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Engine Repair

Cylinder Head, Valves and Camshaft

20-05-1

Group 05 CYLINDER HEAD, VALVES, AND CAMSHAFT
PRELIMINARY VALVE CHECKS
During disassembly, inspect the valve train for the following malfunctions and causes. Sticking Valves Carbon deposits on valve stem Worn valve guides Warped valve stems Cocked or broken valve springs Worn or distorted valve seats Insufficient lubrication

Camshaft Failures
Scored camshaft lobes due to inadequate lubrication Excessive end play due to thrust plate wear Broken or warped camshaft due to improper timing

Checking Valve Clearance
Four-Cylinder Engine

Warped, Worn, or Distorted Valve Guides
Lack of lubrication Cylinder head distortion Excessive heat Unevenly tightened cylinder head cap screws

Distorted Cylinder Head and Cylinder Head Gasket Leakage
Improperly tightened cylinder head cap screws Faulty gasket installation Incorrect gasket material Excessive oil pressure Improper cylinder liner height above cylinder block

Worn or Broken Valve Seats
Misaligned valves Distorted cylinder head Carbon deposits on seats due to incomplete combustion Valve spring tension too weak Excessive heat Improper valve clearance Improper valve timing

Fig. 1-Sening "TOC"

Burned, Pitted, Worn, or Broken Valves
Worn or distorted valve seats Worn valve guides Insufficient cooling Insufficient lubrication Cocked or broken valve springs Preignition Improper engine operation Improper valve train timing Faulty valve rotators Warped or distorted valve stems "Stretched" valves due to excessive spring tension Warped cylinder head Bent push rods Carbon build-up on valve seats Rocker arm failure
TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.S.A.

1. Rotate engine to position No. 1 piston at TDC of its compression stroke. 2. Turn flywheel until timing mark on flywheel lines up with mark on housing (Fig. 1).

Engines - 400 Series

. E 4 3 I I E 2 E I 1 I E T2284?N VALVE CLEARANCE SPECIFICATION II R 27478NJ Intake and Exhaust Valves 0.018 in. 4-Six-Cylinder Valve Clearance Adjustment TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.400 Series . (0. 2-Four-Cylinder Valve Clearance Adjustment 3.018 In.. OF ENGINE- 432 1 E I lEE I I E NO. I TDC COMPRESSION STROKE 6 5 4 3 2 1 EI IE EI IE EI IE R 11117 NO. Rotate flywheel 360 degrees until No. Fig.A. Use JOE-81 Engine Rotation Tool Set (A. 3) to position No.4 piston is at TOC of its compression stroke. Adjust valve clearance on No... 3 and 4 intake valves to the specification listed above. 2 and 4 exhaust valves and No. 2. 5. Four Cylinder Engine . and Camshaft Engine Repair Checking Valve Clearance-Continued Six Cylinder Engine . (0. 4. 3-Setting "TOC" Fig. 1 and 2 intake valves. (0.028 in.20-05-2 Cylinder Head.. 1 cylinder are in the up position (rocker arms loose). Engines .46 mm) 0. 1 and 3 exhaust valves and No. 1. 1 piston at TOC of its compression stroke.6 TDC COMPRESSION STROKE VALVE CLEARANCE SPECIFICATIONS Intake Valves Exhaust Valves 0.46 mm) lj Fig. Valves..71 mm) Fig. Turn flywheel until timing pin engages timing hole in flywheel and both valves on No. Adjust valve clearance on No.S.

