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# An Efficient Three Counter Based Broadcasting Along With Rebroadcast Probability For Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

V.Abinaya

Post Graduate Student, Department of Computer Science& Engineering, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai-48, Email:samyuktha.abi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT-Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is a self administrating network which consists of wireless mobile nodes that communicate each other without using any fixed infrastructure. Broadcasting plays a vital role, where a source node will transmit a packet to all other nodes in the network to find the destination. Flooding is a broadcast mechanism where every node in the network retransmits a packet to its neighbors upon receiving it for the first time and lead to serious problems often known as broadcast storm problem. To overcome these problems, the counter based broadcasting scheme is proposed where the network is divided into low sparse, medium sparse, medium, medium dense and high dense regions, then the packets are transmitted through the nodes which has higher neighbor nodes, thus the number of rebroadcasts and the chance of contention and collision among the neighbor nodes is reduced to achieve successful packet delivery ratio and enhance the performance of the network.

There are several existing schemes such as deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic scheme requires topology information and achieve results. Probabilistic scheme needs a probability value (p) which is predetermined. In location based scheme, the location of mobile nodes are determined and the messages are rebroadcasted by the coverage area. In distance based scheme the node which transmits the packets must know the location of the sender node. Although these schemes provide performance improvement it also leads to redundant rebroadcast messages and low throughput. To solve this problem we follow three steps (i) identify the neighbor nodes of all the nodes in the network (ii) Classification of networks into five different regions (iii) Optimal Route Discovery.

II.

RELATED WORKS

I.

INTRODUCTION

Mobile Adhoc Networks has many characteristics such as mobile nodes are self-organizing, infrastructure-less, dynamic topology and mobility services. In MANET broadcasting is an essential operation which is used in many applications for discovering neighbors. The routing protocol such as Ad hoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) is used to broadcast for route discovery. The routing protocols for MANETs are divided into three types namely Proactive (Table Driven), Reactive (On-Demand) and Hybrid Protocols. The proactive protocols are consistent and update the routing information from a node to all other nodes in the network, such as DSDV ad OLSR. Reactive protocols will create the route only when needed, such as AODV and DSR and the hybrid protocols are a combination of both proactive and on-demand protocols such as ZRP. AODV Protocol is used in counter based broadcasting scheme to transmit the packets from source node to all other nodes in the network. AODV checks the routing table whether the route is already available so that the source node can transmit a packet to the destination node. If the route is found then the packet is transmitted to the destination else a route is discovered by broadcasting a RREQ ( Route Request) packet to reach the destination node, once the node receives the RREQ then it sends a RREP (Route Reply) to the source node.

Flooding is a simplest mechanism of broadcasting which blindly floods the packet from source node to all other nodes in the network which leads to heavy packet loss, congestion and collision related problems commonly knows as broadcast storm problem. There are several categories of schemes involved to overcome this problem such as Dynamic probability method which is a combination of probability and counter based approaches, every node will rebroadcast with a probability fixed value P. Another counter based approach has been developed where the counter will be increased by one when it receives a redundant rebroadcast packet. If the timer expires and counter value is larger than the threshold value, the node will not rebroadcast otherwise the node will broadcast the packet. Location based scheme in which the coverage is considered if the coverage area is larger than the threshold, node will not rebroadcast else it will broadcast it. An efficient counter based scheme has been proposed combine the probability and counter based using a fixed probability value around 0.65. The node rebroadcast the packet according to probability with counter threshold to improve the saved rebroadcast.

III.

PROPOSED SCHEME

Counter based broadcasting scheme is proposed to reduce the number of rebroadcast and achieve high throughput. In this phase we determine three values such as Minimum number of neighbors (n1), Maximum number of neighbors (n2) and average number of neighbors (n3) where the total number of neighbors (n).

