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“LTE Physical Layer Design and Implementation”
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement For the Degree of
: Presented & Submitted By :
Mr. Mahesh Sukhariya (Roll No. U08EC328) Mr. Rishi Garg (Roll No. U08EC340) Mr. Vikas Aggarwal (Roll No. U08EC364) Mr. Adarsh Pillai (Roll No. U08EC410) B. TECH. IV (Electronics & Communication) 8th Semester
: Guided By : Dr. U.D.Dalal
Associate Professor, ECED.
(May - 2012)
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SardarVallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, INDIA.
We would like to express our greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported us throughout our project. We are grateful to our guide Dr. (Mrs.) U.D.DALAL for her continuous support for the Project, from initial advice & encouragement to this day. We wish to thank our parents for their undivided support and our friends who appreciated us for our work & motivated us and finally to God who made all the things possible.
LTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standards. The goal of LTE is to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (Digital Signal Processing) techniques and modulations that were developed in the beginning of the new millennium. The system supports downlink and uplink peak data rates of 100 Mbps and 50 Mbps respectively with 20 MHz bandwidth. In addition to peak data rate improvements, LTE system provides much higher spectral efficiency .In terms of latency, LTE radio interface and network provides capabilities for less than 10 ms latency for the transmission of a packet from the network to the UE.LTE uses SCFDMA in its uplink. In SC-FDMA, multiple access among users is made possible by assigning different users, different sets of non-overlapping Fourier-coefficients (sub-carriers). This is achieved at the transmitter by inserting (prior to IFFT) silent Fourier-coefficients (at positions assigned to other users), and removing them on the receiver side after the FFT. In this project uplink part of the LTE physical layer is implemented using System Vue which is an electronic system-level (ESL) design software. First the various modulation techniques like QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM were successfully implemented and analyzed. Later the LTE uplink physical layer was designed and characteristics of the spectrum were observed for different noise density values in the spectrum analyzer .The throughput and BER was also observed with satisfactory results.
SardarVallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
Surat-395007, Gujarat, INDIA. ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
This is to certify that the B. Tech. IV (8th Semester)PROJECT REPORT entitled “LTE Physical Layer Design And Implementation” is presented & submitted by Candidates Mr. Mahesh Sukhariya, Rishi Garg, Vikas Aggarwal, Adarsh Pillai, bearing Roll Nos. U08EC328, U08EC340, U08EC364, U08EC410, in the fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.Tech. Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering. They have successfully and satisfactorily completed their Project Exam in all respect. We, certify that the work is comprehensive, complete and fit for evaluation.
Dr. U. D. DALAL Project Guide Associate Professor PROJECT EXAMINERS : Name 1.Asst. Prof. Shweta N. Shah 2.Asst.Prof. Shilpi Gupta 3.Mrs V.P. Bhale Signature with date __________________ __________________ __________________ DEPARTMENT SEAL Prof. N. B. KANIRKAR UG In-charge, Associate Professor Dr.S. PATNAIK Head of the Deptt. ECED Associate Professor
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………. ii
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Requirements for UMTS Long Term Evolution 1.2 Consumer‘s Future Requirements 1.3 LTE Architecture 1.4 Network Architecture 1.5 QoS and bearer service architecture 1.6 Seamless mobility support 2. LTE PHYSICAL LAYER 2.1Technology Focus 2.2 SCFDMA 2.3 Single Carrier Modulation 2.4 Subcarrier Mapping 2.5 LTE Uplink Physical Channels 3. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM VUE 3.1 Introduction To UI 4. LTE Uplink Design 4.1 LTE Uplink Transmitter 4.2 LTE Uplink Throughput 4.3 Blocks used in Simulation using System Vue 4.4 BER Analysis RESULT CONCLUSION REFERENCES ACRONYMS 1 2 3 5 6 11 12 16 16 19 23 24 26 38 38 48 48 49 50 70
LIST OF FIGURES
SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NAME OF THE FIGURE Fig.1(a) Broadband growth 2005–2012 Fig.1(b) Growth of voice and data traffic in WCDMA networks world wide Fig .1(c) Network Architecture Fig .1(d) Functional split between eNB and MME/GW Fig .1(e) User Plane Protocol Fig .1(f) Control Plane Protocol Fig .1(g) S1 interfaces user and control planes Fig .1(h) X2 interfaces user and control planes Fig .1(i) EPS bearer service architecture Fig .1(j) Active Handovers Fig .1(k) Handover Message Sequence Fig .2(a)QAM block diagram Fig.2(b) Constellation diagram Fig. 2(c) BER Fig. 2(d) Transmitter scheme of SC-FDMA Fig .2(e) Uplink slot format Fig .2(f) OFDM transmitter and receiver Fig .2(g) SC-FDMA transmitter and receiver Fig .2(h) Time domain representation of interleaved SC-FDMA Fig. 2(i) Simplified interleaved SC-FDMA transmitter Fig .2(j) subcarrier mapping Fig.2(k) subcarrier mapping example Fig.2(l) PRACH preamble time structure Fig.2(m) subcarrier content Fig.2(o) non frequency hopping srs Fig.2(p) frequency hopping srs Fig.2(q)PUSCH structure Fig.2(r)PUSCH Fig. 3.1(a) SystemVue Getting Started Window Fig .3.1(b) Setting Source Properties Fig .3.1(c) Sine Source setup PAGE NO. 4 5 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 36 36 37 37 38 39 39
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77
Fig .3.1(d). SystemVue Design Environment Fig .3.1(e) Selecting component from Part Selector Fig .3.1(f) Setting Source Properties Fig .3.1(g). Sine Source setup Fig .3.1(h) Simulation Controller Properties Fig .3.1(i) SystemVue Fig .3.1(j). Simulation Dataset Fig .3.l(k). Adding measurement to Graph Fig .3.1(l). Graphing Wizard Fig .3.1(m) spectrum Fig .3.1(n). Adding Graph from Workspace Tree Fig .3.1(o) Graphing Wizard Fig .3.1(p).Spectrum graph Fig .3.1(q) SystemVue Tile View Fig .4.1(a) LTE Uplink Transmitter using system vue Fig .4.2(b) Uplink block diagram using system vue Fig .4.3(a) random bit generater Fig .4.3(c) LTE UL Src Fig .4.3(d). Uplink Transmitter -System Parameters Fig .4.3(e). Uplink Transmitter-PUSCH parameters Fig .4.3(f). Uplink Transmitter -RB allocation (PUSCH) parameters Fig .4.3(g). Uplink Transmitter –PUCCH Parameters Fig .4.3(h). Uplink Transmitter PRACH parameters Fig .4.3(i). Uplink Transmitter SRS parameters Fig .4.3(j). Uplink transmitter Control info parameters Fig .4.3(k). Uplink Transmitter Power parameter Fig .4.3(l). Complex to rectangular converter Fig .4.3(m). Modulator Fig .4.3(n). Modulator parameters Fig .4.3(o) Oscillator Fig .4.3(p) Spectrum Analyzer Fig .4.3(q). Spectrum Analyzer Parameters Fig .4.3(r). Power vs. Frequency graph Fig .4.3(s). Noise density Block Fig .4.3(t) Noise density parameters Fig .4.3(u) Demodulator block Fig .4.3(v) Demodulator parameters Fig .4.3(w) Delay block Fig .4.3 (x) Delay parameters Fig .4.3(y) LTE UL Receiver Fig .4.3(z) UL receiver system parameters Fig .4.3(aa) UL receiver PUSCH parameters Fig .4.3(bb) UL receiver RB allocation(PUSCH) parameters Fig .4.3(cc) UL receiver PUCCH Parameters Fig .4.3(dd) UL receiver PRACH parameters Fig .4.3(ee) UL Receiver SRS Parameters
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78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87
Fig .4.3(ff) UL Receiver Control info Parameters Fig .4.3(gg) UL Receiver Rx algorithm parameters Fig .4.3(hh) LTE Through put block diagram Fig .4.3(ii) LTE Throughput parameters Fig .4.3 (jj) LTE UL AWGN HARQ THROUGHPUT Fig .4.3 (kk) UL BER Measurement Block Diagram Fig .4.3(ll) BER properties Fig .4.3(mm) BER Parameters Fig .4.4(a) UL BER measurement block diagram Fig .4.4(b) BER vs. SNR graph
66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70
LIST OF TABLES
SNO 1 2 3 5 6 7 8
NAME OF TABLE 2.1. LTE parameters 2.2 .Preamble format 2.3 .PRACH Preamble format 2.5 .UE setting 2.6 .channel setting 2.7 .PUCCH format type 2.8 .Format
PAGE NO 16 27 28 30 31 32 34
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the next step forward in cellular 3G services. Expected in the 2008 time frame, LTE is a 3GPP standard that provides for an uplink speed of up to 50 megabits per second (Mbps) and a downlink speed of up to 100 Mbps. LTE will bring many technical benefits to cellular networks. Bandwidth will be scalable from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz this spectral efficiency in 3G networks, allowing carriers to provide will suit the needs of different network operators that have different bandwidth allocations, and also allow operators to provide different services based on spectrum. LTE is also expected to improve more data and voice services over a given bandwidth on the channel.
