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Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives.
Contents [hide] 1 Chemistry 2 History 3 Applications 3.1 Paints and coatings 3.2 Adhesives 3.3 Industrial tooling and composites
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Epoxy is a copolymer; that is, it is formed from two different chemicals. These are referred to as the "resin" and the "hardener". The resin consists of monomers or short chain polymers with an epoxide group at either end. Most Structure of unmodified epoxy prepolymer. n denotes common epoxy resins are produced from a the number of polymerized subunits and is in the range reaction between epichlorohydrin and from 0 to about 25 bisphenol-A, though the latter may be replaced by similar chemicals. The hardener consists of polyamine monomers, for example Triethylenetetramine (TETA). When these compounds are mixed together, the amine groups react with the epoxide groups to form a covalent bond. Each NH group can react with an epoxide group, so that the resulting polymer is heavily crosslinked, and is thus rigid and strong.[1][2] The process of polymerization is called "curing", and can be controlled through temperature and choice of resin and hardener compounds; the process can take minutes to hours. Some formulations benefit from heating during the cure period, whereas others simply require time, and ambient temperatures.



The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin were made in 1927 in the United

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM]

concrete reinforcing rebar. vinyl ester. These systems use a more attractive 4:1 by volume mixing ratio. Devoe-Reynolds. chemical and heat resistance. Their low volatility and water clean up makes them a natural choice for factory cast iron. S. Castan's work was licensed by Ciba. protective coating with excellent ultimate hardness. with slight high heat temperatures). Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion (rusting) resistance is important. although epoxies are typically electrically insulating). Dr. Polyester epoxies are used as powder coatings for washers. cast steel. cast aluminum applications and reduces exposure and flammability issues associated with solvent-borne coatings. [5] Adhesives Epoxy adhesives are a major part of the class of adhesives called "structural adhesives" or "engineering adhesives" (which also includes polyurethane. In general. good-to-excellent mechanical properties and very good electrical insulating properties. Epoxy resins are also used for high performance and decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo flooring. Metal cans and containers are often coated with epoxy to prevent rusting. Greenlee of the United States in 1936. Pierre Castan of Switzerland and Dr. of Switzerland.O. or thermal conductivity combined with high electrical resistance for electronics applications. two-part epoxy coatings are developed for heavy duty service on metal substrates and use less energy than heat-cured powder coatings.Wikipedia. Ciba's epoxy business was spun off and later sold in the late 1990s and is now the advanced materials business unit of Huntsman Corporation of the United States. the free encyclopedia Suomi Svenska Türkçe 中 States. These products have excellent adhesion to various metal substrates. potable water transmission pipelines (steel).wikipedia. Many properties of epoxies can be modified (for example silver-filled epoxies with good electrical conductivity are available. These non-hazardous. epoxies are known for their excellent adhesion. Ltd. Dr. which went on to become one of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide. et cetera. The chemistry of epoxies and the range of commercially available variations allows cure polymers to be produced with a very broad range of properties. which was active in the early days of the epoxy resin industry. The coating dries quickly providing a tough.Epoxy . and [edit] http://en. cyanoacrylate. formerly Resolution Polymers and others). Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBE) are extensively used for corrosion protection of steel pipes and fittings used in the oil and gas industry.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM] . and good mar and abrasion resistance. was sold to Shell Chemical (now Hexion. They are usually used for industrial and automotive uses as they are high heat resistant (as latex-based and alkyd-based paints usually burn.[3] Paints and coatings [edit] "2 part waterborne epoxy coatings" are used as ambient cure epoxy coatings. especially for foods like tomatoes that are acidic. thus peel. Variations offering high thermal insulation. chip flooring [4] and colored aggregate flooring. Ambient cure 2 Part waterborne epoxy coatings provide excellent physical properties in exterior applications. are available. adhesives and composite materials such as those using carbon fiber and fiberglass reinforcements (although polyester. Greenlee's work was for the firm of Devoe-Reynolds of the United States. Applications [edit] The applications for epoxy-based materials are extensive and include coatings. Credit for the first synthesis of bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins is shared by Dr. UV resistant. driers and other "white goods". acrylic. They are designed for rapid dry protective coating applications. and other thermosetting resins are also used for glass-reinforced plastic).

