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Reading Lists for general exams – last updated 6/1/12 Table of Contents Post-Socialism................................................................................................................................ 2 Critical Medical Anthropology .................................................................................................... 8 Addiction and Drug Use ............................................................................................................. 11 Meaning and Healing / Meaning in Healing ............................................................................. 15
Jennifer Carroll Post-Socialism Here, I am focusing on the anthropology of post-Soviet regions in Eastern Europe. This includes research, ethnographic and otherwise, on current cultural constructs, socio-political realities, and the numerous processes of change, innovation, and adaptation that have resulted from the social, political, and economic changes that have been seen in this region over the last several decades. This list finds its inspiration in two somewhat philosophical observations about the post-Soviet sphere and the nature of post-socialist studies. The first is Katherine Verdery’s observation that a critical exploration of the new social realities (and, also, medical realities) in the post-Soviet sphere “requires a theoretically grounded understanding of the system that has crumbled and an ethnographic sensitivity to the particulars of what is emerging form its ruins” (1996: 10). She simplified this mantra in the title of her book (ibid.), which calls for a deeper exploration of what socialism was and what comes (or came or is coming) next. To this end, I have included some works here that provide some sort of footing for establishing what Soviet socialism was in a sense that is meaningful for my project. Scholarship on the Soviet Union produced by Western academics is not rare, but neither is it terribly common. I have found a few representative samples of research on Soviet life and society that are relevant to include here. The first is Mark Field’s 1967 book, which explores the Soviet medical system in detail. Second is Trisha Starks’ The Body Soviet (2008), an historical perspective on Soviet policies and propaganda regarding public health, personal health, and personal hygiene. Lastly, I have included two short pieces, one by Janet Hyer (1996) on the management of reproduction among the Soviet female labor force and another by Teresa Polowy (1995) who explored tropes of drinking and alcoholism in Russian literature beginning in the 1960s, in order to provide a more nuanced view of the intersections of gender, bio-power, and substance use during the late Soviet period. Still following Verdery’s lead, I have included a number of texts that present Post-Soviet societies ‘in transition’, focusing on the simultaneous reordering of culture and restructuring of society that is deemed unique to this part of the world. To put it another way, I see these texts exploring the ways in which Soviet legacies remain manifest in the minds of individuals, despite the ever growing disconnect between those historical systems of meaning and current social and economic realities. Jennifer Patico’s book (2008) is a key example. She writes about social relationships in Moscow that have been shaken by the devaluation of informal black market. Social networks based on sharing and gifting became disoriented and confused once those gifting and under-the-table exchange practices became obsolete. Verdery’s The Political Lives of Dead Bodies (1999) offers an interesting look at how physical remains become signifiers of cultural, religious, and geographic identity, especially at times when those ties to land, liberty, or cultural legitimacy are challenged. Amy Ninetto’s ethnography of a scientific research facility (2005) argues that scientific ventures in Russia, which were transformed into joint state-private ventures under Soviet rule, have been restructured post-socialism into an awkward arrangement that actually strengthens government’s ties to knowledge production. Oksana Kis (2005), Adriana Petryna (2002), Sarah Phillips (2008), and Alena Ledeneva (2006) all offer examples of problematic identities that exist in post-socialism as contested, conflicted, or claimed by individuals for themselves in order to promote their legitimacy as enfranchised citizens and the legitimacy of their claims on the state and their peers. In my estimation, all of the texts here that fall into this category explore how “pre-transition” cultural legacies (those tied to identity and the
