# DHIRAJLAL GANDHI COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS EC2151 -- ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTRON DEVICES

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SYLLABUS

EC2151- ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTRON DEVICES (For ECE, CSE, IT and Biomedical Engg. Branches) UNIT I CIRCUIT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 12 Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws – series and parallel connection of independent sources – R, L and C – Network Theorems – Thevenin, Superposition, Norton, Maximum power transfer and duality – Star-delta conversion. UNIT II TRANSIENT RESONANCE IN RLC CIRCUITS 12 Basic RL, RC and RLC circuits and their responses to pulse and sinusoidal inputs – frequency response – Parallel and series resonances – Q factor – single tuned and double tuned circuits. UNIT III SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES 12 Review of intrinsic & extrinsic semiconductors – Theory of PN junction diode – Energy band structure – current equation – space charge and diffusion capacitances – effect of temperature and breakdown mechanism – Zener diode and its characteristics. UNIT IV TRANSISTORS 12 Principle of operation of PNP and NPN transistors – study of CE, CB and CC configurations and comparison of their characteristics – Breakdown in transistors – operation and comparison of N-Channel and P-Channel JFET – drain current equation – MOSFET – Enhancement and depletion types – structure and operation – comparison of BJT with MOSFET – thermal effect on MOSFET. SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES (Qualitative Treatment only) 12 Tunnel diodes – PIN diode, varactor diode – SCR characteristics and two transistor equivalent model – UJT – Diac and Triac – Laser, CCD, Photodiode, Phototransistor, Photoconductive and Photovoltaic cells – LED, LCD. TOTAL: 60 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS: 1. Joseph A. Edminister, Mahmood, Nahri, “Electric Circuits” – Shaum series,Tata McGraw Hill, (2001) 2. S. Salivahanan, N. Suresh kumar and A. Vallavanraj, “Electronic Devices and Circuits”,Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, (2008). 3. David A. Bell, “Electronic Devices and Circuits”, Oxford University Press, 5th Edition, (2008). REFERENCES: UNIT V

**1. Robert T. Paynter, “Introducing Electronics Devices and Circuits”, Pearson Education, 7 th Education,
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(2006).

**2. William H. Hayt, J.V. Jack, E. Kemmebly and steven M. Durbin, “Engineering Circuit Analysis”,Tata
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McGraw Hill, 6th Edition, 2002. 3. J. Millman & Halkins, Satyebranta Jit, “Electronic Devices & Circuits”,Tata McGraw Hill, 2 nd Edition, 2008.

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Example: Resistor. A loop is any closed path of branches. Transistors. It is represented by V OR v. The unit of current is the ampere.
4. The unit of voltage is volt. (W). Power = work done in electric circuit/Time P = dw/dt = dw/dq.
8.
. Current (I) = Q/t. What is charge? The charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which matter consists.
5.
3. Define unilateral and bilateral elements.dq/dt P = VI What is network? Interconnection of two or more simple circuit elements is called an electric network. Where Q is total charge transferred & T is time required for transfer of charge. Example: Diode. current source.
9. All meshed are loops. The unit of charge is the coulomb. A part of the network which connects the various points of the network with one another is called a branch. What is voltage? The potential difference between two points in an electric circuit called voltage. voltage – current relation is same for both the direction. The rate of doing work of electrical energy or energy supplied per unit time is called the power. Voltage = W/Q = workdone/Charge Define power. The sources of energy are called active element. In unilateral element. But all loops are not meshes. The element which stores or dissipates energy is called passive element. Inductor. voltage – current relation is not same for both the direction. It is measured in Watts. Define active and passive elements.UNIT – I ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTRON DEVICES 1. Distinguish between a branch and a node of a circuit. Capacitor. 6. Define current? The flow of free electrons in a metal is called electric current. The power denoted by either P of p. In bilateral element. Distinguish between a mesh and a Loop of a circuit. Example: voltage source. Example: Resistor 3
2. A mesh is a loop that does not contain other loops. A point at which two or more elements are jointed together is called node.
7.

16. How are the electrical energy sources classified? The electrical energy sources are classified into: 1. Example : Resistor. Inductor. The voltage generated by the source does not vary with any circuit quantity. Ideal current source. It is only a function of time.
Define linear and non-linear elements. Define an ideal current source. Such a source is called an ideal voltage source. If the element obeys superposition principle. Example: Transistor. Capacitor. R = PL / A Ω
11.
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17. The resistance of element is denoted by the symbol “R”. capacitance and inductance.
15. Such a source is called as an ideal current source. Physically separable elements are called Lumped element. Ideal voltage source 2. voltage and current are independent and are not affected by other part of the circuit.
18. If the given network is not obeying superposition principle then it is said to be non linear elements. Current Controlled Voltage Sources (CCVS) 3.
12. Diode. What are the different types of dependent or controlled sources? 1. Voltage Controlled Voltage Sources (VCVS) 2. It is measured in Ohms. Voltage Controlled Current Sources (VCCS) 4. Define Lumped and distributed elements. Example: Resistor.10.
14. A distributed element is one which is not separable for electrical purpose.
13. What are independent source? Independent sources are those in which. The current generated by the source does not vary with any circuit quantity. then it is said to be linear elements. but is dependent on the voltage or current existing at some other location in the circuit. What are dependent sources? Dependent sources are those in which source voltage or current is not fixed. It is only a function of time. Current Controlled Current Sources (CCCS) What is resistance? It is the property of a substance which opposes the flow of current through it. Example : Transmission line has distributor resistance. Define an ideal voltage source.

