Seminar Report On “ Energy Audit ”

(Akash M Jain) (09BME049) Guide (Prof. N.K.Shah)

Mechanical Engineering Department Institute of Technology Nirma University Ahmedabad – 382 481

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Certificate

This is to certify that Mr Akash. M. Jain Roll No. 09BME049, of B.Tech. Sem.VI has successfully completed the report of seminar on “ Energy Audit ”. Date: Guide:

Head of the Department:

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19 15 15 15 17 17 18 18 20 21 .Contents : Acknowledgements Abstract List of Figures/Diagrams Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Idea Behind Energy Audit 1.3 3.7 Cogeneration Process Energy Conservation in Oven Energy Conservation in Illumination Energy Conservation in Ventillation Energy Conservation in Air conditioning Energy Conservation in Electric Motors Energy Conservation in Transmission and Distribution Page No.26 Chapter 4: Data Analysis Chapter 5: Energy Audit instruments 26 .10 7 9 11 .4 3.6 3.1 Definition 2.5 3.2 Need For Energy Audit Chapter 2: Energy Audit: Types and Methodology 2.2 Detailed Energy Audit Methodolgy Chapter 3: Potential For Energy Conservation 3. 4 5 6 7 .2 3.2 Types of Energy Audit 2.2.14 11 11 11 11 15 .1 3.2.1 Preliminary Audit Methodolgy 2.

. I also would like to thank to my classmates for their continuous support & help.Shah for his precious advices. N.K.Acknowledgement I would like to thank to my guide Prof. contributions and valuable guidance throughout mystudy. Name of the Student Akash Jain 26 .

Abstract The purpose behind energy audit is to practically have the idea of amount of flow of energy in any workplace. 26 . decide on appropriate energy mix.In general. preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production and utility activi-ties. Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities. Energy audit is an important process to be carried out for energy conservation. Such an audit programme will help to keep focus on variations which occur in the energy costs. retrofit for energy conservation equipment etc.It also helps in calculating the cost of energy required to manufacture a product. This helps in calculating the total cost of the product. by lending technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame.The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction. the thrust is given on the saving of energy while carrying out the required work. availability and reliability of supply of energy. In energy conservation. identi-fy energy conservation technologies. And the conservation can suggest how this cost can be reduced by suggesting alternative methods or by reducing various losses in the system.

List of Figures / Diagrams Fig No. 8 8 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Chapter 1: Introduction 26 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Title World Primary Energy Consumption Energy Consumption of different countries Combustion Analyzer Fuel Efficiency Monitor Fyrite Contact Thermometer Infrared Thermometer Pitot tube Manometer Water Flow meter Tachometer Leak Detector Lux Meter Page No.

These types of losses and their amount can be located using the technique of energy audit. due to which the rate of heat transfer has been reduced. these losses cannot be eliminated. And the conservation can suggest how this cost can be reduced by suggesting alternative methods or by reducing various losses in the system. 26 . fictional losses etc which are inherent. it indicates that the water tubes are having salt deposits from inside. to operate it is necessary to pass the current through its winding with generates an alternating flux. This helps in calculating the total cost of the product.1 Idea behind Energy Audit “Energy Audit” means the verification. If the tubes are not cleaned then there are chances of busting of the tubes due to overheating.1. In energy conservation. that can be reduced. Energy audit is an important process to be carried out for energy conservation. due to low thermal conductivity of salt. The energy audit also helps in calculating the cost of energy required to manufacture a product. The current causes the copper loss and since it is necessary to operate the motor. For example. For example. This flux is responsible for an iron loss in the machine. the thrust is given on the saving of energy while carrying out the required work. The type of indication is possible only if frequent energy audit is carried out. However. The periodical energy audit offer but in the complex plant or equipment is helpful for its condition assessment that is whether replacement of some components in the system is required or whether there is necessary to carry out a particular type of maintenance. monitoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption. Some amount of energy is always required to carry out the required work which may be associated with inherent losses which cannot be eliminated. The reduction of the losses located in energy audit. if the quantity of fuel required by the boiler to generate same quantity of steam increases. is done in energy conservation. there are some additional losses such as bearing. in case of an induction motor.

2 :.1:-World primary energy consumption Fig 1.Energy consumption of different countries 1.Fig 1.2 Need for Energy Audit:- 26 .

