EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION

EUROCONTROL

A-SMGCS Project Strategy

DAP / APT

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1.0 30/09/2003 Released Issue General Public

EUROPEAN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

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Document Title A-SMGCS Project Strategy

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Paul Adamson

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DAP / APT

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AUTHORITY Project Manager A-SMGCS

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Paul Adamson

Edition: 1.0

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DOCUMENT CHANGE RECORD The following table records the complete history of the successive editions of the present document.

EDITION 0.g 0.h 1.0

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...... 5 Structure of the document .................................................2 6.14 2.38 7......................................................................................................................3 Issues of the current situation............................................................................... 16 EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy for the Years 2000+..................................................................................................1 Aircraft operators acceptance.............................................. 22 A-SMGCS benefits .................................. RISKS AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES ...........................................1 5..........................4 1...............2 3.....4 A-SMGCS definition ..................................... 38 Edition: 1..........TABLE OF CONTENTS 1............22 5.......................................... 14 Guidance .............2 4............................................................................................................................ 14 Control ............................... 8 2................................... 32 Areas of change ..............................................3 2..............1 6..................................... 28 A-SMGCS environment ................................................................................................................................3 6.......................................28 6.................. A-SMGCS OPERATIONAL VISION ...........................................................2 2.............. Technological R&D and demonstrations ....................................................................................... 6 Reference Documents...1 2.................. 15 3......................................... 19 4. 5 Acronyms........... 35 7..................... 18 EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Unit Strategy ............................. NEEDS FOR A-SMGCS ...................................................................0 Page 3 ........................................................................................................................................ 21 5....3 International standardisation .............................................1 4....................................................... INTRODUCTION..5 1........16 3........................................................................................... CURRENT SITUATION : SMGCS ..........................2 A-SMGCS Strategic Objectives...................................... A-SMGCS STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS ........1 3.............................................................................................................................................4 Introduction : ICAO SMGCS manual........20 4...........................2 1................................................................1 1.................................................5 1. 20 Initial Operational Implementations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Operational concept definition..................................................................................................................6 Scope of the document..... 15 Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) ............................................................................... 5 Dependencies with other work .................................. 30 Actors............................................ 7 Explanation of terms....... Roles and Services in A-SMGCS............ A-SMGCS DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE ........3 1............................................. 24 6..........

....................................7.................................. 39 Improvement of Surveillance ................................... 40 Edition: 1.............................................7 7................ ....... 38 Certification....................................................................................6 7..........................................0 Page 4 ..............3 7.......................8 Airports stakeholders’ acceptance ..................................5 7................................... 39 Improvement of Guidance and Control .......................................................................................................2 7.4 7... 39 Improvements in Conflict Detection and Alert ....................................... 39 Improvement of Planning and Routing..................................................................................................................... 38 Procedures ...............

The aim of this document is not to “re-invent” the ASMGCS concept but to propose a strategy for A-SMGCS implementation on the basis of the work that has already been performed by these organisations. airport managers. airport operators (i. airlines.2 Dependencies with other work The EUROCONTROL A-SMGCS project is based on the work already performed on the subject by ICAO. and early implementations of A-SMGCS in major European airports. 1. The A-SMGCS subjects and specifications have already been tackled and extensively investigated by several organisations such as ICAO. FAA and EUROCONTROL. The documents of the project are also presented to stakeholders through a consultation process in order to collect their comments on the documents. EUROCAE. Edition: 1.3 Structure of the document Introduction Chapter 1 describes the purpose of this document. Note: The present document contains a draft version of A-SMGCS strategy in order to support validation activity. ATM stakeholders. EUROCAE. AMN (procedures). GNSS etc. AMAN. The Strategy presents an operational vision on how ATS and the relationships amongst airport stakeholders are expected to evolve through the evolutionary implementation of A-SMGCS. INTRODUCTION 1. The document also phases the A-SMGCS implementation in compliance with the context of the gate-to-gate ATM network and the related EATMP Programmes as well as the availability of ECAC airport projects and technology such as CDM. pilots. ADS.0 Page 5 . Such a vision encompasses airspace users. handling operators.e. The work is performed in collaboration with other EUROCONTROL working groups like HUM (human factors and licensing). projects such as BETA.1. 1. The document will be updated according to the validation results.1 Scope of the document The general objective of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) is to ensure the safety and efficiency of airport surface traffic with the increasing density of traffic and in all weather conditions down to cat III landing. DMAN. its structure and the associated reference documents. Strategy for A-SMGCS Implementation also forms one of the baseline documents for the EUROCONTROL A-SMGCS project. CBA). apron vehicle drivers). SQS (Safety. The proposed strategy is complemented by a document titled “Definition of ASMGCS Implementation Levels” [D2] which identifies the main changes and implementation steps that leads from SMGCS to A-SMGCS in the context of ECAC and in the ATM 2000+ timeframe. The EUROCONTROL A-SMGCS project will focus on level I and II of A-SMGCS implementation.

A-SMGCS Strategic Objectives and Benefits Provides. Risks and Implementation Issues Chapter 7 addresses the Implementation Issues through identifying the risks associated with the implementation of the A-SMGCS and suggests ways to removing or mitigating them. 1. a detailed description of the Strategic Objectives and targets which are relevant to A-SMGCS. in Chapter 4. an overview of the European work already performed on A-SMGCS. in Chapter 5.Current Situation : SMGCS Chapter 2 provides the description of the Current Situation for SMGCS in the ECAC Area in 2002. Need for A-SMGCS Chapter 3 explains why the implementation of an Advanced SMGCS has become necessary.0 Page 6 .4 Acronyms ADP ADS ADS-B ANSPs AMAN AOP AOPG AOT A-SMGCS ATC ATCO ATHOS ATM ATOPS ATS BETA CDG CDM CFMU CNS DA VINCI Aéroport de Paris Automatic Dependent Surveillance Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast Air Navigation Service Provider Arrival Manager Airport Operations Unit Former ICAO EANPG Aerodrome Operations Group Airport Operation Team Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems Air Traffic Control ATC Controller Airport Tower Harmonised Controller System Air Traffic Management A-SMGCS Testing for Operational Procedures by Simulation Air Traffic Services Operational Benefit Evaluation by Testing an A-SMGCS Charles De Gaulle Collaborative Decision Making Central Flow Management Unit Communication Navigation Surveillance Departure and Arrival Integrated Management System for Cooperative Improvement of Airport Traffic Flow Edition: 1. A-SMGCS Development in Europe Provides. A-SMGCS operational vision Chapter 6 describes the main evolutions in ATS brought about by A-SMGCS.

AOP Strategy Volume 2. Proposed Edition. Edition ED-87A. Sept 2001 ICAO Doc 4444-RAC/501 RULES OF THE AIR AND AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES ICAO Doc 7030. Nov 2001 ICAO Annex 14. Chapter 8 EUROCONTROL Air Traffic Management Strategy for the Years 2000+. Advanced Surface Edition: 1.5 Reference Documents [D2] [ICAO-SMGCS] [ICAO-A-SMGCS] [ICAO-Annex14] [ATM-2000+] [AOS-Vol2] [ICAO-4444] [ICAO-7030] [EUROCAE-MASPS] [AOPG-Procedures] [AOP-Req] D2 . Final Draft.European Supplementary Procedures EUROCAE WG-41. Volume I. 2002 EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Group. Volume 1 and 2. Proposed Implementation of A-SMGCS Procedures and amendments to ICAO Documentation.0 Page 7 .Definition of A-SMGCS Implementation Levels ICAO Manual of Surface Movement Control and Guidance Systems (SMGCS) doc 9476-AN/927 First Edition 1986 ICAO European Manual on Advanced Surface Movement Control and Guidance Systems (A-SMGCS) AOPG. January 2000 EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Unit.DEFAMM DFS DMAN DNA EC ECAC ESARR EUROCAE FAA GBAS GLS GNSS GPS HMI ICAO LVP MASPS MLS RTF RVR SMGCS SMR SRC TMA Development of Demonstration Facilities for Airport Movement Guidance Control and Management Deutsche Flugsicherung Departure Manager French Civil Aviation Agency European Commission European Civil Aviation Conference Eurocontrol Safety Regulatory Requirements European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment Federal Aviation Administration Ground based Augmentation System GNSS Landing System Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Human Machine Interface International Civil Aviation Organisation Low Visibility Procedures Minimum Aviation System Performance Specification Microwave Landing System Radio Telephony Runway Visual Range Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems Surface Movement Radar Safety Regulation Commission Terminal Control Area 1. MASPS for A-SMGCS. January 2001 ICAO AOPG2.

Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition Systems providing routing. surveillance and control to aircraft and affected vehicles in order to maintain movement rates under all local weather conditions within the Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level (AVOL) whilst maintaining the required level of safety.0 Page 8 . and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for arrival. The movement of a mobile (aircraft or vehicle) on the movement area. the ICAO Annex 14 [ICAO-Annex14] or the EUROCAE MASPS for A-SMGCS [EUROCAE-MASPS]. June 2002 [SRC] Safety Regulation Commission. Edition 2. Aerodrome Visibility Operational Level (AVOL) [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The minimum visibility at or above which the declared movement rate can be sustained. [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definitions are used as a first option. ATOPS Final Report (DERA). Aerodrome movement [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition addresses only aircraft movement. Aerodrome [ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A defined area on land or water (including any buildings. If not. In general.0. Edition 1. February 2001 European Commission DG TREN. Airport authority [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The person(s) responsible for the operational management of the airport. we extended the definition to all mobiles. installations. departure and surface movement of aircraft.Movement Guidance and Control Systems Concept Justification and User Requirements. BETA Project – Review of Existing Concepts (DERA). Aircraft Accidents/Incidents and ATM contribution: Review and Analysis of Historical Data. Draft 0. 19 October 2001.6 Explanation of terms This section provides the explanation of terms required for a correct understanding of the present document. September 2000 [EC-BETA] [EC-ATOPS] 1. it is explained why another definition is preferred to the ICAO one. in that case it is indicated in the definition. other definitions are only used where there is no ICAO definition. Most of the following explanations are drawn from the ASMGCS manual [ICAO-A-SMGCS].3.0. AOT/10 WP3. guidance. European Commission DG TREN. Alert Edition: 1.

runway incursions and to ensure safe. or an indication of abnormal A-SMGCS operation. fuelling. Note : as several cooperative surveillance technologies exist. a mobile is cooperative on an aerodrome only if the mobile and the aerodrome are equipped with cooperative surveillance technologies which are interoperable. named cooperative surveillance sensor. A-SMGCS capacity [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The maximum number of simultaneous movements of aircraft and vehicles that the system can safely support within an acceptable delay commensurate with the runway and taxiway capacity at a particular aerodrome. collects information about the mobiles from an active element of the transponder type which equips the mobiles.0 Page 9 . that requires attention/action. This technique allows to collect more mobile parameters than the non-cooperative surveillance.[ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition An indication of an existing or pending situation during aerodrome operations. Cooperative mobile “Cooperative target” [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition in which “target” is replaced by “mobile” (see mobile definition) Mobile which is equipped with systems capable of automatically and continuously providing information including its Identity to the A-SMGCS. Cooperative surveillance The surveillance of mobiles is cooperative when a sensor. Alert Situation [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition Any situation relating to aerodrome operations which has been defined as requiring particular attention or action. The cooperative surveillance may be : Edition: 1. Control [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition Application of measures to prevent collisions. mail or cargo. intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers. parking or maintenance. expeditious and efficient movement. Conflict [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A situation when there is a possibility of a collision between aircraft and/or vehicles. Apron [ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A defined area on a land aerodrome. for instance the mobiles identity.

for instance Mode S Multilateration. vehicle or obstacle into the defined protected areas surrounding an active runway. Identity “Aircraft identification” [ICAO-4444] definition extended to all mobiles. Manoeuvring area [ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition Edition: 1. when the mobile is interrogated by the surveillance sensor. False Alert [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition Alert which does not correspond to an actual alert situation. Incursion [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The unauthorized entry by an aircraft. for instance via ADS-B. Identification [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The correlation of a known aerodrome movement callsign with the displayed target of that mobile on the display of the surveillance system. A group of letters. figures or a combination thereof which is either identical to. alerts which are correctly generated according to the rule set but are inappropriate to the desired outcome). information and advice necessary to provide continuous. Or Non-dependant on the cooperative mobile.Either dependant on the cooperative mobile. Data Fusion [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition A generic term used to describe the process of combining surveillance information from two or more sensor systems or sources.0 Page 10 . and which is used to identify the mobile in ground-ground air traffic services communications. unambiguous and reliable information to pilots of aircraft and drivers of vehicles to keep their aircraft or vehicles on the surfaces and assigned routes intended for their use.e. the mobile call sign to be used in air-ground communications. taxiway or apron. Guidance [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition Facilities. Note : It is important to understand that it refers only to false alerts and does not address nuisance alerts (i. or the coded equivalent of. when the mobile automatically generates the information and transmits it to the surveillance sensor. Intruder Any mobile which is detected in a specific airport area into which it is not allowed to enter.

or parts thereof. detects the mobiles. Examples of noncooperative surveillance sensors are the Primary Surveillance Radars. Movement area [ICAO-Annex14] . named noncooperative surveillance sensor. Normal Visibility Visibility conditions sufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance (correspond to visibility condition 1 defined by ICAO [ICAO-A-SMGCS]). the term “Mobile” will be preferred to “Target”. landing and taxiing of aircraft. The term “Target” will only be used when considering an image of a mobile or other obstacle displayed on a surveillance screen. and not another obstacle.That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off. Nuisance Alert [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition Alert which is correctly generated according to the rule set but are inappropriate to the desired outcome. that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of mobiles or that extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight. Non-Cooperative mobile “Non-cooperative target” [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition in which “target” is replaced by “mobile” (see mobile definition) Mobile which is not equipped with systems capable of automatically and continuously providing information including its Identity to the A-SMGCS. without any action on their behalf.0 Page 11 . consisting of the manoeuvring area and apron(s). Mobile A mobile is either an aircraft or a vehicle. This technique allows to determine the position of any mobile in the surveillance area and in particular to detect intruders. Obstacle [ICAO-Annex14] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition extended to all mobiles. All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile obstacles. Modularity [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition Capability of a system to be enhanced by the addition of one or more modules to improve its technical or functional performance. Participating mobile Edition: 1. excluding aprons. Non-Cooperative surveillance The surveillance of mobiles is non-cooperative when a sensor. Note : when referring to an aircraft or a vehicle. [ICAO-4444] and [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off. landing and taxiing of aircraft.

This protection area is used to detect an alert situation. Routing [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition The planning and assignment of a route to individual aircraft and vehicles to provide safe. a restricted area or a mobile. Route [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A track from a defined start point to a defined endpoint on the movement area. expeditious and efficient movement from its current position to its intended position. Reduced Visibility Visibility conditions insufficient for personnel of control units to exercise control over all traffic on the basis of visual surveillance (correspond to visibility conditions 2. a participating mobile is either cooperative or non-cooperative. and likely to move on airport movement areas. Edition: 1. 3.0 Page 12 . ALL MOBILES PARTICIPATING MOBILES INTRUDERS Cooperative mobiles Non cooperative mobiles Figure 1-1 : Types of Mobiles Protection area A protection area is a virtual volume around a runway. Restricted Area Aerodrome area where the presence of an aircraft or a vehicle is permanently or temporarily forbidden. Runway Incursion EUROCONTROL Runway Incursion Task Force definition The unintended presence of an aircraft. and 4 defined by ICAO [ICAO-A-SMGCS]). vehicle or person on the runway or runway strip. an alert situation is detected when a mobile is on a runway and one or more mobiles enter the runway protection area.Mobile whose identity is known by the aerodrome authority. For instance. As illustrated in the Figure 1-1.