Epoxy . optoelectronics and dentistry. castings. http://en. wood and other traditional materials. They can be made flexible or rigid. and other industrial production aids. but usually produce stronger and more temperature-resistant composite parts. and making printed circuit boards. The cured epoxy is an electrical insulator and a much better conductor of heat than air.) These highperformance adhesives are used in the construction of aircraft. Epoxy resins are used to bond copper foil to circuit board substrates. snow boards. automobiles. bicycles. bushings. master models. Epoxy adhesives are almost unmatched in heat and chemical resistance among common adhesives. stone. Epoxy resins are excellent electrical insulators and protect electrical components from short circuiting. glass. skis. and some plastics. Epoxy adhesives can curing underwater. and are employed in motors. This "plastic tooling" replaces metal. metal. Electrical systems and electronics Epoxy resin formulations are important in the electronics industry. transparent or opaque/colored. In the electronics industry epoxy resins are the primary resin used in overmolding integrated circuits. transistors and hybrid circuits. Industrial tooling and composites [edit] Epoxy systems are used in industrial tooling applications to produce molds. winding-to-winding. Epoxies are also used in producing fiberreinforced or composite parts. Flexible epoxy resins are used for potting transformers and inductors.and chemical-resistant than those cured at room temperature.wikipedia. The largest volume type of circuit board—an " FR-4 board"—is a sandwich of layers of glass cloth bonded into a composite by an epoxy resin. transformers. fast setting or extremely slow setting. The strength of epoxy adhesives is degraded at temperatures above 350 °F (177 °C). epoxy adhesives cured with heat will be more heat. This epoxy is waterproof and capable of required. The blue-coloured epoxy on the left is still undergoing curing. and winding-to-insulator air voids are eliminated. In general. and are a component of the solder mask on many circuit boards. boats. the free encyclopedia other chemistries. and other applications Special epoxy is strong enough to withstand the extreme force transferred where high strength bonds are from a surfboard fin to the fin mount. and generally improves the efficiency and either lowers the overall cost or shortens the lead-time for many industrial processes. fixtures. They are more expensive than polyester resins and vinyl ester resins. fiber optics. Transformer and inductor hot spots are greatly reduced. golf clubs. giving the component a stable and longer life than unpotted product. and insulators.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM] . laminates. generators. They are exceptional adhesives for wood. [edit] An epoxy encapsulated hybrid circuit on a printed circuit board. [6] Some epoxies are cured by exposure to ultraviolet light. winding-to-core. dust and moisture. be developed to suit almost any application. By using vacuum impregnation on uncured epoxy. switchgear.Wikipedia. Such epoxies are commonly used in optics.

03 IBIS homebuilt canard aircraft . Consumer and marine applications [edit] Epoxies are sold in hardware stores. The process is called VARTM. Typical fiber reinforcements include glass. Because of the better mechanical properties relative to the more common polyester resins. while polyester materials tend to harden quickly. and others that are 'low-tech' are glued with epoxy resin. and boron. formerly Shell Development Company. Materials like wood. internally stiffened with foam and completely covered with plywood.e. epoxy is most favoured resin for composites. mixed with pigment. the epoxy industry amounts to more than US$5 billion in North America and about US$15 billion world-wide. the free encyclopedia Epoxy resins are applied using the technology of resin dispensing. "Flocoat" that is normally used to coat the interior of polyester fibreglass yachts is also compatible with epoxies. typically as a pack containing separate resin and hardener. Epoxies are also used as a structural glue. Kevlar. and accounts for more than 30% of the total worldwide market. Some basic tips are given here:www. This design is based on a classic wooden lattice structured fuselage and a classic wooden spar. and then over-coated with conventional or two-part polyurethane paint or marine-varnishes that provide UV protection. by pouring layers on top of each other Wind Energy applications [edit] Epoxy resin is used in manufacturing rotor blades of wind turbine. The resin is infused in the core material like balsa wood. They are also sold in boat shops as repair resins for marine applications. The Chinese market has been growing rapidly. They are often used during boat repair and assembly. Normal gelcoat formulated for use with polyester resins and vinylester resins does not adhere to epoxy surfaces. it has been reissued repeatedly and still gives an excellent overview of the technology. Art to form a complete picture. while epoxy materials typically use a lower ratio of between 5:1 and 1:1. whose epoxy tradename is "Epon"). Epoxy materials tend to harden somewhat more gradually. The classic epoxy reference guide is the Handbook of epoxy resins by Henry Lee and Kris Neville.wikipedia. One example would be the RJ.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM] .[7] [edit] Epoxy resin. There are two main areas of marine use. gap filling properties and excellent adhesion to many materials including timber have created a boom in amateur building projects including aircraft and boats. Originally issued in 1967. Industry [edit] As of 2006. i. is used as a painting medium. Due to excellent properties and good finish. which must be mixed immediately before use.epoxy. Polyester thermosets typically use a ratio of at least 10:1 of resin to hardener (or "catalyst").htm . everything is glued with epoxy resin. the Dow http://en. epoxy is used as a structural matrix material which is then reinforced by fiber. though epoxy adheres very well if applied to polyester resin surfaces. foam. epoxies are used for commercial manufacture of components where a high strength/weight ratio is required. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding. The second area is that their strength. Epoxies typically are not used in the outer layer of a boat because they deteriorate by exposure to UV light.com/install.Epoxy . Aerospace applications [edit] In the aerospace industry. carbon.Wikipedia. and reinforcing media glass fabric. It is made up of approximately 50–100 manufacturers of basic or commodity epoxy resins and hardeners of which the three largest are Hexion (formerly Resolution Performance Products. Except for the plywood covering the wings.