The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents a major advance in cellular technology. LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as highcapacity voice support well into the next decade. It encompasses high-speed data, multimedia unicast and multimedia broadcast services. Although technical specifications are not yet finalized, significant details are emerging. This report focuses on the LTE physical layer(PHY).
The LTE PHY is a highly efficient means of conveying both data and control information between an enhanced base station (eNodeB) and mobile user equipment (UE). The LTE PHY employs some advanced technologies that are new to cellular applications. These include Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) data transmission. In addition, the LTE PHY uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the downlink (DL) and Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) on the uplink (UL). OFDMA allows data to be directed to or from multiple users on a subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis for a specified number of symbol periods. Due to the novelty of these technologies in cellular applications, they are described separately before delving into a description of the LTE PHY.
Although the LTE specs describe both Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) and Time Division Duplexing (TDD) to separate UL and DL traffic, market preferences dictate that the majority of deployed systems will be FDD. This paper therefore describes LTE FDD systems only.
1.1 Requirements For UMTS Long Term Evolution
LTE is focusing on optimum support of Packet Switched (PS) Services.Main requirements for the design of an LTE system have been captured in 3GPP TR 25.913  and can be summarized as follows: - Data Rate: Peak data rates target 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink) for 20 MHz spectrum allocation, assuming 2 receive antennas and 1 transmit antenna at the terminal. - Throughput: Target for downlink average user throughput per MHz is 3-4 times better than release 6. Target for uplink average user throughput per MHz is 2-3 times better than release 6. - Spectrum Efficiency: Downlink target is 3-4 times better than release 6. Uplink target is 2-3 times better than release 6. - Latency: The one-way transit time between a packet being available at the IP layer in either the UE or radio access network and the availability of this packet at IP layer in the radio access network/UE shall be less than 5 ms. Also C-plane latency shall be reduced, e.g. to allow fast transition times of less than 100 ms from camped state to active state. - Bandwidth: Scalable bandwidths of 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz shall be supported. Also bandwidths smaller than 5 MHz shall be supported for more flexibility. - Interworking: Interworking with existing UTRAN/GERAN systems and non-3GPP systems shall be ensured. Multimode terminals shall support handover to and from UTRAN and GERAN as well as inter-RAT measurements. Interruption time for handover between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN shall be less than 300 ms for real time services and less than 500 ms for non real time services. - Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS): MBMS shall be further enhanced and is then referred to as E-MBMS. - Costs: Reduced CAPEX and OPEX including backhaul shall be achieved. Cost effective migration from release 6 UTRA radio interface and architecture shall be possible. Reasonable system and terminal complexity, cost and power consumption shall be ensured. All the interfaces specified shall be open for multi-vendor equipment interoperability. - Mobility: The system should be optimized for low mobile speed (0-15 km/h), but higher mobile speeds shall be supported as well including high speed train environment as special case.
- Spectrum allocation: Operation in paired (Frequency Division Duplex / FDD mode) and unpaired spectrum (Time Division Duplex / TDD mode) is possible. - Co-existence: Co-existence in the same geographical area and collocation with GERAN/UTRAN shall be ensured. Also, co-existence between operators in adjacent bands as well as cross-border coexistence is a requirement. - Quality of Service: End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) shall be supported. VoIP should be supported with at least as good radio and backhaul efficiency and latency as voice traffic over the UMTS circuit switched networks. - Network synchronization: Time synchronization of different network sites shall not be mandated.
1.2 Consumer’s Future Requirements
Broadband subscriptions are expected to reach 1.8 billion by 2012. Around two-thirds of these consumers will use mobile broadband. Mobile data traffic is expected to overtake voice traffic in 2010, which will place high requirements on mobile networks today and in the future. The figure below shows the broadband growth in the number of subscriptions from year 2005 to 2012 :
Fig 1(a) Broadband growth 2005–2012
First, consumers understand and appreciate the benefits of mobile broadband. Most people already use mobile phones, and many also connect their notebooks over wireless LANs. The step towards full mobile broadband is intuitive and simple, especially with LTE that offers ubiquitous coverage and roaming with existing 2G and 3G networks.
Second, experience from HSPA shows that when operators provide good coverage, service offerings and terminals, mobile broadband rapidly takes off. Packet data traffic started to exceed voice traffic during May 2007 as an average world in WCDMA networks (see Figure 1.2). This is mainly due to the introduction of HSPA in the networks. Recently HSPA data cards and USB dongles have become very popular. Several operators have seen a four fold increase in data traffic in just 3 months after they launched HSPA.
Fig 1(b) Growth of voice and data traffic in WCDMA networks world wide
In many cases, mobile broadband can compete with fixed broadband on price, performance, security and, of course, convenience. Users can spend time using the service rather than setting up the WLAN connection, worrying about security or losing coverage.
Third, a number of broadband applications are significantly enhanced with mobility. Community sites, search engines, presence applications and content-sharing sites like YouTube are just a few examples. With mobility, these applications become significantly more valuable to people. Usergenerated content is particularly interesting, because it changes traffic patterns to make the uplink much more important. The high peak rates and short latency of LTE enable real-time applications like gaming and IPTV.
1.3 LTE Architecture
The LTE network architecture is designed with the goal of supporting packet-switched traffic with seamless mobility, quality of service (QoS) and minimal latency. A packet-switched approach allows for the supporting of all services including voice through packet connections.
The result in a highly simplified flatter architecture with only two types of node namely evolved Node-B (eNB) and mobility management entity/gateway (MME/GW). This is in contrast to many more network nodes in the current hierarchical network architecture of the 3G system. One major change is that the radio network controller (RNC) is eliminated from the data path and its functions are now incorporated in eNB. Some of the benefits of a single node in the access network are reduced latency and the distribution of the RNC processing load into multiple eNBs. The elimination of the RNC in the access network was possible partly because the LTE system does not support macro-diversity or soft-handoff.
1.4 Network Architecture
All the network interfaces are based on IP protocols. The eNBs are interconnected by means of an X2 interface and to theMME/GWentity by means of an S1 interface as shown in Figure 1(c). The S1 interface supports a many-to-many relationship between MME/GW and eNBs.
The functional split between eNB and MME/GW is shown in Figure 1(d). Two logical gateway entities namely the serving gateway (S-GW) and the packet data network gateway (P-GW) are defined. The S-GW acts as a local mobility anchor forwarding and receiving packets to and from the eNB serving the UE. The P-GW interfaces with external packet data networks (PDNs) such as the Internet and the IMS. The P-GW also performs several IP functions such as address allocation, policy enforcement, packet filtering and routing.
The MME is a signaling only entity and hence user IP packets do not go through MME.An advantage of a separate network entity for signaling is that the network capacity for signaling and traffic can grow independently. The main functions of MME are idle-mode UE reachability including the control and execution of paging retransmission, tracking area list management, roaming, authentication, authorization, P-GW/S-GW selection, bearer management including dedicated bearer establishment, security negotiations and NAS signaling, etc.