The term “Target” will only be used when considering an image of a mobile or other obstacle displayed on a surveillance screen.Stand [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A stand is a designated area on an apron intended to be used for the parking of an aircraft. and not another obstacle. Surveillance [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition A function of the system which provides identification and accurate positional information on aircraft. Note : when referring to an aircraft or a vehicle. Target [ICAO-A-SMGCS] definition (this definition has been preferred to the [EUROCAE-MASPS] definition) An aircraft.0 Page 13 . which image is displayed on a surveillance display. Edition: 1. vehicle or other obstacle. vehicles and obstacles within the required area. the term “Mobile” will be preferred to “Target”.

by voice. or from apron to apron. and vehicle drivers using visual observation of the location of the aircraft and vehicles in order to estimate their respective relative positions and risk of collision. Some are very much the product of local conditions and experience and the exploitation of “best practices” has yet to be fully introduced. as well as other movements on the aerodrome surface such as from a maintenance area to an apron. “Guidance relates to facilities. is done procedurally. The management of runway operations at European airports is currently achieved by a variety of techniques and procedures. the surveillance of the aerodrome is performed visually by the ground controller. guidance. Edition: 1. air traffic controllers. procedures. regulation management and information facilities. ground vehicles and personnel on the movement area of an aerodrome. and control or regulation of. most airports still rely on the former concept : Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) as defined by ICAO. 2.2 Control Currently. and low visibility conditions. all aircraft. SMGCS concerns the aircraft paths from the landing runway to the parking position on the apron and back again to the take-off runway. The SMGCS as described in [ICAO-SMGCS] consists of the provision of guidance to. Handover of control of flights between ground and aerodrome controllers.1 Introduction : ICAO SMGCS manual Even if some major airports are already equipped with A-SMGCS. control. CURRENT SITUATION : SMGCS 2. The aerodrome controller performs taxiway/runway traffic control. An SMGCS comprises an appropriate combination of visual aids.0 Page 14 . The operational procedures on the surface of an aerodrome depend on pilots. telephone or by electronic means. where these are separate responsibilities. information and advice necessary to enable the pilots of aircraft and drivers of ground vehicles to find their way on the aerodrome and to keep the aircraft or vehicles on the surfaces or within the areas intended for their use.2. These procedures are summarised in the following sections for control. SMGCS procedures are based primarily on the "see and be seen" principle to maintain separation between aircraft and/or vehicles on the aerodrome movement area. non-visual aids. “Control or regulation” means the measures necessary to prevent collisions and to ensure that the traffic flows smoothly and freely.

Pilots and vehicle drivers rely on visual aids (lighting.2. taxiway lighting and/or signage are used to advise flight crew of the taxiway route to follow.3 Guidance In the most elementary systems. the manoeuvring area is limited to one aircraft moving at a time. “Follow-me” vehicles. signage and markings) to guide them along their assigned routes and to identify intersections and holding points issued by the controller. such as stop bars and runway guard lights. organisational responsibilities. guidance of movements on the aerodrome surface is manually performed by controllers by giving instructions or manually operating stop bars and taxiway lights. Procedures vary from aerodrome to aerodrome depending on factors such as ATS regulations and policies. Access of ground vehicles is strictly controlled and only essential vehicles are permitted on the aerodrome. are used to assist ATC in controlling access to active runways. Low visibility SMGCS procedures are followed when decreasing RVR values approach a predetermined threshold (usually 550 m RVR). there is just one taxi route authorised by the ground controller. Notifications are issued to the aircraft operators usually by means of ATIS information. The decrease in capacity is given by ATM providers to CFMU. 2. Lighting systems. ATM providers and aircraft operators use checklists to implement their respective low visibility procedures.0 Page 15 . Ground controllers can instruct the flight crew through R/T messages either to take their own route. • • • Edition: 1. In case of lighting systems failures. to follow a sequence of taxi lanes and taxiways or to follow a predefined route to the runway holding point for take off or from the runway exit to the stand after landing. Landing aircraft exit the runway at specific taxiways and follow the taxi instructions from the ground controller for the designated route to the apron When there is no SMR. SMGCS defines the operational procedures that must be followed for surface movements. the following procedures (LVP) are put into operation : • • • Controllers must rely on the pilot's RTF reports to monitor the appliance of its instructions and to identify potential conflicts.4 Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) For low visibility operations. In low visibility conditions. and the aerodrome configuration and facilities.

The escalating number of accidents and incidents on surface movements has now become the biggest concern in terms of airport safety.3. The application of new and emerging technologies will help airports maintain their throughput when visibility is reduced and controllers are unable to visually observe traffic on the manoeuvring and apron areas. Low Visual Procedures are implemented in airports. These statistics and recommendations prove the urgency of deploying A-SMGCS throughout Europe.1.3 3. even if the 11th September events have produced a temporary decrease in traffic. Those procedures curtail the ATM overall capacity and impede apron activities especially when airports are not equipped to track ground mobiles.2 All weather operation In adverse meteorological conditions. aircraft accidents and incidents that have occurred in the European Civil Aviation Conference region (ECAC) area over the last twenty years. This document also highlights the relative importance of accidents occurring during the taxi phase. 3. based on Join Aviation Authority (JAA) studies. see [SRC].0 Page 16 .1. As an indicative figure. In addition. The doubling of reported incidents is perhaps also to be related to an increase in the incursion reporting rate (due to the implementation of ESARR2). Accidents during this phase in Western Europe and North America represent two thirds of the worldwide number of accidents. The existing systems demonstrate weaknesses in coping with the present situation and the future systems should tackle the following concerns and needs.1 Degradation of Safety The Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) has recently carried out a study giving an overview of safety data. some European airports have faced severe runways incursions lately which ended up as major incidents or accidents. The progressive growth in traffic. NEEDS FOR A-SMGCS Sources : [AOP-Req] section 9.1 Issues of the current situation Despite implementation of SMGCS in the ECAC area. Safety data for the year 2001 have not yet been published. Edition: 1. but are expected to follow the same trend. this study shows that the number of ATM related incidents collected by EUROCONTROL (referring to runway incursions) in the year 2000 were more than double the ones recorded in 1999. the complexity of aerodrome layouts and the increasing number of operations which take place in low visibility conditions are amongst the contributing factors in the increasing number of ground incidents. the study carried out by SRC presents a list of recommendations on airport layout and infrastructure. [ICAO-A-SMGCS] section 2. 3.

3.) and only a very small number of airports exploit the fusion of data from other surveillance sensors. plot clutter due to rain or grass reflection. The A-SMGCS planning / routing and guidance functions are intended to participate in the integration of airport scheduling with flow and capacity management.9 of [ICAO-Annex14] which mentions that SMGCS shall be installed in airports according to the traffic density.1. it is necessary to put into operation equipment that generates efficient flows of aircraft from/to the runway to allow optimum arrival and departure streams. 3.1. Edition: 1. combined with false alarms from any associated conflict detection and alerting system.5 Capacity Optimisation Due to the current capacity shortfall in all the major ECAC airports. The new procedures should allow controllers to issue clearances and instructions on the basis of surveillance data alone. flight label overlap. An even smaller number benefits from flight tracking and correlation with flight plan data.0 Page 17 . Consequently. They have high expectations in the actual experimentations. Mid-size airports are usually not equipped with a SMGCS which means that controllers and pilots should prevent runways incursions using visual observations and complying with RT reports. etc. controllers tend to shut down this function in order to cope with the traffic.1. A-SMGCS will permit the implementation of these new procedures and shall be aware of them in order to generate alarm only in appropriate situations. Those elements render the SMGCS surveillance function not very effective which. they are not always taken into account by the current SMGCS. current ATCO working practices have evolved. cause the ATCO to express a lack of confidence in the system. in particular concerning the average cost of marine radar as a non co-operative target sensor for A-SMGCS. The technology cost puts a brake on SMGCS implementation and ATM providers or airports operators expect less expensive ASMGCS. some conflict detection tools generate alarms.6 ATC procedures In order to cope with the increasing traffic and to enable airports to make the best use of possible capacity set up by the aerodrome infrastructure. in a multiple lineup situation cleared by the controller. layout complexity and ground vehicle traffic.4 Technology Cost Equipment which tracks and displays non co-operative targets currently on the markets is expensive and ATM providers or airports operators tend to reserve such equipment for major airports. Those local practices such as multiple line-up or conditional clearance have not yet been standardised. The most developed SMGCS in operation are currently based on a Surface Movement Radar to monitor ground traffic movements (see requirements concerning the provision of SMR [ICAO-Annex14]).3 Technology Deficiencies The major airports in the ECAC area comply with chapter 8. For instance.3. To avoid being continually disturbed by these false alarms.1. 3. operation visibility conditions. This technology has presented some deficiencies (loss of the target due to masking.