This cost is fixed and it cannot be reduced.ning a more effective use of energy throughout the organization. and thus energy management function constitutes a strategic area for cost reduction. by lending technically feasible solutions with economic and other organizational considerations within a specified time frame. decide on appropriate energy mix. b) Running cost. Fixed cost depends on the MW capacity and installed capacity of the power station. Running cost depends on cost of fuel used for the production of energy. the three top operating expenses are often found to be energy (both electrical and thermal). But the cost of energy and overheads can be reduced by energy conservation. the cost of energy can be reduced which will reduce the cost of the product and it will compete in the international market. Energy Audit is the translation of conservation ideas into realities. These alternative methods are suggested by carrying out energy audit. Energy Audit provides a " bench-mark" (Reference point) for managing energy in the organization and also provides the basis for plan. Cost of fuel is increasing day by day so the running cost is increasing. 3) Pollution :- 26 . If one were to relate to the manageability of the cost or potential cost savings in each of the above components. So with the help of energy conservation. labour and materials. availability and reliability of supply of energy. Thus energy consumption has to be controlled which is done by using alternative methods which consume less fuel. labor cost. Energy Audit will help to understand more about the ways energy and fuel are used in any industry. So the energy conservation suggests an economic and efficient method for performing certain processes. preventive maintenance and quality control programmes which are vital for production and utility activi-ties. and help in identifying the areas where waste can occur and where scope for improve. 2) Reduction of cost of product :The cost of product involves raw material cost. The primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine ways to reduce energy consumption per unit of product output or to lower operating costs. to enter into the international market your product must have quality and also its cost must be low. energy cost and overheads. The raw material and labor cost cannot be reduced as it is constant.ment exists.In general.In any industry. retrofit for energy conservation equipment etc. identi-fy energy conservation technologies. 1) Increase of cost of Energy :The cost of energy involves following two factors: a) Fixed cost. energy would invariably emerge as a top ranker. The Energy Audit would give a positive orientation to the energy cost reduction. In today’s world of competition. Such an audit programme will help to keep focus on variations which occur in the energy costs.

So the conservation of such energy sources is very important.Burning of coal. Electricity is also used for heating purpose. crude oil. water and air pollution which are hazardous to human life. Studies made show that coal by 2050 will be a history on earth. natural gas. crude oil. geothermal energy are used.Industries use coal. Also other residuals of burning such as ash. it directly reduces the amount of natural energy sources being burnt which reduces the amount of these sources being used and hence saves their reserves on earth. If this goal is achieved a large amount of natural resources can be saved and can be kept safe from being exhausted as they are limited on earth. These being conventional energy sources have a finite end. crude oil for heating purpose. heavy water from nuclear power plants etc cause land. Chapter 2: Energy Audit: Types And Methodology 26 .If this pollution is reduced. In this process millions of tones of natural energy sources are used. the reserves of natural energy sources can be saved as their usage decreases hence the rate at which they are being used today decrease. etc leads to pollution and increase in content of CO2 in air. natural gas has increased heavily in the last four decades. 4) Reduction of natural energy sources :- Due to industrialization the usage of natural energy sources such as coal. natural gas. If non-conventional energy sources such as solar energy.

or easily obtained data 2. 2001. It considers the interactive effects of all projects.agement. i) Preliminary Audit ii) Detailed Audit 2. Energy Audit is defined as "the verification. and includes detailed energy cost saving calculations and project cost. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: Phase I.1 Definition Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision-making in the area of energy man. This estimated use is then compared to utility bill charges. Industrial energy audit is an effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy man. mon-itoring and analysis of use of energy including submission of technical report containing rec. since it evaluates all major energy using systems. assumptions of current operating conditions and calculations of energy use. one of the key elements is the energy balance.2. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use.agement programme. and serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility.ommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption".2. and Potential and magnitude of cost reduction desired Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two types.2 Types of Energy Audit The types of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: Function and type of industry Depth to which final audit is needed. II and III. 2.2.2 Detailed Energy Audit Methodology A comprehensive audit provides a detailed energy project implementation plan for a facility. This is based on an inventory of energy using systems.1 Preliminary Energy Audit Methodology Preliminary energy audit is a relatively quick exercise to: • Establish energy consumption in the organization • Estimate the scope for saving • Identify the most likely (and the easiest areas for attention • Identify immediate (especially no-/low-cost) improvements/ savings • Set a 'reference point' • Identify areas for more detailed study/measurement • Preliminary energy audit uses existing. 26 .This type of audit offers the most accurate estimate of energy savings and cost. As per the Energy Conservation Act.In a comprehensive audit. accounts for the energy use of all major equipment.