Jennifer Carroll maintenance of social networks, in particular) are bent, over-extended, or re-cast in order to maintain their purchase in a different socio-political environment. The second observation that is motivating this bibliography is one that I have been gradually coming to throughout my academic studies and fieldwork (and travels) in Eastern Europe: that discussions of post-socialism that explore the creative manipulation of Soviet social structures only tell half of the story. Likewise, I have included texts that begin to diverge from transitionfocused narratives by highlighting ways in which the dominant global forces (i.e. influences that have been flooding into Eastern Europe as the Soviet political structure receded) contribute to meaning-making via the re-rendering of paradigms in order to provide coherency and agency that complements pre-existing social forms and structures—rather than the other way around. Several of these texts address Ukrainian and Russian responses (acceptance, rejection, or reformulation, as the case may be) to ‘Western’ feminist discourses: primarily Zhurzhenko (2001, 2004), Zherebkina (2001) Hrycak (2005, 2006, 2007), and Pavlychko (1996). Other texts focus on the re-conceptualization of bio-medical categories in the post-Soviet sphere—a reality much different than that anticipated by Clark and Murdoch (1997)1, who claim that scientific discourses “must reshape locales in a fashion which allows these artifacts to ‘work.’…It remakes the world in its own image…” (41). Rather, the work of coordinating scientific and medical discourses with local cultures is performed by actors within the local culture so as to reach specific social, political, or personal ends. For example, Jack Friedman (2009) shows doctors in Romania bending diagnostic categories in mental health clinics so that their medical services can stand in as ad hoc social services for deserving patients in need. Jill Owczarzak (2009) highlights how HIV-prevention messages common in North America were co-opted in Poland in order to promote a moralized notion of Polish identity. Erin Koch (2008) reveals how TB status is engaged by local prisoners for personal gain and how medical workers have altered their perceptions of standardized medical testing procedures and outcomes in order to accommodate these patterns of behavior. Overall, these readings are designed to provide me with a respectable foundation in (1) the historical realities of Soviet society (particularly with respect to medicine and substance use), (2) contemporary life strategies in which those legacies have been engaged, manipulated, and changed, (3) the ways in which cultural artifacts from elsewhere in the world (e.g. feminism) are manipulated and rendered meaningful within local contexts, and, finally, (4) the lived-experience of post-socialism amid these many processes—what Alexandra Hrycak has called “the postSoviet habitus”. Bazylevych, Maryna 2011. Vaccination Campaigns in Post Socialist Ukraine: Health Care Providers Navigating Uncertainty. MAQ 25(4): 436-456. 2009. “Who is Responsible for Our Health? Changing Concepts of State and the Individual in Post-Soviet Ukraine.” Anthropology of East Europe Review 27(1): 65-75. 1 Clark, Judy and James Murdock. 1997. Local Knowledge and the Precarious Extension of Scientific Networks: A Reflection on Three Case Studies. Sociologia Ruralis 37(1): 38-60.
Jennifer Carroll Bilaniuk, L. 2005. Contested Tongues: Language Politics and Cultural Correction in Ukraine. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Dunn, Elizabeth C. 2004. Privatizing Poland. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press Field, Mark 1967. Soviet Socialized Medicine: An introduction. New York: The Free Press. 1995. The Health Care Crisis in the Former Soviet Union: A Report from the “Post-War” Zone. Social Science and Medicine 41(11):1468-1478. Friedman, Jack R. 2009. “The ‘Social Case’: Illness, Psychiatry, and Deinstitutionalization in Postsocialist Romania” Medial Anthropology Quarterly 23(4): 375-396. Gal, Susan and Gail Kligman .2000. The Politics of Gender after Socialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hrycak, Alexandra 2005.“Coping with Chaos: Gender Politics in a Fragmented State” Problems of PostCommunism 52(5). 2006. “Foundation Feminism and the Articulation of Hybrid Feminisms in PostSocialist Ukraine,” East European Politics and Societies 20(69). 2007. ‘Gender and the Orange Revolution’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 23, No. 1, March, 150-179. Hrycak, Alexandra and Maria G Rewakowicz 2009. ‘Feminism, Intellectuals and the Formation of Micro-politics in Postcommunist Ukraine’, Studies in East European Thought, Volume 61, Number 4, 309-333. Humphrey, C. 2002. The unmaking of Soviet life: Everyday economies after socialism. Culture and society after socialism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press Hyer, Janet 1996. “Managing the Female Organism: Doctors and the Medicalization of Women’s Paid Work in Soviet Russia During the 1920s.” In Women in Russia in Ukraine. Rosalind Marsh, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kis, Oksana
