LABORATORY 2

STRUCTURE AND IDENTIFICATION OF CELLULOSIC MATERIALS
( BCT 441 ) -AS2322A TITLE : Structure and Identification of Cellulosic Materials

NAME Nurul Hidayah Binti Yaacob Nabihah Binti Abdullah Amalina Binti Abdul Kudus Siti Sakila Binti Rosmi

ID NUMBER 2011427498 2011839002 2011681848 2011429118

h) Common names : A name in general use within a community. It is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism. g) Scientific names : A formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts. d) Angiosperm : A group of seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies e) Gymnosperm : A group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers. although they can be based on words from other languages. and arranging them into classification. . c) Hardwood : Wood from angiosperm trees. Malaysian Oak (Rubberwood) and Damar Minyak species.Laboratory 1 : Classification. naming and commercial importance of wood and to teach students to understand clearly the true surfaces of wood namely the transverse (cross section). Cellulosic Materials : Select Chengal. Trees which tend to be evergreen. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. Naming and Commercial Importance of Malaysian Hardwood. It is derived from broad-leaves trees which bear seeds in the seed covers. Task : 1.Define the following terms. Purpose : To introduce the basic concepts of classification. b) Softwood : Wood from trees that are known as gymnosperms. i) Trade names : A closely allied species are grouped and marketed under a single trade name. It is derived from a small number of cone-bearing species. Petaling. both of which use Latin grammatical forms. cycads. radial and tangential. a) Taxonomy : The science of identifying and naming species. f) Species : One of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

Colour : Each wood has a characteristic colour of its own. Desribe the difference between “physical” and “anatomical” characteristics of wood. Grain : The alignment of the longitudinal elements. particularly fibres. What characteristics of wood are „physical‟ characteristics? I. Weight or density : Density of wood is defined as the mass per unit volume. relative to the axis of the log. VII. and this helps identification to some extent. Figure : The attractive designs in wood produced by the arrangement of the elements or by uneven colouring. IV.2. II. Texture : The quality of wood which is determined by the relative sizes of the basic structural elements and their arrangement. VI. nailing and abrasion. shaping. Anatomical Type of cells Size of cells Shape of cells Arrangement of cells Types of wood Physical Texture of timbers Figure of the wood Arrangement of the pores 3. . Odour : A smell characteristic of a few wood like Keruing. V. Kapur and Kulim. Hardness : Degree of resistance of wood to cutting. III.

. -hard to cut across grain. Rubberwood: -sapwood not differentiated from heartwood by colour. -tangential surfaces may have zig-zag markings produced by the presence of wood parenchyma. Record the physical characteristics of Chengal. sometimes having a pinkish tinge.4. -often with vague stripe figure. Malaysian Oak (Rubberwood) and Damar Minyak. -texture ranges from moderately coarse and even. -wood is white or pale cream in colour. -not durable in contact with the ground or in exposed conditions. -texture moderately fine and even. weathering -to a light straw or light brown colour. Chengal: -sapwood well defined. -grain ranges from straight to shallowly interlocked. -weathering to dark tan-brown. . -grain interlocked. -colour of heartwood yellow-green when freshly cut. Petaling. -planed surface lustrous. -air dry density ranges from 560 to 640 kg/ . -air dry density ranging from over 915 to 980 kg/ -very durable even under adverse conditions. -planed surface not particularly lustrous.

-texture fine and even. Petaling: -colour : brownish red -density : 800-1105 kg/ -figure : vague stripe -texture : moderately fine . -wood light-yellow or straw-coloured. weathering to a gold-brown or light pink-brown. -soft to cut across grain. -without odour. -planed surface fairly lustrous. -grain generally straight. -tangential faces generally with growth ring figure. -air dry density about 464 kg/ -not durable. -occasionally with a darker-coloured core which is distinct from the outer layers.Damar minyak: -sapwood not differentiated from heartwood by colour. -not resinous. often with a pink tinge.

5. Construct the charts for Chengal. Chengal : Kingdom: Plantae Division (or phylum): Tracheophyta Subdivision (or class): Magnoliopsida Order: Theales Family: Dipterocarpaceae Genus: Monotypic Species: Neobalanocarpus heimii Rubberwood : Kingdom: Plantae Division (or phylum): Spermatophyta Subdivision (or class): Angiospermae Order: Broadly Family: Euphorbiaceae Genus: Hevea Species: Hevea brasiliensis Damar minyak: Kingdom: Plantae Division (or phylum): Spermatophyta Subdivision (or class): Gymnospermae Order: Coniferales Family: Coniferae Genus: Agathis Species: Agathis borneensis . Malaysian Oak (Rubberwood) and Damar Minyak. Petaling.

a) Pholem A tissue in a vascular palant that function primarily in transporting organic food material (e. 8. b) Cambium A meristematic plant tissue. Define each term in question. forming xylem on one side and phloem on the other or in cor. 7. sucrose) from the photosynthetic organ (leaf) to all the part of the plant.g. Located either in vascular tissue (vascular cambium). which enables the finest details of the cells to be studied at an ultramicroscopic magnification of several thousands. Microscopic anatomy : fundamental importance in the understanding of woods. commonly present as a thin layer which form new cells on both sides. The difference between gross and microscopic anatomy: Gross anatomy: study of the parts and structures of a wood visible to the naked eyes. . Cross-section of the tree disk.Petaling : Kingdom: Plantae Division (or phylum) : Spermatophyta Subdivision (or class) : Angiospermae Order : Broadly Family : Olacaceae Genus : Ochanostachys Species : Ochanostachys Amentacea 6. and has advanced with the introduction of electron microscopy.

and is primarily involved in transporting water and nutrient (from the roots to the shoot and leaves) and providing structural support. I ) Root A part of the body of a plant that develops. more resistant to decay. h) Sapwood The newly formed outer wood located just inside vascular cambium of a tree trunk and active in the production of water. shrubs.c) Xylem A type of vascular tissue in terrestrial plants composed of tracheary element. tracheids and wood vessels and of additional xylem fibers. for each layers formed in each growing ring show one year growth. generally darker and harder than the outer wood. A slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant organ . from the radical and grows downward into the soil. e) Growth rings A growth layer in sencondary xylem seen in a cross section. when the cross section of a woody cylinder is viewed. d) Barks The tough outer covering of the woody stems and roots of trees. anchoring the plant and absorbing nutriment and water. Sapwood is usually lighter in colour than heartwood. Xylem located in the primary component of wood in plant. and other woody plants. It includes all tissue all tissues outside the vascular cambium. typically. f)Heartwood The central wood in a branch or stem characterized by being composed of dead cells.The cambium cell continues to multiply and expand producing a layer of new wood between the previously formed wood and the bark. developed from the plumule of the embryo and typically bearing leaves. j) Stem The main stem or a branch of the main axial system of a plant.

it is Chengal has growth rings? What is the differences between the physical characteristics of the Rubberwood Damar Minyak in term of the grain? / . moulding. what is the principal use of hardwood lumber? The principal use of hardwood lumber is for remanufacture into furniture. and pallets or direct use as flooring. i. Most plant do best with their crowns planted at soil level so that they don‟t rot. 9. Write down one or two question that you may have concerning the material covered in this lab. 11. paneling. what is principal use of softwood lumber? The principal use of softwood lumber is for decorative plywood and paneling. According to the Wood Handbook. ii. and From the physical characteristics of the Chengal. and millwork. According to the Wood Handbook. 10. cabinetwork.k) Crown The crown of a plant is the area where the stems meet the roots.

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