Evolved Node-B implements Node-B functions as well as protocols traditionally implemented in RNC. The main functions of eNB are header compression, ciphering and reliable delivery of packets. On the control side, eNB incorporates functions such as admission control and radio resource management. Some of the benefits of a single node in the access network are reduced latency and the distribution of RNC processing load into multiple eNBs.
Fig 1(c) Network Architecture
Fig 1(d) Functional split between eNB and MME/GW.
The user plane protocol stack is given in Figure 1(e).We note that packet data convergence Protocol (PDCP) and radio link control (RLC) layers traditionally terminated in RNC on
Fig 1(e) User Plane Protocol
Fig 1(f) Control Plane Protocol The network side is now terminated in eNB. The functions performed by these layers are Described in Section 1.5.
Figure 1(f) shows the control plane protocol stack. We note that RRC functionality traditionally implemented in RNC is now incorporated into eNB. The RLC and MAC layers perform the same functions as they do for the user plane. The functions performed by the RRC include system information broadcast, paging, radio bearer control, RRC connection management, mobility functions and UE measurement reporting and control. The non-access stratum (NAS) protocol terminated in the MME on the network side and at the UE on the terminal side performs functions such as EPS (evolved packet system) bearer management, authentication and security control, etc.
The S1 and X2 interface protocol stacks are shown in Figures 1(g) and 1(h) respectively. We note that similar protocols are used on these two interfaces. The S1 user plane interface (S1-U) is defined between the eNB and the S-GW. The S1-U interface uses GTP-U (GPRS tunneling protocol – user data tunneling) on UDP/IPtransport and provides non-guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs between the eNB and the S-GW. The GTP-U is a relatively simple IP based tunneling protocol that permits many tunnels between each set of end points. The S1 control plane interface (S1-MME) is defined as being between the eNB and the MME.
Similar to the user plane, the transport network layer is built on IP transport and for the reliable transport of signaling messages SCTP (stream control transmission protocol) is used on top of IP.
Fig 1(g) S1 interfaces user and control planes.
Fig 1(h) X2 interfaces user and control planes. The SCTP protocol operates analogously to TCP ensuring reliable, in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control. The application layer signaling protocols are referred to as S1
application protocol (S1-AP) and X2 application protocol (X2-AP) for S1 and X2 interface control planes respectively.
1.5 QoS And Bearer Service Architecture
Applications such as VoIP, web browsing, video telephony and video streaming have special QoS needs. Therefore, an important feature of any all-packet network is the provision of a QoS mechanism to enable differentiation of packet flows based on QoS requirements. In EPS, QoS flows called EPS bearers are established between the UE and the P-GW as shown in Figure 1(i). A radio bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a UE and an eNB. Each IP flow (e.g. VoIP) is associated with a different EPS bearer and the network can prioritize traffic accordingly.
Fig 1(i) EPS bearer service architecture.
When receiving an IP packet from the Internet, P-GW performs packet classification based on certain predefined parameters and sends it an appropriate EPS bearer. Based on the EPS bearer, eNB maps packets to the appropriate radio QoS bearer. There is one-to-one mapping between an EPS bearer and a radio bearer.
1.6 Seamless mobility support
An important feature of a mobile wireless system such as LTE is support for seamless mobility across eNBs and across MME/GWs. Fast and seamless handovers (HO) is particularly important for delay-sensitive services such as VoIP. The handovers occur more frequently across eNBs than across core networks because the area covered by MME/GW serving a large number of eNBs is generally much larger than the area covered by a single eNB. The signaling on X2 interface between eNBs is used for handover preparation. The S-GW acts as anchor for intereNB handovers.
In the LTE system, the network relies on the UE to detect the neighboring cells for handovers and therefore no neighbor cell information is signaled from the network. For the search and measurement of inter-frequency neighboring cells, only the carrier frequencies need to be indicated. An example of active handover in an RRC CONNECTED state is shown in Figure 1(j) where a UE moves from the coverage area of the source eNB (eNB1) to the coverage area of the target eNB (eNB2). The handovers in the RRC CONNECTED state are network controlled and assisted by the UE. The UE sends a radio measurement report to the source eNB1 indicating that the signal quality on eNB2 is better than the signal quality on eNB1. As preparation for handover, the source eNB1 sends the coupling information and the UE context to the target eNB2 (HO request) on the X2 interface. The target eNB2 may perform admission control dependent on the received EPS bearer QoS information. The target eNB configures the required resources according to the received EPS bearer QoS information and reserves a C-RNTI (cell radio network temporary identifier) and optionally a RACH preamble.
The C-RNTI provides a unique UE identification at the cell level identifying the RRC connection. When eNB2 signals to eNB1 that it is ready to perform the handover via HO Response message, eNB1 commands the UE (HO command) to change the radio bearer to eNB2.
Fig 1(j) Active Handovers.
The UE receives the HO command with the necessary parameters (i.e. new C-RNTI, optionally dedicated RACH preamble, possible expiry time of the dedicated RACH preamble, etc.) and is commanded by the source eNB to perform the HO. The UE does not need to delay the handover execution for delivering the HARQ/ARQ responses to source eNB.
After receiving the HO command, the UE performs synchronization to the target eNB and accesses the target cell via the random access channel (RACH) following a contention-free procedure if a dedicated RACH preamble was allocated in the HO command or following a contention-based procedure if no dedicated preamble was allocated. The network responds with uplink resource allocation and timing advance to be applied by the UE. When the UE has successfully accessed the target cell, the UE sends the HO confirm message (C-RNTI) along with an uplink buffer status report indicating that the handover procedure is completed for the UE. After receiving the HO confirm message, the target eNB sends a path switch message to the MME to inform that the UE has changed cell. The MME sends a user plane update message to the S-GW. The S-GW switches the downlink data path to the target eNB and sends one or more
―end marker‖ packets on the old path to the source eNB and then releases any user-plane/TNL resources towards the source eNB. Then S-GW sends a user plane update response message to the MME. Then the MME confirms the path switch message from the target eNB with the path switch response message. After the path switch response message is received from the MME, the target eNB informs success of HO to the source eNB by sending release resource message to the source eNB and triggers the release of resources. On receiving the release resource message, the source eNB can release radio and C-plane related resources associated with the UE context.
During handover preparation U-plane tunnels can be established between the source eNB and the target eNB. There is one tunnel established for uplink data forwarding and another one for downlink data forwarding for each EPS bearer for which data forwarding is applied. During handover execution, user data can be forwarded from the source eNB to the target eNB. Forwarding of downlink user data from the source to the target eNB should take place in order as long as packets are received at the source eNB or the source eNB buffer is exhausted.
For mobility management in the RRC IDLE state, concept of tracking area (TA) is introduced. A tracking area generally covers multiple eNBs . The tracking area identity (TAI) information indicating which TA an eNB belongs to is broadcast as part of system information. A UE can detect change of tracking area when it receives a different TAI than in its current cell. The UE updates the MME with its new TA information as it moves across TAs. When P-GW receives data for a UE, it buffers the packets and queries the MME for the UE‘s location. Then the MME will page the UE in its most current TA. A UE can be registered in multiple TAs simultaneously. This enables power saving at the UE under conditions of high mobility because it does not need to constantly update its location with the MME. This feature also minimizes load on TA boundaries.
Fig 1(k) Handover Message Sequence
CHAPTER 2:LTE PHYSICAL LAYER
2.1 Technology Focus
Modern digital modulation techniques and multiple access techniques are basic building blocks of the physical (or radio) interface of all digital communication systems. Techniques such as OFDM, OFDMA, SOFDMA, SC-FDMA, DMT, MIMO and BLAST, CPM modulations (e.g., GMSK), CDMA and adaptive modulation and coding methods e.g., Nyquist Signaling, QPSK, QAM and GMSK, and the optimum receivers for these modulations are very important parts of the implementation of modern communications systems, especially for broadband wireless communications. These concepts are being utilized in new mobile and broadband wireless systems, including 4G-LTE, Mobile Wi-Max (IEEE 802.16), Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) and the new IMT-Advanced (4G) systems, as well as in xDSL systems, to greatly improve both bandwidth and power efficiency. Table 2.1 LTE parameters
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme used in LTE System. Like all modulation schemes, QAM conveys data by changing some aspect of a carrier signal, or the carrier wave, (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal. In the case of QAM, the amplitude of two waves, 90 degrees out-of-phase with each other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. Amplitude modulating two carriers in quadrature can be equivalently viewed as both amplitude modulating and phase modulating a single carrier.