Audit Phase Phase III . • To identify the instrumentation required for carrying out the audit.Detailed Energy Audit Activities Depending on the nature and complexity of the site. oil or gas meters. steam.Phase I . • Obtain site drawings where available .back on any capital investment needed. • Discuss economic guidelines associated with the recommendations of the audit.formed to justify the implementation of those conservation measures that require investments. kWh. checks of plant operations are carried out over extended periods of time. The audit report will include a description of energy inputs and product outputs by major department or by major processing function. and investigate.eral weeks to several months to complete. and will evaluate the efficiency of each step of the manufacturing process. Detailed studies to establish. • To plan with time frame • To collect macro data on plant energy resources. • Tour the site accompanied by engineering/production The main aims of this visit are: • To finalise Energy Audit team • To identify the main energy consuming areas/plant items to be surveyed during the audit. An initial study of the site should always be carried out. compressed air distribution.essary to carry out the energy audit.mendations for detailed engineering studies and feasibility analyses. to familiarize him with the site and to assess the procedures nec.Post Audit Phase Phase I -Pre Audit Phase Activities A structured methodology to carry out an energy audit is necessary for efficient working. Whenever possible. steam distribution. a comprehensive audit can take from sev. at nights and at weekends as well as during normal daytime working hours. electricity distribution etc.liminary assessment of the cost of the improvements will be made to indicate the expected pay.Pre Audit Phase Phase II . The information to be collected during the detailed audit includes: - 26 . • Analyse the major energy consumption data with the relevant personnel.building layout. which must then be per. The audit report should conclude with specific recom. • To decide whether any meters will have to be installed prior to the audit eg. energy and material balances for specific plant departments or items of process equipment are carried out. as the planning of the procedures neces. major energy consuming centers • To create awareness through meetings/ programme Phase II.sary for an audit is most important. to ensure that nothing is overlooked. Initial Site Visit and Preparation Required for Detailed Auditing An initial site visit may take one day and gives the Energy Auditor/Engineer an opportunity to meet the personnel concerned. and at least a pre. During the initial site visit the Energy Auditor/Engineer should carry out the following actions: • Discuss with the site's senior management the aims of the energy audit. • To identify any existing instrumentation/ additional metering required. Means of improving these efficiencies will be listed.

production cost and productivity levels in terms of product per raw material inputs. While taking the round. The plan for each floor has to be drawn for a multi storied building. intermediate and final products.Steam consumption . Material balance data (raw materials. production of by-products for re-use in other industries.Electrical energy consumption . The stoppage of water leakage can save the energy in pumping and also the cost of water wastage.Leakage of water from water taps: The water in overhead tanks is pumped using pumps which require energy. Energy consumption by type of energy. Sources of energy supply (e. steam). Existing baseline information and reports are useful to get consumption pattern. process modifications. 26 . Stoppage of compressed air leakage can save the energy required to drive the compressor. electricity from the grid or self-generation) 7.Efficiencies / yield 2. use of scrap or waste products.3 Procedure for Energy audit:1). a team of experts or senior engineers take a walk through the area whose energy audit is to be carried out.1.Other inputs such as compressed air. by end-use 2. processes used and equipment details . by major items of process equip ment.g. recycled materials.Water consumption .Capacity utilisation . and the use of co-generation systems (combined heat and power generation). The audit team should col. Energy cost and tariff data 4.The first step is to draw the plan of the establishment indicating various equipments consuming energy. Some of the situations are as under : a). In this type of energy audit. etc. The position of doors and windows are also to be shown on the diagram. Energy Management procedures and energy awareness training programs within the establishment. Generation and distribution of site services (eg. where the wastage of energy can be seen or it may be possible to get an idea about energy saving. by department.Technology. b). Process and material flow diagrams 5.The next step is to carry a walking energy audit. The transmission or distributor conductors consuming energy continuously are also to be shown on the diagram.Fuel Consumption .Amount & type of input materials used .compressed air. Potential for fuel substitution. 8. Leakage of compressed air: In industries compressed air is used to perform various operations. Compressor is used to generate compressed air and it is driven by an electric motor. Since it is helpful to access the availability of natural light and ventilation.Quantity & type of wastes generated .Percentage rejection / reprocessing . it may be possible to locate some places. cooling water etc . 2).lect the following baseline data: .) 3. 6.

