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# AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB I

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 DETERMINATION OF YOUNGS MODULUS OF STEEL USING MECHANICAL EXTENSOMETER AIM
To verify Hookes Law for steel specimen under tension test. To find Youngs Modulus for steel To draw stress strain diagram up to proportional limit THEORY Hookes Law states that within the limits of elasticity the strain produced is proportional to the applied stress. Let the applied tensile load on the specimen be P (N). & the area of cross section of specimen be A (mm2 ) Then the normal stress = P / A N / mm2 Let the gauge length of the specimen be L & the elongation due to the load P be L Then the normal strain = L / L By Hookes Law =E Where E is a constant of proportionality, termed as Youngs Modulus or Modulus of elasticity of the material. If the plot of the stress Vs. strain is straight line, the Hookes Law is verified. APPARATUS REQUIRED U.T.M., Double dial gauge extensometer, Vernier caliper and tensile test specimen KNOWLEDGE OF THE INSTRUMENT A Double dial gauge extensometer is a mechanical one to measure the strain in a specimen that undergoes deformation. Many extensometer utilize the dial indicators directly for strain measurement, as illustrated in Fig.1 Such extensometers usually employ two or more dial indicators mounted in a frame, which is attached to the test piece. A second frame is fixed at a set gauge length and their relative motion is measured as strain. The spring loaded frames are usually secured to the specimen through pointed screws or knife edge contacts. Reasonable accuracy in measuring unit strains can be obtained using proper dial gauges.

PROCEDURE:

PRESENTATION OF DATA 1. Extensometer Double Dial Gauges: Gauge Length Value of each division 2. Specimen Material: Cross-section: Rectangular Width Thickness Area Circular Diameter Area -w -t - A = wxt -d - d2 / 4 = = = = = mm mm mm2. mm mm2. = = mm mm

RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS A graph is plotted between stress and strain values at different values of loads. Youngs Modulus for steel, is found by measuring the slope of the stress strain diagram.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is ASTM? What is gauge length? What are the mechanical properties that can be obtained from a typical tension test? Define resilience and how will you measure it? What are the advantages and limitations of Double dial gauge extensometer? Draw typical stress strain diagram for cast iron for tensile and compressive loads.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2 DETERMINATION OF YOUNGS MODULUS OF ALUMINIUM USING ELECTRICAL EXTENSOMETER AIM
To verify Hookes Law for Aluminium specimen under tension test. To find Youngs Modulus for Aluminium To draw stress strain diagram up to proportional limit THEORY Hookes Law states that within the limits of elasticity the strain produced is proportional to the applied stress. Let the applied tensile load on the specimen be P (N). & the area of cross section of specimen be A (mm2 ) Then the normal stress = P / A N / mm2. The change in length per unit length, which is defined as strain , is measured by using electrical resistance type strain gauges along with strain indicator. By Hookes Law =E Where E is a constant of proportionality, termed as Youngs Modulus or Modulus of elasticity of the material. If the plot of the stress Vs. strain is straight line, the Hookes Law is verified. APPARATUS REQUIRED U.T.M., strain gauges, strain indicator, specimen. ELETRICAL STRAIN GAUGES: An electrical resistance wire strain gauge is composed of a grid of fine wire (about 0.025 mm in diameter) laid in a preferential direction and bonded between two sheets of very thin paper or plastic. The gauge can also be made of thin foil or a semi conducting material. The gauge is cemented to the specimen at a particular point of interest. STRAIN INDICATOR When the specimen is loaded, the resulting deformations produce a change in the diameter and length of the wires or the thickness and length of the foils in the grid of the gage, which in turn changes the gauge ohmic resistance. Proper instrumentation permits this resistance change to be precisely determined, and suitable calibration of the gauge enable the resistance change to be converted to strain.

PROCEDURE:

PRESENTATION OF DATA Specimen Material: Cross-section: Rectangular Width Thickness Area Circular Diameter Area Stress -w -t - A = wxt -d - d2 / 4 = = = = = mm mm mm2. mm mm2.

Sl.No.

(N / mm2)

## Strain (mm / mm)

RESULTS & CONCLUSION A graph is plotted between stress and strain for different values of loads. Youngs Modulus for aluminium, is found by measuring the slope of the Stress- strain diagram. ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. What are the different types of strain gauges? 2. List down the materials that are used for strain gauges? 3. What is Wheatstone bridge? 4. What are active and dummy gauges? 5. What are the advantages and limitations of the strain gauge technique? 6. How will you increase the sensitivity of a Wheatstone bridge?

