natu re of habea s c orpu s, manda mus , proh ibit ion, quo wa rran to a nd c er ti ora ri , or an y o f th e m, fo r an y purpo se s othe r than tho se me nt ione d in cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 32. 139A. Tr ansf er of c e rt ai n c as es .— (1) Whe re c as e s invo lvin g th e s a me or sub st ant ia ll y the s a me ques tion s of l a w a re pendin g be for e the Supr e me Cou rt and one or mo r e Hi gh Cou rt s or be for e t wo or mor e H igh Court s and th e Supre me Cour t is sa ti s fi e d on its o wn mot ion or on an appl ic at ion mad e b y th e Att orn e y- Ge ne r al of Indi a or b y a pa rt y to a n y su ch c as e tha t su ch qu es tions a re subs tan ti al que st ions of ge ne ra l i mpor tan ce , the Supr e me Cou rt ma y wit hdr a w the ca s e or ca s es pend ing be for e th e Hi gh Court or the H igh Court s and dispo se o f a ll the c as e s it se l f: P rovid ed th at the Sup re me Cou rt ma y a ft e r d ete r min ing the sa id qu es tions o f l a w r etu rn a n y ca se so withd ra wn to ge th er wi th a cop y of its jud gmen t on su ch ques tion s to th e Hi gh Cour t fr o m wh ic h th e ca s e ha s bee n wi thd ra wn, and th e H igh Court sh al l on re c eip t th er eo f, proc e ed to di spos e o f th e c a se in con for mi t y wit h s uch jud gmen t. (2) Th e Supr e me Cou rt ma y, i f i t d ee ms it expe die nt so to do for the end s o f jus ti ce , tra ns fe r an y c as e, a ppe al or oth er proc e edin gs pendin g be for e a n y H igh Cour t to an y oth er Hi gh Cou rt. 140. A nci ll ary pow er s of Supre me Cour t. — P ar lia men t ma y b y la w ma ke provis ion fo r con fe rr in g upon th e Sup re me Cour t su ch suppl e me nt al po wer s not incon si st ent wi th an y of the provis ion s of th is Con sti tution a s ma y a ppe ar to be ne ce ss a r y or de si rab le for th e purpos e of ena blin g th e

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Cou rt mor e e ffe c ti vel y to e xe r ci se the ju ris dic tion con fe rr ed upon it b y or under thi s Cons titu tion. 141. Law dec l are d by Supre me C our t t o be bi ndi ng on al l c ourt s .— The la w dec la re d b y th e Sup re me Cour t s ha ll be binding on al l cour ts wi thin th e te rri tor y o f Indi a. 142. E nf orc e me nt of de c re e s and or der s of Supre me C our t and or de r s as to dis c over y, e tc .— (1 ) Th e Supre me Cou rt in the e xer c is e of it s ju ris dic tion ma y pa ss su ch de cr e e or ma ke suc h orde r a s i s ne ce s s ar y fo r doin g co mpl et e jus tic e in an y ca us e or ma tt er pendin g be for e it, and an y d ec re e so pa ss ed or orde r so mad e sha ll be en for ce a ble throu ghou t the t er ri tor y o f Indi a in su ch ma nn er as ma y be pr es cr ib ed b y or unde r an y la w ma d e b y P ar lia men t and, until pro vi si on in th at beh al f i s so m ad e, in su ch ma nn er a s th e P re sid ent ma y b y orde r pre sc ri be . (2) Subj ec t to th e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e in th is beh al f b y P ar lia men t, the Supr e me Cou rt sh all , a s r es pe ct s the who le o f the t er rito r y o f India , ha ve a ll and e ver y po we r to ma ke an y ord er fo r the purpos e o f s ec ur ing th e at te ndan ce o f a n y pe rson , the dis cove r y or produc tion of an y do cu ment s, or the in ve st i ga ti on or puni sh ment o f an y con te mpt o f it se l f. 143. P ow er of P re si de nt to cons ult Supre me Cour t. — (1 ) I f at an y ti me it appe ar s to the P res ide nt th at a que stion of la w or fa ct has ar is en , or i s li kel y to a ri se , whi ch is o f such a na tur e a nd of su ch publi c i mpo rta nc e th at it is e xped ie nt to obt ain th e opinion of the Supre me Court upon i t, he ma y r e fer th e que stion to tha t Cour t for con sid er at ion and th e Cou rt ma y, a ft er su ch he ar ing as it thin ks fit , r epo rt to th e Pr es iden t i ts opinion the re on. (2) The P re sid ent ma y, not with st and ing an yt hing in th e pro vi so to a rt ic le 131, re fe r a di spute o f th e kind me nt ione d in the s aid pro vi so to the Sup re me Cou rt for opinion a nd the Supre me Court sha ll, a ft e r su ch h ea rin g a s it thin ks fi t, r epor t to th e P re sid ent it s opinion the re on. 144. C ivil and j udi c ial aut hori ti es to ac t in ai d of t he Supre me C ourt . — All autho ri tie s, ci vi l a nd judic ia l, in the te rri tor y of Indi a sh al l a ct in aid o f th e Sup re me Cour t. 144A. [S pe ci al pro vi sion s as to di sposa l of que stion s rela ting to c ons titu tional v alid it y of law s.] R ep. by the Cons titu tion (Fo rt y- thi rd A me ndm ent ) A ct, 1977, s. 5 ( w. e. f. 13- 4-1978). 145. R ule s of C ourt , et c. — (1 ) Subje ct to the pro vi sion s of an y la w ma d e b y P ar lia men t, th e Supr e me Cour t ma y fr o m ti me to ti me , wi th th e a ppro va l o f the P re sid en t, ma ke rul es for re gula tin g ge ne ra ll y the pra ct ic e a nd pro ce dur e of the Cour t in clud ing— ( a) rule s a s to th e per son s pr ac ti si ng b e fo re th e Cou rt ; ( b) rule s a s to th e proc edu re for h ea rin g app ea ls a nd oth er ma t te rs p ert ain ing to app ea ls in cludin g the t i me wi th in whi ch a ppe al s to th e Cou rt ar e to be ent er ed ;

50

( c ) rul es a s to th e pro ce ed ings in th e Court for th e e n fo rc e men t of a n y of th e ri ght s con fer r ed b y P ar t I II ; ( cc ) rul es as to the pro ce ed ings in the Cou rt under a rt ic le 139 A; ( d) rule s a s to th e ent er ta in men t of a ppe al s unde r sub -c la us e ( c ) of c la us e (1) o f ar ti cl e 134; ( e ) rul es a s to th e cond ition s sub je ct to whi ch a n y jud gmen t pronoun ce d or ord er mad e b y the Court ma y be re vi e we d and the pro ce dur e for su ch r evi e w inc ludin g th e ti me wi thin wh ic h app li ca tion s to the Cou rt fo r su ch re vi e w ar e to be ent er ed ; ( f) rule s as to the cos ts of and incid en ta l to an y proc ee din gs in th e Cou rt and as to th e fe e s to be ch arge d in r es pe ct o f proc e ed ings the re in; ( g) rule s a s to th e gr an tin g of bail ; ( h) rule s a s to s ta y o f pro ce ed ings; ( i) rule s providin g for th e su m ma r y det er mi na tion o f a n y app ea l whi c h a ppe ar s to the Cour t to be fr ivolou s or ve xat iou s or brou gh t for th e purpos e of del a y; ( j) rul es as to the pro ce dur e fo r inqui rie s r e fer re d to in cl au se (1 ) o f a rt ic le 317. (2) Subje ct to the provis ions of c lau se (3 ), rul es ma de unde r thi s a rt ic le ma y fi x th e min i mu m nu mb er o f Jud ges wh o a re to s it fo r an y purpo se , and ma y pro vi de for th e powe rs of s ingle Judge s and Di vi si on Court s. (3) Th e mi ni mu m nu mbe r of Judge s who ar e to sit for th e purpos e of d ec iding an y ca s e in vol vi ng a sub st an tia l ques tion o f la w as to th e int er pr et at ion o f thi s Cons titu tion or fo r the purpo se o f he ar ing an y r e fer e nc e unde r a rt ic le 143 sha ll be fi ve : P rovided th at, whe r e the Cou rt he ar ing a n a ppe al und er an y of the pro vi si ons of this Cha pte r oth er than ar ti cl e 132 con si st s o f l es s th an fi ve Jud ges and in th e cour se o f th e hea rin g o f the app ea l th e Cou rt is s at is fi ed th at the a ppe al in vol ves a s ubs tan ti al que stion o f la w as to th e int er pr et at ion o f thi s Cons titu tion the de te r min at ion o f whi ch i s n ec es s ar y for th e dispo sa l o f the a ppe al , su ch Cou rt sh al l r e fer the ques tion fo r opinion to a Cour t c ons titu ted a s re quir ed b y thi s cl au se for the purpos e o f d ec iding an y ca s e invo lvin g su ch a que st ion and sh al l on re c eip t o f th e opinion di spos e of the app ea l in c on fo r mi t y wi th suc h opinion . (4) No judg men t sh all be de li ve r ed b y th e Supr e me Cour t s ave in open Cou rt, and no re port sha ll be ma de unde r a rt ic le 143 s a ve in a c co rdan ce wi th an opinion al so del iver e d in open Cou rt. (5) No judg men t a nd no suc h opinion sh al l be deli ver ed b y the Supr e me Cou rt s a ve wi th th e con cu rr enc e of a m aj or it y o f the J udge s pr es en t a t the h ea rin g o f the c a se , but noth ing in thi s c lau se sh al l be d ee me d to pr e ve nt a Jud ge who doe s not con cu r fr o m d eli ver ing a dis se ntin g jud gmen t or opinion .

