INTRODUCTION Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a condition that occurs in pregnancy when there is rupture of the membranes (rupture
of the amniotic sac and chorion) more than an hour before the onset of labor. PROM is prolonged when it occurs more than 18 hours before labor. PROM is preterm (PPROM) when it occurs before 37 weeks gestation. Risk factors for PROM can be a bacterial infection, smoking, or anatomic defect in the structure of the amniotic sac, uterus, or cervix. In some cases, the rupture can spontaneously heal, but in most cases of PROM, labor begins within 48 hours. When this occurs, it is necessary that the mother receives treatment to avoid possible infection in the newborn. DEFINITION Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is an event that occurs during pregnancy when the sac containing the developing baby (fetus) and the amniotic fluid bursts or develops a hole prior to the start of labor. DESCRIPTION During pregnancy, the unborn baby (fetus) is surrounded and cushioned by a liquid called amniotic fluid. This fluid, along with the fetus and the placenta, is enclosed within a sac called the amniotic membrane. The amniotic fluid is important for several reasons. It cushions and protects the fetus, allowing the fetus to move freely. The amniotic fluid also allows the umbilical cord to float, preventing it from being compressed and cutting off the fetus's supply of oxygen and nutrients. The amniotic membrane contains the amniotic fluid and protects the fetal environment from the outside world. This barrier protects the fetus from organisms (like bacteria or viruses) that could travel up the vagina and potentially cause infection. Although the fetus is almost always mature at between 36-40 weeks and can be born without complication, a normal pregnancy lasts an average of 40 weeks. At the end of 40 weeks, the pregnancy is referred to as being "term." At term, labor usually begins. During labor, the muscles of the uterus contract repeatedly. This allows the cervix to begin to grow thinner (called effacement) and more open (dilatation). Eventually, the cervix will become completely effaced and dilated. In the most common sequence of events (about 90% of all deliveries), the amniotic membrane breaks (ruptures) around this time. The baby
. Fetal factors include prematurity. although it is not known which condition occurs first. One occurs at a point in pregnancy before normal labor and delivery should take place. and excess amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios).
ETIOLOGY The causes of PROM have not been clearly identified. The other type of PROM occurs at 36-40 weeks of pregnancy. Association has been found between emotional states of fear in a population and prelabor rupture of membranes at term. including amniocentesis (a diagnostic test involving extraction and examination of amniotic fluid) and cervical cerclage (a procedure in which the uterus is sewn shut to avoid premature labor). There are two types of PROM. Ultimately. Only about 20% of these cases are preterm PROM. In the 30 minutes after the birth of the baby. with PROM occurring first followed by an infection. and this is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). the baby will be delivered out of the mother's vagina. most cases of PROM and infection occur in the opposite order. A condition called placental abruption is also associated with PROM. PROM occurs in about 10% of all pregnancies. This is called preterm PROM. Certain procedures carry an increased risk of PROM. Preterm PROM is responsible for about 34% of all premature births. the placenta should separate from the wall of the uterus and be delivered out of the vagina. triplets. cord prolapse. malpresentation or genetic mutations. However. it is believed that bacterial infection of the amniotic membrane causes it to weaken and then break.).
RISK FACTORS Maternal risk factors for a premature rupture of membranes include chorioamnionitis or sepsis. etc. In some cases of preterm PROM. Sometimes the membranes burst before the start of labor. infection.then leaves the uterus and enters the birth canal. multiple pregnancies (twins. Some risk factors include smoking.
Assessment for rupture of membranes can also involve a test called "Actim Prom" or "Amnisure"
. infections of the mother and/or the fetus. although the delay between PROM and the onset of labor varies. labor almost always begins within 24 hours. Cervical mucus can also show ferning. when dried for 10 minutes on a slide and then viewed under a microscope. In the case of PROM at term.CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS The main symptom of PROM is fluid leaking from the vagina. cytologic (ferning) tests. While this may cause doctors to encourage labor in the patient who has reached term. When PROM occurs at term.5-1% of all pregnancies. About 15-23% of all cases of preterm PROM will be complicated by amnionitis. and compression of the umbilical cord (leading to oxygen deprivation in the fetus). Earlier in pregnancy. amnionitis complicates about 3-15% of pregnancies. nitrazine. large gush of fluid. The types of infections that can complicate PROM include amnionitis and endometritis. ASSESSMENT Assessment of a rupture of membranes involves taking a proper medical history. shows a characteristic fernlike pattern. Labor almost always follows PROM. Endometritis is an infection of the innermost lining of the uterus. constant trickle of fluid. Amniotic fluid. The presence of amnionitis puts the fetus at great risk of developing an overwhelming infection (sepsis) circulating throughout its bloodstream. the risk of complications in a premature infant may cause doctors to try delaying labor and delivery in the case of preterm PROM. Preterm babies are the most susceptible to this lifethreatening infection. or it may be a slow. and ultrasound. Amnionitis is an infection of the amniotic membrane. One type of bacteria responsible for overwhelming infections in newborn babies is called group B streptococci. Amnionitis occurs in 0. It may be a sudden. a gynecological exam using a speculum. labor can be delayed up to a week or more after PROM. The complications that may follow PROM include premature labor and delivery of the fetus. but the fern-like shapes are usually smaller. The chance of infection increases as the time between PROM and labor increases.