. and 4 intake valves (Fig. Fig. . Place dial indicator on rotator (Fig.95 to 11.6 piston is at "TOG" of its compression stroke.414 to 0. cam followers.25 mm) TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. .28 mm) 6404T and A. . .53 mm) Exhaust Valves. 5).77 to 11. 0. . . . (10.A. After rocker arm contacts valve stem. .424 to 0. Engines - 400 Series . . . .1. 0. . Engine Repair Cylinder Head.52 to 11.. . Adjust valve clearance on No. (10. VALVE LIFT NEW PART SPECIFICATIONS 4270 Intake Valves. . . 3.454 in.. . . . . . . 1. .412 to 0. and 5 exhaust valves and No. Valves. . . Manually turn engine in running direction (counterclockwise) . 4. . . 0.. .1.443 in. 0.61 mm) 64040 and 64660 Intake Valves. 4. Set valve clearance to specifications as previously indicated. . . . .2. (10. . . . Adjustvalve clearance on No. . . . . . .431 to 0..S.-------. and tool timing pin engages flywheel hole.85 to 11. . 2. . . . . . . .. . and push rods. . .71 mm) Exhaust Valves 0. ..461 in. 6).457 in. 3. and 6 exhaust valves and No. .49 to 11. .444 in. 6-Checking Valve Lift (6-Cylinder shown) 5. .23 mm) Exhaust Valves.3. .427 to 0. 6466T and A Intake Valves. . (10. (10. . and Camshaft 20-05-3 Checking Valve Lift Measuringvalve liftcan give an indicationof wear to cam lobes.442 in. Fig. Rotate flywheel 360 degrees until NO. . 5.46 to 11. . . observe dial indicator reading as valve is moved to full open. 2. 5-Checking Valve Clearance 3. . and 6 intake valves to the specifications listed above..413 to 0. . 0. 4. (10.

10). Remove fuel lines and leak-off line. 2. Remove turbocharger ("T"and "A"engines) with exhaust manifold. NOTE: When removing rocker arm shaft components.400 Series . or loose rocker arm shaft clamps. scores.- 20-05-4 Cylinder Head. B-Oil Holes C-Adjusting Screws 2. 9). Valves.. Remove rocker arm shaft end plugs and slide components from shaft (Fig. Inspection and Repair 1. identify for reassembly into original position. 6. Check for cups or concave wear on ends of rocker arms where they contact valve tips (A. Remove rocker arm cover. Remove intercooler ("A" engines) with intake manifold. 4. Remove water manifold. 1 and 2 and 5 and 6 clamps.--. 8-Right Side Removal Steps (6466A Engine Shown) 5. Fig. Remove air cleaner. 9-Rocker Arm Shaft Components (6-Cylinder Shown) 2. I NOTE: 6466T (072864) and A (068223) engines use a one-piece rocker arm shaft clamp in place of the Nos. 3. Remove fuel injection nozzles. Check rocker arm adjusting nut and screw for damage (C. or excessive wear at points of rocker arm contact. 9). Fig. 4.--. and Camshaft ROCKER Removal Engine Repair ARM ASSEMBLY CYLINDER HEAD AND VALVES Access 1.. Inspect rocker arm shaft for scratches. 9). Fig. Fig. 8. 7.-- -------- u -. 1. Disconnect battery ground cables and drain cooling system (not shown). 3. Remove rocker arm shaft clamp cap screws..A. Fig. bent push rods. NOTE: Wear could indicate weak valve springs.S. TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. mufflerand exhaust elbow. -. 7-Left Side Removal Steps (6466A Engine Shown) A-End Plug. Plug openings to prevent contamination.. Engines . Fig. Be sure that all oil holes are open and clean (B.