51

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

146. O ff ic e rs and s er vant s and t he ex pe ns es of t he S upre me C ourt .— (1 ) Ap point me nt s of o ffi c er s and s er van ts o f the Sup re me Cou rt sh al l be mad e b y the Ch ie f Ju st ic e o f Indi a or su ch oth er Jud ge or offic e r of the Cou rt as h e ma y di re ct : P rovid ed th at the P re sid ent ma y b y rul e r equ ir e th at in su ch c a se s as ma y b e spe ci fi ed in the rule , no pe rson not al re ad y at ta ch ed to th e Cour t sh al l b e a ppoint ed to a n y o ffi c e conn ec t ed wit h th e Cour t, sa ve a fte r c onsu lta tion wi th the Union P ubl ic S er vi ce Co mmi s sion . (2) Subj ec t to th e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e b y P ar lia me nt , the c ondit ions o f se r vi ce o f o ffi c er s and s er va nts of th e Supr e me Cour t sha ll be su ch as ma y be pre sc ri bed b y rul es ma d e b y th e Chie f Ju sti ce of Ind ia or b y so me oth er Judge or offi ce r of the Cour t autho ri se d b y the Chi e f Jus ti ce o f Indi a to m a ke rul es fo r the purpo se : P rovid ed th at the ru le s ma d e und er th is cl aus e sha ll, so fa r as the y re la te to sa la ri e s, a llo wan ce s , le ave or pen sion s, r equi re th e appro val o f the P re sid ent . (3) Th e ad min is tr at ive e xp en se s o f the Supr e me Cou rt , in clud ing a ll s al ar ie s , allo wa nc e s and pen sion s p a yab le to or in r es pe ct o f th e o ffi c er s a nd s er van ts o f the Cou rt, sh al l b e c ha rged upon th e Conso lid at ed Fund o f Ind ia , a nd a n y fe es or oth er mon e ys ta ken b y th e Court sh al l for m par t o f th at Fund. 147. I nte r pret ati on. — In this Ch apt er and in Cha pte r V o f P art V I, r e fer e nc es to an y subs ta nti al ques tion o f la w a s to th e int er pr et at ion of thi s Con st itut ion sh all be con st rue d as in cludin g re fe re nc e s to a n y sub st ant ia l qu es tion o f l a w as to th e int erp re ta tion of the Go ve rn me nt o f India Act , 1935 (inc ludin g an y en ac t me nt a me ndin g or suppl e men tin g tha t Ac t ), or of a n y O rd er in Counc il or orde r mad e th er eund er, or o f the Indi an Ind ep ende nc e Act , 1947, or o f an y ord er ma de the reund er.

52

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

C H A P T E R V.—C O M P T R O L L E R

AND

A U D I T O R -G E N E R A L

OF

INDIA

148. Co mpt rol le r and A udit or- Ge ne r al of I ndi a. — (1) The r e sh al l be a Co mpt rol le r and Au ditor-Ge ne r al of Indi a wh o sha ll be appo int ed b y the P re sid ent b y war r an t und er his hand and s ea l and sha ll onl y be re mo ved fr o m o ffi c e in like ma nn er a nd on the li ke gr ounds a s a Judge o f th e Sup re me Court . (2) E ve r y pe rson appo int ed to be th e Co mp tro lle r and Au di tor- Gen er al of Ind ia sha ll, be fo re he e nt er s upon his offic e , ma ke a nd subs cr ib e be for e th e P re sid ent , or so me pe rs on appoin ted in tha t beh al f b y hi m, an oath or a ffi r mat ion ac co rdin g to th e for m se t out for th e purpo se in the Thi rd S che dule . (3) The s al ar y and oth er condi tion s of s er vic e of the Co mp tro ll er and Aud itor- Gen e ra l s ha ll be suc h as ma y be de te r min ed b y P arl ia me nt b y l a w

53

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA a nd, until the y a re so d ete r min ed, sha ll b e a s s pe ci fi ed in th e

S ec ond S che dule : P rovid ed tha t neith er th e sa la r y o f a Co mp tr oll er a nd Aud itor- Gen e ra l nor hi s r ights in re sp ec t of le a ve of a bs enc e, p ens ion or a ge of re ti re me nt sh al l be va ri ed to his di sad vant a ge a ft er his appo int men t. (4) The Co mpt roll er and Aud itor-Ge ne ra l sha ll not b e el igib le fo r fur th er o ffi c e e ithe r unde r th e Go ve rn me nt of India or unde r the Go ve rn me nt o f a n y S ta te a fte r he ha s ce a s ed to hold his o ffi c e. (5) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s Con sti tution and o f a n y l a w mad e b y P ar lia men t, th e cond ition s o f s er vic e of pe rs ons s er vin g in the Ind ian Au dit a nd Ac c ount s Dep ar t men t and the ad min is tr at ive po wer s o f the Co mpt roll er a nd Aud itor- Gen e ra l sh al l b e su ch as ma y be pre sc ri bed b y rule s ma de b y th e Pr es iden t a ft er consu lt at ion wi th the Co mpt rol le r and Au ditor-Ge ne r al . (6) The ad min is tr at ive expe ns es o f th e o ffi c e o f the Co mpt rol le r a nd Aud itor- Ge n er al , inc luding al l s al ar ie s , allo wa nc e s and pen sion s p a yab le to or in re sp ec t o f p er sons se r vi ng in tha t o ffi c e, sha ll b e ch arge d upon the Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia . 149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.—The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively. 150. For m of acc ount s of t he U ni on and of t he S tate s. — Th e a cc ount s o f the U nion and of the Sta te s sha ll b e kept in suc h fo r m as the Pr es iden t ma y, on the ad vi ce o f th e Co mpt rol le r and Au ditor-Ge ne r al of Indi a, pr es cr ib e. 151. A udit re port s. —(1 ) The repo rt s of th e Co mp tro lle r and Au di torGe ne r al of Indi a r el at ing to th e a cc ount s o f th e Un ion sh all be sub mi tt ed to th e P re sid ent, wh o sh al l ca us e the m to b e la id be for e e a ch Hou se o f P ar lia men t. (2) Th e r epor ts o f the Co mpt roll er a nd Aud itor-Ge ne r al o f Indi a re la tin g to the a cc ount s of a S ta te sh al l b e s ub mi tt ed to the Go ve rno r of th e Sta te , who sh al l ca us e the m to b e l aid be for e the Le gis la tu re o f the St at e.

54

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART VI THE STATES

C H A P T E R I.—G E N E R A L
152. D ef i ni ti on. — In this P art , unl es s th e c ont ext othe r wi s e r equi re s, th e e xpr es sion “ St at e” do es not inc lude th e S ta te o f Ja mmu and K as h mi r. C H A P T E R II. —T H E E X E C U T I V E The Go ve rno r 153. G ove r nors of S tate s. — Th er e s ha ll be a Go ve rno r for ea ch St at e: P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll pr e ve nt the a ppoint me nt o f the s a me per son as Go ver nor for t wo or mo re Sta te s. 154. Ex ec uti ve pow e r of S tate . — (1) Th e e xec uti ve po we r o f the St at e sh al l be ve s te d in the Go ve rno r and s ha ll b e e xe r ci se d b y hi m ei the r di re ct l y or th rough offic e rs s ubordin at e to hi m in ac co rda nc e wit h th is Con st itut ion. (2) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll — ( a) be dee me d to t ra ns fer to th e Go ve rno r a n y fun ct ions c on fe rr e d b y a n y e xis tin g l a w on a n y othe r a uthor it y; or ( b) pre vent P arl ia me nt or the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e fr o m c on fe rr in g b y l a w fu nc tion s on an y autho rit y subord ina te to the Go ver nor. 155. A ppoi nt me nt of G ove r nor. — Th e Go ve rno r o f a St at e sha ll be a ppoint ed b y th e P re sid en t b y wa rr an t und er his hand and s ea l. 156. Te r m of off ic e of G ove r nor.— (1 ) The Go ver nor sh al l hold o ffi c e dur ing th e ple as ur e of th e P res ide nt. (2) The Go ve rno r ma y, b y wr it ing unde r his hand add re s se d to th e P re sid ent , r es i gn his o ffi c e. (3) Subje ct to the fo re goin g pro vi si ons of thi s ar ti cl e, a Go ver nor s ha ll hold offi ce fo r a te r m of fi ve ye ar s fr o m th e dat e on whi ch he en te rs upon hi s offic e : P rovid ed tha t a Go ver nor sh al l, not wi ths ta ndin g the e xp ir at ion o f hi s t er m, con tinu e to hold offi ce until his su cc e ss or en te rs upon his offi ce . 157. Q ual if ic ati ons for appoi nt me nt as Gove r nor. — No per son s ha ll be e li gi ble fo r appoin t ment as Go ve rno r unl es s he is a ci ti ze n of Ind ia and ha s c o mp le te d th e age o f thi rt y- fi ve ye ar s. 158. C ondit i ons of Gove r nor' s off ic e. — (1) Th e Go ve rno r sha ll not be a me mbe r o f ei the r Hou se o f P arl ia me nt or of a Hous e of the Le gi s la tur e of a n y S ta te sp ec i fi e d in th e Fi rs t Sch edul e, and i f a me mbe r o f ei the r Hous e o f P arli a men t or o f a Hou se of th e Le gis la tu re of an y s uch Sta te be a ppoint ed Go ve rno r, he sha ll be de e med to ha ve va c at ed hi s s e at in tha t 55

