Experimental measurement of displacement and vibration of piezoelectric smart structures

Chandrashekhar Bendigeri (corresponding author),a Dattatraya Hegde,b K. Badari Narayanac and K. Ramachandrad a Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001, India E-mail: csb_bangalore@yahoo.com b Department of Mechanical Engineering, UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560 001, India c Goodrich Aerospace Service Pvt Ltd, White Field Road, Bangalore 560 048, India d Director (Ex), Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Bangalore 560 093, India
Abstract Recent advances in the field of distributed sensing and actuation have led to the development of new ‘smart structures’. A smart (or intelligent) structure is able to sense and respond, and control its own characteristics and state. Piezoelectric smart materials have gained popularity as both sensors and actuators. In the present work a new experimental set-up is described that was designed to carry out static and dynamic experimentation on piezoelectric smart structures. Four types of experiment were carried out; results were also determined using analytical methods. The comparison of the analytical and experimental results showed good agreement. Keywords piezoelectric; smart material; sensing; smart beam

Introduction This paper presents a few experiments carried out to evaluate the static and dynamic responses of ‘smart structures’ embedded with piezoelectric materials. These experiments were carried out to assess the necessary instrumentation and testing procedures. The experiments were of four types: (1) a smart beam made of aircraft-quality aluminum alloy with a built-in piezoelectric transducer (PZT), subjected to a known voltage to estimate the deflection in the beam; (2) a smart beam made of steel with a built-in PZT, subjected to voltage; (3) a smart composite beam made of carbon/epoxy with a built-in PZT, subjected to voltage to estimate the deflection in the beam; (4) a smart beam made of aluminum with a built-in PZT, subjected to free vibration. In this paper details of the instrumentation used, specimen preparation, conduct of the experiments and analysis of the results are presented. Instrumentation Table 1 lists the instrumentation used. Fig. 1 shows the different instrumentation and a smart beam used in the program.
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . Vibration meter along with accelerometer 5.5 Hz to 3 MHz with digital display Output voltage: 30 V peak to peak Used for generation of signal Sensor: piezoelectric crystal Output: sine wave Frequency range: 10 Hz to 1 kHz Maximum output voltage: 10 Volts. 1 (a) The instruments. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) (a) (b) Fig. Piezo sensing system 3. Dimmerstat with power transformer 7. Used for sensing the voltage Maximum output voltage: 10 V peak to peak with unity gain Frequency range: 0. Piezo actuation system 6. Function generator Characteristics/use Waveform: sine waveform Frequency range: 0.186 C. TABLE 1 Instrumentation Instrument 1. Active band pass filter 4.1–1000 Hz Order of filter: fourth order Used for filtering the waves Frequency range 1–6000 Hz Operating temperature of 125° C Used for measuring of displacement/velocity/acceleration Frequency range 10–400 Hz Input: sine wave AC input voltage: +/− 10 V maximum DC voltage: 0–100 V Output voltage: 0–200 V Used for generation of low-current and high-voltage source for driving the piezoelectric actuator Variable DC supply: 0–200 V and 1 A Used to obtain variable DC supply ±1 mm Maximum output: 5 V Number of digits: 5 Excitation voltage: 1 V Frequency 4 kHz Used for measuring the displacement 2. (b) A smart beam and instrumentation. Bendigeri et al.

the limitations of the equipment. • Self-heating can occur at high stress levels. Piezoelectric material made of PZT (manufactured by Sparkler Ceramics. The block diagram of the experiment is shown in Fig. Specimen preparation The aluminum beam was machined as per the dimensions shown in Fig. A piezoelectric patch was mounted on this beam and subjected to an electric field. • High stress fields can depole piezoelectric material. had to be considered. Aluminum smart beam A thick beam made of aircraft-quality aluminum alloy was used. 2 Block diagram of the experimental set-up for the aluminum smart beam. • Breaching the Curie point depoles piezoelectric material.Piezoelectric smart structures 187 Certain qualities of piezoelectric materials needed to be taken account of in the experiments [1–5]: • Aging tends to degrade piezoelectric performance with time. • Surface cracking can lead to electric arcing. such as the gain of the voltmeter being less at low frequencies. The procedure for fixing the piezo was as follows: Fig. as could the cables. • Low fracture toughness and tensile strength results in brittle cracking. • To take into account the hysteresis of piezoceramics (a property of producing residual strains after the removal of the applied voltage). which is normally a decay of the poling process. Also. voltages were repeated in the reverse direction of the electric potential. This case study involved the combination of isotropic and piezoelectric materials. Pune) was fixed on the beam [9–12]. The surrounding vibration sometimes could result in a small variation in the measured values. The geometry of the smart beam is shown in Fig. These factors should be borne in mind [6–8]. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . 2. 3. The mass of the accelerometer during measurement could produce some small variation in the results.