The data regarding energy input is collected by connecting various recorders and energy meters. The data regarding the temperature and flow is to be collected using thermometers and flow meters. Equipments consuming about 20 % to 35 % of total energy. since the primary of the transformer is energized the iron losses occur. In A category. f). Equipments consuming about 5 % to 15 % of total energy.Equipments kept on. . and in C type the lighting and ventilation equipments are involved. The equipments are divided in three categories : A. e). which are intermittently operated are involved. 3). at this situation. For example: If the recording time is 30 minutes and the recording is same for two successive readings. This is called as ABC analysis. a chart is prepared indicating the type of equipments and their ratings. there may not be a requirement of artificial lighting and energy can be saved. various days and various shifts.Potential for Energy Conservation in Various Processes:Energy conservation in the following area of the industries can be done effectively:3. If it is not possible to connect the meters by disconnecting the equipments and if the recording equipment is not available the current of the equipment is measured using a tong tester. The observations are to be drawn at various times each day for five to seven days.Detailed energy audit study: In this step. The above type of study is carried out at various times. first. without operation being carried out: In such cases the equipments consume constant losses for which the industry has to pay so the equipments like welding transformers should not be switched on if the welding work is not carried out. B.Dirty transparent roofing and window panes: If the transparent roofing and window panes are also clean. So to achieve major energy saving thrust is to be given for reduction in energy consumption of type equipments.1 Cogeneration process:- 26 . the equipment is assumed to be on for 1 hour. After fixed interval of time and the status for that interval is assumed to be maintained. small motors like grinders or drilling machines or welding transformers.Lamps and fans operating without any occupant in the room: Since energy is required to operate lamps and fans there is wastage of energy if no person is in the room. To understand the operational losses like opening the doors of the oven or the air conditioned room.In the next step data collection is done. Equipments consuming about 60 % to 70 % of total energy.Closed windows: If the windows are open then sufficient natural ventilation is achieved and the fans may be switched off. In B type equipments. After locating the various energy consuming equipments in the plant. The data regarding the on time of equipments per day and whether the equipments were fully loaded or not is collected.The heat loss through the walls of the oven can be saved by sensing the temperature by keeping the hand on the outer chamber. the detailed analysis of energy consumption pattern of equipments is carried out. pumps and machines which are continuously on. d).c). C. or ovens are involved. the major operating equipments like large compressors. g). 4). Chapter 3.

ii. The consumption of bagasse depends upon the pressure at which steam is produced in boiler. It is an inductive circuit.) Leakage of heat transfer may occur through the existing thermal insulating material. where temperature control is done using a thermostat. Conventionally boilers of 40 bar pressure are in use. This is called the time lag of the thermostat and some energy wastage occurs since the heating maybe done above the preset point. resulting in increased operating days. Replace filament lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). ii.3 Energy conservation in illumination:a) Operational means:i. since they have higher specific heat capacity value than steel. of lamps.)Use high efficiency lamps. 3.)Avoid wastage of light thereby reducing no. i. mercury and sodium vapour lamps. where boilers are used for producing process steam.2 Energy conservation in Oven:i.)The electronic control can supply only the required amount of energy using the phase angle technique.)Keep luminaries(reflectors) clean.)Use mercury or sodium vapour lamps which are having high efficiency. iii)The wall. iii. b) Constructional means:i. iii. In Dabhol Power Plant. Even in heating applications. the thermostat may require time to sense the heat. iii. Use transparent roofing sheets wherever possible (material maybe acrylic or fiber glass). there are two gas turbines and a steam turbine.)Open the windows to permit maximum sunlight.)Give bright colour to walls and ceilings. ii. Use electronic chokes for fluorescent. • Disadvantages of inductive choke:i.)Keep walls and ceilings clean. the pressure of the boiler can be increased and the some of the steam can be used for power generation from steam turbine as well. so has a low power factor.Bagasse is a byproduct of sugar cane that is used as fuel in boilers to produce process steam.)Activity sensors maybe used to switch off lights when not required. iv. By replacing the existing material with other having low thermal conductivity will result in decrease in energy consumption. use of high pressure boilers (60 bars and 100 bars) makes such power projects highly profitable. Supplement natural light with artificial light and not the vice versa. i. Cogeneration projects with higher boiler pressure results in low computation of bagasse. which may lead to fall in temperature which demands more energy to maintain the required temperature. tarpoline. ii. iv. ii. trays and other mechanical components should be made of aluminium and copper. Suitable reflectors maybe used so that light can be concentrated on the required plane of illumination.Heat loss can also be prevented by covering the outer surface with insulation material like jute. Based on the studies carried out in many sugar factories. iii. The flue gases from gas turbines are used in the economizer and the air pre-heaters of the steam turbine. 3. In a system. 26 .