1. EUROCONTROL acknowledged the need of A-SMGCS through its strategies for ATM and Airport Operations. The approach to the implementation of the A-SMGCS technologies and the new procedures needs to be coordinated and harmonised in Europe. • • • • Edition: 1. To achieve this goal the ATM 2000+ Strategy defines the following issues: • Development of systems and tools to improve airport surveillance and traffic monitoring and also to enhance situational awareness in all-weather conditions. deployment is foreseen at the busier airports around 2005. concerns Airport ATC.8 Conclusions The growing occurrence of runway incursions combined with the relentless traffic increase. Integration of A-SMGCS with combined arrivals (AMAN) and departure (DMAN) management systems. 3. One of the focus points of the strategy is making the best use of airport airside capacity through the application of new concepts and procedures supported by improved technical systems. This coordination will make the ECAC members concentrate their efforts in aiming at the same objectives so as to faster achieve the A-SMGCS. providing scaled and modular solutions that meet local traffic requirements. Introduction of surface conflict detection and alert and guidance systems from 2010 onwards.0 Page 18 .2 EUROCONTROL ATM Strategy for the Years 2000+ One of the main areas for change. This improvement sets up the Advanced SMGCS (A-SMGCS). the emergence of new ATC procedures associated with the evolution of technology lead to the necessary improvement in the current SMGCS. A better coordination between ATCOs in charge of the manoeuvring area and the apron area operators will contribute to optimising the airport resources and the flows between both areas . It should have a considerable impact on costs. there is a need from the flight dispatch/apron control service perspective to know the availability of stands/parking areas in order to reduce taxi delays to a minimum. In particular. This new concept will have to improve traffic management on the movement area by enhancing traffic situation awareness in all weather conditions.7 Aerodrome Activities Coordination The improvement of coordination between all aerodrome activities requires the sharing of operations data between the ATC and all airport operators. In that sense. Definition of A-SMGCS requirements.3. The harmonisation will reduce the diversity of both embedded and ground equipment for A-SMGCS.1. highlighted in the ATM 2000+ Strategy. Improvement of all weather operations. 3. the need to improve airport activities in low visibility conditions. The application of the Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems concept is considered essential to achieve this objective.

This improvement will consist in the enhancement of tools and procedures for conflict detection and alerting. This improvement will consist in the enhancement of planning and routing tools in order to ease aerodrome control service to inbound and outbound air traffic flows. runway incursion.0 Page 19 . cost reductions and reduced environmental impact with less noise. ATCOs. This improvement is based on the expediting of arrival and departure traffic flows on runways and taxiways while reducing taxiing time and the risk of collision. This improvement will consist in the enhancement of the guidance and control functions for taxiing aircraft and moving vehicles on the movement area. and less gaseous emissions.3. Operational benefits are expected in terms of increased capacity. ATCOs and vehicles drivers will be able to use tools to help them to increase planning and routing capacity.2 Improvement of Conflict Detection and Alert for the Movement Area. maintaining or increasing safety of operations and cost reductions. This direction for change includes four Operational Improvements as follows: 3. The improvement of traffic management on the movement area is a priority task. 3. Initial benefits already appeared in 2000 and full operational benefits are expected in 2005.3. Edition: 1. Initial benefits will appear in 2005 and full operational benefits are expected in 2012.3. based on a fully automated conflict detection and alert. 3.4 Improvement of Guidance and Control on the Movement Area.3. maintaining or increasing safety of operations and cost reductions.g. Operational benefits are expected in terms of increased capacity. Operational benefits are expected in terms of increased capacity. derived from the ATM 2000+ Strategy. aircraft operations and en route ATM into a truly Gate-to-Gate system.3 EUROCONTROL Airport Operations Unit Strategy The Airport Operations Strategy.3 Improvement of Planning and Routing on the Movement Area. has been developed with and agreed by Stakeholders. e. 3. pilots and drivers will be able to use tools to help them maintain situational awareness of all traffic on the movement area in all weather conditions. Operational benefits are expected in terms of maintaining increased capacity or increasing safety operations. via the Airport Operations Team.3. This issue is considered as a strategic direction for change and includes improvements in all aspects of airport movement area operations such as aerodrome control service and its integration with airport operations. maintaining or increasing safety of operations and cost reductions.1 Improvement of Aerodrome and Ground Control Service on the Movement Area. Traffic will be automatically guided and controlled from the stand/gate to the holding point and arriving flights will be guided and controlled automatically from the exit taxiway to the stand/gate.

1 International standardisation ICAO has defined the operational needs for A-SMGCS in general terms and has described a modular system with several functions. 4. EUROCONTROL through the En-route strategy for the 1990s and EATCHIP programme has developed concepts and requirements for computer-based tools for assisting air traffic controllers at airports with the management of departing and arriving aircraft (DMAN and AMAN).4. Project Team 2. Qualitative and Edition: 1. according to visibility conditions. a number of projects has been launched by the European Commission DG TREN to derive operational concept(s) and perform evaluation through simulations or operational demonstrations. Following ICAO. submitted the final draft of the European Manual on A-SMGCS (version 10) for official approval [ICAO-A-SMGCS]. industrial partners have tackled the technological aspect of A-SMGCS in two ways : 1. the gate-to-gate operations concept has been elaborated and a procedure/standard/technical framework for the improvement of services in the manoeuvring area has been identified. orderly and expeditious movement of aircraft and vehicles on aerodromes. These functions are designed to support the safe. Parallel with operational concept development.2 Operational concept definition. in November 2001. 4. ADS-B. Through the ATM 2000+ Strategy and the Airport Operations Strategy (in particular [AOS-Vol2]). Evaluation of all existing and future candidate technologies to be used in ASMGS implementation : this covers several domains of CNS (Radar. A-SMGCS DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE Historically the concept of A-SMGCS was introduced at the end of the 1980s following the increase in airport traffic and in runway incursion incidents. ASMGCS development in Europe is performed through several type of activities. In 2000 EC DG TREN launched the BETA Project ([EC-BETA]) aiming at assessing A-SMGCS benefits through extensive field trials.0 Page 20 . Mode S. aerodrome complexity and traffic conditions. (AOPG-PT2). GNSS) and also other systems using optical sensors or systems 2. Technological R&D and demonstrations Based on the ICAO manual. EUROCAE has initiated a development of a modular systems together with associated performances (see [EUROCAE-MASPS]) Airport Council International (ACI) has also contributed to the previous activities by involving the major European airports. Compatibility assessment of the candidate technologies and the way they could collaborate and complement each other through data link communications and data fusion. The ICAO Aerodrome Operations Planning Group.

runway incursion detection. Heathrow Airport : use of SMR and Mode-S Multilateration. no vehicle tracking. As Examples : Frankfurt Airport : TACSYS/CAPTS surveillance system includes a X-Band SMR.fr). in particular for hazardous situation detection . Amsterdam Airport Edition: 1.3 Initial Operational Implementations Some of the major airports in Europe have initiated the implementation of ASMGCS but with different operational concepts and approaches. 4. MANTEA : evaluation of decision support tools. ATHOS : prototype of ATC controller HMI . A number of other projects have contributed to A-SMGCS development. runway incursion detection provided by HITT (www. developed by DNA and ADP (www. DAVINCI : evaluation of sequencing tools integrating arrivals and departures. Paris CDG : AVISO system includes surface radar ASTRE. Brussels National (Zaventem) : use of SMR and Mode-S Multilateration is planned for surveillance.nl).0 Page 21 . anti-collision system SALADIN. Zurich Airport : implementation of Mode-S Multilateration is planned.quantitative operational benefits for A-SMGCS users have been demonstrated at significant airports and derived system requirements analysed in order to complete the [ICAO-A-SMGCS] manual.dgac.hitt. amongst them : DEFAMM : evaluation of co-operative surveillance sensors (Mode S multilateration) . a Millimeter wave SMR. alerting tools . CAPTS Multilateration system capable of ADS-B. vehicle positioning system SYLETRACK.stna. Stockholm ARLANDA : X-band radar system and ADS-B transponder for aircraft and vehicle localisation and identification.