For a given available bandwidth, QAM enables data transmission at twice the rate of standard pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) without any de-gradation in the bit error ratio (BER). QAM block diagram
Figure 2(a) QAM Block Diagram • • • XI(t)=in phase XQ(t)=quadrature QAM signal=XI(t)cos(wct) +XQ(t)sin(wct)
telecommunications the data are usually binary, the number of points in the grid is usually a power of 2 (2, 4, 8 ...). Since QAM is usually square, some of these are rare—the most common forms are 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM. By moving to a higher-order constellation, it is possible to transmit more bits per symbol. However, if the mean energy of the constellation is to remain the same (by way of making a fair comparison), the points must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to noise and other corruption; this results in a higher bit error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data less reliably than lower-order QAM, for constant mean constellation energy.
Figure2(b) Constellation Diagram
A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as QAM. It displays the signal as a two-dimensional scatter diagram in the complex plane at symbol sampling instants. The real and imaginary axes are often called the in phase, or I-axis and the quadrature, or Q-axis.
While higher order modulation rates are able to offer much faster data rates and higher levels of spectral efficiency for the radio communications system, this comes at a price. The higher order modulation schemes are considerably less resilient to noise and interference. 64-QAM and 256QAM are often used in digital cable television and cable modem applications
Figure 2(c) BER In SC- FDMA we use 64 QAM in which we are sending 6 bits per symbol .Fig shows that as we go from QPSK to 256 QAM C/N is increasing.
The uplink transmission scheme is based on single-carrier FDMA, more specifically DFTSOFDM. The uplink sub-carrier spacing Δf = 15 kHz. There are two cyclic-prefix lengths defined: normal cyclic prefix and extended cyclic prefix corresponding to seven and six SCFDMA symbols per slot.
Fig 2(d) Transmitter scheme of SC-FDMA
The sub-carriers are grouped into sets of 12 consecutive sub-carriers, corresponding to the uplink resource blocks. 12 consecutive sub-carriers in one slot correspond to one uplink resource block – the same as in the downlink – which is depicted in Figure. In the frequency domain, the maximum number of resource blocks, NRB, can range from NRB-min = 6 to NRB-max = . Each element in the resource grid is called a resource element and is uniquely defined by the index pair (k, l) in a slot where k and l are the indices in the frequency (subcarrier) and time domain (symbol), respectively.
SC-FDMA is a new multiple access technique that utilizes single carrier modulation, DFT spread orthogonal frequency multiplexing, and frequency domain equalization. It has a Similar structure and performance as OFDM.
Fig 2(e) Uplink slot format SC-FDMA is currently adopted as the uplink Multiple access schemes for 3GPP LTE. Transmitter and receiver structure for SC-FDMA OFDM are given in Figures. It is evident from the figures that SC-FDMA transceiver has similar structure as a typical OFDM system except the addition of a new DFT block before subcarrier mapping. Hence, SC-FDMA can be considered as an OFDM system with a DFT mapper.
Fig 2(f) OFDM transmitter and receiver
Fig 2(g) SC-FDMA transmitter and receiver The main difference between OFDM and SC-FDMA transmitter is the DFT mapper. After Mapping data bits into modulation symbols, the transmitter groups the modulation symbols Into a block of N symbols. An N-point DFT transforms these symbols in time domain into Frequency domain. The frequency domain samples are then mapped to a subset of M subcarriers where M is typically greater than N. Similar to OFDM, an M-point IFFT is used to generate the time-domain samples of these subcarriers, which is followed by cyclic prefix, Parallel to serial converter, DAC and RF subsystems.
Each data symbol is DFT transformed before mapping to subcarriers, hence the SC-FDMA Is called DFT-precoded OFDM. In a standard OFDM, each data symbol is carried on a separate subcarrier. In SC-FDMA, multiple subcarriers carry each data symbol due to mapping of the symbols‘ frequency domain samples to subcarriers. As each data symbol is spread over multiple subcarriers, SC-FDMA offers spreading gain or frequency diversity gain in a frequency selective channel. Thus, SC-FDMA can be viewed as frequency-spread OFDM or DFT-spread OFDM.
2.3 Single Carrier Modulation
Based on SC-FDMA‘s structure, the reasons for some of its names, such as DFT-precoded OFDM or DFT-spread OFDM, are clear. But for the use of ‗Single Carrier‘ in its name, SCFDMA, is not as obvious and is often the reason why is not explained, unlike the standard OFDM where the each data symbol is carried by the individual subcarriers, the SC-FDMA transmitter carries data symbols over a group of subcarriers transmitted simultaneously. In other words, the group of subcarriers that carry each data symbol can be viewed as one frequency band carrying data sequentially in a standard FDMA. For some of the subcarrier mappings, the time domain representation of the IFFT output, as shown in Figures below, will give more insight on the SC-FDMA signal. It can be mathematically shown that the SC-FDMA baseband time domain samples after IDFT or IFFT is the original data symbol set repeated in time domain over the symbol period.
Fig 2(h) Time domain representation of interleaved SC-FDMA
Fig 2(i) Simplified interleaved SC-FDMA transmitter
2.4 Subcarrier Mapping
DFT output of the data symbols is mapped to a subset of subcarriers, a process called Subcarrier mapping. The subcarrier mapping assigns DFT output complex values as the Amplitudes of some of the selected subcarriers. Subcarrier mapping can be classified into Two types: localized mapping and distributed mapping. In localized mapping, the DFT Outputs are mapped to a subset of consecutive sub-carriers thereby confining them to only a Fraction of the system bandwidth. In distributed mapping, the DFT outputs of the input data Are assigned to subcarriers over the entire bandwidth non-continuously, resulting in zero Amplitude for the remaining subcarriers. A special case of distributed SC-FDMA is called Interleaved SC-FDMA, where the occupied subcarriers are equally spaced over the entire Bandwidth. Figure is a general picture of localized and distributed mapping.
Fig 2(j) Subcarrier Mapping
An example of subcarrier mapping is shown below. This example assumes three users Sharing 12 subcarriers. Each user has a block of four data symbols to transmit at a time. The DFT output of the data block has four complex frequency domain samples, which are mapped over 12 subcarriers using different mapping schemes.
SC-FDMA inherently offers frequency diversity gain over the standard OFDM, as all. Information data is spread over multiple subcarriers by the DFT mapper. However, the Distributed SC-FDMA is more robust with respect to frequency selective fading and offers Additional frequency diversity gain, since the information is spread across the entire system Bandwidth. Localized SC-FDMA in combination with channel-dependant scheduling can potentially offer multi-user diversity in frequency selective channel conditions.