Jennifer Carroll 2005 “Choosing Without Choice: Dominant Models of Femininity in Contemporary Ukraine.” In Ildiko Morell et. al. eds. Gender Transitions in Russia and Eastern Europe. Eslöv : Förlahs ab Gondolin. Koch, Erin. 2006. Beyond Suspicion: Evidence, (Un)certainty, and Tuberculosis in Georgian Prisons. American Ethnologist 33(1):50-62. Ledeneva, Alena. 2006. How Russia Really Works: The Informal Practices that Shaped Post-Soviet Politics and Business. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Leykin, Inna 2011. “Population Prescriptions: (Sanitary) Culture and Biomedical Authority in Contemprary Russia.” Anthropology of East Europe Review 29(1): 60-81. Marsh, Rosalind 1996. “Introduction: Women’s Studies and Women’s Issues in Russia, Ukraine, and the Post-Soviet States.” In Women in Russia in Ukraine. Rosalind Marsh, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ninetto, Amy 2005. “An Island of Socialism in a Capitalist Country”: Postsocialist Russian Science and the Culture of the State. Ethnos 70(4):443-46 Owczarzak, Jill. 2009. “Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 23(4): 417-435. Patico, Jennifer. 2008. Consumption and Social Change in a Post-Soviet Middle Class. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Pavlychko, Solomea 1996 “Feminism in Post-Communist Ukrainian Society.” In Women in Russia in Ukraine. Rosalind Marsh, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Petryna, Adriana 2002. Life Exposed: Biological Citizens After Chernobyl. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Phillips, Sarah 2011. Disability and Mobile Citizenship in Postsocialist Ukraine. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
Jennifer Carroll 2008. Women’s Social Activism in the New Ukraine. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Polowy, Teresa 1995. “Russian Women Writing Alcoholism: The Sixties to the Present” in PostCommunism and the Body Politic. Berry, Ellen E. ed. New York: New York University Press. Rivkin-Fish, Michelle 2005. Women’s Health in Post-Soviet Russia. Bloomington: Indiana U Press. Rubchak, Marian J. 1996. “Christian Virgin or Pagan Goddess: Feminism Versus the Eternally Feminine in Ukraine.” In Women in Russia and Ukraine, Rosalind Marsh, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Starks, T 2008. The Body Soviet: Propaganda, Hygiene, and the Revolutionary State. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Verdery, Katherine 1996. What Was Socialism and What Comes Next? Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1999. The Political Lives of Dead Bodies: Reburial and Postsocialist Change. New York: Columbia University Press. Wanner, Catherine 2005. Money, morality and new forms of exchange in postsocialist Ukraine. Ethnos 70, (4): 515-37. Zherebkina, Irina 2001. “Who is Afraid of Feminism in Ukraine? How Feminism is Possible as a PostSoviet Political Project” in Gender in Transition in Eastern and Central Europe, Proceedings. Gabrielle Jaehnert and Jana Gohrisch, eds. Berlin: Trafo Verlag. Pgs. 142-147. Zhurzhenko, Tatiana. 2004. “Strong Women, Weak State: Family Politics and Nation Building in PostSoviet Ukraine” in Post-Soviet Women Encountering Transition, Kathleen Kuehnast and Carol Nechemias, eds. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. Pgs 23-43. 2001. “Ukrainian Feminism(s): Between Nationalist Myth and Anti-Nationalist Critique.” IWM Working Paper No. 4/2001: Vienna. Electronic Document, accessed 10/2010. URL: www.multiculturedonne.com/files/ukr.feminism.pdf
Jennifer Carroll Critical Medical Anthropology This list is intended to serve as a theoretical foundation in medical anthropology. I am approaching medical anthropology as an active critique of biomedicine, as a theoretical frame through which knowledge of health and disease is produced, and as a discipline with its own history, politics, and positionality. This bibliography attempts to address medical anthropology in all three of these lights. My intent is to represent canonical anthropological literature on the social construction of illness, illness experience, and knowledge(s) of the body. This has been done with a particular focus on the politics and moralities that emerge from medical discourse and the strategies that individuals use when navigating medical conditions and systems in various local contexts. I have included here classic texts that have shaped the theoretical frames of medical anthropology