## EXPERIMENT NO. 3 DEFLECTION OF CANTILEVER BEAM

GENERAL OBJECTIVE To determine the deflections at various points of beams with different types of supports using dial gauges. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE To determine the deflections at various locations in a cantilever beam. To compare the results with theoretical calculations. To draw deflection curve. NEED AND SCOPE OF THE EXPERIMENT This experiment is for obtaining deflection of a cantilever beams, subjected to lateral loads, by using dial gauges. Experimental results obtained from such simple tests are compared with theoretical calculations. KNOWLEDGE OF THE INSTRUMENT The apparatus required are mechanical dial gauges, screw-gauge, Vernier caliper, steel and wooden beam specimen. Dial indicators are smaller indicating devices containing a graduated dial scale along with gear and pinion or level magnification system. When dial indicator is used as essential part in the mechanism of any set up for comparison measurement purpose, it is referred to as dial gauge. WORKING MECHANISM OF DIAL INDICATOR The necessary high magnification ratio in this instrument is achieved by the use of gear and pinion arrangement by arranging the gear train in a manner similar to a clock movement. There is a plunger, which is a perfect sliding fit in its own bearings. This carries a rack, which accurately meshes with a pinion, A shown in the figure. The rotation of the plunger about its own axis is prevented by a pin attached to it, which to it, which is located in a slot in a rack guide G. In order to keep the plunger in an extended or normal position a light coil spring S is employed. The spring exerts a pressure of approximately 60z. A small movement of the contact point causes the rack to turn to the pinion. A with which it is meshed. A large gear B is attached to the same spindle as pinion A. The gear B is attached to the same spindle as pinion A. The gear B is further meshed with a pinion C, which thus magnifies the movement of pinion A. Attached to the second pinion C is another gear D which meshes with a third pinion E mounted on the same spindle as the indicator pointer. The overall magnification of final pinion is this (TD / TE) x (TB / Te) where TB, Te etc., represent the number of teeth of gears B and C respectively. This magnification is further enlarged at the tip of the pointer by an amount dependent upon its length. The overall magnification for any dial gauge may be thus calculated

by measuring the distance between divisions on the scale and dividing this dimension by the equivalent movement of the measuring plunger. If the pointer makes more than one revolution, a revolution counter is also incorporated which will correctly indicate the number of revolutions made by the main printer and thus enable a complete reading to be made when the gauge is used for direct measurement.
A B

RACK

C D E

BEZEL

BEZEL CLAMP

BUCK LUG

STEM PLUNGER

CONTACT POINT

PROCEDURE:

PRESENTATION OF DATA Youngs Modulus of the beam material Area Moment of Inertia of the beam Length of the beam E= I= L=

Deflections (mm) Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. RESULTS (i) The deflections at various locations of the beam are measured. (ii) The values are compared with theoretical calculations. (iii) The deflection curves are plotted. Load (N) Location 1 Experimental Location Location 2 3 Location 1 Theoretical Location Location 2 3

ASSESSMENT QUESITONS 1. What are the advantages of dial gauges? 2. What are the limitations of dial gauges? 3. What are the tip deflections for a cantilever beam of length L and rigidity EI subjected to, a) a tip load P. b) a uniformly distributed load Q. c) a concentrated load at mid span. 4. How will you measure the rotation at the tip of the cantilever? 5. Explain various methods to obtain the deflection of a beam.

## EXPERIMENT NO. 4 DEFLECTION OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

GENERAL OBJECTIVE
To determine the deflection of a simply supported beam using Dial gauges. (i) (ii) (iii) To determine the deflection of a simply supported beam at various locations To compare the deflection values with the theoretical calculations. To draw the deflection curves.

KNOWLEDGE OF THE INSTRUMENT The apparatus required are mechanical dial gauges, screw gauge, vernier calipers, beams and mounting frame. PRESENTATION OF DATA Youngs Modulus of the beam material Area Moment of Inertia of the beam Length of the beam

E= I= L=

Deflections (mm) Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Load (N) Location 1 Experimental Location Location 2 3 Location 1 Theoretical Location Location 2 3

PROCEDURE

RESULTS (i) (ii) (iii) The deflections at various locations of the beam are measured The values are compared with theoretical calculations. The deflection curves with theoretical and experimental values are plotted.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. Write down the equation for the deflection curve of a simply supported beam subjected to a concentrated load at the mind span of the beam.

2.

Write the expressions for deflection at the midpoint and slope at the supports of a simply beam subjected to (i) (ii) Uniformly distributed load Concentrated load at mid span

3. 4. 5.

What is a conjugate beam? What is contraflexsure? Obtain the relationship among the shear force, bending moment and the loading in a beam.

