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STUDENT NO: Q098634318

to avoid confusion one person shall be designated to be the OSC who will inturn co-ordinate all activities of all other parties involved. if no such plan is available the OSC shall device a plan on-scene to co-ordinate SAR operations. London.Page 3-4).1998. The OSC shall also if needed request the SMC for any additional assistance required such as medical evacuation of any seriously injured survivors.TASK 1: 1.and the SAR facilities with them onboard.           . The OSC shall make periodic situation reports (SITREP’s) and send these to the SMC which shall include details such as:  Weather and sea conditions  The results of the search at the time  Any actions taken  Any changes to the plan.1 Describe the role of the OSC (On Scene Co-ordinator) ?  In a Search and Rescue Operation when there are two or more SAR facilities involved in the same operation. The OSC shall oversee all SAR operations are conducted in a safe manner by all SAR facilities surface and air with regard to maintaining safe distances between facilities during the various search patterns. Also if any survivors are found their names and designations. The OSC shall maintain a detailed record of all on-scene operations such as:  On-scene arrival and depature times of all SAR facilities  Areas searched  Track spacing used  Sightings and leads reported by SAR facilities involved in the search  Actions taken when above mentioned leads reported  Results of the search The OSC shall report to the SMC all times and reasons for releasing SAR facilities no longer required on-scene. The OSC shall monitor the performance of all SAR facilities on-scene. etc. The OSC shall co-ordinate on-scene SAR communications between various facilities.IMO:Section 3. etc. The OSC will execute the search action plan given by the SMC (Search and Rescue Mission Co-ordinator). -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. The OSC will co-ordinate operations between all the SAR facilities on-scene. If needed the OSC shall modify the search action plan as per the prevailing circumstances and conditions and keep the SMC advised of the same.

1 fast rescue craft and being a passenger ferry has enough LSA equipment for the survivors. However the Sun Flower Furano has more man power on the bridge and deck (nearly twice that of other vessels responding) to better co-ordinate and handle all SAR communications and operations required to be carried out by the OSC. The Sun Flower Furano being a passenger ferry it would have all Area A3 communications equipment as per GMDSS requirements.1. with reasons which vessel will be best suited to act as OSC ? The best vessel suited to be OSC for this SAR operation would be the Passenger Ferry Sun Flower Furano for the following reasons: As there is not much time difference between all the vessels arriving at the distress position any of the four vessels responding could be designated as OSC. Navigation Advanced for Mates/Masters. Seamenship International Ltd)      . It also has a fully functional hospital onboard and possibly a qualified doctor. 2006. It also has more available LSA in the form of 2 open lifeboats.2 State. Lanarkshire. -(Capt.Nadeem Anwar.

80 nm Speed= 20.Task 2: 2.2110590272364 W Co = tan-1 (Dep ÷ DLat)= 250.6 kts (from plot on radar plotting sheet considering current) ETA= 10 DEC/0033 UT NYK Terra Position: 320 39’N/1360 23’E D’lat= 00 22’N D’long= 10 10’E M’lat= 320 50’ Dep = DLon x cos MLat= 58.96 nm Speed= 16.1 State.04 nm Speed= 21.73334316703552 W Co = tan-1 (Dep ÷ DLat)= 350 T Dis = DLat ÷ cos Co= 40.5 T Dis = DLat ÷ cos Co= 62. with reasons the most appropriate Commencement Search Time ? Ans.6 kts (from plot on radar plotting sheet considering current) ETA= 10 DEC/0037 UT . Eridanus Leader       Position: 330 17’N/1380 27’E D’lat= 00 16’S D’long= 00 54’W M’lat= 330 09’ Dep = DLon x cos MLat= 45.0 kts (from plot on radar plotting sheet considering current) ETA= 10 DEC/0034 UT Genius Star VIIPosition: 320 21’N/1370 41’E D’lat= 00 40’N D’long= 00 08’W M’lat= 320 41’ Dep = DLon x cos MLat= 6.5 T Dis = DLat ÷ cos Co= 47.9 kts (from plot on radar plotting sheet considering current) ETA= 10 DEC/0034 UT Sun Flower Furano -                      Position: 340 06’N/1370 47’E D’lat= 10 05’S D’long= 00 14’W M’lat= 330 33.5’ Dep = DLon x cos MLat= 11.56 nm Speed= 13.6665284136886 W Co = tan-1 (Dep ÷ DLat)= 190 T Dis = DLat ÷ cos Co= 66.8175915740682E Co = tan-1 (Dep ÷ DLat)= 069.