Fig 2(k) Subcarrier mapping example
2.5 LTE Uplink Physical Channels
PRACH The PRACH transmission (the PRACH preamble) is an OFDM-based signal, but it is generated using a different structure from other uplink transmission; most notably it uses narrower subcarrier spacing and therefore is not orthogonal to the PUSCH, PUCCH and SRS, therefore those channels will suffer from some interference from the PRACH. However, the subcarrier spacing used by the PRACH is an integer submultiple of the spacing used for the other channels and therefore the PUSCH, PUCCH and SRS do not interfere on the PRACH. PRACH preamble time structure The PRACH preamble consists of a cyclic prefix, useful part of the sequence and then a guard period which is simply an unused portion of time up to the end of the last subframe occupied by the PRACH:
Fig2(l) PRACH preamble time structure
This guard period allows for timing uncertainty due to the UE to eNodeB distance the size of the guard period determines the cell radius, as any propagation delay exceeding the guard time would cause the random access preamble to overlap the following subframe at the eNodeB receiver.The use of an OFDM transmission with cyclic prefix allows for an efficient frequency domain based receiver in the eNodeB to perform PRACH detection
PRACH formats There five PRACH preamble formats which have different lengths for the cyclic prefix, useful part of the symbol, and guard period:
Table 2.2 preamble format
Note that Preamble Format 4 is only applicable for TDD in special subframes (subframe 1 or 6) and with Special Subframe Configuration Formats 2 and 3 have two repetitions of the nominal PRACH sequence which provides more total transmit energy and therefore allows for detection at lower SNRs. Also, Format 1 versus 0
and Format 3 versus 2 have a longer guard period, allowing for a larger cell size. The downside is that when the cyclic prefix time, sequence time and guard period are totaled up, some of the formats require multiple subframes for transmission:
Table 2.3 PRACH Preamble format Preamble format 0 1 2 3 4 Number of subframes 1 2 2 3 1
The penalty for using multiple subframes is a reduction in the capacity for normal uplink transmission.
PRACH preamble frequency structure As already mentioned, the PRACH uses a narrower subcarrier spacing that normal uplink transmission, specifically 1250Hz for Formats 0-3 and 7500Hz for Format 4. The ratio of the normal uplink subcarrier spacing to PRACH subcarrier spacing, and =2 for Format 4. , is =12 for Formats 0-3
The PRACH is designed to fit in the same bandwidth as 6 RBs of normal uplink transmission i.e. 72 subcarriers at 15000Hz spacing = 1.08MHz. This makes it easy to schedule gaps in normal uplink transmission to allow for PRACH opportunities.
Therefore there are
subcarriers for the PRACH, specifically 864 for Formats 0-3 and 144
for Format 4. As will be explained in the following subsection, the PRACH transmission for Formats 0-3 uses 839 active subcarriers, and for Format 4 uses 139 active subcarriers; the number of active subcarriers is denoted .
As with normal uplink SC-FDMA transmission there is a half subcarrier (7500Hz) shift, which for the PRACH is a /2 subcarrier shift. A further subcarrier offset (7 for Formats 0-3 and 2
for Format 4) centers the PRACH transmission within the 1.08MHz bandwidth:
Table 2.4 Preamble format with details Preamble format 0-3 4 13 3 839 139 12 2
PRACH subcarrier content The actual PRACH transmission is an OFDM-based reconstruction of a Zadoff-Chu sequence in the time domain; the OFDM modulator is used to position the Zadoff-Chu sequence in the frequency domain i.e. to place the 6RBs of PRACH transmission in the 6 consecutive RBs starting from some particular physical resource block (denoted in the standard). If the
output of the OFDM modulator in the time domain is to be a Zadoff-Chu sequence, then the input to the OFDM modulator must be a Zadoff-Chu sequence in the frequency domain. Therefore the active subcarriers, which total DFT of an -sample Zadoff-Chu sequence. in number, are set to the values of an -point
Fig 2(m) Subcarrier Content UE specific settings includes the fields:
Table 2.5 UE settings
Although the parameters Format and ConfigIdx are both described as optional, at least one of these parameters must be specified.
PRBSet will either be empty, indicating that the PRACH is not present, or will contain 6 consecutive Physical Resource Block numbers, indicating the frequency domain location of the PRACH. Note that the PRACH uses a different SC-FDMA symbol construction from the other channels (PUCCH, PUSCH and SRS) and therefore the PRBSet indicates the frequency range (180kHz per RB) that the PRACH occupies, it does not occupy the set of 12 subcarriers in each RB in the same fashion as other channels. The PRACH occupies a bandwidth approximately equal to 1.08MHz = 6RBs. Specifically the PRACH will be generated in any subframe for FDD, and for TDD the PRACH will be generated only in special subframes for Preamble Format 4, and in uplink subframes for Preamble Format 0-3,
Table 2.6 channel settings Field Field Format SeqIdx Description Description Optional. Preamble format (0...4) (default absent) Optional. Logical root sequence index
(RACH_ROOT_SEQUENCE) (0...837) (default 0) ConfigIdx Optional. PRACH Configuration Index (prach-
ConfigurationIndex) (0...63) (default absent) PreambleIdx Optional. Scalar preamble index within cell (ra-
PreambleIndex) (0...63) (default 0) CyclicShiftIdx Optional. Cyclic shift configuration index
(zeroCorrelationZoneConfig, yields N_CS) (0...15) (default 0) HighSpeed Optional. High Speed flag (highSpeedFlag, 1=Restricted Set, 0=Unrestricted Set) (0...1) (default 0)
Optional. PRACH timing offset in microseconds (default 0.0) Only required for 'TDD' duplex mode. Optional. Frequency resource index (f_RA) (0...5) (default 0)
Only required for 'TDD' duplex mode. Optional. PRACH Frequency Offset (n_PRBoffset) (0...94) (default 0)
provided there are consecutive uplink subframes for the chosen TDD configuration starting from the current subframe.
PUCCH(Physical Uplink Control Channel)
Uplink Control Information on PUCCH Format 1, 1a, 1b Format 1 uplink control information (UCI) contains scheduling requests and acknowledgement responses or retransmission requests (ACK and NACK). The various PUCCH Format 1 messages used are identified by the type of control information they carry and the number of control bits they require per subframe. The table below shows the three format 1 types as well as their modulation scheme and the number of information bits they use: Table 2.7 PUCCH Format types PUCCH Format Modulation Scheme No. of bits per sub Type frame 1 N/A N/A of control
information Scheduling Request
HARQ ACK (1 bit)
HARQ ACK (2 bits)
The bandwidth available during one subframe of a single resource block exceeds that needed for the control signalling information of a single user terminal. To make efficient use of the available resources, the resource block can be shared by multiple user terminals. Even though the same RB is used for the PUCCH Formats 1, 1a and 1b there is no possibility of intra-cell interference if different cyclic shifts of the same base reference sequence are used. Moreover, for PUCCH Formats 1, 1a and 1b an extra degree of freedom is provided by applying an orthogonal cover code. Format 1 A request for uplink resources can be made by means of the random access channel, however due to the probability of collisions during high intensity periods an alternative method is provided using the PUCCH Format 1. Each UE in the cell is assigned a specific resource index mapping, a resource which can be used every n-th frame in order to transmit a scheduling request. Therefore if PUCCH energy is detected the eNodeB will identify it as a scheduling request from the corresponding UE. Since each UE will have a specific resource allocated there is no probability of a collision. However the number of available PUCCH resources is reduced. Format 1a/b For transmission of the hybrid-ARQ acknowledgement, the HARQ ACK bit(s) are used to generate a BPSK/QPSK symbol – depending on the number of codewords present. The modulated symbol is then used to generate the signal to be transmitted in each of the two PUCCH slots. Channel coding for UCI HARQ-ACK
The HARQ acknowledgement bits are received from higher layers and depending on the number of code words present consists of 1- or 2-information bit(s). A positive acknowledgement (ACK) is encoded as a binary ‗1‘ while a negative acknowledgement (NACK) is encoded as a binary ‗0‘. The HARQ-ACK bits are then processed as required by the PUCCH. Channel coding for UCI scheduling request The scheduling request indication is received from higher layers. 0 information bits are used to request resources to transmit UL-SCH, however the eNodeB knows when to expect a scheduling request from each UE within the cell. Therefore if PUCCH energy is detected the eNodeB will identify it as a scheduling request from the corresponding UE. Uplink Control Information on PUCCH Format 2 The types of PUCCH Format2 used and their function are listed in the table below along with the number of bits and modulation scheme used: Table 2.8 Format 2 PUCCH format 2 Modulation scheme QPSK Number of bits per Type sub frame 20 of control
information Channel reports Channel status status
reports and HARQACK (1-bit)
reports and HARQACK (2-bit)
The processing chain for PUCCH Format 2 includes the following:
Fig2(n) PUCCH Scrambling: The transport codeword is bit-wise multiplied with an orthogonal sequence and a UE-specific scrambling sequence to create a sequence of symbols for each codeword. Modulation mapper : The scrambled codeword undergoes QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation to generate complex valued symbols. This choice provides the flexibility to allow the scheme to maximize the data transmitted depending on the channel conditions. Resource element mapper: The final stage in the PUSCH processing is to map the symbols to the allocated physical resource elements. The symbols are mapped in increasing order beginning with subcarriers, then SC-FDMA symbols. Below is an example of the order of mapping the output of the precoding stage to the allocated resource blocks.
