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Name: Ku Illyani Nadia Bt. Ku Aziz Matrix no.

: 2011478072 Class: BCM 5B Tutorial Question: Nowadays, the raised access floors are a standard item in most offices; under floor air-conditioning systems are becoming much more popular. Discuss the statement. Air-conditioning is defined as the simultaneous control of temperature, humidity, air movement and the quality of the air in the space.For optimum comfort one should have warm feet and a cool head without noticeable draught. Air velocity in the workspace should not exceed 0.18-0.2 m/s and good air movement should be maintained to avoid stuffiness and dilute pollutants such as ozone and formaldehyde.Air-conditioning systems have tended to be either central station systems in a variety of configurations or smaller diversified plants such as fan coil systems. Facilities managers have been experiencing high costs associated with the maintenance and reconfiguration of systems above workstations and, on occasions, costly leaks of water have seriously damaged computer networks. In the drive to achieve economy, systems have tended towards higher volume/higher temperature differential solutions but this has led to increased complaints of draughts and noise. Many aspects of office design are now affected by legislation and operators have the task of adapting systems to meet changing legislation and office layouts.

Zonal displacement system - air circulation diagram ZONAL DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION Early developments in Sweden led to the system called displacement ventilation. But as it is essentially a ventilation system with limited cooling (40-60 W/m 2), it does not fully meet the definition of air-conditioning. Displacement systems, because of the large areas they serve, often have a demand for heating and cooling within that large area. Additional equipment in the form of underfloor fan coils or electric trench heating is often applied at perimeters to reheat the cool air and introduce it into the space. However, because this warm air is naturally buoyant it rises to a high level and is exhausted before completely heating the space. The heating efficiency is impaired. Zones are usually large and therefore can provide only an average humidity which often leads to complaints from users. Swirl Grills in the floor Air is introduced approximately 3C below room temperature to avoid complaints of draught, through "swirl" grilles or "perforated plate" outlets across the floor. This air picks up heat from the occupants and machinery, along with solar and fabric gains, and rises. Ceiling extract grilles remove this air, avoiding recirculation.

Zonal system options Zonal systems are now receiving a lot of attention from developers and end users. Generally there are two types: floor void supply - ceiling return (zonal displacement systems); and floor void supply - floor void return (zonal mixing systems). Both have their advocates, but in low height office space (2.35-2.6 m) the notion that high level fume should be exhausted from a high level is somewhat flawed because the amount of mixing that takes place in such space, caused by occupant movement, door swings, etc, can render such design intention almost impossible. Both solutions rely on similar central plant to that of fan coil systems, but have less on-floor engineering. Reduced need for duct work Compared with central displacement ventilation systems they have much smaller fresh air ductwork and when well designed, lateral ductwork can be almost, if not completely, eliminated, freeing up the floor for use by the tenant for data cabling and other systems. Improved control and air quality Both types of systems are served with chilled water operating at 6C flow/11C return to achieve good levels of dehumidification in high occupation spaces. They can provide closer control of humidity to smaller zones and can ensure individual zones maintain high indoor air quality. FLOOR VOID SUPPLY - CEILING RETURN Zonal displacement systems Zonal displacement systems use the floor void as a supply channel and the ceiling void or office space as a return channel. Zones may be 100-250 m 2 . They usually work with minimum fresh air rates offering savings in fan power and seasonal peak energy demand. The supply air velocity under the floor may be low and designers should take care to check temperature pick up. Simulation shows that lengths of paths under the floor should be less than 15 m. Zone units are optimally positioned near the centre of the zone served. Underfloor requirements Such systems can make use of swirl grilles when the cooling load is small (60-80 W/m 2 ) and the supply temperature can be limited to 18C, but with higher loads, swirl grilles should be replaced by fan assisted terminals with vertical distribution. The vertical distribution avoids draughts as warmer room air is entrained into the air stream instead of cooler air being blown across the floor at a low level as in the case of swirl. Good for high load areas These systems are suitable for machine rooms where air can be introduced directly into the base of the equipment at a low temperature. Such systems are used for internet hotels and other high load areas where cooling loads can exceed 1200-1500 W/m 2 . Fresh air is usually ducted to the top inlet of the zonal unit. This system has a more complicated ventilation distribution and exhaust system than zonal mixing systems.

System noise levels are in the region of 40 NR

Zonal mixing system

FLOOR VOID SUPPLY - FLOOR VOID RETURN Zonal mixing systems Zonal mixing systems make use of the floor void as both supply and return channels. Metal ducts are not used, but by the application of air segregation baffles usually fitted to the raised floor substructure. Zones may range up to 300 m 2 . Filtration may be to EU7 standard which reduces or removes pollen and other allergens, and thus reduces hay fever and other similar complaints. Fan Assisted Terminals The individual fan assisted terminals introduce the conditioned air into the space. Users have freedom to adjust both the temperature set point and fan speed on the unit. The space temperature is controlled by the flow rate of air introduced, which in turn is usually controlled by a damper, operating under the dictates of onboard sensors. The need for wallmounted thermostats is eliminated. Return Air Air returns to the zonal unit via simple return air grilles positioned above the return air plenum in the raised floor. Fresh air may be introduced into the return plenum or directly to the unit and exhaust air may be extracted through toilets, kitchens and additionally through exhaust air grilles at high level if required. Flexibility with efficiency In offices where cooling loads are high, the zonal mixing solution becomes more attractive than the zonal displacement system as it can achieve cooling loads up to and in excess of 250 W/m 2 without undue draught, while offering the possibility for effective warm air heating in perimeter zones in winter and cooling in summer.