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Understand the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Synthesise the manufacture of ammo nia and its salts. Understand alloys. Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer. Ap ply the uses of glass and ceramics. Evaluate the uses of composite materials. Ap preciate various synthetic industrial materiala. 2

(H O4) USES OF SULPHURIC ACID 4S 1. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulpha te and potassium sulphate, which are highly soluble in water and can be easily o bsorbed by plant. 2. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the e lectrolyte. 3. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fi bres and rayon. 4. Chemical like paints, dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of their component materials.

MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID 1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process 2. The proc ess contain three stage STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur i. Co mbustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide SO2. S(s )+O2(g) SO2(g) sulphur ii. sulphur dioxide is dried and purified. STAGE2: Production Of Sulphur Trioxide From Sulphur Dioxide i. The purified sulp hur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide V2O5 at control led optimum condition optimum condition to produce sulphur trioxide SO3. 2SO2(g) +O2(g) 2SO3(g) ii. The optimum used are a) Temperature:450-500C b) Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide 3

iii. Under controlled optimum conditions, 98% conversion is possible. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the cataly st in the converter. STAGE3: Conversion of trioxide to sulphuric acid i. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is diss olved in concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form oleum H2S2O7 which is then di luted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4. SO3(g)+H2SO4(l) H2S2O7(l) Oleum H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) ii. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to add ing sulphur trioxide directly into water. SO3(g)+H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) iii. The additio n of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out because the reaction is v ary vigorous; a lot of heat is given off. As a result, alarge cloud of sulphuric acid fumes is produced, which is corrosive and causes severe air pollution. The Contact Process Sulphu r Oxyge n In the converter S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Oxyge 2 SO(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) Temperature: 450-500C Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres Catalyst: V anadium(V) oxide Unreacted 2%so2 is flowed back to converter together with oxygen 4

SO2(g) + H2SO4(aq) H2S2O7(l) H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND POLLUTION Outline Of Contact process ENVIRONMENTAL 1.Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process. It is a colourles s and poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell. 2.Sulphur dioxide which escape in to the air causes air pollution. 3.Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic, H2SO3. In the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide di ssolve in water droplets to form sulphurous acidic. SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) 4. Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, which falls t o the earth as acid rain. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form sulphur trioxide. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphu ric acid. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) 5

Acid rain and environmental pollution (NH3) USES OF AMMONIA 1.Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses. 2.It uses: i.In the manufa cture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonia nitric, ammonia phosphate and urea. ii.To manufacture nitric acid and explosive. iii.In the mak ing of synthetic fibre and nylon. iv.As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to re move greasy stains in the kitchen. PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA GAS 1.The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following: i.It colourless and has a pungent odour. ii.It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution. iii.It less dense then water. iv.It easily liquified (at about 35.5C) when cool. 2.The chemical properties of ammonia gas: a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) b) The . Thus cid to CI(aq) presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline aqueous ammonia solution: i. urns red litmus paper blue. ii. eacts with a form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction. NH3(aq) + HCI(aq) NH4 2NH3 + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) 6 R T

iii. eacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates. Fe+(aq) + 2 OH(aq) Fe (OH)2(s) (Form ammonia solution) Dirty green precipitate R MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY 1. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the haber process . In this process, ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hyd rogen gas in the volume ratio 1:3. 2. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractiona l distillation of liquefied air. The hydrogen gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of natural gas, CH4, with steam. CH4 (g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g) 3.The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is pass ed over an iron catalyst under controlled optimum condition as below to form amm onia gas. i.Temperature: 450-500C ii.Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres iii.Catalyst u sed: Iron fillings N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) 4.Under these control optimum condition, only 15% of the gas mixture turn into a mmonia gas. The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back o ver the catalyst again in the reactor chamber. 5.The ammonia product is then coo led at a low temperature so that it condenses into a liquid in the cooling chamb er. 7

The Haber Process Nitrogen Hydrogen N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of In the reactor chamber 1:3 In cooling c hamber N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH (g) Temperature: 450-500C Liquid Pressure: 200-500 atmo spheres Outline Of Habert process Catalyst used: Iron fillings 3 Unreacted N2 and H2 gases AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS 1. Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are nece ssary for growth and cell repair. 2. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen s upply directly from the air although it is abundant in the air (78%). Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots. 3. The ni trogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt, ammonia and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer. 4. Reactions of ammonia with acids prod uce ammonium fertilizers. NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq) Ammonium nitrate 3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) Ammonium phosphate 2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq) Ammonium sulphate 8 (NH4)3PO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)

ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN MATELS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a hight density The forces of attraction between atoms (metall ic bonds) are strong. More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond s o that the atoms are further apart during the melting. This is why metals usuall y have hight melting point. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This make metal good conduct of heat. The freely movin g outermost electrons within the metals structure are able to conduct electricity . Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors. Since atoms of pure metal ar e of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile. Layer of atom slide Force Metals are ductile Force The shape of the metal change Matel are malleable 9