• The exact location for the PZT was marked. • Another terminal. • The deflection obtained at the tip of the beam was measured using a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) with specification of ±1 mm. • The voltage applied to the PZT on the beam caused it to deflect. • An emery sheet of zero number was used to rub the beam where the piezoelectric material was to be fixed. • A pure cotton cloth and carbon tetrachloride were used to clean the surface. 3 Geometry of the aluminum smart beam. consisting of positive and negative terminals. Then for 24 hours it was kept at room temperature for curing. excitation voltage 1 V and frequency 4 kHz. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . maximum output 5 V. variable DC supply 0–200 V and 1 A) was applied to the PZT on the beam. • The variable DC supply (dimmerstat with power transformer. a small copper strip. • The PZT was supplied with leads known as pig tails from the manufacturer.188 C. was used to connect the pig tails to the instrumentation. • The PZT was put on the beam and pressed down. • The araldite was smeared on the PZT and on the place on the beam marked for the PZT. • Araldite (hardener and adhesive) was mixed thoroughly until white and uniform. Fig. number of digits 5. Bendigeri et al. Experimental procedure The procedure for conducting the experiment was as follows: • The aluminum beam with the piezoelectric material was clamped tightly at one side as a cantilever.

83 + 4 ∗ 70 ∗103 ∗ 2. Fig. For instance. 4 shows the geometry of the cantilever beam with the piezoelectric actuator.Piezoelectric smart structures 189 Analytical method The deflection was also determined using an analytical method. given by the equation m= 6 ∗ d 31 ∗V EI b ∗ EI c ∗ tc t b 3EI b + 4 EI c Ib is the moment inertia of the beam Ic is the moment inertia of the piezoelectric material d31 is the piezoelectric constant (274*10−9 mm/V) V is the voltage applied (50–200 V) E is the modulus of the beam (70 MPa) l is the length of the beam (440 mm) tc is the thickness of the piezoelectric material (1 mm) tb is the thickness of the beam (5 mm) E is the modulus of the piezoelectric material (70 MPa) wb is the width of beam (50 mm) wc is the width of the piezoelectric material (25 mm) and I b = Ic = wb tb 3 = 520.833 mm 4 12 wc tc 3 = 2. Experimental procedure An LVDT was used to measure static deflection of the tip of the beam at its free end.833 ∗ 70 ∗103 = 24 μ m Values obtained analytically are compared with those obtained from the experimental set-up in Table 2. The signals from the LVDT were transmitted to a displacement indicator. from the following equation: ⎛ m ∗ tb ⎞ δ =⎜ ∗l ⎝ 2 I b Eb ⎟ ⎠ where δ is the deflection m is the moment generated by the applied voltage. one can get the final displacement. The International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 .83 ∗ 70 ∗103 ∗ 2.083 ∗ 5 ∗ 440 1∗ 5 ∗ (3 ∗ 70 ∗103 ∗ 520. for 50 volts.083) ∗ 2 ∗ 520. Steel smart beam An active structural member made of steel with a PZT crystal (lead zirconium titanite) was used in this experiment. δ= 6 ∗ 274 ∗10 −9 ∗ 50 ∗ 70 ∗103 ∗ 520.0833 mm 4 12 Substituting the value of the moment of inertia of the beam and the piezoelectric materia and also substituting other values related to configuration of the problem.