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Hou se on the dat e on whi c h he e nte rs upon hi s offic e a s Go ve rno r. (2) Th e Go ve rno r sha ll not hold an y oth er o ffi c e of pro fi t. (3) Th e Go ve rno r sha ll be en tit led wi thout pa yme nt o f re nt to th e use o f hi s offic ia l re si den ce s a nd s ha ll be al so ent itl ed to s uch e molu me nt s, a llo wa nc es and privil e ges a s ma y be de te r min ed b y P arl ia me nt b y la w and, unti l provis ion in th at beh al f i s so mad e, s uch e mol u ment s, a llo wan ce s a nd pr ivil e ge s a s ar e sp ec i fi e d in th e S ec ond S che dule . (3 A) Wh er e the sa me p er son i s appoin te d as Go ve rno r o f t wo or mo re St at es , th e e mol u men ts a nd al lo wan ce s pa ya bl e to th e Go ver nor sh al l be a llo ca te d a mon g th e St at es in su ch propo rtion as the Pr es iden t ma y b y ord er d ete r min e. (4) Th e e molu me nt s and al lo wan ce s o f the Go ver nor sha ll not be di min ish ed durin g his t er m of offic e . 159. O at h or af fi r mat i on by the G ove r nor. — E ve r y Go ver nor and e ve r y p er son dis ch argin g the fu nc tions of th e Go ve rno r sh al l, be for e e nt er ing upon hi s offi ce , ma ke a nd sub sc rib e in th e pr es en ce o f th e Ch ie f Ju st ic e o f th e Hi gh Cour t e xer c is in g juri sdi ct ion in r el at ion to the St at e, or, in his a bs enc e, th e se nio r mo st J udge o f tha t Cou rt a vai lab le , an oath or a ffi r mat ion in the fo ll o wi ng for m, tha t i s to s a y— “ I, A. B. , do s w e a r i n t h e n a me o f G od that I wil l
s o l e mn l y a ff i r m

55

fa it h fu ll y e xe cut e th e o ffi c e o f Go ve rno r (or dis cha rge the fu nc tion s of th e Go ver nor ) o f ... .... .... .. (n am e of th e State ) a nd wil l to the be st o f m y ab ili t y pr es er ve, prot ec t a nd de fend the Con st itut ion and the l a w a nd th at I wil l devot e m ys el f to the s er vic e and we ll - bein g o f the p eople o f .. …… …(na me of the Stat e) . ” 160. D is c harg e of t he f unct i ons of the G ove r nor in ce rt ai n c onti nge nc ie s. — Th e P re sid ent ma y ma ke such pro vi si on a s he thin ks fi t fo r th e dis cha rge o f th e fun ct ions o f the Go ver nor of a Sta te in an y c ontin ge nc y not pro vi ded for in thi s Ch ap te r. 161. P ow er of G ove r nor to g rant par dons , et c. , and t o s us pe nd, re mi t or c o mmut e s e nte nc e s i n ce r t ai n c as es .— The Go ve rno r o f a St at e sha ll h ave the po wer to gra nt p ardon s, r ep rie ve s, re spi te s or re mi ss ion s o f puni sh men t or to su sp end, r e mit or co m mut e th e s ent en ce of an y pe rson c onvic te d o f an y o ffen ce aga ins t an y la w re la tin g to a ma tt er to whi ch the e xe cut ive po wer o f th e S ta te e xt end s. 162. Ex te nt of ex ec uti ve pow e r of St at e .— Subje ct to the pro vi si ons o f thi s Cons ti tution, th e exe cu tive po wer of a St at e sh al l e xte nd to th e ma t te r s wi th re sp ec t to wh ic h th e Le gi sl at ur e of the Sta te has po wer to ma ke la ws: P ro vide d th at in an y ma tt er with r es pe ct to wh ic h the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e and P arl ia me nt ha ve powe r to ma ke l a ws, th e e xe cut ive po wer o f th e St at e sh al l b e sub je ct to, and li mit e d b y, th e e xe cu tive po wer expr es sl y c on fe rr e d b y this Con st itut ion or b y an y la w mad e b y P arli a men t upon th e

56

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Un ion or th er eo f. Counc il of Min is te rs

a uthor iti es

163. Counc il of M inis te r s to ai d and advis e G ove r nor. — (1) Th er e sh al l be a Coun ci l of Mini st er s with the Ch ie f Min is te r a t the he ad to a id a nd ad vi se th e Go ve rno r in th e e xe r ci se o f hi s fun ct ions , e xc e pt in so far a s h e i s b y or under thi s Cons titu tion re quir ed to exe rc is e hi s fu nc tions or an y o f th e m in his di sc re tion. (2) I f a n y qu es tion ar is es wh e the r an y ma t te r is or is not a ma tt er a s r es pe ct s whi ch the Go ver nor is b y or und er thi s Con st itut ion requ ir ed to a ct in his di sc re tion , th e dec is ion of th e Go ve rno r in hi s di sc re tion sh al l be fi na l, and the val idi t y of a n ythin g done b y the Go ve rno r sha ll not b e c al le d in qu es tion on the gr ound th at he ough t or ou ght not to h ave ac te d in his di sc re tion . (3) Th e que st ion wh et he r an y, and i f so wh at , a dvic e wa s tend er ed b y Min is te rs to the Go ver nor sh all not be inquir ed into in a n y cour t. 164. Ot he r provi si ons as t o Mi ni st er s .— (1) The Chi e f Mini st er sha ll be a ppoint ed b y th e Go ve rno r and the oth er Mini st er s sh al l be appoin ted b y th e Go ve rno r on the ad vi ce of th e Chi e f Mini st er, and the Mini st er s sh al l hold offi ce during the pl ea su re o f the Go ver nor: P rovid ed tha t in th e S ta te s of Biha r, M adh ya P rad es h a nd O ri ss a, th er e sh al l be a Mini st er in ch arge o f t rib al we l fa r e wh o ma y in a ddit ion be in c harge o f the wel fa r e of the Sch edul ed C as te s and ba c kwa rd c la ss e s or an y oth er wor k. (1 A) The tota l nu mb er o f Mini st er s, in cludin g th e Ch ie f Mini st er, in th e Coun ci l of Min is te rs in a St at e sh al l not e xce e d fi fte e n pe r ce nt. o f the tot al nu mbe r of me mb er s of the Le gis la ti ve As se mb l y o f tha t S ta te : P rovided th at the nu mb er o f Min is te rs , in clud ing th e Chi e f Mini st er in a St at e sh al l not be le ss than t wel ve: Pro vid ed fur the r th at wh e re th e tot al nu mbe r o f Min is te rs inc ludin g th e Ch ie f Minis te r in the Counc il o f Mini st er s in a n y Sta te a t the c o mme nc e me nt of the Cons titu tion ( Nin et y- fi r st A me nd me nt ) Act , 2003 e xc ee ds the sa id fi fte e n pe r ce nt . or the numbe r s pe ci fi ed in th e fi rs t pro vi so , a s the c as e m a y b e, then th e to ta l nu mbe r of Min is te rs in th at Sta te sh al l be brought in c on fo r mi t y wi th the pro vi si ons of thi s cl au se wit hin s ix mo nths fro m s uch dat e * as the Pr es iden t ma y b y publi c not i fi ca ti on a ppoint. (1B ) A me mb e r o f the Le gis l at ive As se mb l y o f a St at e or eith er Hou se o f the Le gis l atu re of a Sta te ha vin g Le gi sl at ive Counc il belon gi ng to an y poli ti ca l pa rt y wh o i s disqu al i fi ed fo r b eing a me mb er o f th at Hous e und er p ar agr aph 2 of th e Te nth S che dul e sh al l al so b e disqu al i fi ed to be a ppoint ed as a Min is te r under c la us e (1) fo r dur at ion o f th e p er iod ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ c o mme nc in g fr o No. S.O. dat e o f 7.1.2004. *7.1.2004: vide Notification m the 21(E), dated his di squa li fic a tion t ill the d ate on wh ic h th e t er m o f his o ffi c e as su ch me mb e r wo uld e xp ir e or wh er e he c ont es ts an y

