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How to analyze Handover Issues in DT
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.
• Handover procedure in network? • Handover Um signaling flow? • Purpose of Handover Analysis in DT?
Measurement Reports are sent to BSC and used in the handover algorithm. Downlink MR (Measured by MS) •Downlink RXLEV(Sever) •Downlink RXQUAL(Sever) •RXLEV_NCELL(n) on the 6 best neighboring cells (+BSIC) BSC Serving BSC decides whether a handover is necessary and send HO command HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. Huawei Confidential Page 3 .Handover Procedure Uplink MR (Measured by BTS) •RXLEV Uplink •RXQUAL Uplink •TA •Current BTS TX power ow (Ne nlin igh k R bor xLe vel s) Neighbor Cell_1 Do Rx k in nl r) nd ow rve DServing Cell ma e Neighbor Cell2 m (S el co ev O L H Rx MR k lin link Neighbor Cell2 Serving Cell Up wn Do ss cce u rS ove nd Ha el ev L HO co m ma nd MS in dedicated mode will continuously perform measurements on serving and neighbor cells. LTD.
handover success! Inter cell Synchronous Handover Speech version: EFR HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Huawei Confidential Page 4 . HSN RxQual (sub) is 0 Handover Complete ≠ Handover Success!!! The RxLev of Neighbors Only after SABM & UA in Layer2 Message.Handover signaling on Um(TEMS Message) Tell MS how to access to Target TCH Channel Target cell Description Target BCCH of Neighborschannel Description Channel Type. LTD.. Timeslot Serving Cell: to be measured TSC DL DTX is ON RF is -109+ RxLev(sub) hopping 62 =--49dBm MAIO.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. and data configuration audit together. neighbor audit. Huawei Confidential Page 5 . LTD. find out whether neighbor audit work is needed in this network. To make optimization of HSR.The purpose of Handover Analysis The purpose of handover analysis in DT is understand the wireless handover performance of network. combining DT events.. what is typical handover failure in this network. the most effective way is based on traffic analysis. find out whether the handovers are healthy in this network.
Handover Types • Different handover types by network topology • Different handover types by algorithm • PBGT handover • Quality handover • Edge Handover • Intracell Handover • Other types of handover .
Huawei Confidential Page 7 .Handover Types(Network Topology) Operator MSC MSC BSC BSC BSC BSC BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL CELL Synchronous Asynchronous Case 2 Case 1 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 • • • • • Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 Case5 Intra cell HO Synchronous Inter cell HO Asynchronous Inter cell HO Inter BSC HO Inter MSC HO HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..
. Huawei Confidential Page 8 . LTD.Handover Types(Algorithm) In DT. the most common handover types happens in following order of priority TA RxQuality RxLevel PBGT OL&UL OM Forced HO Directed Retry TA Emergency HO Edge HO Bad Quality HO Rapid Level Drop HO Layer HO PBGT HO Interference HO Fast Moving MS HO HO Overlay/Underly HO Load HO HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.
HO_MARGIN is usually set to 3 to 6 dB. PBGT Handover is considered as most healthy handover in a network. RX LEVEL + PWR_DIFF PBGT HO Power-budget Distance A typical PBGT HO HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.PBGT Handover PBGT HO Exp: When: RXLEV_NCELL(n) – (RXLEVEL+ PWR_DIFF) > HO_MARGIN HO_MARGIN > 0 RXLEV_NCELL(n) Serving Cell Target Cell MS is handed over to the neighboring cell .. LTD. HO_MARGIN could be increased to reduce number of handovers. Huawei Confidential Page 9 . HO_MARGIN should be decreased if faster handover decision is wanted.
Quality Handover Quality Handover Exp: When: DL RxQuality >= DL Quality HO Threshold handover caused by DL RxQuality takes place. UL Quality HO can’t be monitored in DT. DL&UL Quality HO Thresholds are generally set to 6. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. When: UL RxQuality >= UL Quality HO Threshold handover caused by UL RxQuality takes place. Handover was performed to a better quality cell just after experiencing quality problems.. Huawei Confidential Page 10 .
When: UL RxLevel < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold handover caused by UL RxQuality takes place. LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 11 . UL EDGE handover can’t be monitored in DT.EDGE Handover Edge Handover Exp: When: DL RxLevel < Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold handover caused by DL RxLevel takes place. Handover was performed to the cell with higher downlink Rxlev. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..
LTD.. .Intracell Handover Based on Interference The Intra–cell Handover feature aims to maintain good quality by performing a handover to a new channel within the same cell when uplink or downlink interference is detected. Huawei Confidential Page 12 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Intracell HO also can be triggered by: • Rate change between Full rate and Half rate • Handover between overlaid and underlaid subcell. An example of intracell handover after experiencing quality problems. Interference is defined by bad RxQual and high enough RxLEV.
LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 13 .. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. for example : TA handover Directed Retry Load handover Rapid Level Drop HO Fast Moving MS HO For analysis of different types of handover or handover caused by uplink.Other types of handover Other types of handover are not easy to judge or not easy to encounter in DT test. it is recommended by traffic analysis or single-user signaling tracing.
Handover Issues What is … •Dragged Handover •Power Control Effect •Ping–Pong Handover •Missing Neighbor Relation •Fake Neighbor •Handover Failure .
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. handover will happen late. Dragged Handover often cause Call Drop or Handover Failure. If margins for level. quality or power budget handovers are not set correctly. LTD. If margins are too much. Huawei Confidential Page 15 . vice versa. which is called dragged handover. First thing to check will be handover margins between the neighbors.Dragged Handover There will be such cases that you will notice handover process taking place a little late.. A Quality handover should happen earlier Dragged handover events often occur after a GSM serving cell loses dominance for a significant time period.
Power Control Effect Power Control Effect sometimes may mislead us. Huawei Confidential Page 16 . That’s why you will see serving cell signal level is less than neighbor’s level. LTD. When the call is continuing on a timeslot that belongs to TCHTRX.. you might think that handover is happening too late between two neighbors. the signal level on BCCH TRX is still higher than neighbors broadcasting level. Power control HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. It looks less but in reality. power control feature will try to reduce output power as much as possible until a quality problem occurs.
Ping-pong HO For most cases. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. There was a handover back to cell 12366 after the second ping-pong handover. The first ping-pong handover is from cell 12424 to cell 12368 and back and the second is from cell 12424 to cell 12366 and back. but this was outside of the defined window. Huawei Confidential Page 17 . which represents a much healthier handover.Ping-pong Handover Ping-pong handovers occur when the MS is handed over from one cell to another but is quickly handed back to the original cell. It can be clearly visualized by lines to cells display.. Ping-pong Handover is caused by no dominant cell. The shot shows two pingpong handovers displayed on the map along with the Servering CI attribute. LTD. Changes in the value of the CI is shown below the route. The change in dominance after the handover was 9dB.
At this time Neighbor audit should be performed. The shot shows after second handover in the red box. a much stronger Serving Cell appears. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. This will happen with sudden appearance of strong cell in the neighbor list just after a handover..Missing Neighbor Relation If a handoff is not performed to a neighbor cell that seems to be best server. Huawei Confidential Page 18 . there is a possibility of a missing neighbor relation. LTD.
Huawei Confidential Page 19 . this cell appears in the list. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. in reality it is not. Although that neighboring cell with a very good signal level appears to be a neighbor.Fake Neighbor Relation Sometimes you will see a good handover candidate in the neighbor list but handover will not take place and call will drop. LTD. Just because the serving cell has another neighbor with the same BCCH.
. Failure Half Rate MA list is 1. LTD. HSN is 31. 24 The handover has MAIO is 4. 22. 17. Target Cell is BCCH is 13 BSIC is 65 Target channel is 900M RF Handover hopping Channel. Channel mode is AMR(SV3)is Handover Failure Another example: Excessive Number of Handover caused by T200 Expired Failure due to Hardware Problem HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 23. 20. 19. 21.Handover Failure Handover Failure: Handover attempt was failed and the call returned back to its all channel. Huawei Confidential Page 20 . not successfully completed yet! TSC is 5. 18.
Proposal of Handover Issue •Dragged Handover •Ping–Pong Handover •Missing Neighbor Relation •Handover Failure .
Find out the cause of Handover failure form Um signaling flow from Layer2 and Layer3 Message. Edge handover threshold. which may also cause pingpong handover. checking Check if there is hardware problem. Ping-pong Check if the parameter of handover. Edge handover threshold.Solutions of Handover Issues Issue Proposal Check if the parameter of handover.. If it is. Neighbor Audit. LTD. and P/N Value is set too low . Huawei Confidential Page 22 . find the root cause of handover failure reasons by traffic statistic analysis. Referring to the solution of Low Coverage. Handover Interference. Handover Failure Check if the HSR between source and target cell is low. Quality. Check if the traffic volume of target cell at measuring time. such as: PBGT. and P/N Value is set too high. Check if there is neighbor missing according to data Missing Neighbor configuration in OMC. such as: PBGT. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. Referring to hardware guide Check if there is no dominant coverage. Interference. Dragged Handover Check if there is no dominant coverage. Quality. Referring to the solution of Low Coverage. Check if there is overlapping coverage area.
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