The ratio of RMS value to the average value is called the Form factor. Peak factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum value to the rms value.
22. RMS = (Area under hatched line) ² ______________________ Period
21.19. Circuit Element Resistance Inductance Capacitance Voltage Current Power
V = iR V = L di /dt V = 1/c ∫ idt
i=V/R i = 1/L ∫ vdt i = C dv / dt
P = vi P = Li di / dt P = CV dv / dt
20.s value may be determined by taking the mean of the squares of the instantaneous value of current over one complete cycle. The average value of the sine wave is the total area under the half-cycle curve divided by the distance of the curve.
What is average value? It is defined as area under one complete cycle to period.M. The r.
Define peak factor. Maximum value Peak Factor (Kp) = ________________ RMS value
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.m. value. Area under one complete cycle Average value = _____________________________ Period Define R.
Define form factor. RMS value Form factor (Kf) = ______________ Average Value
23.S.
Write down the V-I relationship of circuit elements.

Define Kirchoff’s current law.
Define Ohm’s law. Kirchhoff’s current law states that in a node.
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28. Two resistances with equal value of “R” are connected in series and parallel. ∑I at junction point = 0 Define Kirchoff’s voltage law.
29.
Write down the formula for a star connected network is converted into a delta network? R R +R R +R R A B B C C A R = ____________________________ AB R C R R +R R +R R 6
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27. What is the equivalent resistance? Resistance in series R eq = R1+R2 R1R2 __________ R1+R2 Two inductors with equal value of “L” are connected in series and parallel what is the equivalent inductance? Resistance in parallel R eq = Inductance in series Inductance in parallel L eq = L1 + L2 L1L2 L eq = _______ L1+L2
25. What is the equivalent capacitance? Capacitance in series Capacitance in parallel C1C2 C eq = ____________ C1+C2 C eq = C1 + C2
30. The current flowing through the electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference across the circuit and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit.
Two capacitors with equal value of “C” are connected in series and parallel. Around a closed path ∑ V = 0. sum of entering current is equal sum of leaving current. provided the temperature remains constant. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed path is zero.

The response of the sinusoidal input for second order system is sinusoidal. 6. Easy for analyses. 5. More useful in power industry. 2.A B B C C A R = ____________________________ BC R A R R +R R +R R A B B C C A R = ____________________________ CA R B 31.
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. Easy to generate. The wave form can be written in terms of sinusoidal function according to fourier theorem. 4. Write down the formula for a delta connected network is converted into a star network? R * R AB CA R = ____________________________ AB R +R + R AB BC CA R * R AB BC = _____________________________ ∑R AB R * R BC CA = _____________________________ ∑R AB Where ∑ R 32. = AB R + AB R + BC R CA
R B
R B
Write few advantages of sinusoid waveform? 1. The derivatives and integral also sinusoidal. 3.

39. 1 T V = ___ ∫ V (t) dt av T 0 Define effective value or RMS value of a sinusoidal voltage.θ known phasor. It is denoted by φ. Graphical representation of phasors V = Vm <φ and I=I < .S value may be determined by taking the mean of the squares of the Instantaneous value of current over one complete cycle. 34. The R. 35. 40. 2π Time period (T) = _________ W The number of cycle that a alternating quantity completed per second is known as frequency. One complete set of positive and negative instantaneous values of the voltage or current is called cycle. The peak to peak value of a sinusoidal alternating voltage is equal to two times the peak value.
Distinguish between a cycle. The sum of positive and negative value is called a peak to peak value.
. 8 37.33. Define phasor.
The time taken by an alternating quantity to complete one cycle is called time period (T). Define phase angle.M. It is measured in HZ. 36. This is often known as the effective value. 1 Frequency (f) = ________ T What is instantaneous value? The value of an alternating current. What is average value? The average value of the sine wave is the total area under the half-cycle curve divided by the distance of the curve. What is impedance? The ratio of the phasor voltage to the phasor current is called impedance. The angle between voltage and current is called phase angle. What are peak value and peak to peak value? The peak value of the sine wave during positive or negative half only. at any particular moment is called its instantaneous value. V = ____________ rms √ 1/T T 2 ∫ [V (t) dt 0 38. time periods and frequency.