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA e le ct ion to th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f a St at e or e ith er Hou se o f th e Le gis la tu re of a S ta te havin g Le gi sl at ive Counc il, as the ca s e ma y b e, be fo re th e expi r y of s uch pe riod, ti ll the da te on wh ic h h e i s d ec la re d e le ct e d, wh ic he ver is ea rl ie r. (2) The Coun cil of Mini st er s s ha ll b e col le ct ive l y r es pons ibl e to th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e. (3) Be for e a Mini st er ent er s upon hi s offi ce , th e Go ver nor s ha ll a d mi ni st er to hi m the o aths of o ffi c e a nd of s ec r ec y a cc ord ing to th e fo r ms s et out fo r th e purpo se in th e Thi rd Sch edul e. (4) A Minis te r who fo r an y p eriod o f si x con se c uti ve month s is not a me mbe r o f the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e sh al l a t the e xp ir at ion o f th at per iod c e as e to be a Mini st er. (5) Th e s al ar ie s and a llo wan ce s o f Mini st er s sh al l b e s uch a s the Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te ma y fro m ti me to ti me b y l a w det er mi ne and, unt il th e Le gi sl at ur e of th e Sta te s o d ete r min es , sha ll be a s spe ci fi ed in the S ec ond S che dule . Th e Ad voc ate - Ge ne ral fo r th e State 165. A dvoc at e - Ge ne r al f or the S tate .— (1 ) The Go ver nor o f ea c h S ta te sh al l appoin t a p er son wh o i s qual i fi ed to b e a ppoint ed a Jud ge of a H igh Cou rt to b e Ad vo ca t e- Ge ne ra l for th e Sta te . (2) It sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Ad voc at e- Ge ne r al to gi ve ad vi c e to the Go ver n men t of th e St at e upon su ch l egal ma tt er s , and to per for m such othe r duti es of a l ega l ch ar ac te r, a s ma y fr o m ti me to ti me be re fe rr ed or a ss i gn ed to hi m b y th e Go ver nor, a nd to dis ch arge the fu nc tion s con fer r ed on hi m b y or unde r thi s Con st itut ion or an y othe r l a w fo r th e ti me be ing in for c e. (3) Th e Ad vo ca te - Gen er a l sha ll hold offic e dur ing th e ple as ur e of th e Go ver nor, and sh al l r ec ei ve suc h re mun er at ion a s th e Go ver nor m a y d ete r min e. Conduc t of Go ve r nm ent Bu sine ss 166. C onduc t of busi ne s s of t he Gove r n me nt of a St at e. — (1) All e xe cut ive ac tion of the Go ve rn me nt o f a St at e sh al l b e expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor. (3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of the State, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion.

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* * * * * 167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State— (a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation; (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and (c) if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council. CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE General 168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.—(1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and— (a) in the States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh, two Houses; (b) in other States, one House. (2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly. 169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the tot al me mb er s hip o f th e As s e mbl y and b y a ma jo rit y o f not le ss than t wo -thi rds of the me mb er s of th e As s e mb l y pre se nt a nd votin g. (2) An y la w re fe rr e d to in cl aus e (1 ) s ha ll cont ain su ch provis ion s fo r th e a mend me nt o f thi s Con st itut ion as ma y be ne ce s s ar y to give e ffe c t to th e provis ions o f th e l a w a nd m a y a ls o c ont ain su ch suppl e men ta l, in cid ent al and con se que nti al pro vi sion s as P ar li a men t ma y dee m ne ce s sa r y. (3) No su ch l a w as a fo re s ai d sha ll be de e med to be an a me nd men t o f thi s Con st itut ion fo r the purpos e s of ar tic le 368. 170. C o mp osi ti on of t he L egi sl at ive A ss e mbli es .— (1) Subj ec t to th e pro vi si ons o f ar ti cl e 333, th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y of e a ch Sta te sha ll c ons is t o f not mo r e tha n fi ve hundr ed, and not l es s th an s ixt y, me mb er s c hos en b y dir ec t e le ct ion fro m te rr itor ia l cons titu en ci es in th e St at e. (2) For th e purpos es o f c la us e (1 ), e a ch S ta te sha ll b e divid ed into t er ri tori al cons ti tuen ci es in su ch ma nn er tha t th e ra tio bet we en the

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA popul at ion of e ac h c ons titu enc y and the nu mbe r of s e at s a llo tte d to it sh all , s o fa r a s pr ac ti ca bl e, be the s a me th roughout the St at e. E xplanat ion.— In this c lau se , the e xp re s sion “popu la tion ” me an s the popul at ion as as c er ta in ed a t th e la st pre c edin g ce nsu s o f wh ic h the re le van t fi gur es h ave be en publis hed : P rovided th at the r e fer en ce in thi s Exp lanation to the l as t pre ce din g c en sus o f whi ch th e r el e vant fi gu re s ha ve be en publish ed sh al l, until the r el e va nt fi gur es fo r the fi r st ce nsu s t ake n a ft e r th e ye ar 2026 ha ve be en publi sh ed, be con st rued a s a re fe r en ce to the 2001 c en su s. (3) Upon the co mpl et ion of e ac h c en sus , the tota l nu mbe r o f s e at s in th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y o f ea ch Sta te and th e di vi sion o f ea ch Sta te into t er ri tori al con st itu enc ie s sh al l b e r ea dju st ed b y su ch autho ri t y a nd in su ch ma nn er a s P arl ia me nt ma y b y la w det er mi ne : Pro vid ed th at su ch r ea dju st me nt s ha ll not a ffe c t r ep re se nt ation in the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y unti l the dis solu tion of the then e xi st in g As se mb l y: P rovided fu r the r tha t suc h r ea dju st me nt sha ll t ake e ffe c t fro m suc h d ate a s th e P re sid ent ma y, b y ord er, sp ec i fy and until s uch re adju st me nt t a ke s e ffe c t, an y e le ct ion to th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y ma y be held on th e bas is o f th e te rr itor ia l cons titu en ci es e xis tin g be for e su ch re adju st me nt : Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust— (i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this clause. 171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.—(1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State: Pro vid ed th at th e tot al numbe r o f me mb er s in the Le gi sl at i ve Coun cil of a St at e sh al l in no c as e b e l es s tha n for t y. (2) Unti l P arl ia me nt b y l a w othe r wis e provid es , the co mpos it ion of th e Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l o f a St at e sha ll be a s provid ed in c lau se (3). (3) O f th e tota l nu mb er o f me mb e rs o f th e Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l of a St at e — ( a) a s ne ar l y a s ma y be , one -thi rd sh al l be e le ct e d b y el ec to ra te s c ons is ting of me mb er s of muni cip al it ie s, dis tr ic t bo ard s and suc h oth er lo ca l autho rit ie s in the Sta te as P ar lia me nt ma y b y la w spe ci f y; ( b) a s ne ar l y a s ma y be , one -t wel ft h sha ll be e le ct ed b y e le c tor at es c ons is ting o f p er sons re sid ing in th e St at e who have be en for at le as t th re e ye a r s gr a dua te s of an y univer s it y in the t er rito r y of India or ha ve

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b een fo r a t l ea st th re e ye a r s in pos se s si on of qu ali fic a tion s pr es cr ib ed b y or und er a n y la w m ad e b y P ar li a men t a s e quiva le nt to th at o f a gr a dua te o f an y su ch univer si t y; ( c ) as ne ar l y as ma y be, one -t wel ft h sh al l be el ec te d b y el e cto ra te s c ons is ting o f p er sons wh o ha ve b een fo r a t l ea st thr ee ye a r s e nga ged in t ea ch ing in su ch edu ca ti ona l ins titu tion s wi thin th e St at e, not lo wer in s ta nda rd than tha t of a s ec onda r y s chool , a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed b y or und er an y la w ma de b y P arl ia me nt ; ( d) as ne ar l y as ma y be, one -thi rd sha ll be el ec t ed b y th e me mb er s o f th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e fr o m a mon gs t p er sons wh o a re not me mbe r s of the As s e mb l y; ( e ) th e re ma i nde r sh al l be no min at ed b y th e Go ve rno r in a cc ord an ce wi th the pro vi si ons of cl au se (5 ). (4) Th e me mb e rs to be e le ct ed unde r sub- cl au se s ( a) , ( b) and ( c ) of c la us e (3 ) sh al l be c hos en in s uch te rri tor ia l con st itue nc ie s a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed b y or unde r a n y la w mad e b y P arli a men t, and the e le ct ion s und er th e sa id sub- cl au se s and unde r s ub- cl aus e ( d) o f the s aid c lau se sha ll be h eld in a cc ord an ce wi th th e s yst e m o f propor tiona l re pr es en ta tion b y me a ns o f th e s ingle tr ans fe ra bl e vo te . (5) Th e me mb e rs to be no mina te d b y the Go ver nor unde r s ub- cl aus e ( e ) o f cl aus e (3) sh al l con si st of pe rson s ha vi ng sp ec ia l kno wl e dge or pra ct ic a l e xpe ri enc e in re sp ec t of s uch ma t te rs as th e fo llo win g, na me l y: — Lit e ra tu re , s ci en ce , ar t, co -ope ra ti ve mo ve men t and soc ia l se r vi ce . 172. Duration of State Legislatures.—(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly: Pro vid ed th at th e s aid per iod ma y, whi le a P roc la ma ti on of E mergen c y i s in ope ra tion , b e e xte nded b y P arli a men t b y l a w for a p eriod not e xc ee din g one ye a r a t a ti me and not ext endin g in an y ca s e be yond a pe riod o f s ix mo nths a ft er th e P rocl a mat ion ha s ce as e d to ope ra te . (2) The Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l o f a Sta te sh al l not be s ubje ct to dis solu tion, but as nea rl y a s pos sibl e one -thi rd of th e me mb er s th er eo f s ha ll re ti re a s soon a s ma y be on th e e xpi ra tion of e ver y se c ond ye ar in a c co rdan ce with th e provis ions ma d e in that beh al f b y P ar lia me nt b y la w. 173. Q uali fi c at ion for me mbe r s hi p of t he St at e L egi sl at ure. —A pe rson sh al l not be qua li fie d to be cho se n to fil l a se at in th e Le gi sl atu re o f a St at e unle ss he— ( a) is a ci ti ze n o f Indi a, and ma ke s a nd s ubs cr ibe s be for e so me p er son a utho ris ed in tha t b eha l f b y th e Ele ct ion Co mmi s sion an oa th or a ffi r mat ion ac co rdin g to th e for m se t out for th e purpo se in the Thi rd S che dule ;