the airport actors will have a better awareness of the surrounding traffic and will be alerted to dangerous situations. wherever possible. TMA. by far. such as enhanced vision systems needs to be addressed. in the context of the constraints imposed by the en route. The improvement of safety could be monitored by the occurrence of runway incursions which is. the most dangerous and hazardous situations for planes and passengers. predictability of schedules.0 Page 22 . 5. 5.5. vehicle drivers and controllers. minimizing the costs and the impact on environment. A-SMGCS is the main element in achieving the safety objective. It will be achieved through the assessment and mitigation of the risks associated with the introduction of changes in technology and operations. flexibility of operations. and will detect runway incursions or other potentially dangerous situations. Equipped with A-SMGCS.2 Capacity As stated in the EUROCONTROL ATM 2000+ Strategy [ATM-2000+]. All-weather capacity requires particular attention and the application of measures.1 A-SMGCS Strategic Objectives The strategic objectives of the A-SMGCS are to optimize the airport capacity in maintaining or even increasing safety of operations. The target will be to improve safety levels by ensuring that ATM induced accident and incident rates do not increase and. A-SMGCS will provide surface traffic awareness to aircraft pilots. political/environmental restrictions and the economic response to the traffic demand. The occurrence of runway incursions represents an efficient and reliable key performance indicator for ground safety management. capacity is a complex mix of access to airports. flight efficiency. The strategic objective regarding airport capacity is stated so as to enable airports to make the best use of possible airside and landside capacity. will even decrease. delay and network effects. ground movement and gate environments are required.1. New systems and procedures for improving runway capacity management. A-SMGCS will contribute to achieving this strategic objective through a better use of the airport resources : better surveillance will not impose a decrease in ground movements in bad weather conditions and mobiles will be guided on to more efficient routes considering the interests of all parties. as determined by the infrastructure in place.1. airspace and services. A-SMGCS STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS 5.1 Safety The objective is to minimise the air navigation services’ contribution to the risk of an aircraft accident as far as is reasonably practicable. new concepts and procedures based on emerging technologies. Moreover. This will be done in Edition: 1. the guidance of mobiles on safe routes in the frame of A-SMGCS will reduce the number of dangerous situations in which a driver or a pilot is lost or is not in the place he thought he was.

3 Economics/Cost-effectiveness The economic strategic objective is to minimise the direct and indirect airport and mobile A-SMGCS-related costs per aircraft operation. Even though aircraft have become less noisy over the past two decades. This has fuelled the resistance in the population living in the vicinity of an airport to further expansion of the facility and its operations. this may turn into a volatile mix bearing a substantial risk for the sustainability of further airport expansion and traffic growth. The environmental protection requirements are expected to become the most important constraint to the further growth of commercial aviation. given safety and environmental constraints. Once the confidence and goodwill of those living within the vicinity of the airport have been lost it will take a long and costly battle to restore them. it means that each airport will not implement the same A-SMGCS in terms of cost according to the number of aircraft operations. If not handled with political skill. 5. At the same time there is greater awareness of citizen’s rights and political influence through action groups. where they are most noticeable to the public.1. The measurement of airport delay due to ground taxiing and operations. In particular. This trend is expected to become stronger in the near future. This means enhancement of the overall number of aircraft movements at airports in the ECAC area. DMAN and other airport actors or systems. without imposing significant operational. A-SMGCS will contribute to attaining the overall environmental target in order to mitigate the environmental impact of noise and gaseous emissions at and around Edition: 1. b) improved procedures. The cost-effectiveness is the ability to provide an agreed level of service at the least cost over the long term. the environmental factor will stand in the way of further growth until the advent of newer and quieter aircraft/engine combinations.4 Environment The steady growth in air travel demand leads to more intense aircraft operations at and around airports. great care. courage and sincerity. 5. the compounded effects of more movements over longer periods of the day and night have increased the disturbance. economic or environmental penalties. It is important in this context that airports actively address the environmental issue before it becomes a real problem.1. The coordination and harmonisation of the A-SMGCS implementation in Europe will contribute to its cost-effectiveness. The target is to provide. At a local level. under normal circumstances. especially during adverse ground visibility. c) better utilisation of improved aircraft operational capabilities. The strategic objective is to sustain the expansion of airport airside capacity despite more stringent environmental requirements through : a) new technology application.coordination with AMAN. will constitute an efficient key performance indicator of the A-SMGCS impact on capacity. as much as possible independently of the weather conditions. sufficient airport handling capacity to accommodate the demand at typical peak periods.0 Page 23 .

2 A-SMGCS benefits The achievement of the A-SMGCS objectives will bring benefits to the majority of Airport Stakeholders.2. The most frequently quoted incidents related to adverse weather conditions are : • • • Planes backtracking on a runway (without informing air traffic control) when others are cleared to land or takeoff. This capability enhances the controller’s situation awareness and improves overall ATC safety. The improvements made concern the following points: 5. 5. thus requiring the airport to close down for a time. Aircraft and airport service vehicles lost on the runways. Dependence on airport data and parameters such as the traffic demand and ATC capacity but also the intricacy of the runway and taxiways layout and even the average weather conditions make the evaluation difficult. In good weather conditions. Determination of benefits generated by a A-SMGCS is being carried out through the EC BETA project (2000-2002). the use of a A-SMGCS allows the ground controller to provide the same quality of control as in good weather conditions. there are reported cases of bad weather conditions during which collisions between aircraft and vehicles were or could have been prevented thanks to the use of a A-SMGCS . the average taxiing time and the average holding time.airports.1 Safety The utilisation of A-SMGCS contributes to the improvement of safety in the air traffic control service.1 ATS providers viewpoint 5.2.0 Page 24 . In adverse visibility conditions.2. Runway confusion by the pilots. 5. for instance. The key performance indicators shall be.1 Ground traffic picture The A-SMGCS aptitude of displaying on a screen the exact picture of the ground traffic provides the ground controller with an accurate traffic situation.1. It allows the ground controller to spot more easily the vehicles which could sometimes be difficult to detect with the naked eye especially when the taxiway and runway layouts are very intricate. Edition: 1.1. Benefits identified cover both the « ATS providers» viewpoint and the « Airlines » viewpoint. This section describes qualitatively all the potential benefits which could be drawn from the use of a A-SMGCS even if those benefits will not all be provided for a given airport. To illustrate the previous statements.1. the A-SMGCS can be used as a backup to what the ground controller sees from the tower window.

the use of an A-SMGCS will reduce the ATC aircraft separation in adverse visibility conditions and thus the capacity limitations at the runways. Since the procedures that would be developed as part of A-SMGCS will go handin-hand and will be compatible with the implementation of MLS or other landing procedures.1.1. 5.2. In adverse visibility conditions. The ability of guiding and controlling the aircraft by means of a A-SMGCS would maintain the tactical control capability and would thus curtail the controller workload. The magnitude of A-SMGCS on the capacity during adverse weather conditions has to be examined airport by airport as the ground capacity limitation depends Edition: 1.).1.1. the ground control which is based ordinarily on a tactical control process is converted into a procedural control process. it has been noticed that the airport capacity given to CFMU is higher when an A-SMGCS is in use than the one given when the ASMGCS is not in operation. 5.2.1.2 Air traffic controllers’ workload The A-SMGCS automatic assistance functions are believed to lessen the ground controller workload through automatic position reporting without voice intervention.2 A-SMGCS additional information A-SMGCS-indicated parameters such as speed.0 Page 25 . This enhanced anticipation is a factor in traffic conflict reduction and in ATC safety improvement. 5. particular attention should be paid to false alarms which disturb the controller and increase his/her workload.• Runway vehicle intrusion as a result of a mistake or a control misunderstanding.2. In those visibility conditions.3 Capacity The improvements in airport capacity due to the use of A-SMGCS are essentially experienced in low visibility conditions during which the ground controller with the support of a A-SMGCS could maintain a tactical control process and help to maintain throughput of the ground position to cope with the runway capacity increased by new landing systems (MLS. This will contribute to the improvement of ATC safety. On the other hand. 5.3 Conflict detection function The A-SMGCS conflict detection function and notably the runway incursion monitoring will allow conflicts to be anticipated and the controller to focus his/her mind on the dangerous situations. A-SMGCS will reduce the number of accidents as mentioned above. D-GPS.2. This conversion greatly increases the controller workload and hinders the ATC capacity. etc. The controller will have the possibility of communicating this conflict detection alarm to the moving mobiles. heading and identification of moving aircraft and vehicles allow controllers to better anticipate the intentions of ground traffic. due to the problem of providing adequate ground surveillance.1.