1 2 = j ____________ X + X 1 2
Define admittance. It is denoted as Y and it is measured in Siemens (S). V Impedance (Z) = ____ I Obtain the equivalent impedance and reactances for series and parallel connections. The reciprocal of impedance is called admittance. Y Y 1 2 ____________ Y Y 1 2 Y 1 Y 2
Admittance in series Y eq Admittance in parallel Y Eq
=
=
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.It is denoted as Z and it is measured in Ohms. Impedance in series Z eq Impedance in parallel = Z+Z 1 2 = Z Z 1 2 _________ Z1 + Z2 X) 2 X
41.
Z eq
Reactances in series j X
= j (X + eq 1 X
Reactances in parallel j X eq 41.
Obtain the equivalent admittance for series and parallel connections. Admittance (Y) = 1 1 ___ = ___ Z V
42.

I (t)
What is average power? The average of the instantaneous power over one period is called average power. What is apparent power? The product of V and I rms rms Apparent power (S) = is known as the apparent power (s).
Obtain the equivalent conductance and susceptance for series and parallel connections. Conductance in series G eq G Eq = G G 1 2 _________ G + G 1 2 G + 1 B B 1 2 __________ G + G 1 2 j(B 1 = B) 2
Conductance in parallel
=
G 2
Susceptance in series
jB eq
=
Susceptance in parallel 44.43. P (t) = v(t) . 45. V Eff I eff VA
46. 47.
Define power factor.
48. The phasor diagram is a name given to a sketch in the complex plane showing the relationships of the phasor voltages and phasor currents throughout a specific circuit. The ratio of the average power to the apparent power is called the power factor. Average power is also defined as the product of voltage and current.
jB eq
Define phasor diagram. Power Factor = Average power _________________ Apparent Power
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. What is instantaneous power? The power at any instant of time is known as instantaneous power.

On which law is the nodal analysis based? Nodal analysis is based on Kirchoff’s current law and Ohm’s law. Nodal analysis is applicable if the given network contains current sources. 54. Q = V I sin φ VAR Eff eff 52 What is the equation for determining the number of independent loops in mesh current method? L = b-n +1 Where L = number of loops B = number of branches N = number of nodes.
What is power triangle ? A commonly employed graphical representation of complex power is known as the power triangle. Mesh analysis is applicable if the given network contains voltage sources. It is also called as imaginary component of the apparent power. 53. S = 1 ___ 2 vi*
What is reactive power? It is defined as product of the applied voltage and the reactive component of the current.
What is mesh analysis? Mesh analysis is one of the basic techniques used for finding current flowing through the loop in a network. What is nodal analysis? Nodal analysis is one of the basic techniques used to finding solution for voltage drop across the nodes in a given circuit.49. If there exists voltage sources in the given circuit.ampere reactive (VAR). then it can to be converted into equivalent current sources.
The product of the rms voltage phasor and the complex conjugate of the rms current phasor is known as complex power. Define complex power
50. It is represented by “Q” and it is measured in unit volt. It is denoted as S and it is measured in volt-amperes (VA) The complex power is 51. On which law is the mesh analysis based? Mesh analysis is based on Kirchoff’s voltage law. then it is slightly difficult to apply mesh 55.
. then it should be converted into equivalent voltage sources. If the branches in the network has a current source. 56.
52. analysis. 11 When do we go for supermesh analysis. If therer exist current sources in a circuit.

bilateral). we have to choose super node. 62. A supernode is constituted by two adjacent node that have common voltage source. then it is slightly difficult to apply nodal analysis. State superposition theorem. is energeied by two or more sources. 58. 57. bilateral) with short circuited terminals can be reduced by a simple circuit consisting of a single current source in parallel with a Thevenin’s equivalent resistance. Any electric circuit (linear. In this case we have to choose supermesh. duality. lumped. State Thevenin’s Theorem. the response in any element in the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses caused by individual sources acting separately. State Maximum power transfer theorem. Define duality. Any electrical network (linear. When do we. bilateral. 60. A complex network having linear.One way to over come this difficulty is by applying the supermesh technique. One way to overcome this difficulty is by applying the supernode technique. Power transferred from source to load will be maximum. A supermesh is constituted by two adjacent loops that have common current source. 59. go for supernode analysis. In this case. lumped. Two electrical network which are governed by the same type of equations are called 61.
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. lumped elements with open circuited output terminals can be reduced by a simple circuit consisting of a single voltage source in series with a impedance.
If the branches in the network has a voltage source. State Norton’s theorem. when source resistance is equal to load resistance looking back from its load terminals.

What is transient time? The time taken for the circuit to change from one steady state to another steady state is called transient time. 3. The time taken to reach 63.
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.j∞ st F (s) e ds
6. it is called natural response.UNIT – II TRANSIENT RESONANCE IN RLC CIRCUITS What is transient state? If a network contains energy storage elements. What is natural response? If we consider a circuit containing storage elements which are independent of sources. hence the response changes with time. Where S A complex frequency given by S = σ + jw ∞ -st F (S) = L [F (T) ] = ∫ F (t) e dt 0 4.e. Time constant (t) = L/R Define time constant of RC Circuit. 2. The laplace transform of any time dependent functionf (t) is given by F (s). -1 L 7. from s domain to time domain.8% of initial current in an RC circuit is called the time constant of RC circuit. What is transient response? The storage elements deliver their energy to the resistances. The behaviour of the voltage or current when it is changed from one state to another state is called transient state. Define Laplace transform function. 1. 5. The time taken to reach 36. the current and voltages change from one state to other state.
Define time constant or RL Circuit. 1 [F(s)] = f (t) = _________ 2Лj σ1 + j∞ ∫ σ1 . Time constant (t) = RC.
What is inverse Laplace transform? Inverse Laplace Transform permits going back in the reverse direction i. and is referred to the transient response. with change in excitation. gets saturated after sometime. the response depends upon the nature of the circuit. 8.2% of final value in a RL Circuit is called the time constant of RL circuit.