Sounding Reference Signals(SRS)
The SRS is used by the base station to estimate the quality of the uplink channel for large bandwidths outside the assigned span to a specific UE. This measurement cannot be obtained with the DRS since these are always associated to the PUSCH or PUCCH and limited to the UE allocated bandwidth. Unlike the DRS associated with the physical uplink control and shared channels the SRS is not necessarily transmitted together with any physical channel. If the SRS is transmitted with a physical channel then it may stretch over a larger frequency band. The information provided by the estimates is used to schedule uplink transmissions on resource blocks of good quality. SRS can be transmitted as often as every second subframe (2 ms) or as infrequent as every 16th frame (160ms). The SRS are transmitted on the last symbol of the subframe. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the two methods of transmitting the SRS: In wideband mode one single transmission of the SRS covers the bandwidth of interest. The channel quality estimate is obtained within a single SC-FDMA symbol. However,
under poor channel conditions (deep fade, high path loss) this can result in a poor channel estimate. In frequency hopping mode the SRS transmission is split into a series of narrowband transmissions that will cover the whole bandwidth region of interest; this is the preferred method under poor channel conditions.
Fig 2(o) Non-frequency hopping SRS
Fig 2(p) Frequency hopping SRS To avoid overlap of SRS and PUSCH transmissions from different terminals within a cell, all UEs in the cell are aware in what subframes the SRS may be transmitted by any terminal. In
these frames the last symbol, which the SRS is transmitted on, is not used for PUSCH by any UE in the cell.
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Resources for the PUSCH are allocated on a sub-frame basis by the UL scheduler. Subcarriers are allocated in multiples of 12 (PRBs) and may be hopped from sub-frame to sub-frame. The PUSCH may employ QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation.
Fig2(q) PUSCH structure
The Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) carries uplink shared channel data and control information. The processing chain for the PUSCH includes scrambling, modulation mapping, precoding, resource element mapping and Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) modulation; this is illustrated by the following processing chain:
Fig 2(r) PUSCH
CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM VUE
3.1 Introduction to UI
The SystemVue design environment consists of menus, windows, toolbars, and standard editing options. It is easily integrated with other programs, and you can use it to view multiple projects,schematics , and simulations at the same time.
SystemVue Getting Started Window
When you first start SystemVue you can select a ―blank‖ template from the ―getting started‖ dialog. Once the ―blank‖ template is open you will see a window like the one below.
Fig 3.1(a) SystemVue Getting Started Window 
Fig 3.1(b) Setting Source Properties  4. Add a generic ―Sink‖ to the schematic. The sink can be found the same way we found the Sine source. Connect the Sink to the Sine source as show below.
Fig3.1(c) Sine Source setup 
Fig3.1(d). SystemVue Design Environment 
Build a basic Sine Source and display waveform
1. Find Sine Gen source on Parts Selector (use ―Filter By‖) using Algorithm Design library Selecting component from Part Selector 2. Place Source in schematic by left mouse click on source and then left clicking on Schematic.
3. Double click on Sine Gen to open source properties dialog, set frequency as 1 KHz
Fig3.1(e) Selecting component from Part Selector 
Fig 3.1(f) Setting Source Properties  4. Add a generic ―Sink‖ to the schematic. The sink can be found the same way we found the Sine source. Connect the Sink to the Sine source as show below.
Fig 3.1(g). Sine Source setup 
5. Examine the Workspace tree before running the simulation. Note that we only have a ―Design1‖ schematic and a Design1 Analysis in the workspace tree. The ―Design1 Analysis‖ should be red, indicating a simulation has not been run and there are no simulation results. 6. Double click on the ―Design1 Analysis‖ and set the simulation properties as shown in Fig. Enter System Sample Rate=10KHz, Number of Samples=256
Fig 3.1(h) Simulation Controller Properties 
7. Run Simulation. This can be accomplished by either left mouse clicking on the tool bar ―Run Analysis‖ button as shown in Fig3.1(f) or by right clicking on the ―Design1 Analysis‖ item on the workspace tree and select Calculate Now.
Fig 3.1(i) SystemVue  8. The simulation should have now completed without error and workspace tree should now show a new item for ―Design1_Data‖. This is the simulation dataset.
9. Open and view the data in the dataset. This is accomplished by double left mouse clicking on the ―Design1_Data‖ item in the workspace tree then left mouse clicking on the dataset variable you want to display (should be S2, which is the name of the sink added in the earlier step. If your sink has a different name then this is the name that will be displayed in the dataset). This should bring open the dataset table as shown in Fig3.1(h)
Fig3.1(j) Simulation Dataset 
10. We can now add the data to a graph by right mouse clicking on the dataset variable we want to plot, then selecting ―Add to Graph‖ then ―New Graph‖ as per Fig3.1(i) below
Fig3.1(k) Adding measurement to Graph  11. This will now bring open the graphing wizard, left mouse click on the ―Time‖ series type on the left and ―S2‖ data variable on the right . After clicking the ―OK‖ button twice you should see the graph . This is just way of plotting data graph in SystemVue. Let‘s understand other way of adding graph for results plot by plotting Spectrum of the S2 sink data. 12. Right click on main folder under Workspace Tree and select Add->Add Graph
Fig3.1(l) Graphing Wizard 
Fig 3.1(m) spectrum 
Fig3.1(n) Adding Graph from Workspace Tree 
Fig3.1(o) Graphing Wizard 
13. Select Series Type = Spectrum and select S2 from Select Data. Click OK twice to see Spectrum graph
Fig 3.1(p) Spectrum graph Let‘s wrap up this exercise by tiling the windows by going to Window->Tile Horizontal so that we can see all the windows as shown below.
Fig 3.1(q) SystemVue Tile View
CHAPTER 4 :LTE UPLINK DESIGN
4.1 LTE Uplink Transmitter
Fig 4.1(a) LTE Uplink Transmitter Simulation Using System Vue This demonstrates a spectrum of an LTE uplink transmitter. The spectrum measurement is performed using the Spectrum Analyzer part. The resulting spectrum is shown in the LTE_UL_Tx_Spectrum Measurements graph.
4.2 LTE UL Throughput
Fig 4.2(a) Uplink block diagram for throughput measurement
4.3 Blocks Used In Simulation Using System Vue
1. Random Bit Generator
Fig 4.3(a) Random Bit Generator This model generates a random bit sequence, in which the probability of a 0 bit is ―Prob Of Zero” and the probability of a 1 bit is ―1 – Prob Of Zero.‖ It includes options such as bit rate, sample rate, initial delay and burst mode.
Fig4.3(b) Bits parameters
2. LTE Uplink Src This sub network generates LTE uplink baseband signal. LTE uplink transmission is based on SC-FDMA.
Fig 4.3(c) LTE Uplink Src Screen Shots Showing the parameters used in the simulation
Fig 4.3(d) Uplink Transmitter -System Parameters
Fig 4.3(e) Uplink Transmitter-PUSCH parameters
Fig 4.3(f) Uplink Transmitter -RB allocation (PUSCH) parameters
Fig 4.3(g) Uplink Transmitter –PUCCH Parameters
Fig 4.3(h) Uplink Transmitter PRACH parameters
Src prach parameters
Fig 4.3(i) Uplink Transmitter SRS parameters
Fig 4.3(j)Uplink transmitter Control info parameters
Src_control info parameters
Fig 4.3(k) Uplink Transmitter Power parameter 
3. Complex To Rectangular Converter The CxToRect model converts input complex values to output real and imaginary values
Fig 4.3(l) Complex to rectangular converter
The CxToRect model converts input complex values to output real and imaginary values
Fig 4.3(m) Modulator The Modulator model implements a modulator that can perform amplitude, phase, frequency, or I/Q modulation. This model reads one sample from its inputs and writes one sample to its outputs. The LO input(3) is optional. When not connected, an internal LO signal is used at the frequency FCarrier. When the external LO input is used, it must be a complex envelope signal with characterization frequency greater than zero. If use with a real signal is needed, then the LO input to this model can be preceded with an EnvFcChange model that will recharacterize a real signal to its representation at a specified frequency. The LO input can include power, phase, and noise variations in the LO signal.