mainly when the ground controller encounters difficulties in establishing visual contact (night. progressive flow and capacity management improvements. for a given airport. such as taxiways and runways. 5.2. bringing a gradual shift from demand management to capacity management through the use of CDM in which A-SMGCS is taking part. This reduction of total delays would be particularly substantial in adverse weather conditions during which ATC capacity is curbed.3 Delay reduction.0 Page 26 .3. ASMGCS allows the ground controller to track aircraft on the manoeuvring area. In standard weather and visibility conditions. Aerodrome & Approach control and the global view of the landing and departing aircraft should increase the controllers’ ability to anticipate any ground traffic congestion situation and to smooth the global taxiing traffic.1 Safety A-SMGCS will also provide safety benefits to drivers equipped with a surveillance and alert system. taxiways and runways) and on the local LVP implementations.2.2. Edition: 1.2. For a fixed demand from the airlines. the provision of extra capacity brings about a reduction in total delays.2. 5. it could even prevent some aircraft from flying in holding patterns and would thus reduce the risk of diversion. the use of a A-SMGCS could allow the airport to maintain throughput.3 Vehicles operators’ viewpoint 5. This increases controllers’ awareness of traffic situation and consequently allows them to handle more aircraft.2.2 Aircraft operators’ viewpoint 5. especially during low visibility conditions. 5.2. etc. may enhance the use of available airport capacity. diversion avoidance Under specific circumstances.) with taxiing aircraft.2. the overall taxiing time should be shortened. 5. In some cases. This information would permit a refined anticipation of the turnaround operations and thus make a positive contribution to airline fleet management. In some cases. For instance. As a result.2 Taxiing time The improved co-ordination between Ground.2. hidden areas.greatly on the complexity of the ground layout (intricacy of airport tracks. low visibility conditions.1 Airlines operation An A-SMGCS display could provide the airlines with real time flight data or planned flight movements. it could prevent ground drivers from entering airports hazardous or restricted areas without authorisation.

) provided to airport operators and airport management service providers would facilitate the gate/stand occupation for arrival and departure management and turn-around operations.2 Operations efficiency Information (identity.0 Page 27 .5. fire-trucks or other emergency vehicles equipped with a surveillance and guidance system could reach the accident more quickly and more safely. in case of accidents. position and progress of aircraft and ground vehicles. for instance handling and dispatching.2. Edition: 1. Moreover. etc.3. It would also permit a refined anticipation of the operation provisions and thus improve operation management.

the need to cover the movement area is recognised. but the existing technology allows concentrating only on the manoeuvring area. the surveillance function should also identify the aircraft in the apron area. with the situational awareness in the movement area. A-SMGCS should not cover the apron area except for aircraft. As shown in fig n°1. A-SMGCS concept has been extensively investigated by Operational Experts. the gist of the ultimate level of A-SMGCS implementation is presented by the following comprehensive definition of the A-SMGCS functions : Surveillance. A-SMGCS OPERATIONAL VISION The operational vision aims at presenting A-SMGCS implementation from a users’ point of view. It is capable of meeting the needs of dense traffic patterns at complex aerodromes and does not constrain the pilot's choice of a runway exit following the landing. The surveillance function provides the controller position with a display of the graphical view of the airport and with the positions of all the mobile objects (aircraft and vehicles) located on the airport surface. It is also essential that some means of surveillance is available to enable the system to detect non co-operative targets including obstacles. This function allows for a change of destination at any time. 6.6. as the need to track aircraft on the apron is confirmed by a majority of stakeholders because of push-back responsibility. On the basis of [ICAO-A-SMGCS]. through which manually and eventually automatically.0 Page 28 . with an adequate update rate to give a continuous flow of traffic information. to expose the main evolutions expected in Air Traffic Services. i. For co-operative surveillance. and eventually pilots and vehicle drivers. Routing. Edition: 1. a more efficient route is designated for each aircraft or vehicle. which provides controllers. and for a change of route to the same destination. The objective is that both identity and position of all traffic should be provided. the Surveillance element for an A-SMGCS may comprise several sensor systems. To achieve this objective a system providing co-operative surveillance is likely to be required. A phased implementation of A-SMGCS will allow improvements to the routing function. As specified by ICAO. It also provides identification and labelling of authorised movements and coping with moving and static aircraft as well as vehicles within the coverage area of the surveillance function.e. targets need to be equipped with a means of communicating position and identity information to the A-SMGCS. In the short term. The information from these systems will be combined by a data fusion process to provide a comprehensive surveillance package. However.1 A-SMGCS definition Targeted A-SMGCS implementation is for a large / medium-size airport in the ECAC area and in the timeframe of ATM2000+ Strategy (2000-2010).

through which conflicts and collisions are prevented. which gives pilots and drivers clear indications to enable them to follow an assigned route. It allows monitoring of the operational status of all guidance aids and provides on-line monitoring with alerts where guidance aids are selectively switched in response to routing and control requirements. Edition: 1.Guidance. taxiway alert situations and other hazardous scenarios. Figure 6-1 : A-SMGCS functions (EUROCAE MASPS) A phased implementation of A-SMGCS will allow progressive improvements to all four A-SMGCS functions. the Control function will have to compare the actual route of an aircraft or vehicle with its planned route and give an alert in the case of nonconformance. This function provides strategic. pre-tactical and tactical planning. Where the system includes automated route planning. The different levels of implementation of A-SMGCS are presented in another document (Ref. but gives him/her automatic assistance in his/her control task. a supporting planning function should be introduced in order to achieve the maximum benefits of each level of A-SMGCS implementation. and generating warnings to the controller and possibly directly to the pilots and/or vehicle drivers concerned. A-SMGCS. This function provides alerts for incursions to runways and activates protection devices (e.0 Page 29 . As shown in Figure 6-1 taken from [EUROCAE-MASPS]. [D2]). The Control function does not replace the controller. Control. stop bars or alarms). It enables all pilots and ground vehicle drivers to maintain situational awareness of their position on the assigned route.g. This function provides guidance necessary for any authorised movement and is available for all possible route selections. automated situation control is provided by the system detecting runway incursions.

… A-SMGCS Planning / Routing Alert events Traffic situation Assigned routes Guidance Conflict resolutions COntrol Surveillance Other sensors Navigation (GNSS. Collaborative Decision Making Arrival Management Departure Management Airport Management Times of arrival Times of Departure Stand allocation Runway / Taxiway status. A-SMGCS impacts all the airport stakeholders. This data is provided by independent or cooperative sensors.2. 6.6. navigation systems like GNSS are required to provide an accurate position of each mobile.1 and depicted in the diagram below. primary and/or secondary radar sources and/or ADS-B technology. or GLS.2 A-SMGCS environment The management of complex traffic flows may require an A-SMGCS to function as a surface management system with responsibilities for providing for the planning and management of all aircraft and authorized vehicles on the movement area. Moreover.…) Mobile Position Mobile Parameters Automatic Dependant Surveillance Voice And Data Link communication Alerts. Edition: 1.0 Page 30 .g. as understood in the paragraph 6. guidance.1 Surveillance Improvements in surface traffic management in all-weather operations require accurate and reliable surveillance data. A-SMGCS are dependent on the landing rate which will be increased thanks to new navigation systems like MLS.2 Navigation When A-SMGCS uses surveillance data coming from cooperative mobiles (for instance ADS-B).… MOBILES Figure 6-2 : A-SMGCS Context 6.2. interfacing with the ATM-system and will form part of the global Communications Navigation Surveillance Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) concept in terms of supporting gate-to-gate operation. rather than merely being used to provide guidance and control to individual aircraft and vehicles. e. That is the reason why.