. Placespringson a flat surfaceto see that they are squareand parallel.36 in.400 Series A-Spring Pin Fig. Make sure rocker arm shaft end plugs are firmly seated in end of shaft. Visually check valve face and stem for wear or damage. (591. Insure that valve rotators will turn freely in one direction. .9 mm) 133 to 153 Ibs.5 kgm). Replace valve wear caps if pitted or worn. 1. . .8 N) (45. 11) and locating hole (B) in rocker arm shaft line up. AND WEAR CAPS Removal 1. Hold each valve firmly against a wire wheel on a bench grinder.A. Inspectvalve springsfor alignment. . TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. and Camshaft 20-05-5 VALVES. 2. . Assemble parts on rocker arm shaft in reverse of sequence removed. identify for reassembly into original positions. 1. . and be sure they are strong enough to exert a positive pressure on arms. . Compression Height 54 to 62 Ibs. . . . . .--B-Locatlng Hole __I 1. Examine spacer springs on shaft between rocker arms. . Fig. 4. 11-Rocker Arm Shaft Locating Holes 3. insuring that spring pin (A.S. . . . . VALVE SPRINGS. . . Use a valve spring compressor to remove valves from head. . . Remove rocker arm assembly as previously described. . 3. 2. IMPORTANT: Any carbon left on the stem will affect alignment in valve refacer if valves need to be refaced. Cleaning Valves A /~ R 26136NI __ . .2 to 275. . . and damage. . NOTE: When removing valves. face and stem. . 3. Polish the valve stems with steel wool or fine emery cloth to remove any scratch marks left by the wire brush. . . Position rocker arm shaft on head. Inspection Valve Springs And Repair 5. 2. . . 10-Rocker Arm Wear 3. Engines . valve springs. 2. VALVE ROTATORS. . . Make sure all carbon is removed from the valve head. NOTE: If the rocker arm has been damaged by a valve failure. Remove head. . . .Engine Repair Cylinder Head. Perform the following cleaning procedure before measuring or repairing valves. . . 3.5 N) (34.5 mm) Valves. replace with new. . Rotators and Wear Caps 1. If defective. 1. 2. Tighten rocker arm shaft clamp cap screws to 55 ft-Ibs (75 Nm) (7. Checkvalve spring tension on a spring tester. .6 to 680.81 in. .wear. R 26131N A-Worn Area Fig. . . . (240. VALVESPRINGNEWPARTSPECIFICATIONS Assembly and Installation 1. 4. replace it and the push rod when replacing valves. . . . and valve rotators. . . .. . Valves.

NOTE: A few drops of light oil or kerosene will help to fully clean the guide. . . . Compare valve stem 0.15 mm) and still be acceptable.. (9.1/2° (6404T.0. bent or warped.0.0020 to 0. 13-lnspecting Valves NOTE: Worn guides can allow a clearance of 0. . Engines .spectionCenter (Fig. Use D-05058ST Valve In.A.006 in.20-05-6 Cylinder Head.010 in. Use a valve guide cleaning brush to clean valve guides before inspection or repair. . Fig.051 to 0.537 mm) New guide-to-valve stem clearance.64040) 29. /"A /' '? 1. 12) with valve guide 1.3755 in..400 Series . A-Valve Guide B-Telescope Fig. Valves.3745 to 0. (0.43 to 9. . . . . 13) to determine if valves are out of round.J R 26139N Fig.3715 to 0. install oversize valves. .010 in.0040 in. 0. RG1l77 A-44-1/2° (42700. of guide in a new head . (9.0.S. 12-Valve Specifications 4. 0. .46 mm) Fig. . (0. 14-Checking Valve Guide Gauge 2. (0. Measure valve guides for wear (Fig. . A and 6466) ~. (0. . 14). VALVE GUIDE NEW PART SPECIFICATIONS . If clearance exceeds 0. TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.25 mm) or less..512 to 9.3725 In. (B. . to determine stem-to-guide clearance. .102 mm) \ 1 . 5.25 mm). Worn guides may be knurled to return them to specified clearance if valve-to-guide clearance is 0. and Camshaft Valve Guides Engine Repair Inspection and Repair-Continued 1. .