Fig 4.3(n) Modulator parameters
Fig 4.3(o) Oscillator
Oscillator generates an RF (complex envelope) defined by its carrier frequency and with optional thermal noise and phase noise. The frequency, power, and phase of the first tone are defined by the Frequency, Power and Phase parameters, respectively. 6. Spectrum Analyzer
Fig 4.3(p) Spectrum Analyzer The Spectrum Analyzer model can be used to measure the spectrum of a real baseband or a complex envelope signal.
Fig 4.3(q) Spectrum Analyzer Parameters
Spectrum analyzer results
Fig 4.3(r) Power vs. Frequency graph 7. Noise Density
Fig 4.3(s) Noise density Block This model adds noise to the input signal. At every execution, it reads 1 sample from the input and writes 1 sample to the output. If NDensityType is set to Constant noise density, then the noise added is white Gaussian.The noise density is specified in the NDensity parameter. Although the units for this parameter are power units the value is interpreted as power spectral density, that is, power per frequency unit (Hz).The total noise power added to the input signal is NDensity × BW 1. This model adds noise to the input signal. 2. At every execution, it reads 1 sample from the input and writes 1 sample to the output.
3. If NDensityType is set to Constant noise density, then the noise added is white Gaussian. The noise density is specified in the NDensity parameter. Although the units for this parameter are power units the value is interpreted as power spectral density, that is, power per frequency unit(Hz).The total noise power added to the input signal is: NDensity × BW
Fig 4.3(t) Noise density parameters 8. Demodulator
Fig 4.3(u) Demodulator block
The Demodulator model implements a coherent demodulator that can be used to perform amplitude, phase, frequency, or I/Q demodulation. This model reads one sample from its input and writes one sample to its outputs. The input signal must be a complex envelope signal with characterization frequency greater than zero. Real input signals will result in a simulation error. If use with a real signal is needed, then the input to this model can be preceded with an EnvFcChange model that will recharacterize a real signal to its representation at a specified frequency.
Fig4.3(v) Demodulator parameters 9. Delay
Fig 4.3(w) Delay block
1. The Delay model introduces a delay of N samples to the input signal. 2. For every input, there is one output.
Fig 4.3(x) Delay parameters 10. UL Receiver
Fig 4.3(y) LTE UL Receiver
This subnetwork constructs 3GPP LTE uplink baseband receiver .In this receiver, the data type in most input/output ports are matrix which should be column vector (i.e the matrix size should be N × 1,N is the size of vector)
Fig 4.3(z)UL receiver system parameters
Fig 4.3(aa) UL receiver PUSCH parameters
Fig 4.3(bb) UL receiver RB allocation(PUSCH) parameters
Fig 4.3(cc)UL receiver PUCCH Parameters
Fig 4.3(dd) UL receiver PRACH parameters
Fig 4.3(ee) UL receiver SRS parameters Fig 4.3(ee) UL receiver
Fig 4.3(ff) UL Receiver Control info Parameters
Uplink receiver control info parameters
Fig 4.3(gg) UL Receiver Rx algorithm parameters
11. LTE Throughput
Fig 4.3(hh) LTE Through put block diagram This model performs the averaged closed-loop HARQ throughput over subframes from Subframe#SubframeStart to Subframe#SubframeStop for both PDSCH and PUSCH.
Fig 4.3(ii) LTE Throughput parameters
Throughput vs SNR
Fig 4.3(jj) LTE UL AWGN HARQ THROUGHPUT
RED:1/3 TURBOCODING QPSK,GREEN:3/4 TURBOCODING 16 QAM,BLUE:5/6 TURBO CODING 64 QAM
12. BER Block
Fig 4.3(kk) BER Block The BER_FER model can be used to measure the BER (bit error rate) and FER (frame error rate) of a system. In some systems, FER is referred to as PER (packet error rate) or BLER (block error rate). The input signals to the reference (REF) and test (TEST) inputs must be bit streams. The bit streams must be synchronized, otherwise the BER/FER estimates are wrong.
Fig 4.3(ll) BER Parameters Fig 4.3(ll) BER properties
Fig 4.3(mm) BER Parameters
4.4 BER Analysis
4.4 LTE UL BER Measurement
Fig 4.4(a)UL BER Measurement Block Diagram BER vs SNR
Fig 4.4(b) BER vs. SNR graph RED: QPSK,GREEN:16 QAM,BLUE: 64 QAM
OBSERVATIONS AND RESULT
QPSK and 16 QAM
In this project uplink part of the LTE physical layer is implemented using System Vue . First the modulation techniques QPSK and 16 QAM was implemented and its constellation diagrams were obtained. The pattern of the input bits sent and the output bits received after demodulation were found to be the same. Thus QPSK and 16 QAM was successfully implemented and its results were analyzed.
The LTE uplink physical layer was designed and characteristics of the spectrum were observed for different noise density values in the spectrum analyzer . A plot of Power vs. Frequency was obtained and maximum power of -10 dbm was found at the carrier frequency of 2GHz.
The throughput for the LTE Uplink physical layer was observed using the LTE Throughput block . A graph was plotted between throughput and SNR .The SNR was found to be maximum for 64 QAM and minimum for QPSK. For QPSK: A throughput of 27 bits/sec was obtained for an SNR of 0.2 db. The throughput was found to be increasing with increase in SNR.A maximum throughput of 90 bits/sec was obtained for an SNR value of 1db. For 16 QAM: A throughput of 50bits/sec was obtained for an SNR of 10db.The throughput was found to be increasing for increase in SNR. A maximum throughput of 100bits/sec was obtained for an SNR value of 14db. For 64 QAM: A throughput of 51bits/sec was obtained for an SNR of 21db. In this case also the throughput was found to be increasing with increase in SNR. A maximum throughput of 100bits/sec was obtained for an SNR of 23.6 db.
Then the Uplink BER was found using the BER block found in System Vue software. A graph between BER and SNR was plotted for QPSK,16 QAM and 64 QAM. For QPSK: A BER of .12 was obtained for an SNR of .24 db. The BER was found to be decreasing with increase in SNR. A very low BER value of 1e-6 was found for an SNR value of .48db. For 16 QAM: A BER of .091 was obtained for an SNR of 9.7db. The BER was found to be decreasing with increase in SNR.A minimum BER value of 1e-9 was obtained for an SNR value of 13.5db. For 64 QAM: A BER value of .003 was obtained for an SNR value of 21.1db. The BER was found to be decreasing with increase in SNR.A minimum BER value of 6e-5 was obtained for an SNR value of 24db.
LTE supports downlink and uplink peak data rates of 100 Mbps and 50 Mbps respectively with 20 MHz bandwidth. The uplink coverage is based on SCFDMA that promises increased uplink coverage due to low peak to average power ratio relative to OFDMA. SystemVue which is a focused electronic design automation (EDA) environment for electronic system-level (ESL) design was used for implementing the design. The constellation diagrams obtained for both QPSK and QAM were matching with the expected results. The input bits transmitted were received successfully . The Uplink physical layer was simulated and various parameters such as the Spectrum, Throughput and BER was analyzed .When we go from QPSK to 16 QAM to 64 QAM, the throughput increases and BER decreases with increase in SNR as shown in figure Fig 4.3jj and Fig 4.4(b) respectively. This project can be further extended by carrying out simulations for LTE advanced by incorporating MIMO into the present design. The various parameters like data rate throughput, BER, Transmission power etc can be calculated for LTE advanced. Furthermore the analyzer can be used for the physical analysis of the signals for the given parameters .