from authors like Michel Foucault and Talcott Parsons. I have included foundational works from the 1970s and 1980s that have, either in their moment or over time, defined the discipline of medical anthropology in its contemporary form. These include texts from scholars like Margaret Lock, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Vincente Navarro, and Arthur Kleinman. Works included here from the last two decades include critical developments of these foundational theories, exemplified by Barbara Erickson, Jeanette Pols, and Merrill Singer, significant ‘breakthrough works’ from researchers like Philippe Bourgois, Paul Farmer, and key selections from edited volumes that could be considered ‘canonical’ books in that they attempted to condense and present a ‘definitive’ medical anthropology for the academic researcher as well as the university classroom. In sum, this bibliography is motivated by the following questions: • In what ways has medical anthropology problematized stereotypical bio-medical structures/institutions and the roles, subjectivities, and power dynamics that they produce? How do social, political, and economic structures shape and/or frame understandings of or the lived experience of illness across cultures? How have anthropologists supposed or suggested that people “make sense” or “make meaning” out of therapeutic processes, and how have those theories changed over time? In what ways do social norms and systems of morality intersect with various therapeutic modalities—especially the ostensibly scientific project of biomedicine?
• • •
Csordas, Thomas , and Kleinman, Arthur 1990(1996). “Therapeutic Process” in Sargent and Johnson, eds. Medical Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Method. pp. 3-20. Erickson, Barbra. 2007. “Toxin or Medicine.” MAQ 21(1): 1-21. Farmer, Paul 2003. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Foucault, Michel. 1975. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage Books. 1991 . “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp: 87-104. Frankenburg, Ronald. 1980. “Medical Anthropology and Development: A Theoretical Perspective.” Social Science and Medicine 14B: 197–207. Gardner, John, Kevin Dew, Maria Stubbe, Tony Dowell, and Lindsay Macdonald 2011. Patchwork diagnoses: The production of coherence, uncertainly, and manageable bodies. Social Science and Medicine 73: 843-850. Good, Byron . 1994. Medicine, Rationality , and Experience : an anthropological perspective. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press Hahn, Robert A. 1995 Sickness and healing: an anthropological perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kleinman, Arthur 1983. Illness Narratives. Basic Books. Lupton, Deborah. 1995. The Imperative of Health: Public Health and the Regulated Body. London: Sage. 2003 Medicine as Culture. London: Sage. Mol, Annamarie 2002 The Body Multiple. Duke University Press. Nguyen, Vinh-Kim, and Karine Peschard 2003 Anthropology, Inequality, and Disease: A Review. Annual Review of Anthropology 32(1):447-474. Navarro, Vincinte 1975. Medicine Under Capitalism. New York: Prodist. Parsons, Talcott 1991 . The Social System. London: Routledge. (selections)
Jennifer Carroll Pols, Jeannette 2005. Enacting Appreciations: Beyond the Patient Perspective. Health Care Analysis 13(3), 203-221. Rhodes, Lorna A. 1996. “Studying biomedicine as a cultural system.” In Sargent, Carolyn Fishel, and Thomas M. Johnson eds., Medical anthropology: contemporary theory and method. Westport, CN: Praeger. Pp. 165-180. Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, and Margaret Lock. 1987. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon to Future Work in Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1: 6-41 1996. “A Critical-Interpretive Approach in Medical Anthropology: Rituals and Routines of Discipline and Dissent.” In Sargent, Carolyn Fishel, and Thomas M. Johnson eds., Medical anthropology: contemporary theory and method. Westport, CN: Praeger. Pp. 41-70. Singer, Merrill 1993. A Rejoinder to Wiley's Critique of Critical Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly , New Series, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Jun., 1993), pp. 185-191 1995. “Beyond the Ivory Tower: Critical Praxis in Medical Anthropology.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 9(1): 80-106. Taussig, Michael. 1980. “Reification and the Consciousness of the Patient.” Social Science and Medicine 14B(1):3-13. Whyte, S. R. 2009. Health Identities and Subjectivities:. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 23: 6–15. Wiley, Andrea S. 1992 Adaptation and the Biocultural Paradigm in Medical Anthropology: A Critical Review. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 6(3): 216-236.