Bendigeri et al. 5 Static deflection of the piezoelectric steel smart beam obtained from experiment.06 0. block diagram for this experimental set-up would be similar to the one shown in Fig.02 0 0 100 200 300 Voltage (volts) Fig. The LVDT was placed at the tip of the beam and the initial deflection was noted. 5 shows the results.1 0. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . For each voltage increment.08 0. 4 Dimensions of the steel beam with a piezoelectric material.12 0. 2.04 0. the corresponding deflection was measured.190 C. Then voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator varied from 50 to 200 V. Deflection (mm) 0. TABLE 2 Comparison of the experimental and analytical results for the aluminum smart beam Voltage applied (V) Deflection (μm) Analytical 50 100 150 200 24 48 72 96 Experiment 25 51 71 95 Fig. Fig.

(a) Details of geometry. This case study involves the combination of an orthotropic material such as the composite used and piezoelectric materials. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . Specimen preparation The carbon/epoxy composite beam was fabricated for this experiment. A piezoelectric patch was mounted on this beam and subjected to an electric field.Piezoelectric smart structures 191 Smart composite beam (carbon/epoxy and PZT) In this experiment the base beam was made of carbon/epoxy composite. 6. 6 Smart composite beam. (b) Beam with PZT actuator. Carbon fibers in fabric form were added (to 60% volume fraction) for reinforcement. Acetone was added to the mixture of resin and hardener to achieve the required consistency. The geometry details and composite beam with PZT is shown in Fig. The resin LY 556 was heated at 60° C and hardener HT 972 was mixed with it. (a) (b) Fig.

Fig. The beam was cut to shape using diamond-cutting equipment. where it was amplified from 10 V to 145 V and connected to the actuator. The curing was done for 3 hours at 120° C and a pressure of 7 bars. The block diagram of the experimental set-up is shown in Fig.6 45. Trapped air was removed using rollers. The piezoelectric actuator was bonded on to the composite beam after cleaning the surface and marking the position.192 C. Bendigeri et al. The leads of the pig tail provided with the piezoelectric materials were connected to the instruments via another terminal and the specimen was clamped to conduct the experiment. The procedure for conducting the experiment was as follows: • The composite beam with the piezoelectric material was clamped tightly at one side as a cantilever. Experimental procedure A block diagram of the experiment would be similar to one shown in Fig. 8. Aluminum smart beam subjected to free vibration Free vibration analysis of smart beam made of aluminum alloy with a PZT patch was carried out. The measured results are compared with the analytically derived values in Table 3. post-curing lasted 1 hour at 180° C.7 30. Experimental procedure • The function generator generated a sine wave at 10 V and this is passed on to the piezoelectric actuator drive amplifier. The composite was a cross-ply lamination. variable DC supply 0–200 V and 1 A) was applied to the PZT on the beam. with fiber orientation angles in the alternate layers of 0°/90°/0°/90°. • The variable DC supply (dimmerstat with power transformer. 7 show the geometry of the cantilever beam with the piezoelectric actuator. Impregnation of the fabric was carried out on a heated plate at 60° C.4 Voltage applied (V) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . • The voltage applied to the PZT caused the beam to deflect.3 60. • The deflection at the tip of the beam was measured using an LVDT. TABLE 3 Comparison of the experimental and analytical results for the composite smart beam Deflection (μm) Analytical 50 100 150 200 16 31 46 61 Experiment 15. 2.

Fig. The higher frequencies could not be measured due to the limitations of the instrumentation used. • The frequency from the signal generator was increased gradually and passed on to the actuator. A normal mode analysis was carried out to obtain the fundamental natural frequency for the smart beam with the PZT. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . 7 Geometry of the aluminum beam with the piezoelectric material for vibration analysis. 8 The block diagram for the free vibration test of the piezoelectric smart structure. First and second natural frequencies were determined experimentally. • An oscilloscope was attached to sensor and the high-amplitude reading on the coaxial resonator oscillator (CRO) corresponded to the natural frequency.Piezoelectric smart structures 193 Fig. The results obtained were compared with results obtained by analytical calculations (Table 4).