450 (6404T. 0. 18-Grinding Valve Seats III> 'R26142N Fig.400 Series . . . 2. Avoid the natural tendency to grind off too much. .S. A and 6466). Check seats for cracks. .36 mm) D-Valve Seat Runout (Maximum). . . (2. . support the weight of the driver to avoid excess pressure on the stone. . . .002 In. 17-Valve Seat Specifications A-Knurler B-Reamer C--Speed Reducer D-Lubricant Fig. . . . . 3. . . While grinding. .. . pits. . . . . . Only a few seconds are required to recondition the average valve seat. D-20002WI Knurling Tool Set to knurl valve guides (Fig. . . 1. . NOTE: Use tool set exactly as directed by the manufacturer. TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. . . .093 In. . . . . Use an electric hand drill with wire cleaning brush (Fig. 15-Knurling Valve Guides Grinding Valve Seats 3. . . Do not grind too long. . and Camshaft 20-05-7 R26126N A-Valve Seat Insert B-Valve Seat Angle (4270D. (0. 16-Cleaning Valve Seats 1. . Use No. . . 6404D) . . . Keep the work area clean. . . Valve Seats Fig. Check the seat width and contact pattern between the seat and valve with blueing. 16) and remove all carbon. . 15).A. . Engines . . . . 0. . . . . Valves. . 3. . . 2. . . . . .11 to 2. . . . . . . .Engine Repair Cylinder Head.300 C--Valve Seat Width. . Do not use too much pressure. 4. . Recondition valve seat by grinding. . .05 mm) Fig. or excessive wear.083 to 0.

. . . . . Valve Height Specification (In relation to cylinder head surface) 42700. . . . . Remove valve seats with JOE-41296 Valve Seat Puller (Fig. 20). . valve seats. JOE-79 3. . . .068 in. Use JOE-7 Oriver (C) and proper Ring to drive inserts into place. . . . . .S.--- .400 Series . below (0. . . . JOE-66 6404A. check valve face angle and valve seat angle. R A-Insert B-Replacement C-JDE. Valves.038 in. . . . After grinding. . 21-lnstalling Valve Seat Inserts 2. .006 in. . . .050 in. 6466T and A 0. . .. . 64660 Intake. . .A. . 0.27 mm below) Exhaust Valve . . 64040 and T. Use a dial indicator to check valve height (Fig. . . . . . . . JOE-67 Exhaust . .7 Driver Ring Fig. . . . . 21) and Ring (8) to -20°F (-29°C) in dry ice. .72 mm below) 6404T and A. 0. . Grind valve seats. . .. and Camshaft Engine Repair Inspection and Repair-Continued Replacing Valve Seat Inserts Checking Valve Height 1. 6466T and A. . TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.054 to 0. . . . . 4. . If valve is recessed. . . . . . . Engines . . 19-Checking Valve Height 2. . . . . or both. . . to obtain proper valve height. below (0.installvalve. Fig. . . . . . . .038 to 0. . 64040. Fig.96 to 1. 5. above to 0. . Chill both new insert (A. . . . . .20-05-8 Cylinder Head.96 mm above to 0. . Fig. 20-Removing Valve Seats 1. .15 below) NOTE: If valve face protrudes. . . . . . . install either new valves. . . .37 to 1. 19). Select the proper Replacement Ring from the following table: Valve Seat Ring 42700. below (1. 64660 Intake Valve. . . .

1.69 mm). Install valves in guides from which they were removed. Install retainer locks on valves. Valves. 1. Installation NOTE: See page 20-10-10 before installing cylinder head gasket on 64040 and 64660 engines. 23-Cylinder Head Cap Screw Tightening Sequence (Start at No. Install rotators. Valves are coded black and red respectively on 64040 and 42700. 7. Install valve springs making certain that cylinder head end of spring is located correctly in machined counter bore of the head.S.7585 to 1. Strike the end of each valve three or four times with a soft mallet to insure proper positioning of the retainer locks. 22). TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. (0. the outside diameter of the valve seat bore may become damaged and require machining. 3.A. 3. Assembly 1. In this case. Engines . (44. 6. Thoroughly clean the cylinder head. Compress valve springs with valve spring compressor.- -- -- Engine Repair Cylinder Head. Cylinder Head 1. Use a straight edge to check the head for level (Fig. (0. NOTE: New exhaust and intake valves are color R 26147N Fig. Place cylinder head in correct position on block.25 mm) oversize only.400 Series . Dip cap screws and washers in clean engine oil. Install cylinder head gasket dry. Machine seat diameter to 1. 4.001 in. 2. 22-Checking Cylinder Head 2. oversize inserts are available in 0. Replace inserts as previously indicated. 3. \ NOTE: Valves must move freely and seat properly. 2. 5.1) coded green and yellow respectively on 6404T and A.02 mm) for every 5 in. and Camshaft 20-05-9 Installing Oversize Inserts In some cases. (127 mm) of head length. Apply AR44402 Lubricant to valve stems and guides.7595 in. Remove valve seats withJDE-41296 ValveSeat Puller. 2.010 in. R 26146N Fig. 3. Warpage should not exceed 0.67 to 44.