Jennifer Carroll Addiction and Drug Use This list is intended, primarily, to represent the anthropology (or social science study of) drug use and addiction both as a contemporary and a historical project. The first phase of anthropological drug research emerged in the 1930s and 1940s and was, I believe, part-andparcel of the growing trend towards urban anthropology, urban ethnography, and the sociology of deviance. The second time period, reaching from the 1960s to the mid-1990s, contains an explosion of ethnographic and applied anthropological research on drug use and drug using behaviors. I have come to refer to this time period as “first generation contemporary drug use ethnography.”. A cohort of well-known drug use ethnographers also emerged during this time period, consisting of individuals such as Merrell Singer, J. Bryan Page, Michael Agar, and many others. The third time period overlaps a bit with the second, but generally spans the last fifteen or twenty years. I call this period “second generation drug use ethnography.” It includes works that have built upon the foundational efforts of first generation drug use ethnographers. Theoretical engagements with drug use and social structures that surround it have deepened, and notions of subjectivity, governmentality, narrative, and medical discourse have been prominent. While these elements were most certainly present in first generation works, second generation works are foregrounding these theoretical approaches to a much larger degree. Since my dissertation research focuses so heavily not only on drug use and drug abuse but on drug treatment, I have found it useful to include here anthropological sources that deal directly with issues of drug treatment. Much of this literature focuses on the “unintended consequences” of drug treatment, which includes social effects of biomedical treatment discourses that were truly unintended as well as more onerous matters of bio-power, governmentality, and social control that are embedded in drug treatment programs, structures, and practices. Finally, I have made sure that the social science (and in particular the anthropology) of drug use, addiction, and addiction treatment in Eastern Europe is included here. This literature is not significant, and much research is situated in Russia rather than in Ukraine. Much of this literature also focuses on alcohol use rather than injection drug use, which fall into very different categories of meaning and behavior in most Eastern European places (as it does in the US). However, these authors are beginning to wrestle with the relationships between personhood, addiction, responsibility, and the lived realities of life after communism in ways that are highly relevant to the questions that I am asking about IV drug users in Ukraine. They are, therefore, included here. In sum, this bibliography has been shaped so as to provide comprehensive answers to the following questions: • How has addiction and public responses to addiction been problematized by anthropologists and how have those anthropological approaches changed over time? • What contradictions can be seen in biomedical approaches to addiction? What sort of ideological work is embedded in biomedical discourses of addiction? Are there sites of resistance to or translation of those discourses either in Eastern Europe or elsewhere? • How do different approaches to drug use (biomedical, psychological, historical trauma, structural explanations, etc.) construct or conceive of the drug user as a social agent, knowledge of the mind or the body, origins and causes of drug use, political economies of drug use, and the social construction of addiction differently?
Jennifer Carroll • What socio-political factors unique to the Post-Soviet sphere are shaping the patterns and meanings of drug use or the questions and theories that social researchers are developing about drug use in that region?