WHAT ARE ALLOYS 1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistanc e to corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily. 2. To improve the physical propert ies of metal, a small amount of another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy. 3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non -metal) in a specific proportion. For example: a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin) b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon) 4.The purposes of making alloys include the following: a) Increase the strength i. Pure iron is soft and vary ma lleable. When a small amount of carbon is added to iron, an alloy, steal is form ed. The more carbon is added, the stronger the steel becomes. ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call duralumin is produced. b) I mproving the resistance to corrosion i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel whi ch contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical in strument and cutlery. ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion . c) Enhancing the appearance i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and cop per is not only hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance. ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an attr active silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making coins. 10

Alloy High carbon steel Composition 99% iron 1% carbon 80.6% iron 0.4% carbon 18%chromium 1% nickel 70% copper 30% zinc Stainless steel Properties Uses Strong,hard and high Making of cutting wear resistance tools, ha mmers and chisels Do not rust and Making of surgical tarnish, strong and instrum ent, knives durable forks and spoons Hard, do not rust, bright appearance Brass Bronze Pewter Duralumin Cupronickel Making of ornaments, electrical wiring and plug. 90% copper Hard, do not corrode For casting bells, 10% tin easily and durable medals, swords and statues 90% ti n Ductile and Making of 2.5% copper malleable, white ornaments, 0.5% antimony si lvery appearance souvenirs and mugs 95% aluminium Light, strong and Making part of 4% copper durable aircrafts and racing 1%magnesium cars 75%copper Attractive, silvery Making of silver 25%nickel appearance, hard and coins tough Composition , properties and uses of alloys 11

The formation of alloy WHAT ARE POLYMER 1.Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units jo ined together repeatedly are called polymer. 2.The smaller molecules that make u p the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer. 3.The process of joining tog ether a large number of monomers to form a long chain polymer is called polymeri sation. 4.Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural po lymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are star ch cellulose, protein and rubber. 5.Two type of polymerisation in producing synt hetic polymer are additional polymerisation. 6.Double bonds between two carbon a toms usually undergo addition polymerisation. Some Common Addition Polymers Name (s) Polyethylene low density (LDPE) Polyethylene high density (HDPE) Polypropyle ne (PP) different grades Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Poly(vinylidene chloride) (S aran A) Polystyrene (PS) Formula (CH2-CH2)n Monomer ethylene CH2=CH2 ethylene CH2= CH2 propylene CH2=CHCH3 vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl vinylidene chloride CH2=CCl2 sty rene CH2=CHC6H5 Properties soft, waxy solid rigid, translucent solid Uses film w rap, plastic bags electrical insulation bottles, toys (CH2-CH2)n [CH2CH(CH3)]n (CH2CHCl)n (CH2CCl2)n [CH2CH(C6H5)]n atactic: soft, elastic similar to LDPE solid carpet, isotactic: hard, upholstery strong solid strong rigid solid pipes, siding, flooring dense, high-melting seat covers, films solid hard, rigid, clear solid soluble in organic solvents toys, cabinets packaging (foamed) 12

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN, Orlon, Acrilan) (CH2CHCN)n acrylonitrile CH2=CHCN high-melting solid soluble in organic solvents rugs, blankets clothing non-stick surfaces electrical insulation lighting covers , signs skylights latex paints, adhesives requires vulcanization for practical u se synthetic rubber oil resistant Polytetrafluoroeth tetrafluoroethyl resistant, smooth ylene (CF2-CF2)n ene solid ( PTFE, Teflon) CF2=CF2 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, Lucite, Plexiglas) methyl [CH2methacrylate C(CH3)CO2C CH2=C(CH3)C H3]n O2CH3 hard, transparent solid (CH2vinyl acetate Poly(vinyl acetate) CHOCOCH3) CH2=CHOCOC soft, sticky solid (PV Ac) H3 n cis-Polyisoprene natural rubber Polychloroprene (cis + trans) (Neoprene) [CH2isoprene CH=C(CH3)- CH2=CHCH2]n C(CH3)=CH2 [CH2CH=CClCH2]n chloroprene CH2=CHCC l=CH2 soft, sticky solid tough, rubbery solid Uses of synthetic polymers SYNTHETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE 1.Synthetic polymers have many advantages over other type of materials: a.They a re cheap, light-weight and translucent. b.They are easily coloured, easily mould ed and shaped. c.They are non-corrosive, waterproof and good insulator. d.They a re durable and long lasting because they are resistant to decay, rusting and che mical attacks. 2.There are disadvantage using synthetic polymer: a.Most of the s ynthetic polymer are flammable. When a synthetic polymer material catches fire, poisonous fumes are produce causing air pollution. b.Synthetic polymers are nonbiodegradable. When there are discharge, they cause litter problem and pollute t he environment. c.Plastic container that are left aside in an open area collect rainwater which becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes. d.There are limitati on in recycle have to be separated out as the addition of nonrecyclable polymers in the mixture affect the properties of the recycled polymers. 13