What is meant by natural frequency? If the damping is made zero then the response oscillates with natural frequency without any opposition. such a frequency is called natural frequency of oscillations. 10. It is defined by V (s) Z (s) = ___2_________ 21 I (s) 1 and V (s) Z (s) = ___1_________ 12 I (s) 2
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.9. The driving point impedance of the network is define as V(s) Z (S) = _____________ I (s) 14. Define damping ratio. then Lim f (t) = lim s F (s) T∞ s0 13. It is denoted by greek letter Zeta (ξ). R R Ξ = ____ = _____ √ C / L R cr 2 11. Define final value theorem. The initial value theorem states that if f (t) and f’ (t) both are laplace transformable. It is the ratio of actual resistance (R) in the circuit to the critical resistance (R cr). denoted as ώ n. Define initial value theorem. if f (t) and f ‘ (t) both are laplace transformable. The final value theorem states that. What is transfer point impedance? It is defined as the ratio of voltage transform at one port to the current transform at the other port. Then Lim f (t) = lim s F (s) T0 s∞ 12. What is driving point impedence ? The ratio of the Laplace transform of the voltage at the point to the laplace transform of the current at the same port is called driving point impedance.

Z2. 2. Z3…………. Define network function. Define resonant circuit..Zn. Define pole and zero. If inductive reactance of a network equals capacitive reactance then the network is said to be resonance 19. Define bandwidth. The gain of a highly resonant circuit attains a sharp maximum or minimum as its resonant frequency. Maximum energy stored per cycle Quality factor (Q) = 2Л * ______________________________ Energy dissipated per cycle 15
. A network function N (S) is defined as the ratio of the complex amplitude of an excponential output P (S) to the complex amplitude of an exponential input Q (S). When the circuit is said to be in resonance? 1. 17. The network function N (S) will become infinite. A network is in resonance when the voltage and current at the network input terminals are in phase. Bandwidth Selectivity = _______________________ Resonant frequency 22. The circuit that treat a narrow range of frequencies very differently than all other frequencies. are called zeros of network function. The quality factor is defined as the ratio of maximum energy stored to the energy dissipated per cycle. Selectivity is defined as the ratio of bandwidth to the resonant frequency of resonant circuit. Define selectivity. P3.15. P2. What is resonant frequency ? The frequency at which resonance occurs is called resonance frequency. Hence the roots of numerator polynomial Z1. Define quality factor.……Pm are called poles of network function. The network function N(S) will become zero. These are referred to as resonant circuit. 16. The bandwidth (BW) is defined as the frequency difference between upper cut-off frequency (f2) and lower cut-off frequency (f1) Bandwidth = f2-f1 Where f2 upper cut-off frequency F1 lower cut-off frequency 21. Hence the roots of denominator polynomial P1. 1 f = ________ r 2Л√LC 20. 18.

Give the expression for quality factor of parallel RLC Circuit. Quality factor is Q = 1 / R √ L /C 26. R Lower half power frequency. f1 = f r . Define half power frequencies ? The frequencies at which the power is half the maximum power are called half power frequencies. Quality factor is Q = R √ C / L
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.____ 4Л L R Upper half power frequency. Write down the formula for inductive reactance and capacitive reactance? Inductive reactance is given by X L = 2Л fl
1 Capacitive reactance is given by X = _________ C 2Л fc Where F supply frequency L Inductance of the coil C Capacitance of the capacitor. f2 = f r + ____ 4Л L 24.23. 25. Give the expression for quality factor of series RLC Circuit.