6%). Power consumed by 40W tube and iron choke= 58W. so energy consumption is less about 0.95 26 . Cost of electronic choke= Rs. Power consumed by 36 tube and the electronic choke= 37W.4 Cost of 36W tube= Rs. Cost of new equipment= 44 (300 + 80) = Rs..48 x 5 = Rs. ii. of chokes= 44 Tubes are ON for 20 hours.04kWh/day.48kWh/day. Energy consumed/day= 37 x 20 x 44 1000 = 32.80. Generally.92. Payback period= 16720 92. the tube light starts instantly. of tubes= 44 No. the following case might be considered to get an idea of the saving in illumination: No. Losses are more so energy consumption is more. the tubes have rating of 40W and the iron chokes consume 18W. Cost of energy saved/day= 18. After replacement. then the total consumption equals 37W. iii. Energy saved/day= 51.56 = 18. The cement may destroy as time passes and air enters which reduces pressure in the tube. • Advantages of electronic choke:i. • For e.300.4 =180. No flickering.5 to 1W. Energy consumed/day= 58 x 20 x 44 1000 = 51.04 – 32.g.16720.ii. iii. so total power consumption equals 58W. If the tubes are replaced by 36W tubes and iron chokes are replaced by electronic chokes which consume 1W. around 18-20W. Can sustain variation in supply (230V +/.56kWh/day. Losses are less.

filament or hydrogen lamps are not recommended to be used in the space. Thermocol also provides better illumination due to high reflection and the no. Use electronic regulators which have losses of about 0. f) The frequent opening of the doors can cause the transfer of cold air of the space to the atmosphere and the hot atmospheric air to the air conditioning space. i. Supplement natural ventilation with artificial ventilation. d) No sources of heat should be kept in the space to be provided with air conditioning arrangement.Payback period ≈ 181 days 3. of lamps to be provided in the room also reduces.5-1W as compared to 8-10W of resistance regulator. So to reduce this volume arrangements like false ceilings are to be done with thermal insulating materials like ceiling tiles or thermocol. Since more quantity of energy than the quantity of heat generated will have to be provided to the compressor. the double door system is to be used to reduce this loss of heat. c) The quantity of heat to be extracted depends on the volume of the space. It is advised to construct a terrace garden on the top of the slab after water-proofing. the heat leakage is reduced. 26 . just below ceiling high heat losses occur since the ceiling is directly exposed to sunlight throughout the day. 3. b) If the air conditioned room is located at the top floor. A double door arrangement is also recommended to reduce this loss. e) The heat leakage also occurs through the small gaps of doors and the frame.4 Energy conservation in ventilation:a) Operational means:i. b) Constructional means:Use fans having motors of higher efficiency. ii. Keep the windows open for helping cross ventilation and maintaining the air flow. ii. If the thickness of wall is more. Proper ceiling should be provided to reduce this loss. If the construction is already complete the walls should be covered using wood or fiber glass sheets so as to reduce the thermal conductivity and reduce heat losses. If the door is to be operated frequently. jute. This can be reduced by controlling the operation of door. For this reason.5 Energy conservation in air conditioning:a) The heat leakage occurs through the walls of the room. These losses can be reduced by covering the top slab using thermal insulating material like tarpoline. so while the construction work is in progress the wall thickness can be increased.