Agar, Michael. 1973. Ripping and Running: A Formal Ethnography of Urban Heroin Addicts. New York: Academic Press. Becker, Howard. 1963. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press. Bourgois, Philippe. 1995. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. New York : Cambridge University Press. 2000. “Disciplining Addictions” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 24: 165–195. Bourgois, P, B. Prince, and A. Moss. 2004. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C in Among Young Women who Inject Drugs in San Francisco. Human Organization 63(3):253-264. Bourgois, P. and J. Schonberg. 2009. Righteous Dopefiend. Berkeley: University of California Press. Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse. 2003. “The Historical Trauma Response Among Natives and Its Relationship with Substance Abuse: a Lakota Illustration.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 35(1): 7-13. Campbell, Nancy D. and Susan J Shaw 2008. “Incitements to Discourse: Illicit Drugs, Harm Reduction, and the Production of Ethnographic Subjects” Cultural Anthropology 23(4): 688-717. Carlson, R. G. 1996. “The Political Economy of AIDS Among Drug Users in the United States: Beyond Blaming the Victim or Powerful Others.” Amer Anthropologist 98(2): 266-278. Carr, Summerson E. 2010. Scripting Addiction: The Politics of Therapeutic Talk and American Sobriety. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Dai, B. 1937. Opium Addiction in Chicago. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Fischer, Benedict, Sarah Turnbull, Blake Poland, and Emma Haydon. 2004. “Drug Use, Risk, and Urban Order: Examining Supervised Injection Sites (SIS) as ‘Governmentality’. International Journal of Drug Policy. 15(5-6):357-365.
Fitzgerald, J. 2005. Illegal drug markets in transitional economies. Addiction Research and Theory, 13(6), 563–577. Garcia, Angela. 2010. The Pastoral Clinic: Addiction and Dispossession along the Rio Grande. Berkeley: University of California Press. Glick-Schiller, Nina. 1992. “What’s Wrong with This Picture? The Hegemonic Construction of Culture in AIDS Research in the United States. Medical Anthropology 6(3): 237-254. Glasser, Irene. 2011. The Anthropology of Drug Use and Addiction. Waveland Press. Goode, E. 1994. Deviant Behavior. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall. Heyman, Gene. 2009. Addiction: A Disorder of Choice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hunt, G., and J. Barker. 1999 “Drug Treatment in Contemporary Anthropology and Sociology.” European Addict Research 5: 126-132. Lindesmith, A. R. 1968. Addiction and Opiates. Chicago: Aldine. MacAndrew, C, and R. Edgerton. 2003. Drunken Comportment: A social Explanation. Clinton Corners, NY: Percheron Press. Murney, Maureen. 2009. Mores of Addiction: Alcohol, Femininity, and Social Transformations in Western Ukraine. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Toronto. Page, J. Bryan and Merrill Singer. 2010. Comprehending Drug Use: Ethnographic Research at the Social Margins. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Peyrot, M. 1985. Coerced Voluntarism: The Micropolitics of Drug Treatment. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 13(4):343-365. Pilkington, Hilary.
Jennifer Carroll 2007a. Beyond “Peer Pressure”: Rethinking Drug Use and “Youth Culture”. International Journal of Drug Policy 18:(213-224). 2007b. In good company: Risk, security and choice in young people’s drug decisions. The Sociological Review, 55(2): 373-392. Raikhel, Eugene. 2010. Post-Soviet Placebos: Epistemology and Authority in Russian Treatments for Alcoholism. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, 34(1):132-168. Skoll, G. 1992. Walk the Walk and Talk the Talk: An Ethnography of a Drug Abuse Treatment Facility. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Singer, M., Valentín, F., Baer, H. & Jia, Z. 1992. “Why does Juan Garcia have a drinking problem: The perspective of critical medical anthropology”. Medical Anthropology 14(1):77–108. Spradley, James. 1968. You Owe Yourself A Drunk. University Press of America. Tsogia, D. Copello, A. Orford, J. 2001 Entering Treatment for Substance misuse: a review of the literature. Journal of Mental Health 10(5): 451-499. Zigon, Jarrett 2011. “HIV is God’s blessing”: Rehabilitating morality in neoliberal Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jennifer Carroll Meaning and Healing / Meaning in Healing This list, which I see positioned rather squarely between the fields of semiotics/symbolic interpretation and psychological anthropology, is grounded in questions of how people create, make sense of, and operationalize categories of objects, subjects, events, and experiences that they encounter. I have taken up these questions with a particular attention to how these practices of meaning-making relate to practices, knowledges, and lived moments of healing. To that end, this list addresses a few methodological quandaries that I anticipate in my research, in so far as addiction, wanting, altered states of consciousness, notions of the self, and structured knowledge and practice are central to the main focus of my inquiry. First, there is the question of what things mean and how they mean what they mean. Thus, this list includes classic texts from semioticians like deSaussure, Peirce, and Levi-Strauss. This list also speaks back to several items from other bibliographies by expanding upon or critiquing the methodologies used. I am referring particularly to pieces of anthropological research on substance use and addiction that are grounded in linguistic and cognitive anthropological paradigms and which privilege language, taxonomies, and cultural ‘lexemes’ in their ethnographic explorations such as E. Summerson Carr’s Scripting Addiction, James Spradley’s You Owe Yourself a Drunk, and Michael Agar’s Ripping and Running. Still more focus on the use of signs to accomplish strategic ends, such as Brian Dolan’s paper The Art of Evidence and Galina Lindquist’s Conjuring Hope (2008). More contemporary attempts to wrestle with and improve upon these older theories are also included here, such as discussions of embodiment (Csordas, MerlauPonty), enacted representation (Lindquist, Moerman), and the interaction of symbolic systems with both overt and culturally invisible systems of morality (Dolan, Scheper-Hughes, Zigon).