Intrinsic semiconductor 2. against the electric field. J = I / A 4. What are conductors? Give examples? Conductors are materials in which the valence and conduction band overlap each other so there is a swift movement of electrons which leads to conduction. What is the relation for the maximum number of electrons in each shell? Ans: 2n2 7. Extrinsic semiconductor. what are Semiconductors? Give examples? The materials whose electrical property lies between those of conductors and insulators are known as Semiconductors. 13. 15. What is Electrostatic deflection sensitivity? Electrostatic deflection sensitivity of a pair of deflecting plates of a cathode ray oscilloscope ( CRO) is defined as the amount of deflection of electron spot produced when a voltage of 1 Volt DC is applied between the corresponding plates. 14. Copper. 12. Define Electron volts. 6. Define Current density. So movement of valence electron from valence to conduction band is possible if the valence electrons are supplied with some energy. Give the energy band structure of Semi conductor. Charge of an electron – 1. A potential of V volts at point B with respect to point A. In conductors there is no forbidden energy gap. 17
. It is defined as the current per unit area of the conducting medium.6 x 10 -19 joules 5. plastic. What are the types of Semiconductor? 1. 1 eV = 1. Give the value of Charge.11 x 10 -31 Kgs 2. silicon. valence band and conduction and over lap each other. Ex. Ex glass. silver. so there is a heavy movement of valence electrons. 3. In Insulators there is a wide forbidden energy gap. What are insulators? Give examples? Insulators are materials in which the valence and conduction band are far away from each other.UNIT III SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES 1.9. 9. 11. Give the energy band structure of conductor. Define Potential.6 x 10 -19 coloumbs & Mass of an electron . So movement of valence electron from valence to conduction band is not possible. Ex germanium. Give the energy band structure of Insulator. So no movement of free electrons and thus no conduction. 10. If an electron falls through a potential of one volt then its energy is 1 electron volt. What is forbidden energy gap? The space between the valence and conduction band is said to be forbidden energy gap. Mass of an electron. In Semiconductors there is a small forbidden energy gap. 8. 16. What are valence electrons? Electron in the outermost shell of an atom is called valence electron. What is Intrinsic Semiconductor? Pure form of semiconductors are said to be intrinsic semiconductor. is defined as the work done in taking unit positive charge from A to B .

concentration of donor atoms in the n – type semiconductor 28. 20.type impurities will donate the excess negative charge carriers ( Electrons) and therefore they are reffered to as donor impurities. N. 17. n. Under thermal equilibrium the product of free electron concentration (n) and hole concentration (p) is constant regardless of the individual magnitude. Define drift current? When an electric field is applied across the semiconductor. The impurity is called dopant. Why n . 27.Ex: germanium. antimony) are known as P-type Semiconductor. Why P – type or trivalent impurities are called as acceptor impurity? p. Give the relation for concentration of holes in the n. 21. What is Extrinsic Semiconductor? If certain amount of impurity atom is added to intrinsic semiconductor the resulting semiconductor is Extrinsic or impure Semiconductor.which charge carriers is majority and minority carrier in P-type Semiconductor? Majority carrier: holes and minority carrier: electron 25. 23.type impurities make available positive carriers because they create holes which can accept electron. 19. Which charge carriers is majority and minority carrier in N-type Semiconductor? majority carrier: electron and minority carrier: holes. 18
.Type Semiconductor. What is P-type Semiconductor? The Semiconductor which are obtained by introducing pentavalent impurity atom (phosphorous. the holes move towards the negative terminal of the battery and electron move towards the positive terminal of the battery.type semiconductor ND . Give the relation for concentration of electrons in the p . What are the types of Extrinsic Semiconductor? 1.concentration of electrons in p. 24. indium) are known as N-type Semiconductor.type material? np = ni 2 /NA Where np . P-type Semiconductor 2.type or penta valent impurities are called as Donor impurities? n.concentration of acceptor atoms in the p – type semiconductor 29. 22. silicon. Define Mass – action law. What is N-type Semiconductor? The Semiconductor which is obtained by introducing trivalent impurity atom (gallium. so these impurities are said to be as acceptor impurity.p = ni2 18. What is doping? Process of adding impurity to a intrinsic semiconductor atom is doping.type material? pn = ni 2 /ND Where pn .concentration of holes in the n – type semiconductor ND . This drift movement of charge carriers will result in a current termed as drift current. 26.

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.applied electric field 32.transition capacitance A . What is the other name of continuity equation? What does it indicate? The other name of continuity equation is equation of conservation of charge. Define the term transition capacitance? When a PN junction is reverse biased. 36. Define mean life time of a hole or and electron. 34.drift current density due to holes q .Charge of holes μp .type material iii). This process in called diffusion and the current produced due this movement is diffusion current.Charge of electron μn . voltacaps. Define Hall effect? If a metal or semiconductor carrying current I is placed in a transverse magnetic field B . The holes and electron tend to move from region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration.applied electric field 31.Cross section area of the junction W – Width of the depletion region 38. Give some application of Hall Effect. ii). Give the expression for drift current density due to holes. 37. Jn .It is used to determine the mobility. This equation indicates that the rate at which holes are generated thermally just equals the rate at which holes are lost because of recombination under equilibrium conditions. Give the expression for drift current density due to electron. CT = A / W Where CT . Jp = q p μp E Where.Mobility of electron E . Jn . In this way a reverse biased PN junction may be regarded as parallel plate capacitor and thus the capacitance across this set up is called as the transition capacitance.It is used to determine the carrier concentration iv).drift current density due to electron q. the depletion layer acts like a dielectric material while P and N –type regions on either side which has low resistance act as the plates. 35. What is a varactor diode? A diode which is based on the voltage variable capacitance of the reverse biased p-n junction is said to be varactor diode. i). Thus an average time for which a hole or an electron exist before recombination can be said as the mean life time of a hole or electron. Jn = q n μnE Where.Mobility of holes E . The electron hole pair created due to thermal agitation woll disappear as a result of recombination. 33. Define the term diffusion current? A concentration gradient exists. if the number of either electrons or holes is greater in one region of a semiconductor as compared to the rest of the region. Hall Effect can be used to measure the strength of a magnetic field in terms of electrical voltage.30.It is used to determine whether the semiconductor is p – type or n. an electric field E is induced in the direction perpendicular to both I and B This phenomenon is known as Hall effect. It has other names such as varicaps.