diagnosing PROM may be easy. One of two easy tests can be performed to confirm that the liquid is amniotic fluid. Another test involves smearing a little of the fluid on a slide. However. and a tender uterus. Premature babies are at great risk if they have immature lungs. Amniocentesis also allows the practitioner to check for infection. These evaluations can be made using amniocentesis and ultrasound measurements of the fetus' size. Some doctors note that amniotic fluid has a very characteristic musty smell. Preterm PROM presents more difficult treatment decisions. Nitrazine paper is made so that it turns from yellowish green to dark blue when it comes in contact with amniotic fluid. A drop of the fluid can be placed on nitrazine paper. Once PROM has been diagnosed.DIAGNOSIS Depending on the amount of amniotic fluid leaking from the vagina. the doctor must decide either to try to prevent labor and delivery until the fetus is more mature. Yet the risk of infection to the mother and/or the fetus increases as the length of time from PROM to delivery increases. TREATMENT Treatment of PROM depends on the stage of the patient's pregnancy. This is called inducing labor. Depending on the age of the fetus and signs of infection. or a pool of amniotic fluid collected behind the cervix. the baby will need
. Labor is induced to avoid a prolonged gap between PROM and delivery because of the increased risk of infection. If no labor begins after 24 hours. A pelvic exam using a sterile medical instrument (speculum) may reveal a trickle of amniotic fluid leaving the cervix. Other indications of infection include a fever in the mother. foul smelling or pus-filled discharge from the vagina. most doctors will use medications to start labor. The younger the fetus. high white blood cell count in the mother. dried amniotic fluid will be easy to identify because it will look "feathery" like a fern. and then viewing it under a microscope. increased heart rate of the mother and/or the fetus. In PROM occurring at term. efforts are made to accurately determine the age of the fetus and the maturity of its lungs. When viewed under the microscope. or to induce labor and prepare to treat the complications of prematurity. the mother and baby will be watched closely for the first 24 hours to see if labor will begin naturally. the more likely it may die or suffer serious permanent damage if delivered prematurely. allowing it to dry.
Steroids may be given in preterm PROM if the fetus must be delivered early because of infection or labor that cannot be stopped.New central book agency (p)LTD . PREVENTION The only controllable factor associated with PROM is smoking. Research is being done to determine whether antibiotics should be given prior to any symptoms of infection to avoid the development of infection. and very different outcomes—PROM is a variation of normal.2008 . Tocolytics may be given to halt or prevent the start of labor.
.Calcutta. Cigarette smoking should always be discontinued during a pregnancy. different management. either in the case of PROM occurring at term or in the case of preterm PROM and infection. Text book of obstetrics. Steroids may be used to help the fetus' lungs mature early.6th edition . CONCLUSION There is both PROM and PPROM. regardless of the risks of prematurity. Antibiotics can be given to fight infections.
PROGNOSIS The prognosis in PROM varies. These are 2 very distinct entities with different causes. These may be used in the case of preterm PROM. PROM refers to term ROM and is incorrectly applied to preterm (under 37 weeks gestation) ROM. Delaying the start of labor may give the fetus time to develop more mature lungs. It depends in large part on the maturity of the fetus and the development of infection. when there are no signs of infection.
BIBLIOGRAPHY D C DUTTA. A variety of medications may be used in PROM:
Medication to induce labor (oxytocin) may be used.to be delivered to avoid serious risks to both it and the mother if infection is present. PPROM is often caused by subclinical infection and is quite dangerous.
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