156 142 108 142 180 180 156 156 180 15... Position rocker arm shaft on head.. T and A ("12..6 18.........0 18... 105 6404T and A .. ....0 18....... . 25-Checking Camshaft End Play TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U....130 ft-Ibs Final 42700 and 64040.. Run engine at 2100 RPM for 1/2 hour. ... 80 64660. T and A (plain head) . 23.8 14. 150 Nm 204 180 180 204 kgm 20.. 24-Rocker Arm Shaft Locating Hole 7.... Remove rocker arm assembly. 23..0 20........Initial 42700 ft-Ibs Nm kgm . Install wear caps on valves making certain caps rotate freely. . .4 CAMSHAFT Checking Camshaft End Play 1. ...20-05-10 Cylinder Head... . Tighten rocker arm shaft clamp cap screws to 55 ft-Ibs (75 Nm) (7..... Retighten cylinder head cap screws to the following specifications using the sequence shown in Fig. and A ("12.. Fig. . 6. 3. 5.. ... and Camshaft Engine Repair Installation-Continued 4...6 14. .4 18. . . .. Install push rods in holes from which they were removed.. A-Spring Pin B-Locating Hole Fig.. ...9" head).. Remove rocker arm cover...... .... .. 2.... Engines .... . 10.. CYLINDER HEAD CAP SCREW TORQUES 130 115 ..5 kgm).9" on the head.... 4. . CYLINDER HEAD CAP SCREW TORQUES 8... .2 10..S... 24) and locating hole (8) in rocker arm shaft line up.6 15.... 105 Second 42700 . Remove push rods. ........... Reverse access steps. .... 64660.0 11.. Identify for reassembly. ... 6404T and A .. ... ...115 64660. T. Fig. Remove timfhg gear cover.. 130 64660. .. ........ . . ... T and A. ....0 15.130 64040 ............ NOTE: Early model6466enginesmayhavea plain headed cap screw. 9...... T and A (plain head) .. Remove damper and pulley (6 cylinder engines). 130 64660. Install cap screws and tighten to the following specifications using the sequence shown in Fig.. 115 64040 .... 5... Valves... .. 150 6404T and A ..2 18. . ... ...9" head) .. Late models may have screws marked "12.A. . . ... insuring that spring pin (A.400 Series --- .

Check camshaft end play. the gear should be replaced. Carefully remove camshaft from cylinder block so that camshaft lobes do not drag in bores. Use D-15001NU Magnetic Holding Tool Set to hold cam followers away from camshaft (Fig. Fig. NOTE: An indexing mark has been placed across the parting line of the two parts of the gear (A. Remove oil pan and oil pump. Examine crankshaft gear and injection pump drive gear for worn or broken teeth or damage. 4. Fig. .0085 in.0150 in. Remove cap screw and special washer. inspect camshaft drive gear for slippage between the two parts of the gear. . Remove four cap screws from thrust plate. (0. . 3. 27-6-Cylinder Camshaft Drive Gear 2. 26). 28-Removing Camshaft Gear TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.22 mm) Allowable end play 0. (0. . 0. Place a dial indicator on camshaft (Fig.A.S. 25). NOTE: If end play exceeds wear specification check thrust washer thickness during disassembly. 26-lnstalling Magnetic Holding Tool Set 1. If the mark has separated. Removal Fig. and Camshaft Inspection and Repair 20-05-11 1. both gears must be replaced as a matched set.Engine Repair Cylinder Head.38 mm) . Fig.06 to 0. Removing Camshaft Gear 1. 2. On 6-cylinder engines. . 3. Valves. . . CAMSHAFT END PLAY SPECIFICATIONS Camshaft Gear 1. New engine end play . 27). Engines - 400 Series . 2. Inspect camshaft drive gear for worn or broken teeth and replace as necessary. .0025 to 0. NOTE: If either gear has failed.