 3GPP TSG RAN TR 25.848 v4.0.0, Physical Layer Aspects of TRA High Speed Downlink Packet Access,July 2008  IEEE Std 802.16e-2005, Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems,2009  3GPP TSG RAN TR 25.913 v7.3.0, Requirements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN),2008  Upena Dalal,‖Wideband Modulation Techniques‖ in Wireless Communication, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Delhi, India, 2009  Hyung G. Myung ,Junsung Lim and david J.Goodman,‖Single Carrier FDMA for uplink wireless Transmission‖ IEEE paper,Sept 2006  3GPP TS 36.211 V8.9.0,‖Physical channels and modulations‖,December 2009  3GPP TS 36.213 V8.8.0,‖Physical Layer Procedures‖,September 2009  3GPP TS 36.101 V8.6.0 , ―User Equipment radio transmission and reception,September 2009 TR 25.814 ― Physical layer aspects for evolved universal Terrestrial radio access ,V7.0.0,June,2006  System Vue 2011 Electronic Design Software
LTE: Long term evolution UE: User Equipment MME: Mobile Management Entity eNB : E-UTRAN Node B PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol RLC: Radio Link Control RRC: Radio Resource Control MAC: Medium Access Control E-UTRAN: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network PDU: Protocol Data Unit PCCH: Paging Control Channel PCH: Paging Channel PDN: Packet Data Network P-GW: PDN Gateway QPSK: Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing SC-FDMA: Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access SCFDM: Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiplexing ISI: Inter-Symbol Interference CP: Cyclic Prefix PAPR: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio IFFT: Inverse Fast Fourier Transform DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform FFT: Fast Fourier Transform TDD: Time Duplex Division FDD: Frequency Duplex Division
QPSK Modulation and Demodulation
Fig 3.2(a) Qpsk block
Fig a) QPSK block 
Fig b) Bits
Fig c) QPSK symbol mapping
Fig d) Bits QPSK
Fig e) Constellation QPSK 
Fig f) QPSK demapper block diagram 
Fig g) Qpsk demapper
Fig h) bits after demapping
16 QAM Modulation
Fig i) Bits
Fig j) 16 QAM mapper output 
Fig k) 16 qam block diagram 
Fig l) Bits graph
Fig m) 1000 Bits spectrum
Fig n) Qam mapper output
Fig o) 16 Qam Spectrum
Fig p) 16 QAM Constellation
QPSK BER Analysis
Step1: QPSK Baseband Source Design Using the knowledge designers have gained till now, arrange following blocks on the schematic from Algorithm Design library for baseband QPSK signal generation. In this case schematic name was modified to be QPSK Source instead of default Design1.
Fig q) Baseband QPSK signal generation 
Fig r) Simulation Controller Settings
Run simulation and add a graph on the workspace tree. For results, select Series Type = Constellation and select sink name (e.g. S1 as per Fig1) and change X and Y-axis to be Min=-1.2 and Max=1.2
Fig s). Plotting QPSK Constellation
Fig t) Graph Properties 
Once done, Constellation graph as below should be visible:
Fig u). QPSK Constellation Graph
Step2: QPSK Modulator Design Basic building blocks of a QPSK modulator can be arranged as below from Algorithm Design library.
Fig v). QPSK Modulator Design
Root Raised Cosine Filter: Place Filter Design component from library and set the following properties in the Filter
Designers window: Response Type = Lowpass Sample Rate= Sample_Rate (internal variable where SVue reads the sample rate from Simulation Controller) RollOff=0.35 Square Root=YES Interpolation=8
IQ Modulator: Set the Frequency = 70E6 Hz Amp Sensitivity= sqrt(2) (This will provide 13dBm power at the modulator output)
Fig w) Filter Designer Window with Filter Response Graphs  Finished QPSK modulator should look as below with all blocks integrated.
Fig x) QPSK Modulator Design  Simulation Controller: Simulation controller for QPSK modulator can be set as per fig below
Fig y) data flow 
Simulation Results: Run simulation and plot Spectrum of QPSK Modulator .
Fig z). QPSK IF Spectrum 
Step3: QPSK Demodulator
Similar to modulator design, use following blocks to design QPSK demodulator in SystemVue. RRC filter to modified to have Interpolation=1 and set Decimation=8 (same no. as used in QPSK modulator), rest of the properties of the filter will be kept same as in modulator design part.
Fig aa). QPSK Demod Design 
Step4: AWGN Channel
Place AddNDensity component from Algorithm Design and we can define few equations to set the Noise Density of the AWGN Channel based on Eb/No so that we can sweep the value in order to compute BER later. Using Equations utility in SystemVue type the equations below to calculate the NDensity which can be then used in AWGN block on the system level design
Fig bb). AWGN Channel Component 
Step5: QPSK System Design
With all these individual blocks already designed end-2-end system can be designed as shown below:
Fig cc). QPSK System Design Schematic 
Simulation Controller: Setup the simulation controller as below and run simulation to plot Transmitter and Receiver spectrum to observe the data.
Fig dd). Transmitter Spectrum
Fig ee). Receiver Input Spectrum (after AWGN)
In digital transmission, the bit error rate or bit error ratio (BER) is the number of received bits that have been altered due to noise, interference and distortion, divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage number.
As an example, assume this transmitted bit sequence: 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1, And, following is the received bit sequence: 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1,
The BER is in this case is 3 incorrect bits (underlined) divided by 10 transferred bits, resulting in a BER of 0.3 or 30%. The bit error probability pe is the expectation value of the BER. The BER can be considered as an approximate estimate of the bit error probability. This estimate is accurate for a long studied time interval and a high number of bit errors.
In a noisy channel, the BER is often expressed as a function of the normalized carrier-to-noise ratio measure denoted Eb/N0, (energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio), or Es/N0 (energy per modulation symbol to noise spectral density).
For example, in the case of QPSK modulation and AWGN channel, the BER as function of the Eb/N0 is given by: BER = 1 / 2erfc(Eb / N0).
Designers usually plot the BER curves to describe the functionality of a digital communication system. In optical communication, BER (dB) vs. Received Power (dBm) is usually used; while in wireless communication, BER (dB) vs. SNR (dB) is used.
Fig ff) BER 
Step6: BER Simulation for QPSK System For proper BER simulation, reference and test signals have to time synchronized. SystemVue offers Cross Correlation function to find out the delay between the 2 signals and we can use the same in our design. In order to find delay using Cross Correlation function in ADS we can use 2 sinks: 1st sink after Gray Encoder block and 2nd one after QPSK Demapper as shown below Simulation controller is setup pretty much like previous step. Run simulation to plot the Cross
Correlation as shown below by selecting Series Type = Cross Correlatio
Fig gg) QPSK System Setup for Cross Correlation
Fig hh). Setting up Cross Correlation
Fig ii). Cross Correlation graph 
From the cross correlation graph we can calculate the delay required to synchronize the reference Tx and receiver test data. Ideally, the cross correlation peak should appear at the simulation sample (8191 in our case) else the difference between correlation peak and no of simulation samples outlines the delay required to synchronize the data. Delay required = No. of Simulation samples – Cross Correlation Peak Based on our simulation, we can find delay as below: Delay required = 8191-8175 = 16
Fig jj). QPSK BER Schematic with Delay block
Fig kk)Cross Correlation Graph 
In order to synchronize delay between Tx_Ref and Rx_Test, insert Delay component with 16 samples delay as shown. Run the simulation to ensure cross correlation peak appears at 8191 which is equal to simulation sample.
As we can observe the ―Ref‖ and ―Test‖ are now synchronized properly hence we can perform BER analysis. Insert BER sink onto schematic and connect Ref and Test pins to transmitter bit sequence and receiver output respectively as shown below
Fig ll). QPSK BER Schematic with Delay and BER Sink 
Double click on the BER sink and change the StartStopOption=Samples as shown below
Fig mm) BER Sink Properties 
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