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( b) is, in the c as e o f a s ea t in the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y, not le ss than t we nt y- fi ve ye a r s o f age and, in the c a se o f a s ea t in the Le gi s la ti ve Counc il, not le ss th an thir t y ye a r s of age ; and ( c ) poss es s es suc h oth er qua li fic at ion s a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed in th at b eha l f b y or unde r an y la w mad e b y P arli a men t. 174. Se ss ions of t he Stat e L egi sl at ure, prorog at i on and dis s ol ut ion.— (1 ) The Go ver nor sh al l fro m ti me to ti me su m mon the Hou se or e ac h Hous e o f the Le gis l atu re of th e St at e to me e t at s uch ti me and pl ac e a s he thin ks fi t, but si x mo nths sh all not inte r ve ne be t we e n it s l as t si ttin g in one s es s ion and the da te appo inte d for its fi rs t si ttin g in the ne xt s es s ion. (2) Th e Go ve rno r ma y fro m ti me to ti me — ( a) proro gu e the Hou se or ei the r Hou se ; ( b) dis sol ve the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y. 175. Rig ht of Gove r nor t o addre s s and se nd me s s age s t o the H ouse or H ous es .— (1 ) Th e Go ver nor ma y add re s s th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y or, in th e c as e of a Sta te havin g a Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l, e ith er Hous e of the Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te , or both Hous es a ss e mbl ed toget he r, a nd ma y for th at purpos e r equi re th e att end anc e o f me mb e rs . (2) Th e Go ve rno r ma y se nd me s s a ges to th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e, wh et he r with r es pe ct to a Bil l th en pendin g in the Le gis la tu re or oth er wis e , and a Hous e to wh ic h a n y me s sa ge i s so s en t s ha ll wi th a ll conve nie nt de sp at ch con sid er an y ma tt er re quir ed b y th e me s s a ge to be ta ken into con sid er at ion. 176. Spe ci al addre ss by t he G ove r nor. — (1) At th e co m men c e men t o f th e fi r st s es si on a ft er ea ch gen er al e le c tion to the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y and a t the co m men c e men t of the fir st s e ss ion of ea ch ye a r, the Go ve rno r sha ll a ddr es s the Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y or, in the c as e o f a St at e havin g a Le gis la ti ve Counc il, both Hous es a ss e mbl ed toget he r and infor m th e Le gis la tu re o f th e c au se s o f it s su mmon s. (2) Pro vi sion s ha ll be mad e b y the rule s re gu la tin g th e pro ce dur e o f th e Hou se or e ith er Hou se fo r the a llot me nt o f ti me for dis cus si on o f th e ma t te rs re fe rr ed to in s uch add re ss . 177. R ig ht s of Mi ni st e rs and A dvoc at e- G e ne r al as res pe ct s t he H ous es .— E ve r y Mini st er and th e Ad voc at e - Gen er al for a St at e s ha ll h ave th e ri gh t to sp ea k in, a nd othe r wi s e to ta ke p art in the proc ee din gs o f, the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f th e St at e or, in the ca s e o f a Sta te havin g a Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l, both Hou se s, a nd to sp ea k in, and oth er wis e to t ake p art in the proc ee din gs o f, an y co m mit te e of th e Le gi s la tur e o f wh ic h he ma y be n a med a me mb e r, but sha ll not , b y vi rtu e o f this ar ti cl e, b e en tit led to vo te . Of fic e rs of th e Sta te L egis latu re

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178. T he Spe ake r and D e put y Spe ake r of the Le gis lati ve A ss e mbly. —E ve r y Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y o f a St at e sha ll , a s soon as ma y b e, choo se t wo me mb er s of th e As se mb l y to be r es pe ct ivel y Sp ea ker and D epu t y Spe a ke r the re o f a nd, so o ft e n as the offi ce o f Sp ea ker or D epu t y Sp ea ker bec o mes va c an t, the As s e mb l y sh al l c hoos e anoth er m e mb er to be Sp ea ker or D epu t y Sp ea ker, as the ca s e ma y be . 179. Vac ati on and res ig nat ion of, and re moval f ro m, t he of fi ce s of S pe ake r and De put y Spe a ke r. — A me mb er holdin g o ffi c e as Spe a ke r or D epu t y Sp ea ker of a n As s e mbl y— ( a) sha ll vac a te hi s offic e i f he ce as e s to be a me mb er of th e As s e mbl y; ( b) ma y at a n y ti me b y wri ti ng unde r his hand add re ss e d, i f suc h me mbe r is th e Sp ea ker, to th e D eput y Spe a ke r, and i f su ch me mbe r is th e De put y Spe a ke r, to the Sp ea ker, re si gn hi s o ffi c e; and ( c ) ma y be r e mo ved fro m hi s offi ce b y a re solu tion o f the As s e mbl y p as se d b y a ma jo rit y o f al l the the n me mbe r s of the As s e mb l y: P rovid ed th at no r es olut ion fo r the purpos e o f c la us e ( c ) sha ll b e mo ve d unl es s a t l ea st fo ur te en d a ys ' noti ce ha s be en gi ve n o f th e int ent ion to mo ve th e r es olu tion: P rovid ed fur th er tha t, wh en eve r th e As s e mbl y is dis sol ve d, th e Sp ea ker sh al l not va ca t e hi s o ffi c e unti l i m med ia te l y be for e th e fi rs t me e t ing o f th e As s e mbl y a ft er the di sso lution. 180. P ow er of t he D e puty Spe a ker or ot her pe r s on t o pe rf or m t he dut ie s of t he off ic e of , or to act as , S pe ake r.— (1 ) Wh il e th e offi ce o f Sp ea ker i s vac a nt, th e duti es o f th e o ffi c e s ha ll be per for me d b y th e D eput y Sp ea ker or, if the offi ce of D epu t y Spe ake r is a lso va ca nt, b y suc h me mbe r o f th e As s e mbl y as th e Go ver nor ma y appo int fo r th e purpo se . (2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Assembly, shall act as Speaker. 181. T he Spe ake r or t he D e puty Spe ake r not t o pre si de w hile a res ol ut i on f or his re moval f ro m of fi ce is unde r c onsi de r at i on. — (1 ) At a n y si ttin g of the Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y, whi le an y re solu tion for th e r e mo va l o f th e Sp ea ker fr o m his o ffi c e is und er c ons ide ra tion , the Spe ake r, or wh il e a n y r eso lution fo r th e r e mo va l o f th e D epu t y Spe a ke r fro m hi s o ffi c e is und er c ons ide ra tion, the Depu t y Sp ea ker, sh al l not, thou gh h e is pr es en t, pr es id e, a nd the provis ions of c lau se (2 ) of a rt ic le 180 s ha ll app l y in re la tion to eve r y su ch si ttin g a s the y app l y in r el at ion to a s itt ing fr o m whi c h th e Spe ake r or, as the ca s e ma y be , th e De put y Spe a ke r, i s abs en t. (2) Th e Sp ea ker sh al l have th e ri ght to spe a k in, and othe r wis e to ta ke p art in the proc ee din gs o f, the Le gis l at ive As se mb l y wh il e an y re so lution for his re mo val fr o m o ffi c e i s und er con sid er at ion in th e As s e mbl y and

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA sh al l, not wi th st andin g a n ythin g in ar ti cl e 189, b e ent itl ed to vot e onl y in th e fi rs t in st anc e on s uch re solu tion or on a n y othe r ma t te r dur ing s uch pro ce ed ings but not in the c as e o f an equ al it y of vo te s. 182. T he C hai r man and De put y C hair man of t he Leg is lati ve Counc il . — Th e Le gi sl at ive Counc il of e ve r y Sta te ha vi ng suc h Counc il sha ll, as soon as ma y b e, choo se t wo me mb er s of th e Counc il to be r es pe ct ive l y Ch ai r man and D eput y Ch ai r man th er eo f a nd, so ofte n a s th e o ffi c e o f Ch ai r man or De put y Ch ai r man be co me s va ca nt, th e Coun ci l sha ll choo se a nothe r me mb e r to b e Ch ai r man or D eput y Ch ai r man , a s th e c a se ma y be. 183. Vac ati on and res ig nat ion of, and re moval f ro m, t he of fi ce s of C hair man and De puty C hai r man. — A me mb e r hold ing offi ce a s Ch ai r man or D eput y Ch ai r man o f a Le gi sl a ti ve Counc il — ( a) sha ll vac a te hi s offic e i f he ce as e s to be a me mb er of th e Coun ci l; ( b) ma y at a n y ti me b y wri ti ng unde r his hand add re ss e d, i f suc h me mbe r i s th e Cha ir ma n, to the De put y Ch ai r man, and i f su ch me mb e r is th e De put y Cha ir ma n, to the Cha ir ma n, r es ign his offi ce ; and ( c ) ma y be re mo ve d fro m his offi ce b y a r es olut ion o f th e Coun ci l p as se d b y a ma jo rit y o f al l the the n me mbe r s of the Counc il : P rovid ed th at no r es olut ion fo r the purpos e o f c la us e ( c ) sha ll b e mo ve d unl es s a t l ea st fo ur te en d a ys ' noti ce ha s be en gi ve n o f th e int ent ion to mo ve th e r es olu tion. 184. P ow er of t he D e puty C hai r ma n or ot her pe r s on t o pe rf or m t he dut ie s of t he off ic e of , or to act as , C hair man.— (1 ) Wh il e th e offi ce o f Ch ai r man is va c an t, th e duti es of the offi ce sh al l be p er for me d b y the D epu t y Ch ai r man or, i f th e offi ce of D epu t y Ch ai r man i s al so va c an t, b y su ch me mb e r of the Counc il a s the Go ver nor ma y appoin t for the purpo se . (2) Dur ing the abs en ce o f th e Ch ai r man fro m an y si ttin g of the Counc il th e D eput y Cha ir ma n or, i f h e is al so ab se nt, such per son a s ma y be d ete r min ed b y th e rule s o f proc edu re o f th e Coun ci l, or, i f no su ch pe rson i s pr es en t, su ch oth er per son a s ma y be d ete r min ed b y th e Coun ci l, sh al l a ct a s Ch ai r man. 185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.—(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council, while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration, the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Deputy Chairman is absent. (2) Th e Ch ai r man sh al l h ave th e r ight to s pe a k in, and othe r wi s e to t a ke p art in the pro ce ed ings o f, th e Le gis l at ive Coun ci l wh il e an y re so lution for hi s re mo va l fro m o ffi c e is unde r cons ide ra tion in the Coun ci l a nd sh al l,