Bendigeri et al. Although only the first two natural frequencies could be determined from the experiment.4 and hence the natural frequency is obtained as 393 Hz. the analytical and finite element approach could compute the natural International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . The circular frequency: Ct ∗ a L2 where Ct has the value 3.194 C. a = 4409585.52 for mode I. 22. Similarly. Length of beam: L = 200 mm Width of the beam: b = 25 mm Depth of the beam: d = 3 mm Area of cross-section: A = 75 mm2 Substituting the values of present configuration in the above equations we get the following values: moment of inertia I = 56.7 for mode III and 121 for mode IV. Table 4 compares the natural frequencies derived from this analytical method with those determined experimentally.2 mm4. Using this value of a we obtain the circular frequency ω = 388 rad/s and we then obtain first natural frequency as 61 Hz.4 for mode II. TABLE 4 Comparison of natural frequencies (Hz) of the smart beam obtained using analytical and experimental methods Analytical method 61 393 1082 2122 Experiment 58 380 – – Analytical method The analytical equations pertaining to the first fundamental frequency of the beam are presented here. 7). the circular frequency for the second mode is obtained with the value of Ct as 22. ω= a = E∗I ρ∗ A Moment of inertia: bd 3 12 Natural frequency: I= FZ = ω 2 ∗π The configuration for the present experiment is as follows (see Fig. 61.

C. AIAA J (2001). ‘Finite element analysis and design of control system with feedback output using piezoelectric sensor/actuator for panel flutter suppression’. H. As can be seen from Table 4. Conclusion A set of experiments was carried out on the different smart beams with piezoelectric materials and related instruments attached. ‘Effects of piezoactuated damping on parametrically excited laminated composite plates’. L. ‘Vibration of a cantilevered beam decreasing development and retrieval analysis and experiment’. Bandyopadhyay. Batra. AIAA J (2002). 2002). 1(1) (2006). Transactions on Ultrasonic. Duan. 214–232. [9] M. 1009–1020. J. Sankar and L. ‘Finite element calculation of wave propagation and excitation in periodic piezoelectric systems’. F. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (2006). Manjunath and B. Homann. 43 (2007). Toyama. Von Preissig and E. The results of the experiments using piezoelectric materials in combination with isotropic and orthotropic materials were compared with the results obtained by analytical methods. 1071–1078. [12] S. 25(8) (2006). International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education 38/3 . Rose and S. F. H. Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics (Vienna. C. Ferroelectrics. 52(7) (2005). ‘Finite element modeling of a plate with localized piezoelectric sensors and actuators’. ‘Vibration suppression of timoshenko beams with embedded piezoelectrics using POF’. Ribeiro and V. [5] P. B. J. ‘High precision shape control of plates using orthotropic piezoelectric actuators’. ‘Effect of electromechanical coupling on static deformations and natural frequencies’. B. Steffen. S. Lazarus. 944–951. M. ‘Induced strain actuation of isotropic and anisotropic plate’. AIAA J. Finite Element in Analysis and Design. Bhattacharya. 512–531. Crawley and K. IEEE. The static and dynamic behavior of the structural member was examined. ‘Finite element solution for intermittent-contact problem with piezoelectric actuation in ring type USM’. Intelligent Technology. 29 (1991). Luo. C. [4] T. [11] W. and Frequency Control. de Abreu. J. Lerch. 193–205. and there was good agreement. Austria. Mathew. 42 (2006). J Brazilian Society Mechanical Science Engineering. Int. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design. 891–898. there was good agreement between the methods of estimation. [8] F. [2] Y.Piezoelectric smart structures 195 frequency of higher modes. Cattafesta. [10] Q. SPIE J. Moon. [7] G. ‘Finite element modeling of piezoelectric actuators for active flow control applications’. [6] J. References [1] E. [3] J. 705–710. Kim. Matsuzaki and M. J Reinforced Plastic Composites. Hofer and R. 801–813. 2190 (1994). ‘Topics in finite element modeling of piezoelectric MEMS’. Jin and R. 26(2) (2000). 112–119. M. The experimental results could similarly be used for the validation of finite element analysis.

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