Define the term diffusion capacitance. Cd – time constant I – current across the diode vT – threshold voltage 40. The recovery time can be divided in to two types such as (i) forward recovery time (ii) reverse recovery time
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. When a diode has its state changed from one type of bias to other a transient accompanies the diode response. what is recovery time? Give its types..e. i.39. The diffusion capacitance of a forward biased diode is defined as the rate of change of injected charge with voltage. CD = I / VT Where. the diode reaches steady state only after an interval of time “ tr” called as recovery time.

When a small value of reverse bias voltage is applied . This electric field is enough to break the covalent bonds. It is represented as t f r. What is meant by forward recovery time? The forward recovery time may be defined as the time interval from the instant of 10% diode voltage to the instant this voltage reaches 90% of the final value. 48. These newly generated additional carriers acquire more energy from the potential and they strike the lattice and create more number of free electrons and holes. a very strong electric field is set up across the thin depletion layer. Thus the break down which occur in the junction resulting in heavy flow of current is termed as avalanche break down. Define transition time. This process is known as zener break down. What is zener breakdown? Zener break down takes place when both sides of the junction are very heavily doped and Consequently the depletion layer is thin and consequently the depletion layer is tin.
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. It is represented as t s. The time when the diode has normally recovered and the diode reverse current reaches reverse saturaton current I0 is called as transition time. when external voltage is suddenly reversed. This process goes on as long as bias is increased and the number of free carriers get multiplied. 43. 42. 46. What is meant by reverse recovery time? The reverse recovery time can be defined as the time required for injected or the excess minority carrier density reduced to zero . What is avalanche break down? When bias is applied . What are break down diodes? Diodes which are designed with adequate power dissipation capabilities to operate in the break down region are called as break down or zener diodes. The types of break down are i) zener break down ii)Avalanche breakdown 47. Define storage time. thermally generated carriers which are already present in the diode acquire sufficient energy from the applied potential to produce new carriers by removing valence electron from their bonds. Now extremely large number of free charge carriers are produced which constitute the zener current.41. This phenomenon is called as break down and the voltage is break down voltage. What is break down? What are its types? When the reverse voltage across the pn junction is increased rapidly at a voltage the junction breaks down leading to a current flow across the device. This process is termed as avalanche multiplication. 44. It is represented as t t 45. The interval time for the stored minority charge to become zero is called storage time.

Thus less voltage is 22
. and hence makes it easier for these electrons to escape from covalent bonds. Thus the electrons and holes needs a high voltage to cross the junction.49. How does the avalanche breakdown voltage vary with temperature? In lightly doped diode an increase in temperature increases the probability of collision of electrons and thus increases the depletion width. Thus the avalanche voltage is increased with increased temperature. How does the zener breakdown voltage vary with temperature? In heavily doped diodes. 50. an increase in temperature increases the energies of valence electrons.

54. Gate 57. Thus zener break down voltage decreases with temperature. If the point is fixed in the saturation region or the cut off region the positive and negative half cycle gets clipped off respectively. base. 66. Drain characteristics 2. List out the different types of biasing.sufficient to knock or pull these electrons from their position in the crystal and convert them in to conduction electrons. Define current amplification factor? 23
. . Base bias. What are the two important characteristics of JFET? 1. What are the terminals present in a transistor? Three terminals: emitter.Channel JFET 59. What do you meant by thermal runway? Due to the self heating at the collector junction._ Voltage divider bias. Emitter bias. 58. What is transconductance in JFET? It is the ratio of small change in drain current to the corresponding change in drain to source voltage. Collector feedback bias.Channel JFET and P. 61. Why do we choose q point at the center of the loadline? The operating point of a transistor is kept fixed usually at the center of the active region in order that the input signal is well amplified. Why is the transistor called a current controlled device? The output characteristics of the transistor depend on the input current. What are the two main types of FET? 1. Why FET is called voltage controlled device? The output characteristics of FET is controlled by its input voltage thus it is voltage controlled. the collector current rises. Drain. What are the terminals available in FET? 1). collector. It is a three terminal device with its output characteristics controlled by input voltage. What is JFET? JFET. What are the types of JFET? N. 63. What is FET? FET is abbreviated for field effect transistor. This causes damage to the device. This phenomenon is called thermal runway. 60. 64. So thtransistor is called a current controlled device. What is a transistor (BJT)? Transistor is a three terminal device whose output current. 62.Junction Field Effect Transistor. 2). Emitter feed back bias. Transfer characteristics.Source and 3). JFET 2. 65. voltage and /or power is controlled by input current.
UNIT IV TRANSISTORS 51. 55. 52. 53. MOSFET. What is amplification factor in JFET? It is the ratio of small change in drain to source voltage to the corresponding change in Gate to source voltage. 56.