2. check thrust plate for proper thickness.31 to 60. . Thrust Plate After removal of camshaft gear.1890 in.. cam fol/owers must also be replaced. NOTE: The first two bushings can be reached from the front of the engine. 30). .20-05-12 Cylinder Head.34 mm) New Bushing I.3755 in. 4. Press camshaft from gear.15 mm) A-Thrust Plate B-Spacer A-Tool Locking Key B. NOTE: If camshaft is replaced due to a damaged oil pump drive gear.A. 2. . . 29-lnstal/ing Camshaft Bushings 1.3795 (60. (4. 2. check gear and shaft on oil pump for damage and replace if necessary.80 mm) Acceptable wear thickness 0. Support camshaft under first journal in a hydraulic press. The PTO assembly and flywheel must be removed to service the rear bushings. Install Woodruff key (C).39 to 60.62 mm) Assembly Bushings and Journals Checkcamshaftbushingsandjournalsfor wear or damage. .1860 to 0. (60.Tool Mandrel C-Camshaft Bushing D-Engine Block C-Woodruff Key D-Keyway Fig. and Camshaft Lobes Engine Repair Inspection and Repair-Continued 2.. 1. (Fig. Install thrust plate (A) and spacer (B). . be sure that the elongated oil holes are to the top and are aligned with the oil holes in the cylinder block. Press gear on until tight against camshaft shoulder.D.D. When new bushings are instal/ed. . Valves. Align Woodruff key (C) and keyway (D) and place gear on camshaft with timing mark facing away from camshaft.3775 to 2. . TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U. Use JDE-6 Camshaft Bushing Replacement Set to remove and install camshaft bushings. 5. . . . 28). 30-Supporting Camshaft in Press Fig. Checkcamshaftlobesfor wear or damage. Engines . . .1820 in. 3. .0060 in. Check camshaft oil pump drive gear for wear or damage.72 to 4. . 0. (4. IMPORTANT: Prevent camshaft from striking floor when pressing camshaft from gear. If camshaft is replaced. . . .3745 to 2. THRUSTPLATESPECIFICATIONS New Part Thickness 0. . . .44 mm) Clearance Allowable. . 1. 2. BUSHINGAND JOURNALSPECIFICATIONS New Journal O. 3. (0.400 Series .S. Support camshaft gear in a press (Fig.

31) on camshaft and crankshaft gears. 8. 1 piston on TDC of its compression stroke. 6. 5. A-Location Mark B.06 to 0. 7. Tighten thrust plate-to-block cap screws to 20 ft-Ibs (27 Nm) (2. align timing marks (C. Check camshaft for 0.Timing Mark Fig. Fig.S. 31-Gear Timing TM-1106 (Jan-79) Litho in U.0025 to 0. Coat camshaft with JDT405 High Temperature Grease. Engines .22 mm) end play. Valves.400 Series . Install special washer on camshaft. Turn camshaft gear to align thrust plate holes with cylinder block holes. Tighten camshaft gear-to-camshaft cap screw to 85 ft-Ibs (115 Nm) (11. or equivalent. (0.0085 in. 4.A.5 kgm). 1. 2.Engine Repair Cylinder Head.7 kgm). With No. 3. reinstall using the D-15001NU (ND425) Magnetic Holding Tool Set to hold cam followers away from camshaft bore until camshaft is installed. Carefully install camshaft in cylinder block so that camshaft lobes do not drag in bores. and Camshaft 20-05-13 Installation If cam followers have been removed.Thrust Plate Cap Screw C.

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