LET Reviewer

Child Growth and Development

Part I: Review Materials A. Basic Concepts of Growth and Development         Principle – a fundamental law or uniformity of nature. Theory – a public pronouncement that indicates what a scientist/theorist believes to be true about his/her specific area of investigation. Heredity (Nature) – the totality of characteristics, transmitted from parents to the offspring. Environment (Nurture) – the totality of any aspect of physical and social phenomena which surround or affect an individual or organism. Growth – the physical and physiological changes that occur throughout life. Development – the progressive and continuous change in the organism from birth to death. Maturation – developmental changes in the body or behavior that result from the aging process. Life Span – the life of an individual organism from birth to death.

B. Stages of Development Stage Zygotic Embryonic Fetal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old Age or Senescence Term Applied Zygote Embryo Fetus Partunate Neonate Infant Child Adolescent Adult Old Man/Woman Age Range Fertilization to 14 days 14 days to 60 days 60 days to birth Birth to cutting of the umbilical cord Birth to 30 days Birth to 3 years 2 years to 10 (12) - years Girls – 11 years to 21 years Boys – 13 years to 21 years 21 years to 65 years 65 years to death

C. Principles of Human Growth and Development  Development is influenced by both heredity and environment.  Development patterns show wide individual differences.  Growth is sequential.  Growth is continuous.  Development proceeds from general to specific.  Each phase of development has characteristic traits.  There is unity in growth patterns.  Growth is patterned.  Developmental rates vary.

Inferiority (6 – 12 years) o Identity vs. Mistrust (birth to one year) o Autonomy vs. Psychoanalytic theorists make us aware that early experiences and unconscious emotional conflict can have a dramatic effect in developing personality. Learning Theory – is concerned mainly with the process of development itself. Despair (old age to death) 3. Role Confusion (12 – 40 years) o Intimacy vs.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development  The body tends to maintain a state of equilibrium called homeostasis. Theories of Human Development 1.  According to the theory every individual progress through a series of eight psychosocial stages: o Trust vs.  The basic premises of Watson’s Behaviorist/Learning theory are: o The mind of an infant is a blank slate (tabula rasa) and that learned associations between stimuli and responses are the building blocks of human development. Learning theorist have helped us to understand how children are influenced by their environment and how interactions between person and environment leads to the development of stable habits. or habits. the child’s personalities consists only of these instinctual forces (id).  Originated from the work of Erik Erikson. talents. talents and peculiarities. which gradually diverted into a system of rational thought (ego). o Development does not proceed through a series of stages. D. Shame and Doubt (1 – 3 years) o Initiative vs. . including traits. o It is a continuous process marked by the gradual acquisition of new and more sophisticated behavioral patterns. and an irrational but ethical component of personality (superego). Isolation (20 – 40 years) o Genrativity vs.  Also called behaviorism and is base on the studies of John B. and aspirations are learned. Guilt (3 – 6 years) o Industry vs. and o He believed that only the simplest of human reflexes are inborn and that important behavioral tendencies. Watson. Stagnation (40 – 65 years) o Ego Integrity vs.  At birth.  Stages of development according to the psychoanalytic theory: o Oral stage (birth to one year) o Anal stage (one to three years) o Phallic stage (three to six years) o Latency stage (six to twelve years) o Genital stage (12 years onward) 2.  Originated from the work of Sigmund Freud. Psychosocial Theory – extends Freud’s theory by concentrating less on the sex instinct and more on importance on sociocultural determinants of human development. Psychoanalytic Theory – focus on social and emotional development. values. traits.