WHAT ARE GLASS 1.Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. Many p roducts are made from glass because of its specials properties. 2.Glass is: a. T ransparent, hard but brittle. b. A heat and electric insulator. c. Resistant to corrosion. d. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack. e. Easy to maintain. Type of glass Fused glass Composition SiO2: 100% Properties Transparent High melting point Good heat insulator Low melting point, easily mo lded into desired shape and size Low resistant to chemical attacks Brittle Resis tant chemical attack and durable High melting point Good insulator to heat High refractive index High density Attractive glittering appearance Uses Lens Telesco pe mirrors Laboratory apparatus Drinking glass, bottles Electric bulbs Window gl ass Soda-lime glass SiO2: 75% Na2O:15% CaO: 9% Other:1% Borosilicate glass SiO2: 78% B2O3: 12% Na2O: 5% CaO: 3% Al2O3:2% SiO2: 70% Pbo/PbO2:20% Na2O: 10% Lead crystal glass (flint glass) Cooking utensils Laboratory glassware such as conical flaks and boiling tube Len ses and prisms Decorative glassware and art object Imation jewellery 14

CERAMICS 1. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such a s kaolin to a vary high temperature. 2. Ceramics have many special properties th at make them one of the most useful materials in our everyday life. That: a. Are hard, strong but brittle b. Have high melting point and remain stable at high t emperature c. Are heat and electric instrument d. Are resistant to corrosion and wear e. Are chemically not reactive f. Do not readily deform under stress 3. Ce ramic play important role in our daily life. They are uses as a. Construction ma terials i. Ceramic are strong and hard, uses to make roof tiles, bricks cement, sinks, and toilet bowls. ii. They are also used to make refractory bricks becaus e high resistant to heat. b. Decorative items i. To make pottery, china plates, and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish easily and are durable. ii. They a re used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles. c. Electrical ins ulator i. Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as toasters, fridges and electrical plug. Materials Oxide ceramic Alumina,AL2O3 Beryllia, BeO Zirconia, ZiO Non-oxide ceramics Boron carbide,B4C3 Silicon nitri de, Si3, n4 Metals Aluminium Steel Melting point/ C 2054 2574 2710 2350 2830 190 0 660 1515 Density/G cm-3 3.97 3.01 5.68 2.50 3.16 3.17 2.70 7.86 Elastic modulu s/ GPa 380 370 210 280 400 310 70 205 Hardness/ mohs 9 8 8 9 9 9 3 5 15

WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is form ed by two or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer . 2. Some common composite materials are: a. Reinforces concrete b. Superconduct or c. Fibre optic d. Fibre glass e. Photochromic glass

REINFORCES CONCRETE 1. Concrete is hard, fireproof, waterproof, comparatively cheap and easy to main tain. It is more important construction materials. 2. The reinforces is a combin ation of concrete and steel. SUPERCONDUCTOR 1. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity, but 20% of the electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission. 2. Supe r conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a particular temperature. Hence, 100% electricity transmission is possible. 3. O ne of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitat e a magnet. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed tr ain (at about 552 km/h). 4. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller an d faster supercomputer. Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet communication. FIBRE OPTIC 1. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for ligh t wave. 2. Fibre optic is used in a. Telecommunicate where the telephone substat ion are liked by fibre optic cables. b. Domestic cable television network c. Clo sed circuit television security system. 3. Fibre optic also used in medical fiel ds. It is used in a number of instrument which enable the investigation for inte rnal body part without having to perform surgery. 16

FIBRE GLASS 1. Fibre glass is glass in the form of fine threads. Molten gas is dropped onto a refractory rating disc when the glass flies off the disc glass to form fibre. 2. Fibre glass is strong than steel, do not burnt, stretch or rot, resistant to fire and water but is brittle. 3. When fibre glass added to a plastic, a new com posite material fibre glass reinforces plastic is formed. 4. Fibre glass reinfor ces plastic has more superior properties than glass and plastic. It is a. Extrem ely strong b. Light weigh c. Resistant to fire and water d. Can be molded, shape d and twisted PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS 1. When 0.01 to 0.1% of silver chloride (a type of photochromic substances) and a small amount of copper (II) chloride are added to molten silicon dioxide, phot ochromic glass is formed. 2. The photochromic glass has a special properties. It darken when exposed to strong sunlight or ultraviolet. 3. Photochromic glass is suitable for making sunglasses. 17