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA not with st and ing a n ythin g in ar ti cl e 189, b e ent itl ed to vot e onl y in th e fi rs t in st anc e on s uch re solu tion or on a n y othe r ma t te r dur ing s uch pro ce ed ings but not in the c as e o f an equ al it y of vo te s. 186. Salar ie s and al l ow anc e s of the Spe a ker and D e puty Spe ake r and t he Chai r man and De put y C hai r ma n. — Th er e sh all be pa id to th e Spe a ke r a nd the De put y Sp ea ker o f th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y, and to th e Cha ir ma n a nd th e De put y Cha ir ma n of th e Le gi sl at i ve Counc il, su ch sa la ri es and a llo wa nc es as ma y be r es pe ct ive l y fi xe d b y th e Le gis l atu re o f th e S ta te b y l a w a nd, until provis ion in th at beh al f is so mad e , suc h s al ar ie s a nd a llo wa nc es as a re s pe ci fi ed in th e Se cond Sch edul e. 187. Se cret ari at of St at e Leg is lat ure .— (1) The Hou se or e ac h Hou se of th e Le gi sl at ur e of a St at e sh al l h ave a s ep ar at e se c re ta ri al st aff: P rovid ed th at nothing in thi s c lau se sh al l, in th e c as e of th e Le gi sl a tur e o f a St at e havin g a Le gis la ti ve Counc il , b e c ons tru ed as pr eve ntin g th e c re a tion of post s co mmo n to both H ous es o f su ch Le gi sl a tur e. (2) The Le gis la tu re of a St at e m a y b y la w r e gul at e the r ec ru it me nt, a nd th e cond ition s o f se rvi ce o f p er sons appoin ted , to the se cr e ta ri al st a ff o f th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Le gi sl at ur e of the Sta te . (3) Un til provis ion i s ma d e b y th e Le gi sl at ur e of th e Sta te und er cl au se (2 ), th e Go ver nor ma y, a ft er con sult at ion wi th th e Spe a ke r of the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y or th e Ch ai r man o f th e Le gis l at ive Coun ci l, as th e c as e ma y b e, ma ke ru le s r e gul at ing th e re cr ui t ment , and th e c ondit ions o f s er vic e of pe rson s a ppoint ed, to the s e cr et ar i al st a ff of th e As se mb l y or the Coun ci l, and an y ru le s s o mad e sh all have e ffe ct subj ec t to the pro vi si ons o f an y l a w ma d e unde r th e sa id cl aus e. Conduc t of Bu sin es s 188. O at h or aff ir mati on by me mbe r s .— E ve r y me mb er o f th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y or the Le gis l at ive Counc il o f a St at e sh al l, b e fo re t akin g hi s s ea t, ma ke and sub sc ri be be fo re the Go ve rno r, or s o me p er son a ppoint ed in th at b eha l f b y hi m, an oa th or a ffir mat ion a c co rdin g to th e for m s et out fo r th e purpos e in th e Thi rd Sch edul e. 189. Vot i ng i n H ouse s , pow er of H ous e s t o act notw it hst andi ng vac anc ie s and quor u m. — (1) Sa ve a s oth er wis e provid ed in th is Con st itut ion, al l qu es tions a t an y si ttin g o f a Hous e o f the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e s ha ll b e det er mi ne d b y a ma j ori t y o f vot es of th e me mb e rs pr es en t a nd votin g, oth er th an the Spe a ke r or Cha ir ma n, or pe rson a ct ing a s su ch. Th e Sp ea ker or Ch ai r man , or pe rson a ct ing as su ch, sh al l not vote in th e fi rs t ins tan ce , but sha ll ha ve and exe rc is e a c a st ing vot e in th e ca s e of an e qua lit y o f vo te s. (2) A Hous e o f the Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te sh al l ha ve po we r to ac t not with st and ing a n y va c an c y in th e me mb er s hip the re o f, and an y pro ce e dings in the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e sha ll be val id not wi ths ta nding tha t

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA it is di sc over e d sub se que ntl y th at so me pe rson who wa s not ent itl ed so to do sa t or vot ed or othe r wi s e took p art in the pro ce ed ings. (3) Un til the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e b y l a w oth er wi se provid es , th e quoru m to c ons titu te a me e ti ng of a Hous e of the Le gi sl at ur e o f a Sta te sh al l be ten m e mb er s or one -t enth o f th e tot al nu mb er of me mb e rs of th e Hou se , whi ch eve r is gre a te r. (4) I f a t an y ti me dur ing a me e t ing of th e Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y or th e Le gis la ti ve Counc il o f a St at e th er e i s no quoru m, it sha ll b e the dut y of th e Spe ake r or Cha ir ma n, or per son ac tin g a s suc h, ei the r to ad journ the Hou se or to su spe nd th e me et in g until th er e is a quoru m. D isqua lif ic ation s of M e mb er s 190. Vac at ion of se ats . —(1 ) No p er son sha ll be a me mb e r of both Hou se s o f th e Le gis l atu re o f a St at e and provis ion sh all be ma d e b y th e Le gis la tu re of th e Sta te b y la w for th e va ca tion b y a pe rs on wh o i s cho se n a me mbe r o f both Hous es of hi s se at in one hous e or th e othe r. (2) No pe rson sh al l b e a m e mb er o f th e Le gi sl atu re s o f t wo or mor e St at es spe ci fi ed in the Fir st S chedu le a nd i f a p er son is cho sen a me mbe r o f th e Le gi sl at ur es o f t wo or mor e s uch St at es , then, a t the e xpi ra tion o f su ch p eriod as ma y b e spe ci fi ed in rul es mad e b y the Pr es iden t, th at p er son's s ea t in the Le gi s la tur es of a ll su ch Sta te s sh al l b eco me va c an t, unle ss h e h as pr e vi ous l y re si gned his s e at in the Le gi sl at ur es of a ll but on e of th e St at es . (3) I f a me mbe r o f a Hou se o f th e Le gis l atu re o f a St at e— ( a) be co me s subje ct to an y of th e disqu al i fi c at ions men tion ed in c la us e (1) or cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 191; or ( b) r es igns his s e at b y wri tin g under his h and add re ss ed to the sp ea ke r or the Cha ir ma n, a s th e c as e ma y b e, and his r es i gn at ion is a c ce pt ed b y th e Sp ea ker or th e Cha ir ma n, as the ca s e ma y be , hi s se at sh al l the reupon be co me va c an t: P rovid ed tha t in th e c a se of a n y re si gn at ion r e fer r ed to in sub -c la us e ( b), i f fr o m in for ma ti on r ec e ive d or oth er wis e a nd a ft er m a ki ng suc h inqui r y as h e thin ks fit , the Spe a ke r or the Ch ai r man , a s th e c a se ma y be, is s at is fie d th at s uch re si gn at ion i s not vo lunt ar y or genu ine , he sh al l not a cc e pt su ch r es i gn ation . (4) I f for a per iod of s ixt y d a ys a me mbe r of a H ous e o f th e Le gis la tu re o f a St at e is wit hout pe r mi s sion o f the Hou se abs en t fr o m a ll me e ti ngs th er eo f, the Hou se ma y d ec la re hi s se at va c ant : P rovid ed th at in co mp utin g the s ai d pe riod o f si xt y da ys no ac c ount sh al l b e ta ken o f an y p eriod during whi ch the Hous e i s pro rogued or is adjou rned for mo r e than fou r c ons ec ut ive da ys . 191. D is quali fi c at i ons for me mbe r s hi p. — (1) A per son sha ll be di squa li fie d for bein g chos en as , and for be ing, a me mb er o f th e