Ethology – agree. who inherit various mannerism.  They view children as constructivist. but which he can accomplish with the assistance or support of an adult or older peer.  The According to Vygotsky the child acquires new skills and information within the zone of proximal development (ZPD). causation and development.  This theoretical approach arose from the efforts of several European zoologists who argued that other theorists had overlooked or ignored important biological contributions to human and animal behavior.  Ethology is the study of biological bases of behavior. Moral Development Theory –the moral development view point as originated by Piaget and expanded by Kohlberg which is composed of 3 levels and 2 stages under each.  One interesting ethological idea is that infants are sociable creature who are quite capable of promoting and maintaining social encounters from the day they are born. behaviors and motives that help to steer them along particular developmental paths.  Kohlberg developed 3 levels and 6 stages of moral reasoning: o Level One – Preconventional Morality (birth to 9 years)  Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation (toddler to 4 years)  Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation (Pre-school to school age or 5 to 9 years) o Level Two – Conventional Morality (9 to 20 years)  Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation  Stage 4: law and Order Orientation o Level Three – Postconventional Morality (after age 20)  Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation  Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation . in part. but they would also emphasize that human beings are biological creature.  Lawrence Kohlberg expanded Piaget’s studies of moral development by making moral dilemmas that could be appropriate for other children. including its evolution.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development 4. 7. the level at which a child finds a task too difficult to complete alone.  Originated from Lev Semanovich Vygotsky who highly stressed the importance of the social environment to development. Sociohistoric Theory – states that social interaction is the way in which children develop increasingly more complex thinking. Cognitive Theory – concentrate on the intellectual aspects of human development. 6.  Major contributor is Jean Piaget  States that children are neither driven by undesirable instinct nor molded by environmental influences.  Piaget divided intellectual development into four major periods: o Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) o Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years) o Operational stage (7 years and beyond) which is divided into the concrete operation stage (7 to 11 years) and the formal operational stage (11 years and beyond) 5. with each of these arguments.

 The principle of readiness is related to the learner’s stage development and their previous learning. F. Behaviorist Learning Theories a.  Learning is aided by formulating and asking questions. Involves relatively permanent change which is the result of experience or practice.  Law of Exercise – similar to the law of use and disuse. This emphasizes that continual practice results to strength and disuse results to weakness.  Meaningful materials are readily learned than nonsense materials. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning  The term classical means “in the established manner”  In this process.  This theory covers the three major Laws of Learning:  Law of Readiness – states that individuals will learn more effectively and rapidly if they are ready or have matured to that point and if there is a felt need.  Learning under the control reward is preferable to punishment.  Teachers should provide opportunities for meaningful and appropriate practice (rehearsal).  The student’s self-concept and beliefs about their abilities are extremely important.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development E.  Positive feedback.  Learning should be goal-oriented and focused.  The amount of reinforcement necessary for learning is relative to the student’s needs and abilities.  The features of classical conditioning are:  Stimulus Generalization  Discrimination  Extinction b. Learning   Learning is a change in behavior resulting from the interaction of the organism with its environment. Thorndike’s Connectionism  Proposed by Edward Lee Thorndike. realistic praise and encouragement are motivating in the teaching-learning process. . Different Principles of Learning and their Application in Classroom Situation  Learning by doing is more effective than just by sitting and listening. a new stimulus – previously a neutral one – is substituted for the stimulus which originally elicited the response. Learning Theories 1.  Effort is put forth when tasks are challenging.  Concepts should be presented in varied and specified situation.

c. (2) retention.  Learning is seen as a cognitive process that involves 3 simultaneous processes: (1) acquisition. (2) transformation and (3) evaluation.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development  Law of Effect – maintains that an individual will be more likely to repeat satisfying experiences that those that are annoying.  The processes in observational learning are: (1) attention. 2. logically organized material is presented in final form and the learner relates it to his existing knowledge. Skinner’s Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning  Developed as explanation of learning that stressed the consequences of behavior. d. 5.  According to Burrhus Frederick Skinner behavior is a casual chain of three links. Field Theory (Lewin) 2.  The second dimension relates to the two ways by which the learner may incorporate new information into his existing cognitive structure: o Meaningful Discovery Learning o Rote Discovery Learning 4. (1) an operation preformed upon the organism from without. o Rote Reception Learning – material of any kind is presented in final form and is memorized.  Gagne enumerated 8 levels of learning:  Signal Learning  Stimulus-response Learning . (3) motor reproduction processes and (4) motivational processes. Meaningful Learning Theory (Ausubel)  Two dimensions of learning process are fundamental in this theory:  The first dimensions relates to the two ways by which k knowledge to be learned is made available to the learner: o Meaningful Reception Learning – new. Problem Solving by Insight (Kohler) 3. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning  According to the observational learning or social learning theory learning takes place when one person observes and then imitates the behavior of others. Bruner’s Theory of Instruction  This theory focused on the problem of what people do with information to achieve generalized insights or understanding. and (3) a kind of behavior. where there is a progression from developing simple stimulus-response associations to concepts and principles and problem-solving. Cognitive Learning Process 1. (2) some inner condition. Gagne’s Cumulative Learning  Learning skills are hierarchically arranged.

LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development       Chaining Verbal Association Discrimination Learning Concept Learning Principle Learning Problem solving .

This demonstrate the concept of A. maturation B. learning D. Difference in nurture B. development C. an elementary teacher believes that both heredity and environment facilitate the total development of an individual. B. As we grow older. D.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development Part II: Practice Test Read and understand each question and encircle the letter of the best answer. Development follows a pattern. there were differences in their academic performance. A. development 4. Cruz’s class. The relatively permanent change in the behavior of an individual comes as a result of practice and experience is known as A. 6. Difference in nature C. maturation B. the doctor observed quantitative increase in terms of height and weight. 1. maturation B. What explains this difference? A. development 3. growth D. development 2. After a month of lesson in computer. Mrs. A is likely to support which of the following principles of development. maturation B. difference in intelligence . Mrs. growth C. Development proceeds from general to specific. Development follows a pattern. This changes is attributed to the concept called A. 7. learning D. After 3 years. C. learning 5. Carlos can already demonstrate his skills to his classmate. D. B. The newborn infant moves his whole body at one time. During a physical examination conducted by the school physician in Mrs. Development is an interaction between heredity and environment. we observe changes in ourselves such as aging. Identical twins were orphaned and were raised separately by their relatives who belong to different socio-economic status. A. instead of moving any part of it. growth C. Difference in heredity D. Therefore. C. Which of the following principles is illustrated? A. Development proceeds from specific to general. Development proceeds from general to specific. Development is predictable. Development is predictable. Which term refers to the development changes in the individual? A. growth C. learning D.

D. Who stressed that social interaction develops thinking? A. What does this imply? A. Development is influenced by both heredity and environment. B. D. Operant conditioning D. attention 11. Encourages initiative among students. operant conditioning D. 16. Demonstrates a psychomotor skill. Models how to collect and distribute materials properly. Encourages industry among students. sensorimotor C. Which element of observational learning is demonstrated? A. 9. Lily. In Erickson’s psychosocial theory. Generally. Piaget . Development follows a pattern. Watson D. 12. C. This stages is called A. Operant conditioning 10. Children are likely to experience some kind of psychosocial crisis as they go from one stage of development to the next stage. Use pictures instead of numbers. Association theory B. children crawl. Sigmund Freud B. Development is sequential. sit and stand before they walk. A child during the sensorimotor stage does not see things in abstract forms. Development is continuous. a Grade 4 pupil. Associative learning D. Jean Piaget C. An infant explores the world using his senses and motor activity. retention B. An English teacher pointed out to the students’ specific elements in making well written paragraphs. B. concrete operational B.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development 8. Use flashcards. Erik Erickson D. learns a lot from the experience shared by her classmates and teachers. Use real objects. A Grade 5 Science teacher delegates tasks like collecting and distributing materials to her students most of time. Vygotsky B. C. Observational learning C. Use interactive videos. Edward Thorndike 15. Whose view is this? A. Cumulative learning C. Which of the following theories can be effective and efficient means of teaching new behavior? A. What should the teacher do in teaching counting to young children? A. C. what is exemplified by the teacher? A. Freud C. Which of the following pertains to strengthening a behavior presenting a desired response after the behavior? A. formal operational 13. D. B. motivation C. Classical conditioning B. production D. Drive theory 14.

Kohlberg’s theory 22. Operant conditioning B. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory was her action? A. Classical conditioning C. 24. Cheating is persistent problem in classroom. Which of the following is BEST suited to them? A. Tina. Universal ethical principle orientation 20. Nature and nurture development C. Sequential development B. In this situation. Despite what she saw. C. Social learning C. walks or gestures may have learned from models he/she had exposed to. Which principle best describe the situation? A. Law and order orientation B. Which theory is illustrated? A. Freud’s theory C. B. preconventional C. The teacher did not allow him to play basketball after the class. Cognitive learning B. Let them do the things they like to do.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development 17. Which of the following principles is applied in this situation? A. The way the child talks. conventional D. Lani is wondering why at age 14 she has not menstruated yet while her friend Ana experienced menarche at age 12. while taking her final examination noticed that many of her classmates were cheating. D. Social learning 19. Moral development 21. she did not cheat. Besides. Social contract orientation C. Mara comes to school on time because it is one of the school’s rules and regulations. . It is a fact that very young children have short span of attention. Development is predictable. postconventional B. a freshman student. Universal 23. Piaget’s theory D. Development is continuous. Most young children love large objects and simple activities and gradually work up to more intricate toys and specific tasks. General to specific development 18. Meaningful learning D. Mrs. Which theory best describe this strategy? A. which level of Kohlberg’s morality does Mara belong? A. she does not like to disturb their class by coming late. Development patterns show wide individual differences. What learning theory explains this? A. Continuous development D. C matches her instructional strategies and techniques to her students’ abilities to foster students’ cognitive development. Good-boy/Nice-girl orientation D. Erickson’s theory B. Developmental rates vary. Meaningful learning D. Carl did not finish his activity sheet.