volt ampere characteristics. 68. Explain the construction. Explain the construction. Explain the construction. and application of UJT. and application of SCR. • Stabilize the collector current against the temperature variations. and application of DIAC. Output characteristics: It is drawn between the output voltage &output current while keeping input current as constant. equivalent circuit. operation. equivalent circuit. operation. When does a transistor act as a switch? The transistor acts as a switch when it is operated at either cutoff region or saturation region 69. What is biasing? To use the transistor in any application it is necessary to provide sufficient voltage and current to operate the transistor. What are the requirements for biasing circuits? • The q point must be taken at the Centre of the active region of the output characteristics. volt ampere characteristics. Maximum mark for this question: 16 marks Construction (4marks) Equivalent circuit (2marks) Operation (4marks) Volt ampere characteristics (4marks) Application (2marks) 75. 72. Explain the construction. equivalent circuit. and application of TRIAC Maximum mark for this question: 16 marks 24
. volt ampere characteristics. What is stability factor? Stability factor is defined as the rate of change of collector current with respect to the rate of change of reverse saturation current. 67. it must be of same type. • Make the q point independent of the transistor parameters. Explain about the various regions in a transistor? The three regions are active region saturation region cutoff region. Explain about the characteristics of a transistor? Input characteristics: it is drawn between input voltage & input current while keeping output voltage as constant. Maximum mark for this question: 16 marks Construction (2marks) Equivalent circuit and two transistor model (2marks) Operation (4marks) Volt ampere characteristics (4marks) Application (2marks) 74. also explain its two transistor model. 70. This is called biasing. volt ampere characteristics. • When the transistor is replaced. operation. Maximum mark for this question: 16 marks Construction (4marks) Equivalent circuit (2marks) Operation (4marks) Volt ampere characteristics (4marks) Application (2marks) 76. 16 marks-Hints 73. 71.It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current at constant. operation.

Keeping MT2 and G negative. Negative resistance region. 83. Saturation region 82. 1. Keeping MT2 negative and G positive. Cut-off region 2. This takes place until the valley point is reached. 4. exhibiting negative resistance. 3. Motor speed control 3. 79. What are the different operating modes of TRIAC? 1. Keeping MT2 and G positive 2. It is used in switching circuits 3. This region between the peak point and valley point is called negative resistance region. Static switches 80. What are the regions in the VI characteristics of UJT? 1. What is meant by negative resistance region of UJT? In a UJT when the emitter voltage reaches the peak point voltage. 81. What is a TRIAC? TRIAC is a three terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. Give the application of TRIAC. emitter current starts flowing. It is used in phase control circuits 25
. It is used in timing circuits 2. 3. After the peak point any effort to increase in emitter voltage further leads to sudden increase in the emitter current with corresponding decrease in emitter voltage. Mention the applications of UJT. 1. Phase control 4.Construction (4marks) Equivalent circuit (2marks) Operation (4marks) Volt ampere characteristics (4marks) Application (2marks)
UNIT V SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES 78. Heater control 2. It can conduct in both the directions for any desired period. In operation it is equivalent to two SCR’s connected in antiparallel. Keeping MT2 positive and G negative.

SCR can handle and control large currents. 5. What is a DIAC? DIAC is a two terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. It is a unidirectional device. 88. 6. It can be used as an inverter. It is used in light dimming control circuits. 26
. Heat control 4. 1. To trigger TRIAC 2. 85. It is used for pulse generation. 94. Define holding current in a SCR. By reversing the polarity of anode to cathode voltage.Why SCR cannot be used as a bidirectional switch. 3. 2. 6. It is used for phase control and heater control. three junction semiconductor device that acts as a true electronic switch. 96. Light dimmer circuits 87. Its operating efficiency is high. 2. Give some applications of DIAC. By increasing the voltage across SCR above forward break over voltage. How turning on of SCR is done? 1. 2. Holding current is defined as the minimum value of anode current to keep the SCR ON. SCR operates only in one direction and cannot be used as bidirectional switch. It can conduct in either direction depending upon the polarity of the voltage applied across its main terminals. It can be used as a speed controller in DC and AC motors. 84. Define forward current rating of a SCR. It converts alternating current into direct current and controls the amount of power fed to the load. It has no moving parts. 5.By interrupting anode current by means of momentarily series or parallel switching 92. In operation DIAC is equivalent to two 4 layer diodes connected in antiparallel. It can be used as a converter 4. 95. How turning off of SCR is done? 1. 3. What is a SCR? A silicon controller rectifier (SCR) is a three terminal. By reducing the current through the SCR below holding current. By rapidly increasing the anode to cathode voltage. 1. Therefore. 89. Define break over voltage of SCR. 4. 90. 2. Its switching speed is very high 3. By applying a small positive voltage at gate. List the advantages of SCR. 1. . What is meant by latching. It is used in saw tooth generator. It can be used as trigger device for SCR and triac. therefore it gives noiseless operation. List the application of SCR. By irradiating SCR with light. SCR can do conduction only when anode is positive with respect to cathode with proper gate current.4. Break over voltage is defined as the minimum forward voltage with gate open at which the SCR starts conducting heavily. 91. 93. It is used in battery chargers. The ability of SCR to remain conducting even when the gate signal is removed is called as latching. 4. Motor speed control 3. 3.