which. accelerators. so there is another group of companies that purchase epoxy raw materials from the major producers and then compounds (blends. is a known endocrine disruptor. viscosity reducers. One should then follow with washing with soap and water. unlike vinegar. unlike vinegar. ^ May. These companies are known as "formulators". tradename "Araldite"). In 2007 Huntsman Corporation agreed to merge with Hexion (owned by the Apollo Group) [8][9] . White vinegar can even clean up epoxy resin that is beginning to cure/harden. alumina. or epoxy modifiers. http://www.htm ". formerly Ciba Specialty Chemical.). thickeners. Nanya Plastic also has the capacity of over 250. http://chem.000 MT/Y. Vinegar and rubbing alcohol can also be effective in removing fresh uncured epoxy from skin. but the resin/acetone solution can easily pass through the skin into the bloodstream. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. One should always avoid getting epoxy on skin.csuchico.wikipedia.edu/~chem424/epoxy. These commodity epoxy manufacturers mentioned above typically do not sell epoxy resins in a form usable to smaller end users.000 MT/Y (Korea 150.chem.rochester. or otherwise customizes) epoxy systems from these raw materials. ^ "Epoxy Polymers ".).000 MT/Y and will be increased totally 300. (June 2009) Vinegar is an effective and safe solvent to clean up tools. and recently their capacity has been increased up to 210. etc. skin.Epoxy .E. brushes. specialty epoxies. [edit] See also Thermosetting plastic Plastic [edit] References 1. These modifications are made to reduce costs. Citrus-based waterless hand cleaners will help to remove fresh resin from the skin. silica. colorants. over time. New http://en. DME (Dimethoxyethane) is also a good solvent for epoxy resin and hardener that gives off very little vapor. and to improve processing convenience. which is mostly for captive use. [edit] 3.000 MT/Y (Taiwan and China)."). and most surfaces contaminated with epoxy resin or hardener.htm . etc. There are over 50 smaller epoxy manufacturers primarily producing epoxies only regionally. which is used as a hardener.R. There are hundreds of ways that these formulators can modify epoxies—by adding mineral fillers (talc.Wikipedia. and Huntsman Corporation's Advanced Materials business unit (formerly Vantico. KUKDO Chemical is one of the largest epoxy manufacturers in Asia. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. modifies. by adding flexibilizers. Clayton A. ^ "Epoxy Chemistry 2. to improve performance.000 MT/Y by 2009).[10] Bisphenol A. The majority of the epoxy systems sold are produced by these formulators and they comprise over 60% of the dollar value of the epoxy market. can induce an allergic reaction. Epoxy Resins: Chemistry and Technology (Second ed. China 60. but it is very volatile and flammable. Cleanup [edit] This section does not cite any references or sources.edu/~jpgreene/m247/m247_ch02/sld023.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM] . It is a main source of occupational asthma among users of plastics. Acetone can also be used. the free encyclopedia Chemical Company (tradename "D.. adhesion promoters. epoxy hardeners only. Vinegar is safer for cleaning epoxy resin from human skin than acetone: both liquids will dissolve the resin. (1987-12-23). Health risks The primary risk associated with epoxy use is sensitization to the hardener. . As a result a typical formulator sells dozens or even thousands of formulations—each tailored to the requirements of a particular application or market.

^ Quartz Flooring 6. ^ Market Participant. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. ^ MayoClinic --> Occupational asthma May 23. Color on Metal: 50 Artists Share Insights and Techniques.. ^ Steve Gelsi.Epoxy . 2006. ^ Morena. 4. ISBN 0-442-26414-3.wikipedia. pp. WI: Guild. pp. ^ Chips Flooring 5. 794. External links Epoxy Resin health hazards The chemistry of epoxide . 8. ^ McCreight. the free encyclopedia York: Marcel Dekker Inc. See Terms of Use for details. Nicole. ISBN 1893164063. simple to understand Categories: Organic polymers | Adhesives | Synthetic resins | Thermosetting plastics This page was last modified on 3 November 2009 at 15:35. Market Watch.org/wiki/Epoxy[11/5/2009 4:16:18 PM] . http://en.Wikipedia. 124–125. "Hexion IPO Creates Way Too Much Debt" 10. 2007. 7. Tim. Inc. John J (1988). additional terms may apply. 2009 [edit] (California Department of Health Services) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Attribution-ShareAlike License. 74. Madison. a non-profit organization. . June 22.6 bln takeover offer from Apollo's Hexion" July 12. Advanced Composite Mold Making. "Huntsman OK's $10. ISBN 0824776909. pp. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc. Bsullak. 9.

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