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y or Le gis la ti ve Counc il o f a St at e— ( a) if he holds an y o ffi c e of pro fi t und er the Go ver n men t o f Indi a or th e Go ve rn me nt of a n y Sta te sp ec i fie d in th e Fir st Sch edul e, oth er th an a n offi ce de cl ar ed b y the Le gis l atu re of th e St at e b y l a w not to di squa li f y its hold er ; ( b) i f he i s of unsound mind a nd st and s so dec la re d b y a co mp et en t c ourt ; (c ) i f he i s a n undi sc ha rged in solve nt; (d) i f he i s not a ci ti ze n o f Ind ia , or ha s vo lunta ri l y ac qui red th e c it iz en ship of a fo re i gn Sta te , or is unde r a n y a c kno wl ed gme nt of a ll egi an ce or adh er en ce to a for ei gn S ta te ; (e ) i f he i s s o di squa li fie d b y or under an y l a w ma d e b y P ar li a men t. E xplanat ion.— For the purpo se s of this c la us e, a pe rson sh al l not be d ee me d to hold a n offi ce o f pro fit under the Go ver n men t o f Ind ia or the Go ver n men t o f an y St at e sp ec i fi e d in the Fi rs t Sch edul e b y r ea son onl y tha t h e i s a Minis te r ei the r fo r th e U nion or for suc h St at e. (2) A p er son sh al l be di squa li fie d for bein g a me mbe r of the Le gi sl at i ve As s e mbl y or Le gis l at ive Counc il o f a St at e i f he i s so disqu ali fi ed und er th e Te nth Sch edul e. 192. De ci si on on que st i ons as to dis qual if ic ati ons of me mbe r s .— (1 ) I f a n y que st ion ar is es a s to wh et he r a me mb er o f a Hou se of the Le gi sl at ur e o f a St at e has b eco me subj ec t to a n y o f th e disqu ali fi ca tion s men ti oned in c la us e (1 ) o f a rt ic le 191, the ques tion s ha ll b e re fe rr e d fo r the d ec is ion of th e Go ve rno r a nd hi s dec is ion sha ll be fin al . (2) B e fo re givin g a n y de ci sion on a n y su ch qu es tion, th e Go ver nor s ha ll obt ain th e opinion of the Ele ct ion Co m mi ss ion a nd sha ll ac t a cc ord ing to su ch opinion. 193. Pe nal ty for s it ti ng and vot i ng be f ore ma ki ng oat h or af fi r mat ion un der art ic le 188 or w he n not qual if ie d or w he n di s quali fi e d. — I f a p er son si ts or vo te s a s a me mbe r of the Le gi sl at ive As s e mb l y or the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l o f a St at e be fo re h e h as co mpl ie d wi th the r equi re me nt s o f ar ti cl e 188, or wh en he kno ws th at h e is not qual i fi ed or th at h e is disqu al i fi ed for me mbe r ship the reo f, or tha t he i s prohib it ed fr o m so doing b y the provis ions of an y la w ma d e b y P ar lia me nt or th e Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e, h e sh al l be lia ble in re sp ec t of ea ch da y on wh ic h h e so s it s or vot es to a p ena lt y o f fi ve hundre d rupe e s to b e re co ver ed as a d ebt due to th e Sta te . Pow er s, P ri vil eg es and Im muni tie s of State L egi sla tures and thei r M em be rs 194. Pow e rs , pri vil eg es , e tc ., of the H ouse s of L egi sl at ures and of t he me mb e rs and c o m mi t te e s t here of. — (1) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Con st itut ion a nd to th e rule s and s tand ing ord er s r e gu la ting th e pro ce dur e of the Le gi sl a tur e, th er e sha ll be fr e edo m of s pe ec h in th e Le gis la tu re o f e ver y S ta te . (2 ) No me mbe r o f the Le gis la tu re o f a St at e sha ll be li abl e to a n y pro ce e dings in an y cou rt in r es pe ct o f an yt hin g s aid or an y vo te gi ve n b y hi m in th e Le gi sl at ur e or a n y co mmi tt ee the re o f, and no p er son s ha ll be so li ab le in re sp ec t o f th e publi ca ti on b y or unde r the autho ri t y of a Hous e of su ch a Le gi s la tur e of an y re port , p ape r, vo te s or proc ee din gs . (3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined, shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. (4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to members of that Legislature. 195. Salaries and allowances of members.—Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined, by the Legislature of the State by law and, until provision in that respect is so made, salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province. Legislative Procedure 196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.—(1) Subject to the provisions of articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council. (2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses. (3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House or Houses thereof. (4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. (5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. 197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills. —(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council— (a) the Bill is rejected by the Council; or

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(b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is

laid before the Council without the Bill being passed by it; or (c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative Assembly does not agree; th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y ma y, subj ec t to the ru le s r e gu la ting it s pro ce dur e, p as s the Bi ll aga in in th e sa me or in a n y s ubs equ ent se s sion wi th or withou t su ch a mend me nt s, i f an y, a s ha ve b een mad e , su gge s te d or a gr e ed to b y the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l a nd th en tra ns mi t the Bi ll as s o p as se d to the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l. (2 ) I f a ft er a Bil l h as be en so pas s ed fo r th e s e cond ti me b y the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y a nd t ran s mit te d to the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l— (a) th e B ill i s r ej ec te d b y th e Coun ci l; or (b) mor e th an one month e lap se s fr o m th e dat e on whi ch th e B ill i s laid be for e the Coun ci l wi thou t th e Bil l b ein g pa ss ed b y it ; or (c ) the B ill is p as se d b y the Counc il wi th a mend me nt s to whi ch th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y does not a gr e e; th e Bi ll s ha ll be dee med to have be en pa ss ed b y the H ous es of th e Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e in the fo r m in wh ic h it wa s pa ss ed b y th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y for the se c ond ti me wit h s uch a me nd men ts , i f an y, a s h ave be en mad e or su gges te d b y the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l a nd a gre e d to b y th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y. (3 ) No thin g in th is a rti cl e sh al l a ppl y to a Mon e y Bil l. 198. Spe ci al proc e dure in re s pe c t of M oney B ill s. — (1) A Mone y Bi ll sh al l not be int roduc ed in a Le gi sl at i ve Counc il. (2) A fte r a Mon e y Bi ll ha s b een pas se d b y th e Le gi s la ti ve As s e mbl y of a St at e h avin g a Le gi sl at i ve Coun ci l, it s ha ll b e tr ans mi tt ed to th e Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l for its r ec o mme nd ation s, and th e Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l sh al l with in a per iod o f fou rte en da ys fr o m th e d at e of it s re c eip t of th e B ill r etu rn th e Bil l to th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y wi th it s re co m mend at ions , a nd the Le gi sl at ive As s e mb l y ma y th er eupon e ith er ac c ept or re je ct a ll or a n y o f th e re co m mend at ions o f th e Le gis l at ive Coun ci l. (3) I f th e Le gi sl a ti ve As s e mbl y ac c ep ts an y o f the r ec o mme nd at ions of th e Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l, th e Mon e y Bi ll sh al l be dee me d to have be en p as se d b y both Hou se s wi th th e a me nd me nt s re co m men de d b y the Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l a nd a c ce pt ed b y th e Le gis l at ive As s e mbl y. (4 ) I f the Le gi sl a ti ve As se mb l y doe s not a cc e pt an y of the r ec o mme nd at ions o f the Le gis la ti ve Counc il , th e Mone y Bi ll sha ll be d ee me d to ha ve be en pas s ed b y both Hous e s in th e fo r m in wh ic h i t wa s p as se d b y the Le gi sl at ive As s e mb l y withou t an y of the a men d men ts r ec o mme nd ed b y th e Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l. (5 ) I f a Mone y Bi ll pas se d b y th e Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y a nd t ra ns mit te d to th e Le gis la ti ve Counc il for it s r ec o mme nda tion s i s not r etu rned to the

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Le gis la ti ve As s e mb l y wi thin the sa id pe riod o f fou rte en da ys, it sh al l be dee me d to have b een pa ss ed b y both Hou se s a t th e e xpi ra tion o f th e sa id per iod in th e for m in whi ch it wa s p as se d b y the Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y. 199. Definition of “Money Bills”.—(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax; (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the State; (c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund; (d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State; (e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure; (f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money; or (g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f). (2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. (3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of such State thereon shall be final. (4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative Council under article 198, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article 200, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a Money Bill. 200. Assent to Bills.—When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President: Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, wh e n a B ill is s o re turn ed, the Hous e or Hous es sh al l re con sid er th e B ill a cc ord ingl y, a nd i f the Bi ll is pa ss ed a ga in b y th e