of higher capacity than the driving motor or small size to the load (for e. to conserve energy it is recommended to run a motor near to its maximum efficiency in between 85-90% of load. The higher capacity motors have more iron loss which being constant loss is unnecessarily reducing the efficiency of the system. windage and bearing friction are predominant over the variable losses (stator and rotor copper losses). The capacitor current. The overall efficiency is thus reduced. The maximum efficiency occurs when the variable losses=constant losses and generally the motors are designed to have maximum efficiency at 85-90% of full load. the motor draws more current since I=V/Z. Consequently. This can be done by connecting a capacitor across the motor terminals. 3. When the voltage is low the motor develops low torque (TαV2) and the speed drops increasing the slip which increases the rotor current in counterpart increases the stator current. So to reduce the energy loss i. This done by adjusting the tap of the distribution transformer which provides power to the motor. e) Generally. For higher voltage.g) The motors are used to drive the fans and compressors. h) The window glasses or panes should be covered with sun control films which will block IR rays in the sunlight which are responsible for heat generation. The terminal voltage should be 415V±6% or 440V±6% depending upon the rating o f the motor. which is leading component to the inductive current component of the motor nullifying partially the inductive current and reducing the total current drawn by the motor. b) It is found that the motor takes higher current if the terminal voltage is higher or lower than the limits of the rated voltage. These films will permit only visible light rays to enter inside the room. energy efficient motors are recommended to be used having high efficiency. c) Out of the total losses the friction and windage are about 10-15%. So it is necessary to maintain the voltage across the terminals of the motor within the limits to reduce the losses. This happens because at lower output the constant losses such as iron.6 Energy conservation in electric motors:a) It is observed that the efficiency of the motor reduces if the output is reduced.g. 26 .e. To reduce the input energy. reducing the voltage drop in the cables or conductors supplying power to the motor and voltage at terminals maintained constant.e. To keep the ventilation passage clean the outer body of the machine should also be clean. These losses can be reduced by properly maintaining the bearings by providing the proper lubrication. the motor is of 15HP or vice versa). if power requirement is 10HP. Due to dust over the surface the heat transfer rate decreases. The windage losses can be reduced by keeping the ventilation passage clean. d) It is necessary to maintain the voltage across terminals of the motor. it is seen that motors connected to various equipments are over size i. So due to higher or lower voltage the copper losses increase reducing the efficiency..

7 Energy conservation in transmission and distribution sector: a) Energy loss occurs in transmission and distribution of electrical energy. This arrangement not only reduces the eddy current loss in the conductor but also increases the mechanical strength at short circuit. This can be controlled by providing reactors at suitable position. Fr e.3. It should be ensured that when the contacts are in closed position adequate contact pressure is applied on the conducting part so as to reduce the contact resistance and the possible energy loss i.000.g. There will be minimum losses when the power factor is unity for transmission lines and suitable adjustment of reactors and capacitors connected across lines is to be done to achieve it. However to reduce the skin effect. This loss is due to the resistance of the conductors of the transmission lines and the square of the current flowing through it. the resistance of solid conductor is more than that of bunch of small conductors of equivalent crosssectional area. the winding carrying more current (LV winding) is wound with bundled conductors in which the no.)As it is known the major losses in transformer are copper losses due to the resistance of the conductor.e. it is having high efficiency around 92-98% depending on its rating.20. Since the conductors are located in the magnetic field generated by their own current or by other turns. i. of places and care is to be taken to see that the contacts are tight to keep the contact resistance as minimum as possible. the efficiency is high. For higher rating. a 1000kVA transformer operating at unity power factor and with 98% efficiency will have a loss of 20kW. the conductors are joined at no. stranded or bundled conductors can reduce the effective resistance. If the efficiency is improved by 0. the capacitance of line is important which increases receiving end voltage increasing the load current. To reduce these losses. However this arrangement increases the area required by the 26 . Since due to skin effect. The resistance of the conductor can be decreased by increasing the cross-sectional area of the conductor. the losses will be 15kW and the daily saving of energy will be 5*24=120kWh costing around Rs. instead of a solid conductor.e. d) In case of distribution system. of conductors insulated from each other are connected in parallel to form required cross-sectional area. This increases the cost of the conductor and the economic analysis whether the additional cost compensates for reduction in the losses is to be done. eddy current loss takes place in them. For AC transmission and distribution lines.2. Since the transformer is a static device. the losses in the distribution transformer form the major part. However if the efficiency is improved by 1% there is going to be substantial energy saving since the transformers are ON for 24hrs/day and 365days/year. I2R which appears in the form of heat.5%.600/day and the annual saving will be around Rs.. b) In case of very long transmission lines.5-1micron. The equipments in which opening and closing of contacts takes place as in case of circuit breakers. Since the value of current is high a small increase in the value of resistance can increase the losses substantially. The resistance can be decreased by lowering the current density i. nowadays instead of rectangular bar conductors the winding is done by copper sheets of thickness 0. by increasing the cross-sectional area of conductor. c) In transmission and distribution system.