## EXPERIMENT NO. 5 VERIFICATION OF MAXWELLS RECIPROCAL THEOREM

AIM
To verify Maxwells Reciprocal Theorem for a Cantilever and Simply Supported Beams. THEORY Consider a beam shown in Fig.1 and select two points 1 and 2 anywhere in the beam. Apply a load W at station 1. The work done by this load W over the displacement
11

at station 1 = W

11

W
(2) (1)

11

Now without removing the load W at station 1, apply another load of the same magnitude W at station 2. Then the work done by this load W at stations 2 and 1 =W
22

+W

12

W
(2) (1)

Then total W.D. by both the loads acting at 1 and 2 W.D. Total =W
11

+W

22

+W

12

Now change the order of the loading. First, apply the load W at station 2. Then work done by this load over the displacement at 2. =W
22

Now without removing the load from 2, apply another load of the same magnitude W at station 1. Then the work done by this load W at stations 1 and 2 = W 11 + W21

(2)

(1)

(2)

(1)

Then the total W.D by both the loads acting at 1 & 2 W.D. Total =W
22

+W

11

+W

21

The total work done by both the loads does not change when the sequence of application of loads is changed.

## By equating the total work done, we obtain =W

11

+W

22

+W

12

=W =
21

22

+W

11

+W

21

12

That is the deflection at station 1 due to load at station 2 is equal to the deflection at station 2 due to the same load at station 1. = W 22 + W 11 + W 21 Hence Maxwells Reciprocal Theorem is verified.

APPARATUS REQUIRED Dial Gauges, weights, meter scale, cantilever and simply supported beam specimens.

PROCEDURE

## PRESENTATION OF DATA A CANTILEVER BEAM SPECIMEN Mild Steel Length = 60 cm.

Deflection j Station i 1 2

Deflections (mm) 1 2
11 12 21 22

## B SIMPLE SUPPORTED BEAM

Deflection j Station i 1 2

Deflections (mm) 1 2
11 12 21 22

## RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Maxwells reciprocal theorem is verified.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. State Bettis Theorem. 2. State Maxwells reciprocal theorem. 3. What are the assumptions made in deriving Bettis Theorem?

## EXPERIMENT NO. 6 VERIFICATION OF PRINCIPLE OF SUPER POSITION AIM

To verify the principle of superposition using a cantilever beam. THEORY Principle of superposition states that Separate effects of various loads or strains on a structure or a body, applied singly, can be superimposed or algebraically added to give the total effects of all the loads, applied at the same time. This principle is applicable to most of the elastic deformation problems provided the load-deformation relation is linear and deformation due to each load is too small to produce a marked change in the geometry of the structure and the deflections measured in the same direction in which the loads are applied. The principle of superposition has wide applications in the analysis and design of structures. APPARATUS REQUIRED Dial gauges, weights, meter scale, steel beam specimen.

2 +

3 +

PROCEDURE

PRESENTATION OF DATA A. CANTILEVER BEAM Sl.No. Load P (N) Station 2 0 1 0 Deflection (mm) Station 2 Station 3
21 22 23 2 2 31 32 33 3 3

Station 1 1 0 0

Station 3 0 0 1

Station 1
11 12 13 1

Total

B. SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Sl.No. Load P (N) Station 2 0 1 0 Deflection (mm) Station 1 Station 2 Station 3
11 12 13 1 21 22 23 2 2 31 32 33 3 3

Station 1 1 0 0

Station 3 0 0 1

Total

## RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The principle of superposition is verified for a Cantilever and Simply Supported Beams.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. State the principle of superposition. 2. What are the applications of principle of superposition? 3. What are the limitations of the above theorem? 4. Find the mid-span deflection of a S.S.B. subjected to u.d.1. and a concentrated load at the centre using the above theorem. 5. Find the tip deflection of a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load P at the tip and a moment Mo (Clock-wise) at the mi

## EXPERIMENT NO. 7 DETERMINATION OF FAILURE LOADS OF COLUMNS AIM

To obtain the failure load for a column with different and conditions. THEORY: Slender long members under compression are referred as columns. They, at much smaller load, buckle laterally and would collapse due to the phenomenon called structural instability. The failures load is called the critical load or buckling load. It depends on the flexural rigidity EI, length of the member and the support end conditions.

The governing differential equation for a member at the critical loading condition is EI d2y / dx2 = -Mx. The solution for this equation will yield the critical load values as Pcri = 2EI / 2 Pcri = 4 2 EI / 2 for a pin-pin ends. for a fixed-fixed ends.

APPARATUS REQUIRED Column Test Apparatus with load indicator, specimens made of different materials and diameters. KNOWLEDGE OF THE APPARATUS The column test rig consisting of two vertical steel tubular members with cross heads at the top and bottom. The cross heads have the provisions to change the support conditions. The load is applied by means of a screw jack to the specimen which passes through a strain gauge based load cell. The output of the strain gauge is calibrated against loads which will be digitally displayed. A circular ring has also been provided at e middle of the specimen to prevent undue lateral deflection of the column when buckling occurs.