DIAC 4. 101. 102. UJT 3. base.current SCR without a gate. what is backward diode? The backward diode is a diode in which the doping level is moderate. 1. BJT UJT 1. Average forward current 5. 105. what is a photo diode?
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. three terminals present are emitter. lower current ratings 99. List the important ratings of SCR. 97. What are the types of thyristors? 1. triggered by pulse of positive or negative at gate 3. This device is switched ON when the anode to cathode voltage is increased to forward switching voltageVS which is equivalent to SCR forward break over voltage. Gate trigger current 4. fast turn off time 3. Unidirectional thyristors 2.. are emitter. What is Shockley diode (PNPN diode)? Shockley diode is a four layered PNPN silicon diode. Low-power thyristors 103. triggered by positive pulse at gate 2. three terminals present 2. Give the various triggering devices for thyristors. SCR 2. basically a amplifying device 3. Reverse break down voltage. bidirectional current 2. Compare SCR with TRIAC.base2 3. 1. Longer turn off time 4. Forward break over voltage 2. TRIAC 104. very much similar to that of the reverse current in the conventional diode. Differentiate BJT and UJT. What is a thyristor? Thyristor is a semiconductor device having three or more junctions . The forward current in this case is very small.collector base1. large current ratings 4. Bidirectional thyristors 3. It is a low. It has only one PN junctions 2. SCR TRIAC 1. Holding current 3.Forward current rating of a SCR is the maximum anode current that it can handle without destruction. basically a switching device 100. It has two PN junctions 1. 98. unidirectional current 1.Such a device acts as a switch without any bias and can be fabricated to have voltage ratings of severalhundred volts and current ratings from a few amperes to almost thousand amperes.

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. What is a tunnel diode? The tunnel diode is a pn junction diode in which the impurity concentration is greatly increased about 1000 times higher than a conventional PN junction diode thus yielding a very thin depletion layer. 106.The photo diode is a diode in which the current sensitivity to radiation can be made much larger by the use of the reverse biased PN junction. What is a LED? A PN junction diode which emits light when forward biased is known as Light emitting diode (LED). 107. This diode utilizes a phenomenon called tunneling and hence the diode is referred as tunnel diode. What is tunneling phenomenon? The phenomenon of penetration of the charge carriers directly though the potential barrier instead of climbing over it is called as tunneling. 108. Thus this diode conducts heavily in the reverse bias when there is some radiaton allowed to fall on the PN junction.

. Explain the classification of semiconductors. Compare transistor configurations (CE. 2. Explain the working principle of Photo conductive cell. 2. with neat energy band structure derive expression for open circuited PN junction. Explain the operation of N channel and P channel JFET. 6. State and explain Thevenin. 5. 6.
1. 9.RC. RC. 2. 8. UNIT III Derive the PN diode current equation? Draw the zener diode characteristics and explain the working of zener diode. Explain the working principle of DIAC and TRIAC. Explain the operation of NPN and PNP transistor. 5. Problems using Thevenin. Explain the working principle of laser. 10. Explain the working principle and characteristics of tunnel diode.RLC (see problems also) Parallel and Series resonance Single tuned and double tuned circuits. derive expression for carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductor. 4. 5.RLC transient response when excited by AC & DC Source. 7. 3.Super position. Explain the Theory of PN junction diode with its characteristic curve.Super position. 2. Derive the expression for saturation drain current. 7.CC)
UNIT V 1. with sufficient equation and necessary diagram explain the space charge and diffusion capacitance derive the expression for space charge and diffusion capacitance in step graded and linear graded. 6. Explain the working principle of photo transistor. Explain the working principle of CCD. Maximum power transfer 3. ( see problems also) Frequency response of RL. 4. 3. and CC configuration. Norton . Explain how silicon controlled rectifier can be realized using two transistor model. Norton . Explain the characteristics of CE. Draw the zener regulation circuit and explain its function for input regulation and output regulation.
UNIT IV What is mosfet explain the construction and working principle of enhancement mode and depletion mode mosfet. 4. Explain the types of configuration. 7. 3. Describe the working of silicon controlled rectifier with its characteristic curve.UNIT I 1. Explain the working principle of Photodiode.
1. 4. 8. Problems in KCL (Kirchoff voltage law) and KVL (Kirchoff current law) UNIT II RL.CB. CB. With necessary diagram explain the operation of UJT. Describe the principle and operation of LCD& LED.
1. Maximum power transfer 2. 11. 3. 9.