Csordas, Thomas. 2002. Embodiment as a Paradigm for Anthropology. in Body/Meaning/Healing. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 1994. The Sacred Self. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Ch 3: “Therapeutic Process and Experience” and Ch 4: “Embodied Imagery and Divine Revelation”) D’Andrade, Roy. 1992. Cognitive Anthropology, in New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Theodore Schwartz, Geoffrey White, and Catherine Lutz, eds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47-58. deSaussure, Ferdinand. 1965. Course in General Linguistics. McGraw-Hill. Dolan, Brian.
Jennifer Carroll 2007.The Art of Evidence. Unpublished Manuscript: University of California at San Francisco. Electronic Document. URL: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4963v0m4.pdf Foucault, Michel. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books. Good, Byron. 1992. Culture and Psychopathology: Directions for Psychiatric Anthropology. in in New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Theodore Schwartz, Geoffrey White, and Catherine Lutz, eds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 181-205. Keller, Janet Dixon. 1992. Schemes for Schemata, in New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Theodore Schwartz, Geoffrey White, and Catherine Lutz, eds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 59-67. Levi-Strauss, Claude. 1963. ”The Effectiveness of Symbols” in Structural Anthropology Vol 2. Basic Books 1966. The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lindquist, Galina 2006. Conjuring Hope: Healing and Magic in Contemporary Russia. New York: Berghahn Books. Lock, Margaret 1993. “Cultivating the Body: Anthropology and Epistemologies of Bodily Practice and Knowledge.” Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 22: 133-56 Locke, Rafael. G. (2011), The Future of a Discipline: Considering the Ontological/Methodological Future of the Anthropology of Consciousness, Part III. Anthropology of Consciousness 22(2): 106–135. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1962. Phemonenology of Perception. London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul. Moerman, Daniel 2002. Meaning, Medicine, and the “Placebo Effect” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Peirce, Charles S. 1991. Peirce on Signs: Writings on Semiotic by Charles Sanders Peirce. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Robbins, Joel. 2009. Value, Structure, and the Range of Possibilities: A Response to Zigon. Ethnos 74(2): 277-285. Sahlins, Marshall. 1978. “La Pensee Bourgeoise” in Culture and Practical Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Scheper-Hughes, Nancy. 1992. Hungry Bodies, Medicine, and the State: Toward a Critical Psychological Anthropology. in New Directions in Psychological Anthropology. Theodore Schwartz, Geoffrey White, and Catherine Lutz, eds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 221-250. Zigon, Jarrett. 2008. Morality: An Anthropological Perspective. New York: Berg Publishers. 2007. Moral Breakdown and Ethical Demand: A Theoretical Framework for the Anthropology of Moralities. Anthropological Theory 7(2): 131-150. 2009. Within a Range of Possibilities: Morality and Ethics in Social Life. Ethnos 74(2): 251-276. 2009. Phenomenological Anthropology and Morality: A Reply to Robbins Ethnos 74(2): 286-289. .
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