PROCEDURE

## PRESENTATION OF DATA Column Material Diameter Length : : :

I. Pin-Pin Column Material Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Buckling load (N) Theoretical Experimental

Stainless steel

Brass

Aluminium

II. Fixed-Fixed Column Material Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Buckling load (N) Theoretical Experimental

Stainless steel

Brass

Aluminium

RESULTS The critical loads for different materials and end conditions have been obtained experimentally and the values have been compared with the theoretical values.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. Define tie, beam and column. 2. Explain how an ideal column fails. 3. Differentiate between long and short columns. 4. Define slenderness ratio and explain its usefulness in column design. 5. What is end fixity coefficient?

EXPERIMENT NO. 8 DETERMINATION OF COLUMN FAILURE LOAD USING SOUTH WELLS PLOT AIM
To determine the failure load of a column using South Wells plot. THEORY A long slender member under compression loses the stability when the load reaches the buckling load. For ideal column at the time of buckling, the lateral deflection, mathematically, becomes infinity R.V. South Well has suggested a method by which one can obtain experimentally the critical load without actually making the column buckle.

This method is based on the assumption that the deflection of a column, under a load that is below the critical value, is due to the initial curvature. The deflection at x = / 2 at various stages of loading is given by

( /p) Pcri -

= a1

Where P is the load at any instant, the corresponding lateral deflection and a1 a constant. Plotting ( /p) Vs of the critical load. /p as a straight line, the inverse of the slope of the line gives the value

a1

PROCEDURE

APPARATUS REQUIRED Column Test Apparatus with load indicator, specimens made of different materials and diameters.

## PRESENTATION DATA Column Material Diameter Length : : :

End condition Pin-Pin column Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Load (N) Deflection (mm) /p Critical load (N) Experimental Theoretical

RESULTS The critical load has been obtaining experimentally and compared with theoretical value. ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. What is a short column? 2. Write down a few short column formulae. 3. What is a beam column? Is principle of superposition valid for beam columns? 4. What is the characteristic equation for a column with one end fixed and the other the other end pinned? Explain the method to obtain the critical load for that column. 5. Explain the energy method of obtaining critical load of a column.

## EXPERIMENT NO.9 DETERMINATION OF FAILURE LOADS OF RIVETED JOINTS AIM

To determine failure loads and study the corresponding failure modes of riveted joints. THEORY Joints are normally designed to transfer loads from one member to another through welds, bolts and rivets. Welded joints permanent one where as bolted joint is a temporary joint. The riveted one is treated as a semi-permanent joint. Basically there are two types of riveted joints:

Lab joints wherein the rivets are under single shear Butt joints with double straps in which they are under double shear. There could be multiple rows of rivets which are of either chain type or zigzag type. The riveted joints may fail in any one of the following modes: 1. Tension or tearing failure of the plates between the holes if the rivets are very close to each other. (Fig. i) 2. Shearing failure of the plate between the edge of the plate and rivet hole, i.e., the hole is too nearer to the edge. (Fig.ii) 3. Bearing failure of the plate, that is, the effect of rivet on the plate. 4. Crushing failure of the plate or the rivet. (Fig. iv) 5. Shearing failure of the rivet if the diameter of the rivet is smaller than the required value. (Fig. iii) DESIGN ANALYSIS OF A JOINT The plate may failure by tension along the weakest section. Tearing resistance of a plate between rivet holes P = (p-d) t t. Where p = pitch of the riveted joint d = diameter of the rivet t = thickness of the plate and t = tensile strength of the plate.

Shearing resistance of the plate P = 2 et. e = edge distance t = thickness of the plate = shear strength of the plate.

Where

Where

## Crushing resistance of the plate P = d.t. cr cr = Bearing strength of the plate

Where

Shearing resistance of the rivet For single shear P = d2 / 4. (Lap joint) And for double shear P = 2 d2 / 4. Where = shearing strength of the rivet.

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

## APPARATUS REQUIRED U.T.M., Specimens with lap and butt joints.

PRESENTATION OF DATA

Loading range of the UTM Material of the rivet Material of the plate Yield strength of the plate material Yield strength of the rivet material Rivet diameter

= = =

= =

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

Sl.No.

Type of joint

## Plate thickness (mm)

Number of rivets

Plate width

Failure mode

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The various failure modes of riveted joints were studied.

ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

1. What are the different types of rivets used in aircraft practice? Sketch them. 2. Suggest some materials for aircraft rivets. 3. What are the advantages of riveting over welding techniques? 4. Where do you use bolted joints in an aircraft? 5. What type of riveted joints that are used in pressure vessels? Give reasons.