5 knots x 3 hrs 03 mins).5o(T) and from the graph in Fig.         From the plot on the Plotting sheet we can get the Drift direction and distance and . 1 the leeway in knots for a wind speed of 21 knots is 1.IMO:Section 3. derived from the graph in Fig.2: Construct a plot of the search area and the calculate the datum position?  A Datum position has to be calculated in order to have a starting reference point for the search as the Initial Distress position will be inaccurate on commencement of the search as the time taken by the SAR facilities to arrive at the scene the Distressed craft would have moved to another position due to the effects of the wind and current on it.  This inturn will give us the resultant Drift direction and distance which will be applied to the Distress position (Datum 1 on plotting sheet)) and a new Datum position (Datum 2 on plotting sheet) will be found which will be used as the starting point and reference position for the search.6 Nm (1.1998.  Current set and drift (for the time interval). -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. In our case as we do not know whether the object we are looking for is a Survival craft or a person in the water we will consider the worst case scenario to calculate the leeway which is a survival craft without a drogue. As the wind is from the NNW the direction of the leeway will be downwind in the direction 157. Hence we use the Initial Distress Position and time of the distress call.As we can see that all the vessels responding will be arriving within minutes of each other the most appropriate Search Commencement time would be that of the arrival of the last vessel at 0037 UT on the 10th of December 0000. London.Page 3-4). 1 for the time interval). The estimated rate of drift of the survival or distressed craft during the time interval which is calculated considering the following components:  Leeway direction (downwind) and leeway speed (based on wind speed.6 Nm. The time interval between the Initial Distress and the time the SAR facilities arrive on-scene. 2. The current will act in a direction of 080 o(T) and the distance of the set will be 4. the new Datum position (Datum 2) by the following calculation. Also if there is any other information provided such as DF bearings or sightings.5 for a time interval from 09/2134 UT~10/0037 UT (3 hours and 03 minutes) the leeway distance will be 4. The calculation of the current set and drift will not be effected as the current acts equally on all objects in the water.

 NOTE: The Search Area calculation is shown in detail in the next section.8’N/1370 40.4’ E Datum 2 Position: 320 57.4’E.     Distress Position: 330 01’N/1370 33’E D’lat= 00 03.2’ (from plotting sheet) 0 M’lat= 32 59. .4’N D’long = Dep / cos M’Lat= 7.2’S Dep= 6.

London.IMO.IMO:Section 3. .Page 17). London.Fig.1998.1 (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.

TRACK SPACING (S):   Track spacing is the distance between two adjacent tracks as most of the search patterns consists of track or sweep searches. (from table shown below). Su = Recommened Track spacing. Time available to carry out the search.(from table shown below). . Start Position. Type of Search Pattern. The track spacing is calculated by the formula: S = Su x fw Where. etc. Search Speed.Task 3: Compile an initial search plan using the four responding vessels?  The Initial Plan constitutes the calculation if the Search Area. Search Area Calculation: 1. Fw = Weather correction factor. Track Spacing. S = Track spacing.

5 kts. In our case we will be carrying out the search till sunset on the 10th of December ‘00. Hence we have 07 hours and 07 minutes to carry out the search. weather conditions. In our case the values taken are for the worst case scenario as the type object we are searching for is unkown. SEARCHING SPEED (V):  In our case the best recommended search pattern will be a parallel tack search using 4 vessels hence to carry out this kind of a search all the vessels are required to carry out the search at the same speed as directed by the OSC.3 Nm. hence the recommended track spacing we will take is for a person in the water and the weather correction factor of winds from (15-25 kts) for a person in the water will be taken giving us a Track spacing of 0. The searching speed hence normally would be the fastest speed of the slowest vessel which in our case will be the maximum speed of the Genius Star VII 13. 2. In the case of restricted visibility the OSC would normally reduce the search speed as he sees fit. SEARCHING TIME (T):   The search time is normally considered based on the time daylight is available for number of SAR facilities available to carry out the search. . which as calculated from the almanac comes to 10/0744 UT. etc.   3.

To plot this area on the chart a Search Radius has to be calculated which is given by the formula:  Thus by calculation we get a Search Radius of 5. If several search facilities will be searching the same area at the same time then this Search area has to be searched by using a pattern.   To plot the Search Area a circle of the search radius centered on the calculated Datum position has to be drawn around which a square is to be formed by drawing tangents to this circle. A=SXVXT   Therefore by our calculation we get a search area of 29. SEARCH AREA (A):  The Search Area is calculated by the formula: At = N X A Where. And where. N = Number of SAR facilities. .4.4 Nm.26 Nm.

5. The search is started at one corner of the search area one half of a track space inside the rectangle from each of the two sides forming the corner.Page 18-21). This type of pattern can be used when two or more ships are available to carry-out the search. This type of search is most effective over water or flat terrain. -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. London. The search legs are parallel to each other and to the long sides of the sub-area. Parallel Track Searches are used to cover large areas where survivor location is uncertain.       .1998. SEARCH PATTERN:  As there are 4 SAR facilities and all are ships the most suitable search pattern in this case is to carry out a Parallel Track Search with 4 ships as shown in the diagram below and the plotting sheet attached.IMO:Section 3. It is usually used to cover a large search area which has to be subdivided into sub-areas assigned to individual SAR facilities which are on-scene at the same time.


OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR MAKING THE INTIAL PLAN:    The OSC is in command of SAR Operation onscene and should keep the SMC informed at all times as to the progress of the search. mode of communication on-scene. There has to be extreme caution taken while conducting the search with regards to navigation as there is a high risk of collision when conducting a parallel track search.  Will the rescue facility be stable enough to carry out the rescue.30-32. This can be in form of a liferaft or other floating marker. The OSC is to keep record of all operations and actions taken by all SAR facilities on-scene and also has to send regular SITREP’s (as shown in IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.  adjusting to non standard activities.  detecting and avoiding errors early. to initiate and conduct coordinated search patterns the OSC should transmit a limited number of instructions to the SAR facilities on-scene in a clear and concise manner in plain languge understood by all.  Is the rescue facility able to handle all the survivors.  following standard procedures. etc. The OSC is to decide on the type of search and allocate each SAR facility with its duties and area to be search. If possible a datum marker should be deployed at the datum position to check the drift and also to provide a reference position for the SAR operation.1998. search speed. The OSC should keep track of the weather conditions and if the visibility deteriorates should recalculate a track spacing. .1998:Appendix D) to the SMC and similarly the SAR facilities on-scene shall send the OSC regular SITREP’s to keep the OSC informed of the progress of the operation.Page 5-7. Some other concerns taken into account should be:  Is the rescue facility able to handle the weather.       -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. etc and inform all SAR facilities of the same.36).6. The OSC should consider Team safety considering the following:  keeping everyone informed  matching resource capabilities to tasks.IMO:Section 3. The OSC is incharge of co-ordinating the search on-scene and is to give instructions and coordinate the activities of all SAR facilities during the search. London.

object found. -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.1: Immediate Action:      Inform all on-scene SAR facilities of sighting and manovre all vessels such that during retrival of the object no close quarters situations develop between SAR facilities. Appropriate information regarding the evidence or a revision of the search area or pattern should be relayed to all SAR facilities on-scene.IMO:Section 3. .   Send a report to the SMC with full details of the time. Once object retrived identify object as this may provide evidence of distressed craft or survival craft. It will be necessary for the OSC to consider the most effective way of continuing the search. Log down the time and Position in which the object was found. London.etc. 4.1998. If it is suspected that survivors are in the water the area into which they may have been forced by the buffeting of the seas should be considered. Should this have come from the distressed craft the survival craft will normally be found downwind from from these debris or upwind if the ship may have been abandoned some time before sinking.Page 35). position.TASK 4: Describe the actions to be taken by the OSC should any vessel sight an object in the water which may be relevant to the search? 4.2: Subsequent Action:   A recalculation of datum and revision of search area might be required on the basis of the information obtained from the evidence.

any actions taken and status.  Inmarsat.  5.1998:Appendix E). status and future plans.1998:Appendix E).  Any subsequent changes to the SAR plan.TASK 5: State communications required ans means of communication between the following? 5.  Regular SITREP’s prepared on-scene stating identification.  SAR briefing.  Final SITREP on conclusion of the search.  Rescue procedure and condition of the survivors.1 OSC and SAR Facilities On-scene:  The means of communication used between the OSC and SAR Facilities are:  VHF Ch 16. debriefing and Tasking reports (as per IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. situation.5 Khz) The communications required to be carried out between the OSC and SAR Facilities are:  SAR briefing.  Regular SITREP’s prepared on-scene stating identification. any actions taken.  MF Radiotelephony (2182 Khz)  MF NBDP (2174.  NBDP / Telex. The communications required to be carried out between the OSC and MRCC are:  Initial SITREP.  Any subsequent changes to the SAR Plan. situation.  .  Final SITREP on conclusion of the search. debriefing and Tasking reports (as per IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.1 OSC and MRCC:  The means of communication used between the OSC and MRCC are:  VHF/MF/HF Radiotelephoney.  Emails via Satellite.

 Any preparations to be made on arrival at the vessel due to seriously injured survivors and if Medical Evacuation or additional assitance needs to be called for.5. London. . SAR Facilities and Rescue craft On-scene:  The means of communication used between the SAR Facilities and rescue Craft are:  VHF Ch 16.IMO:Section 3.  -(IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.Page 3-12).1998.  The condition of survivors. The communications required to be carried out between the SAR Facilities and Rescue craft are:  On finding survivors or debris the procedure and means of recovery.

IMO:Section 3.IMO:Section 3.IMO:Section 3.Page 5-7.1998.REFERENCE LIST:  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. London. London. London.Nadeem Anwar. Navigation Advanced for Mates/Masters.Page 3-12).1998. London.Page 35).IMO:Section 3. London.  (Capt.  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.IMO Section 3.Page 3-4).30-32.1998.1998: .1998.IMO:Section 3. Lanarkshire.1998. London.36)  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. Seamenship International Ltd)  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. 2006.  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3. .Page 18-21).Page 17).

2006. Seamenship International Ltd) .Page 3-4).Nadeem Anwar. Navigation Advanced for Mates/Masters. Lanarkshire.London.  (Capt.IMO:Section 3.1998.BIBLIOGRAPHY:  (IAMSAR Manual Volume 3.