0 Page 31 . position and progress of ground vehicles whose movements might conflict with aircraft movements . It means that the decision-making process at the airport is carried out through a collaboration between all actors and systems such as Arrival Management. A-SMGCS is not a stand-alone activity for ATM and pilot. engine start-up and push-back times can be coordinated according to CDM applications turn around process and the milestones approach (events that determine the readiness of the aircraft and increase situational awareness) leading to optimum departure sequencing. thereby minimizing any impact on the aerodrome utilisation rate. or Departure Management. where the inherent "party line" aspects are necessary for maintaining situational awareness and avoiding blunders. by reducing taxiing delays to a minimum and optimizing the services offered by handling and dispatch companies to aircraft. DMAN or both. Information has to be shared between the airport actors and systems in order to improve the efficiency of each one. For example. of course. guidance and routing information to the pilots and drivers.2. Also. the arrival sequence for each runway and also the stand assignment will be used to make accurate estimates of arrival times at the stands. Therefore. Edition: 1. the operational status of elements of the system in order to better manage the available stands/parking areas. the identity. there will be a need for improved sharing of information concerning situational awareness on the ground. It is not clear today if the Route Planning function is part of A-SMGCS. aerodrome configuration changes will be implemented more efficiently. the following information could be of interest for the dispatch/apron management services: the identity. position and progress of aircraft including aircraft in tow . taking into account the planned route and departure fix loading. 6. the presence of temporary obstacles or other hazards . Communications will migrate to a mix of voice and data link capabilities with automated data communications between system components that move situation information between the users. data link technologies will be used to collect surveillance data and to send alert. A-SMGCS takes part in the Collaborative Decision Making process in an aerodrome. This information will improve aircraft handling and turn-around time. an important element in A-SMGCS.3 Communication Communications are. While voice communications will continue to be used for manoeuvring traffic. including from the ground to the cockpit. Surface traffic planning automation functions will be integrated with approach/departure operations and will support time-based air traffic management concepts. For departures.2. from the flight dispatch / apron control service perspective.4 Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) Although A-SMGCS mainly concerns the manoeuvring area which is used by aircrew under the responsibility of the ATCO.. For arrivals. Consequently.6.

the current. most developed SMGCS in operation perform the following three main functions : the surveillance and the Control functions provided only to ATCOs (i. not to pilots or drivers). Edition: 1. vehicle drivers. Stand allocations from the Airport Management . in order to determine a more efficient route on the ground for each aircraft. The ultimate A-SMGCS should be designed so that controllers. It could be concluded from the previous elements that A-SMGCS has to be modular to adapt to the needs of different aerodromes. emergency services as well as airport and regulatory authorities draw useful information from it. Airport constraints (runway status. Times of departure from the Departure Management .…) from the Airport Management. airlines.Arrival Management Departure Management A-SMGCS Airport ATM Airport Management Airline Management Figure 6-3 : Collaborative Decision Making For instance. pilots.3 Actors. 6. to make improvement easier and to be open to being capable of interfacing with other systems in order to exchange information with all parties concerned. Roles and Services in A-SMGCS As stated in chapter n°2.0 Page 32 . the routing function of the A-SMGCS needs at least the following data : • • • • Times of arrival from the Arrival Management .e.

Taxiing in accordance with ATCO Taxiing in accordance with ATCO clearance. multiple Monitoring/alerting of the traffic alignment. Assistance to pilot for route planning with an automated tool. system. Monitor surrounding traffic to prevent collision by visual and R/T means.0 Page 33 . Possible delegation to an automated system Co-ordination of the transfer of control responsibility with adjacent ATC Units Route planning not in operation. Situation awareness provided by real-time situation awareness tool. Aircrew / Pilot Navigate aircraft in the manoeuvring area Increased decision role (delegation from following ATCO instructions and ATCO). clearance. Actor Role in SMGCS Evolution in A-SMGCS Control of all vehicles and aircraft Sharing of the Monitoring/alerting tasks with movements in the manoeuvring area : pilot and ground vehicle drivers.time guiding aids and paper documentation. The evolution from SMGCS to A-SMGCS implies re-assessing the role of the airport actors in A-SMGCS operations and the dividing up of operations into services achieved by actors and automated systems.- the guidance function provided manually by ATCOs through R/T instructions and clearances and by operating stop bars and taxiway lights (when such a facility is provided). … situation mainly by visual means. NOTAM. This assessment is presented in the following tables: 6. ATIS. Guidance with the help of visual Guidance assisted by real. The following table describes the current respective role of the actors in SMGCS and its evolution through A-SMGCS implementation.3. through specific operational ATM procedures: conditional clearances. monitor drivers on the basis of surveillance data and traffic situation with respect to safety. Sharing the monitoring and alerting task with ATCO and the assistance of automated support. Edition: 1. Plan and sequence inbound / outbound traffic using automated support.1 Actors and respective role A-SMGCS actors represent airport stakeholders who take part in A-SMGCS operations as a user or contributor. ATCO Guidance of all traffic on the manoeuvring area by R/T. ATCO ATCO clearances and instruction to all Delegate some of his tasks to pilots and mobiles for all movements. Automated support for aeronautical aeronautical information provided by information (DL information).

Collaboration decision making with ATC and Airport Operator to plan airport movements. 6. Airline Plan fleet gate-to-gate movements.e. Prevent potential conflicts (bottlenecks) Advisory about “best : safest. Definition of A-SMGCS Services Control Guidance Guidance of aircraft vehicle movements. Collaboration decision making with ATC and Airport Operator to plan airport movements. position and identification of all mobiles in all visibility conditions. airlines. They result in a collaboration between actors and automated systems. and dispatch companies Airport Operator Plan stand / gate occupancy The intermediate levels of implementation between SMGCS and A-SMGCS are presented in another document (Ref.2 Services The following services are the “building blocks” of A-SMGCS implementation. Pilot and ground vehicle drivers for manoeuvring area at a later stage of implementation. Collaboration decision making with ATC and Airport Operator to plan airport movements. Handling Plan assistance and handling to aircraft. Detection of potential hazardous situations and generating alert to the involved actors. Objective Provide a ground traffic situation. aeronautical information provided by ATIS.Actor Role in SMGCS Evolution in A-SMGCS Vehicle driver Drive vehicle in the manoeuvring area Increased decision role (delegation from following ATCO instruction and ATCO). Situation awareness provided by Monitor surrounding traffic to prevent real-time situation awareness tool. and Surveillance Route Planning Prepare and maintain a planning for aircraft movements from stands / gates to runway and vice-versa. Support separation of mobiles on LVP conditions.0 Page 34 . ATCO Pilot and ground vehicle drivers through ATCO alert or through an automated system at a later stage of implementation. system. Handling and dispatch companies. ATCO for the manoeuvring area as soon as possible. allocation of gates and assistance resources. Taxiing in accordance with ATCO Taxiing in accordance with ATCO clearance. [D2]). Pilot and driver ground vehicle ATCO Airlines Airport Operator Handling and dispatch companies Users ATCO (co-ordinator of the service) Edition: 1. clearance with the help of visual aids and Guidance assisted by real time guiding indications. collision by visual and R/T means. airport operators for the apron area at a later stage of implementation.3. i. shortest” routing. Sharing the monitoring and alerting task with ATCO and the assistance of automated support.