B’s advice? A. 30. What characteristics of adolescence did Tina exhibit in this case? A. big crayons and big brushes for their children. D. B. C. D. What must she provide? A. then they are considered to be in what period of Piaget’s intellectual development? A. . Meaningful learning C. but they still require specific examples to grasp many ideas. Adolescents know that their parents will forgive them even if they commit mistakes. Sonia is a transferee and feels uneasy with her new school. Preparing the students for tests. 27. B. C. warm and caring. Group them according to their needs and interests. Which Justifies Mrs. A teacher wants to increase the ability of her students to solve more complex problems. Being inconsistent in enforcing policies regarding cheating. she will be an outcast in the group. Prepare interesting and different activities but for short period of time. sensorimotor stage C. a Grade 1 teacher tells the parents to buy big pencils. Giving difficult and tricky questions. Her teacher is very accommodating. Ask them to do a long activity but with intervals. Adolescents do not mind other people as long as they are happy. Mrs. Formal operations 28. Sonia felt comfortable with her teacher’s display of genuine warmth. Using bigger writing materials is already a tradition. Adolescents give priority to the demands of their peers than to their parents. Operant conditioning D. Which theory is being illustrated in this case? A. projects and assignments so they can do reasonably well. Increase practice with simple problems. Most of the students will cheat if the pressure to perform well is great and the chances of being caught are slim. Adolescents are care-free and happy-go-lucky individuals. D. If Tina did not join their outing. B. 25. She joined the outing of her friends which the mother thought dangerous. The teacher is consistent in her manner and Sonia began to associate school with the teacher’s warmth. C. Pupil’s fine muscles have not yet fully developed. Preoperational stage D. Pupils perform better with bigger writing materials. How can teachers prevent cheating? A. Concrete operations B.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development B. Big writing equipment are durable than small one. When children are no longer fooled by appearances in understanding basic properties and relations among objects. B. 26. Classical conditioning B. Observational conditioning 29. Putting students in high-pressure situations. D. C. B. when they begin to use generalizations. Correct answers all the time. Tina’s mother got angry with her because she disobeyed her.

A is a Grade 5 adviser. Ms. According to Piaget. C. An adolescent who as developed formal operational thinking solves the pendulum problem by A. A general conclusion about argumentativeness in adolescence is that A. Threaten the students to win confidence. When the students display aggressive behavior in the class. followed by random testing of variables. Josie A. 32. Explain the reason for studying a topic. Provide clear and prompt feedback on assignments. must be five years older. is demonstrating the principle of observation. Ignore the students. D. B. D. has the ability to focus on several dimensions of a problem. D. 36. guessing B. 31. centering on the most likely variable and testing it randomly. you still have the same amount of pie. Emphasize individual responsibility and the practical nature of rules designed to protect the rights of others. D. C. Josie has come to understand that when you cut a piece of pie in half. Which is an application of cognitive approach to motivation? A. C. Adolescents from different ethnic group 37. 33. 35. envisioning all possible factors and testing each systematically. Send the students out of the classroom. C. Problems match appropriately to students’ level of thinking. Discourage topics like honesty and respect for others in the classroom. B. D. Create a supportive classroom climate for students.LET Reviewer Child Growth and Development C. 34. Begin lessons with challenging questions and conflicting events. Accept misbehaviors/wrongdoings of pupils because they are still immature. what should the teacher do? A. C. Reduce stimulation so as to increase attention to the task. Recently. B. Model non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. How can she promote moral development in her classroom? A. B. will understand these pieces of pie and nothing else. D. . developing a hypothesis. Disregard the powerful influence as a role model as she interacts with students.