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Hou se or H ous es wi th or wi thout a me nd men t a nd pr es en te d to the Go ver nor fo r a ss e nt, the Go ver nor sh all not wit hhold as s ent th er e fr o m: Pro vid ed fur the r th at the Go ver nor sha ll not as se nt to , but sh all re se r ve for th e con sid er at ion o f th e P re sid ent, an y B ill wh ic h in th e opinion o f the Go ver nor would , i f it b ec a me la w, so de rogat e fr o m th e powe rs o f th e Hi gh Cou rt as to end an ge r th e po sit ion wh ic h th at Co u rt is b y thi s Cons ti tution d es igned to fi ll . 201. B ills re se r ve d for c ons i de r ati on.— Wh en a Bi ll i s r es er ved b y a Go ver nor for th e con sid er at ion o f th e P re sid ent , the Pr es iden t sh al l de cl ar e e ith er th at he as s en ts to the Bi ll or th at he wi thhold s as se nt th er e fr o m: P rovid ed tha t, wh e re the Bi ll is not a Mone y Bi ll, the P re sid ent ma y di re ct th e Go ver nor to re turn th e B ill to the Hou se or, a s th e c a se ma y be, th e Hous es of th e Le gi sl at ur e of th e Sta te to geth er wi th su ch a me s sa ge a s i s men tion ed in th e fir st pro vi so to ar ti cl e 200 and, wh en a Bil l is so r etu rne d, th e Hou se or Hou se s sha ll r ec ons ide r i t ac c ordin gl y wi thin a p eriod of si x mo nth s fr o m the dat e o f r ec e ipt of su ch me s s a ge and , i f it is a gai n p as se d b y the Hou se or Hou se s wi th or withou t a mend me nt , it sh al l b e pr es en te d a gai n to the P re sid ent for hi s cons ide ra ti on. P ro ce dure in Financ ial Ma tt er s 202. A nnual fi nanc i al st at e me nt. — (1) The Go ve rno r sh al l in r es pe ct of e ver y fin anc ia l ye a r c au se to be la id be fo re th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e a s ta te me nt o f the e st i mat ed r ec ei pt s a nd e xpend itur e o f the Sta te fo r th at ye a r, in thi s P art re fe rr ed to as the “a nnua l fi nan ci al s ta te me nt ". (2) Th e e st i mat es of e xpend itu re e mbod ied in the annu al fin an ci al s ta te me nt sh al l sho w s ep ar at el y— ( a) th e su ms re quir ed to m e et e xp endi tur e de sc ri bed b y th is Con st itut ion a s e xp endi tur e cha rge d upon the Cons olid at ed Fund o f th e St at e; a nd (b) th e su ms r equi red to me et oth er e xpend itu re propos ed to b e ma d e fro m the Con sol ida ted Fund of the St at e; a nd sha ll dist ingui sh e xp endi tur e on re venu e a c coun t fro m oth er e xpend itur e. (3) Th e fol lo wi ng e xpend itu re sh al l b e e xpend itu re ch arged on th e Con sol ida ted Fund of e a ch St at e— ( a) th e e mol u ment s a nd al lo wan ce s of the Go ve rno r and oth er e xpend itur e re la tin g to his o ffi c e; ( b) th e s al ar ie s and a llo wan ce s of th e Spe a ke r and th e D eput y Sp ea ker o f th e Le gis la ti ve As s e mbl y and , in the ca s e o f a St at e h aving a Le gis la ti ve Coun ci l, al so of th e Cha ir ma n and the De put y Ch ai r man of th e Le gi sl at ive Coun ci l;

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(c) d ebt c harges fo r whi ch th e St at e i s li abl e in clud ing inte re s t, s inkin g fu nd ch arge s and r ede mpt ion c ha rges , a nd oth er e xp endi tur e re la tin g to the ra is in g of loan s and the se r vi c e and r ed e mp tion o f debt ; (d ) e xpend itur e in re spe ct of th e sa la ri es and al lo wa nc e s of Judge s o f an y H igh Cou rt ; (e ) a n y su ms re quir ed to sa ti s fy an y jud gmen t, dec re e or a wa rd o f a n y c our t or a rbit ra l tribun al ; (f ) a n y oth er e xpend itur e de cl ar ed b y th is Con sti tution , or b y the Le gis la tu re o f th e St at e b y l a w, to b e s o c ha rged . 203. Proc e dure i n Le gis lat ure w ith re s pe c t t o es ti mat e s. — (1 ) So mu ch o f th e e st i mat e s a s re la te s to expe nditu re c harged upon th e Conso lida te d Fund o f a St at e sh al l not be sub mi tt ed to the vot e o f the Le gi sl at ive As s e mbl y, but nothing in thi s cl au se sh al l be cons tru ed as pr e ve nt ing th e di sc us sion in the Le gi sl a tur e of an y of thos e es ti ma te s. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. 204. Appropriation Bills.—(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the Assembly; and (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or Houses. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final. (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.—(1) The Governor shall— (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or

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(b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 202, 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or grant. 206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of article 204 in relation to that expenditure; (b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement; (c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any financial year; and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are made. (2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure. 207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.—(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council: Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax. (2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

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(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill. Procedure Generally 208. Rules of procedure.—(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business. (2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case may be. (3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses. 209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. —The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article 208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 210. Language to be used in the Legislature.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative Council, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom: Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years occurring therein, the words "twenty-five years" were substituted: Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Mizoram, this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring therein, the words "forty years" were substituted.

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211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. —No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties. 212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.—(1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.

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CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR
213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.—(1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if— (a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or (b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or (c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, it had received the assent of the President. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor. Explanation.—Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void:

Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the President and assented to by him. * * * * * CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES 214. High Courts for States.—There shall be a High Court for each State. * * * * * 215. High Courts to be courts of record.—Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. 216. Constitution of High Courts.—Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. * * * * * 217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.—(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court, and shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years: Provided that— (a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; (b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court; (c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and— (a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or (b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession. * * * * * Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause— (a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office,

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during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law; (aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law after he became an advocate; (b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area, as the case may be. (3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of the President shall be final. 218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.— The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High Court for references to the Supreme Court. 219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.—Every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the State, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. 220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.—No person who, after the commencement of this Constitution, has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and the other High Courts. Explanation.—In this article, the expression “High Court” does not include a High Court for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956. 221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.—(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule. (2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by Parliament and, until so determined, to such allowances and rights as are specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. 222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.—(1) The President may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court.

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(2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred, he shall, during the period he serves, after the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, as a Judge of the other High Court, be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until so determined, such compensatory allowance as the President may by order fix. 223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose. 224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.—(1) If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify. (2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties. (3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty-two years. 224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.—Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that State, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that High Court: Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do. 225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution: Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction. 226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32 every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose. (2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. (3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without— (a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; and (b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated. (4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32. 226A. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 8 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.—(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may— (a) call for returns from such courts; (b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and (c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts. (3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein: Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA shall require the previous approval of the Governor. (4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces. * * * * * 228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, it shall withdraw the case and may— (a) either dispose of the case itself, or (b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment. 228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 10 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.—(1) Appointments of officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct: Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service Commission. (2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, the conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose: Provided that the rules made under this clause shall, so far as they relate to salaries, allowances, leave or pensions, require the approval of the Governor of the State. (3) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court, shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court shall form part of that Fund. 230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory. (2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union territory, — ( a) nothin g in this Cons titu tion sh al l be cons tru ed a s e mp o we ri ng th e Le gi sl at ur e of th e Sta te to inc re a se , re st ri ct or abo li sh th at ju ris dic tion ; a nd

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( b) the r e fer e nc e in a rt ic le 227 to th e Go ver nor sh al l, in r el at ion to a n y rul es , for ms or tab le s for subo rdin at e cou rt s in th at te rr ito r y, be con st rue d a s a re fe r en ce to th e P re sid ent . 231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union territory. (2) In relation to any such High Court,— (a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises jurisdiction; (b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in which the subordinate courts are situate; and (c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat: Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219 and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.

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CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS 233. Appointment of district judges.—(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. (2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment. 233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges. —Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court,— (a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader, to be a district judge in that State, and (ii) no posting, promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge, made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966, otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions;

(b) no jurisdiction exercised, no judgment, decree, sentence or order passed or made, and no other act or proceedings done or taken, before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966 by, or before, any person appointed, posted, promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions. 234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.— Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. 235. Control over subordinate courts.— The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law. 236. Interpretation.— In this Chapter— (a) the expression “district judge” includes judge of a city civil court, additional district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge, additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge; (b) the expression “judicial service” means a service consisting exclusively of persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to the post of district judge. 237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.—The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification.

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PART VII.—[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

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PART VIII

THE UNION TERRITORIES
239. Administration of Union territories.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President my appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. 239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of Pondicherry— (a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a Legislature for the Union territory, or (b) a Council of Ministers, or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the law. (2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution. 239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.—(1) As from the date of commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. (2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory. (b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies (including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament. (c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament. (3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly shall have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such matter is applicable to Union territories except85 matters with respect to Entries 1, 2 and 18 of the State List and Entries 64, 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries 1, 2 and 18.

(b) Nothing in subclause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof. (c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly, or of an earlier law, other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly, then, in either case, the law made by Parliament, or, as the case may be, such earlier law, shall prevail and the law made by the Legislative Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void: Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, such law shall prevail in the National Capital Territory: Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly. (4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion: Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his Ministers on any matter, the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter, in his opinion, is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action, to take such action or to give such direction in the matter as he deems necessary. (5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. (6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly. (7) (a) Parliament may, by law, make provisions for giving effect to, or supplementing the provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential thereto. (b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending, this Constitution. (8) The provisions of article 239B shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly, as they apply in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the administrator and its Legislature, respectively; and any reference in that article to “clause (1) of article 239A” shall be deemed to be a reference to this article or article 239AB, as the case may be. 239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.—If the President, on receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise, is satisfied—

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(a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of any law made in pursuance of that article; or (b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary or expedient so to do, the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article 239AA. 239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. —(1) If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf: Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved, or its functioning remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the period of such dissolution or suspension. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if, before the expiration of that period, a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature, upon the passing of the resolution; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, it shall be void. * * * * * 240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.— (1) The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of— ( a) the An da ma n and Ni cob ar I sl ands ; ( b) La ks ha d we e p;

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( c ) D adr a N a ga r H a ve li ;

a nd

( d) Da ma n and Diu ; ( e ) Pondich er r y: Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Legislature: Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved, or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory. (2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory. 241. High Courts for Union territories—(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the purposes of this Constitution. (2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214 subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, in relation to any Union territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such commencement. (4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof. 242. [Coorg.] Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.