secondary radar. optical barrier Data Fusion: With FDPS.4 Areas of change The implementation of A-SMGCS requires a significant evolution in today’s operations. Definition of the conditions in which such procedures can be applied (weather. 2. system status etc. Such systems are intended to complement visual information of the ATCO.Surveillance Combined Sensors : Independent sensors: SMR Definition of A-SMGCS Services Control Guidance Route Planning Co-operative sensors: Mode-S multilateration Enabling Services or Systems ADS-B ground station. DMAN Stand / gate planning system Fleet planning HMI Note : The technologies mentioned in the table above are not exhaustive. GNSS + Datalink equipped vehicles Other complementary sensors : video cameras. HMI and of Surveillance service Enhanced with planning service Taxiway lighting On-board equipment and ground infrastructure HMI Route Planning systems : AMAN. In the final step of ASMGCS evolution. 6. HMI Surveillance service Detection tools (hardware and software) Generations communications alarm. Some Procedures have been proposed by EUROCONTROL in [AOPG-Procedures]. the definition of separation rules depending on mobile dimension is also to be considered in the ultimate steps of A-SMGCS implementation. approach primary radar. Surveillance of Ground Movements The improvement of safety in surface movements requires the introduction of automated systems for the localisation and identification of aircraft and vehicles in the manoeuvring area in connection with TMA surveillance systems. Rules of Ground Movements The evolution from the “seen and be seen” principle requires first the definition of a new set of operational rules to be applied by ATCOs. especially when visibility is reduced. for instance. This includes : Definition of procedure to use A-SMGCS such as a surveillance system for positioning and identification of all mobiles in the manoeuvring area. These can be broken down into the following areas of change : 1. multiple line-up.) - Edition: 1. procedures for identification of vehicles in all visibilities. issue of conditional clearances. Definition of rules for authorised mobiles and movements on the manoeuvring area.0 Page 35 . but are only examples. pilots and vehicle drivers on the manoeuvring area. and in particular in reduced or low visibility conditions.

This includes the automatic detection of : Unidentified or unauthorised aircraft / vehicle on the manoeuvring area. a ground accident occurs when an aircraft is passing through the safety loopholes made by ATC procedures. a ground accident situation which would not have been detected and prevented by ATC procedures. the main contribution of an A-SMGCS is the increase in ground traffic situation awareness for aircrews and ground vehicle drivers who play the same role as the ATCO in the ground safety loop.g. without increasing the workload as the volume of traffic grows. pilots or vehicle drivers about potential hazardous situations and warn them in due time to take urgent actions. automated tools adapted to ground hazardous situation detection will inform ATCOs. An important issue in order to avoid disturbing actors (false alarms) is the fine adaptation of decision support tools to the context of airport operations and to local adaptation to operational rules.0 Page 36 . the challenge will be to provide improved guidance. Basically. ATC procedures and sundry sensors. Edition: 1. When provided by A-SMGCS with a ground awareness situation. Pilot and ground driver in the safety loop From the pilot’s perspective. Prohibited movements : e. and thus prevent. particularly in low visibility conditions. Ground Safety Nets In circumstances when operational rules are broken. the pilot and vehicle driver’s ground traffic situation complements the protection shelter already provided by the ATCO. pilots and ground drivers constitute a second protection shelter against ground accidents Since a ground accident situation occurs by the aircraft passing through the loopholes of both shelters. However. As shown in figure n°3 below. NO DETECTION FROM AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL GROUND DETECTION/AWARENESS PROTECTION SHELTER Air Traffic Control Ground Radar Pilots -Driver awareness ACCIDENT Figure 6-4 : Ground Movement Protection Shelters 4. runway incursion. aircraft on a closed taxiway. the pilot and ground vehicle driver could detect.3.

Efficiency of Ground Movements Implementation of A-SMGCS operations also aims at contributing to gate-to-gate operations as well as to other airport actors (airlines. capacity management). airlines for fleet planning (hub connections. airport operator). Edition: 1. as well as the needs for airport resource management (maintenance. turn around). airport operator for stand / gate management.0 Page 37 .Risk of collision between aircraft and vehicles 5. It would take into account needs from arrival departure ATC controllers (in particular CFMU slots). Therefore the introduction of a planning of ground movements is required.

7. with corresponding operational concepts and requirements. one major risk of the A-SMGCS implementation success lies in the aircraft operators’ willingness to retrofit their aircraft avionics to comply with A-SMGCS requirements.e. safety regulations and capacity limits.7. a certification process is well defined and universally applied.2 Airports stakeholders’ acceptance There are background studies and ATM experiments which have to be taken into account for A-SMGCS : current operational practices. Therefore the success of A-SMGCS implies dealing with the establishment of coherent and realistic steps of implementation. This totally new approach. they will be reluctant to buy the necessary capital expenditure required on avionics and will therefore jeopardise the overall A-SMGCS benefits to aircraft operators. safety regulations and limits as well as transition rules from manoeuvring area to apron area. It has agreed regulatory objectives and common procedures. RISKS AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES 7.1 Aircraft operators acceptance The co-ordination and harmonisation of the A-SMGCS implementation in Europe will contribute to its cost-effectiveness. the A-SMGCS realistic definition and its credibility amongst airport stakeholders rely on the capability of building a realistic operational and technical framework. Human Machine Interface. 7. due to its potential technical complexity and radical procedure changes. as well as indicators for human factors. i. At the same time. Ground system service providers often specify the system with regard to available standards and recommended practices (SARPS) but will commission the system without independently agreed and harmonised safety objectives. However. but also of the system or service as a whole. This risk is all the more tangible that aircraft operators face a severe financial crisis The development of ASMGCS business case will be completed in order to remove possible reluctance on the part of aircraft operators.3 Certification For aircraft operations and avionics systems installed on board. existing and future ATM functions. This certification process is not commonly adopted for ground ATS systems. which are clearly recognised by airport stakeholders. referred to as “end to end” certification is being proposed for all new ATS system concepts where there is an integration of new technology in the airborne and ground elements and the utilisation of advanced Edition: 1.0 Page 38 . If aircraft operators do not acknowledge the cost effectiveness of A-SMGCS. An A-SMGCS. emphasises the need to adopt a certification process that addresses the safety aspects not only of the equipment on board the aircraft.

In such cases developing a business case could. new construction of taxiways or holding bays as well as new installation of signage equipment is liable to temporarily disturb operations but the long-term effects will be favourable.4 Procedures The implementation of A-SMGCS requires the definition of new procedures for the system users such as controllers.7 Improvement of Planning and Routing. If airport radar tracking cannot be made more reliable.6 Improvements in Conflict Detection and Alert If surveillance is not made more effective. The conclusion from existing conflict detection tools is that it is extremely difficult to identify all the conflict cases and to take into account all the local procedures so as to avoid false alarms. The difficulties of the technology which make target tracking erratic. Edition: 1. their certification and installation as well as the maintenance cost during their lifetime (i. This is especially the case when a single surveillance source tends to be used (i. 7. If too many false alarms are generated. - On the infrastructure side. MWIR) may cause aircraft operators to refrain from implementing the technology. there are two identified risks: The high price of the technology. However.5 Improvement of Surveillance On the system side. Multilateration) will be required.automation techniques. EVGS. These procedures may lead to a reassignment of responsibilities among the A-SMGCS actors. The high cost of new systems. if positive. as well as their operational use remains a risk factor when a/c operators do not implement the equipment. this function is jeopardised. There is a significant risk related to the users’ acceptance of these procedures and the fact that these new procedures could have a negative impact on safety.e. which may give cause for implementation delays and an increase in cost. pilots. controllers will not accept the system. which could prevent airport stakeholders from using an A-SMGCS. 7. By the time this feature is expected to become operational. 7. major problems on the systems and human side will have been solved. The fusion of surveillance data coming from different sources is also a technical point which needs more research and development.e. 7.0 Page 39 . the availability and cost of enhanced/synthetic vision. CNS systems. remove the reluctance. the use of this new certification procedure for ASMGCS may result in implementation delays. SMR) for mid-size airports. especially for the tracking of non co-operative targets. more sophisticated surveillance means (ADS B. However. drivers.

7.0 Page 40 .8 Improvement of Guidance and Control Such improvements are still being developed and are not covered by risk analysis. Edition: 1.Technically this type of equipment will be on the market but there is a risk that aircraft operators will not install it due to a negative CBA and/or safety assessment outcome.

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