8-1W. e) In case of distribution system. the calculated energy used considering the on time of equipments and rating with the meter reading. 3) The energy wastage considering the inherent energy losses.7 Wb/m2 and for yoke it is 1. The next step in data analysis is related with the loading of the equipments like lamps and fans. In industries like TATA motors.5Wb/m2. Chapter 4 : Data Analysis The collected data is to be analyzed to calculate the energy wastage and possible savings. 2) The actual energy utilized. The typical iron loss of 0. thereby reducing the energy loss to 120kWh. The material is having a glass-like or amorphous structure. If the motor is under utilized. 26 . below 70% they are having low power factor. iii.e. It may be suggested to relocate the various motors in the plant so that they operate for at least their 80 % capacity.5-1. The data is to be analyzed considering the following points:1) Energy required in performing a particular work.e. This loss can be reduced by replacing the fuses with the ones consuming 0.scrap cost of existing equipments Cost of energy saved per day. the fuses are the components in which continuous energy loss occurs.35mm the losses are around 0. the accuracy of the energy meter is checked by comparing. The motor consume higher constant losses as compared with the small motors of small capacity. Thins strips of material are prepared. The iron losses i.8-1. If the thickness is reduced then the core losses get reduced.winding and hence the area of window increases.)The iron losses occur in yoke and core limbs. However the machine operating on induction motor. By using CRGO steel of thickness 0. Payback period = cost of additional equipments . insulated and used in the transformers. it should be seen whether the motors are utilized for at least 80% of the capacity or not. 0. The cost of this transformer is 25% high however the payback period is 6-8 months after which substantial saving occurs.2-1. Generally for limb the flux density is about 1. This transformer is called as the amorphous core transformer.5-2W/kg for dynamo grade steel.5 Wb/m2.e. The quantity of copper also increases by 5-10% depending on the size of the transformer. more than 5000 HRC fuses are used which are continuously ON causing great energy loss i. new equipments like new motors or electronic chokes are suggested and pay back period can be calculated. If there is any error in the energy meter it will get detected in this stage. the general values are 1.5-1W/kg for CRGO steel having thickness of 0. ii. These fuses cost about 35% higher but the payback period for higher cost is about 40-60days after which continuous saving occurs. This can be reduced by increasing the cross-sectional area of yoke and limbs thereby reducing the flux density. At the first instant. This step is not important since they operate at their full capacity.3-0.)These losses can be further minimized by using the core of amorphous material. eddy current losses and hysterisis losses increase with the flux density and for 1. If the induction motor is lightly loaded i. the saving and energy wastage is possible by replacing the motors with a lower capacity motor.5W/kg. From the above analysis it may be possible to suggest various means of energy conservation.5W/kg for CRNGO and it is 0.5mm.2W/kg and there is a substantial reduction of iron loss about 40% of the losses than CRGO. In some cases. if a fuse is consuming 2W power the total loss for 24hrs is 240kWh. This material is having high resistivity reducing the eddy current losses.

This type of study does not involve very high capital equipments. and mostly the equipments like lamps and fans should be operated only when required. time switches for lamps and fans or use of activity sensors can be suggested. The C type analysis is for the equipments consuming about 10 % to 15 % of energy. Distribution transformer is an example of above type of analysis. For B type of analysis the equipments are medium energy consumers. these measurements require the use of instruments. the understanding of the product and process along with the cost is necessary. These instruments must be portable. easy to operate and relatively inexpensive. the creating of awareness in the operators and public.sitates measurements. About 25% to 35% of the energy consumption can be reduced by modifying the operating procedure. is possible by studying the process deeply and an alternative method of operation can be suggested. For example in case of forging industry. Some of the suggestions are as under:1) Loading of oven with 80 % capacity. In some cases the equipments like automatic converters. The operators might be given training for efficient operation of the equipments. For A type analysis. 5) Keeping the lamps and fans off when not required. the heating of billets using furnace oil is the place where major energy consumption occurs. durable. in general. 4) Keeping the equipments like welding transformers or grinders off when not in use. The process can be replaced by heating using induction heating. the capital cost of the new equipment is much higher and the pay back period is about two and a half to three years. Although the payback period for these equipments is around 8 to 10 months. The equipments like ovens. the process is to be studied and the suggestions are to be given. In this type. 3) Not opening the doors of the oven or cold room frequently. the quantity of energy saved is less as compared to A and B type of equipments. In A type of analysis. if the equipments are having larger rating and are on for a longer time. which is energy efficient. To achieve reduction in energy losses. to conserve the energy or keeping water taps closed etc. welding transformers. The parameters generally monitored during energy audit may include the following: 26 . Chapter 5 : Energy Audit Instruments The requirement for an energy audit such as identification and quantification of energy neces.The above equation is without considering any depreciation of new equipment. which is energy efficient. the reduction in energy. The means of energy conservation for these equipments except computers are simple and they require less capital cost for energy conservation. also come under this category. and the alternative method with lower energy content is suggested. This analysis basically involves the production process analysis rather than the operating process analysis. is important which can be achieved by displaying the posters. In case of A type analysis. since the equipments are consuming more amount of energy. grinders etc. 2) Keeping the vent of the oven closed.