11. if the total number of neighbors is greater than the average number of neighbors and less than the maximum number of neighbors then the node exist in medium dense region (Cmax1) and if the total number of neighbors is more than the maximum number of neighbors than the node exist in the high dense region (Cmax).10. Node S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 D Total No Of Nodes = 14 One Neighbors 1. The packet is transmitted through these regions otherwise the rebroadcast is stopped.A.13 12 11.6 4.Segregation of Network Using the above three values the network is divided into five different regions and assigned with Cmin. Cmid.2.7 S.11.8.7 S.12 Hop Count Neighbors of 3 3 2 3 3 7 5 3 3 4 4 4 1 2 Total No of Neighbors = 50 .6.6.6 8.7 3.4.9.11.6 1. if the total number of neighbors is equal to average number of neighbors then the node exist in medium region (Cmid). To evaluate the performance of the network NS-2 (Network Simulator) tool is used. Cmax1 and Cmax thresholds.10.11.8.7 5.5.S 9.1.10 3.3 2. Cmin1.5.10.4.6 7. If total number of neighbors is less than minimum number of neighbors then node exist in low sparse region (Cmin). if the total number of neighbors is greater than the minimum number of neighbors and less than the average number of neighbors then the node exist in medium sparse region (Cmin1).

AVG = Total Number of Neighbors / Number of nodes 50/13=4 MIN = Total Number of Neighbors / Number of nodes 26/10 = 3 MAX = Total Number of Neighbors / Number of nodes 12/2 =6 B. Rebroadcast the packet 19. Once the packet is received at the destination it compares with the threshold and identifies the region of the node.20. maximum number of neighbors (n2) and average number of neighbors (n3). . Free the RREQ packet 17. If n>n2 then 14. 2.2.25 200s IEEE 802. 7. Node lies in the medium region = Cmid 11. Node lies in the high dense region 15.11 CBR 250 m 20 scenario 5. it broadcasts the RREQ to the destination node. 4. 1. Get the total number of neighbors (n). Table I Simulation Parameters Algorithm Some of the important performance metrics for the evaluation: 1. 6.34) 2Mbps 512 bytes 1500*1500 m2 15. Else 18. End If IV. If packet m received for the first time then If n<n1 then Node lies in the low sparse region = Cmin If n>=n1&&n<n3 then Node lies in the medium sparse region = Cmin1 If n==n3 then 3. Get the minimum numbers of neighbors (n1). 8. Optimal Route Discovery In this phase. If n>n3&&n<=n2 then 12. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): The Ratio between the packets sent by the source and the packets received by the destination. 10. Node lies in the medium dense region = Cmax1 13. Performance Evaluation: rebroadcast of the packet takes place else rebroadcast is stopped. if the (n>n3&&n<=n2) then the node lies in medium dense area and if the node lies in (n>n2) then the node lies in dense area based on the regions the Simulation Parameters Simulator Used Bandwidth Packet size Topology Size Number of nodes Simulation time MAC Protocol Traffic Type Transmission Range Number of scenario Parameter value Ns-2 (version 2. On hearing a broadcast packet m at node X. if (n>=n1&&n<n3) then the node lies in medium sparse area. if the node lies in (n== n3) then the node is in medium area. if (n<n1) then the node lies in low sparse area. Throughput: The amount of packets to be received by the destination in a given time. the source will transmit a packet to destination and find the route. 9. If the same packet is rebroadcasted 16.

3. End – To – End Delay: Delay of time by the packet by the sender and received by the destination. Graph: Throughput of the Sent packets by the source Time Vs Total Packet Sent by the source node Throughput of the received packets by the destination Time Vs Total Packet received by the destination .

. The packets are transmitted through the dense region so that the packet delivery ratio is increased.Conclusion and Future work: Thus the network is divided into low sparse. medium and medium dense and high dense regions and the transmission of packets through the dense region is implemented using counter based scheme in network simulation (NS2). The network overhead and delay are reduced by transmitting the packets through higher neighbor nodes.End – To – End Delay V. In future the concept can be implemented in vehicular networks. medium sparse.