relative humidity. flue gas analysis . 26 .Combustion analyzer: This instrument has in-built chemical cells which measure various gases such as O2. Reactive power (kVAr). Parameters of importance other than electrical such as temperature & heat flow.Voltage (V). SOx. Active power (kW). moisture content.Electrical Measuring Instruments: These are instruments for measuring major electrical parameters such as kVA. Hertz. kW. dust concentration. These instruments are applied on-line i. Amps and Volts. Instant measurements can be taken with hand-held meters. kVAr. revolutions per minute (RPM). noise and vibration. etc.e on running motors without any need to stop the motor. liquid flow.lates the combustion efficiency. Fig 3: Combustion analyzer 3. Power factor. Energy consumption (kWh).Basic Electrical Parameters in AC &DC systems . The operating instructions for all instruments must be understood and staff should familiarize themselves with the instruments and their operation prior to actual audit use. radiation. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). NOx. O2. pH. combustion efficiency etc. Harmonics. 2. Current (I). Calorific values of common fuels are fed into the microprocessor which calcu. CO. apparent power (demand) (kVA). 1.CO2. while more advanced ones facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals. Frequency (Hz).Fuel Efficiency Monitor: This measures oxygen and temperature of the flue gas. air velocity. In addition some of these instruments also measure harmonics. CO. NOX and SOX. air and gas flow. PF. Key instruments for energy audit are listed below.

ment is useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces.Contact thermometer: These are thermocouples which measures for example flue gas. A separate fyrite can be used for O2 and CO2 measurement. hot air. hot water tempera. surface temperatures etc. A chemical reaction changes the liquid volume revealing the amount of gas.Infrared Thermometer: This is a non-contact type measurement which when directed at a heat source directly gives the temperature read out. a leaf type probe is used with the same instrument.Fig 4: Fuel Efficiency Monitor 4. 26 .Fyrite: A hand bellow pump draws the flue gas sample into the solution inside the fyrite. For surface temperature. Fig 5: Fyrite 5. This instru.tures by insertion of probe into the stream. Fig 6: Contact Thermometer 6.

A simple tachometer is a contact type instru.ment which can be used where direct access is possible.Fig 7: Infrared Thermometer 7. belt slip and loading.Speed Measurements: In any audit exercise speed measurements are critical as thay may change with frequency.Pitot Tube and manometer: Air velocity in ducts can be measured using a pitot tube and inclined manometer for fur. Water and other fluid flows can be easily measured with this meter. Fig 7: Manometer 8.ther calculation of flows.Water flow meter: This non-contact flow measuring device using Doppler effect / Ultra sonic principle. 26 . More sophisticated and safer ones are non contact instruments such as stroboscopes. Fig 8: Water Flow Meter 9. The meter directly gives the flow. There isMano a transmitter and receiver which are positioned on opposite sides of the pipe.

It consists of a photo cell which sens.Fig 9: Speed Measurements 10.es the light output.Lux meters: Illumination levels are measured with a lux meter. Fig 9: Leak Detectors 11.Leak Detectors: Ultrasonic instruments are available which can be used to detect leaks of compressed air and other gases which are normally not pos.sible to detect with human abilities. converts to electrical impulses which are calibrated as lux. Fig 10: Lux meters 26 .

26 .Conclusion: It can be concluded that to have a sight over the flow of energy it’s audit should be carried out at regular intervals. This will definitely help in reducing the load shedding which is a great problem for the growing economy. A general appeal can be made to the public to reduce the energy consumption. Also in industries. And the best possible way to enhance energy saving should be implemented. if not constructional means then at least the operational means should be adopted which do not require capital investment. We need to adopt energy efficient measures.

nic.meda.in iv.energymanagerstraining. www.wikipedia.com iii.com ii.org/wiki/energy_audit 26 .bee-india. www. www. www.References: i.