Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art

Systems Synthesis: Final Report May, 2012

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SPECIAL THANKS
The team would like to graciously thank the following people for all of their time and contribution to our project. Without them, this would not have been possible: Rick Armstrong Alan Brown Tim Carrigan Dana Casto Becky Gaugler Matt Hannigan Amelia Haviland Sandy Hridel Kitty Julian Gail Kepple Greg Lagana Jennifer Novak Leonard Ashley McFarland Eileen Meddis Tracy Myers Debbie Richards Marilyn Russell Regina Russian David Seals Greg Seigle Skyler Speakman Lucy Stewart Andrew Swensen Teresa Thomas Lenora Vessio Amanda Zehnder Lynn Zelevanski Kathryn Heidemann the volunteers at the Carnegie Museum of Art and our faculty advisor, Jerry Coltin.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

10 14 22 28 40 56 70 76

Executive Summary

Project Overview

Background Research

Survey Design

Implementation

Data Analysis

Conclusions & Recommendations

Appendices

TABLE OF APPENDICES

78 92 95 104 110 136 140 170

A: Survey Instrument Design Rationale

B: Quotes from Pilot Test

C: Data Collection and Guidelines

D: Consent Forms

E: Personal Interview Transcripts

F: Expert Interviews

G: Data Collection Test Results

H: Glossary of Data Analysis Terms

1.1: Results of Pilot Test Feedback 1.2: Survey Instrument 2.1: Museum Attendance 2.2: Sample Size 2.3: Incentive Signup Sheet 2.4: Intercept Token 2.5: Summary of Data Collection Period 2.6: Personal Interview Selection Protocol 2.7: Personal Interview Respondent Demographics 3.1: Demographic Visualization 3.2: Database Screen Capture

33 35 42 43 44 46 48 52 53 58 59

TABLE OF

60 61 62 62 64 65 65 66 66 67 68

3.3: Captivation Impact Infographic 3.4: Intellectual Stimulation Infographic 3.5: Emotional Response Infographic 3.6: Levels of Emotion 3.7: Correlation of Emotions with Impacts 3.8: Future Discussion Network 3.9: Viewpoint Challenged Network 3.10: Primary Focus Network -1 3.11: Primary Focus Network -2 3.12: Value Chain Infographic 3.13: Relationship Web of Emotions and Constructs

EXHIBITS

EXECUTIVE

SUMMARY

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ABSTRACT

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hat is the transformative power of the visual arts? How does a person, institution, or field articulate the effect of something that is subjective and multifaceted? While attendance numbers, ticket revenues, and other information speak to us about our interaction with the arts, they do not tell the whole story of an arts experience. Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art strives to measure how an individual is transformed by visual art. This report is a culmination of 17 weeks of study during which time a team of nine graduate students from Carnegie Mellon University, in partnership with the Carnegie Museum of Art (CMoA), explored the research, logistics, and analysis necessary to begin to measure the intrinsic impact of visual art.

This report, inspired by the work of WolfBrown’s, Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of Live Performance and WolfBrown and Baker Richards’, How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool, details the adaptations and adjustments this team made to the two studies in the performing arts field to explore the intrinsic impact of visual art. A prototype survey was created and distributed to museum visitors throughout March and April of 2012, and a total of 657 surveys were completed and collected. The team’s findings and results include discussions of a visitor’s ‘Readiness to Receive’, captured under the constructs of ‘Anticipation’ and ‘Context’. In addition, the overall impact from the visual art experience was measured in terms of the constructs: ‘Captivation’, ‘Intellectual Stimulation’, ‘Emotional Response’, and ‘Extended Engagement’. Lastly, the study outlines the exploratory statistical method used to assess intrinsic impact within a visual art institution to create a common language about the nature of intrinsic impact in the visual arts field.

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KEY FINDINGS

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

his project was conducted over three phases: Background Research and Survey Design, Implementation, and Data Analysis. Over the course of the project, the team worked towards adapting language for a common vocabulary, creating a survey instrument, and developing a methodology that would contribute to intrinsic impact research in the visual arts field. Our key findings are as follows: It is possible to measure the intrinsic impact of the visual art experience As defined by our research, the visual art experience at the CMoA did, in fact, have an intrinsic impact on its visitors The intrinsic impact a CMoA visitor experienced can be categorized under the constructs of ‘Captivation’, ‘Intellectual Stimulation’, and ‘Emotional Response’ CMoA visitors’ readiness to receive a visual arts experience often did not determine the impact they felt CMoA visitors did not need to be captivated in order to experience other kinds of impact

6. Most visitors recognized and felt an emotion during their visual art experience, and the emotional impacts they experienced are related to nearly all other kinds of impact 7. If visitors self-stated that their viewpoints were being challenged a great deal and that they were very likely to discuss the artworks in the future, they were more likely to experience numerous other kinds of impact during their visual art experience

8. CMoA visitors’ demographic and circumstantial variables were often not correlated with the impacts they derived from their visual art experiences

Executive Summary

PROJECT

OVERVIEW
Team Bios Advisory Board Problem Statement Scope Known Exclusions Limitations Assumptions

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Noah Elmshaeuser Financial Manager Noah comes from Nebraska where he graduated with a Bachelor of Music in Music Education from Hastings College. He is currently working in the Operations Department at the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra.

Thomas Hughes Facilitator A Pittsburgher born and bred, Tom holds a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 3-D Studio Arts from Bowling Green State University. He currently works as a marketing intern at the Mattress Factory Museum and coorganizes a local, quarterly artist microgranting event, Soup N’at.

Andrea Humenick Project Coordinator Andrea hails from New Jersey and received a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree in Clarinet Performance from the College of Fine Arts at Carnegie Mellon University. She currently works at the Pittsburgh Chamber Music Society.

Miao Jiang Documentarian Miao comes from Hangzhou, China and holds a Bachelor of Arts in English Language and Literature. She currently interns in the Director’s Office at The Andy Warhol Museum. She plans to pursue a career in museum administration.

Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art

Dipti Rao Board Liaison Dipti is a Fulbright scholar from Bangalore, India and holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology. She has worked as the Operations Manager of a performing arts center and Program Manager of a cultural presenting organization. She looks forward to a career in cultural policy.

Jessica Rosenberger Project Leader Jessica hails from Michigan and holds a Bachelors of Fine Arts in Acting from DePaul University. She is currently the Cultural Policy & Research apprentice at the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council. She plans to pursue a career in digital engagement and cultural policy.

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Jessica Ryan Survey Leader Jessi is from Wisconsin where she earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree in music from the University of WisconsinStevens Point. She currently works for the Arts Education Collaborative and plans to pursue a career in arts management in healthcare programs.

Grace Stewart Editor Grace is from Virginia and received her Bachelor of Fine Arts in ceramic sculpture from Alfred University. She is currently the Exhibitions & Programming Associate at the August Wilson Center for African American Culture. She plans to pursue a career in multidisciplinary arts administration.

Kejia Wang Editor Kejia is from Wuhan, China and has a degree in English Literature and Journalism. She is currently the Communications Intern for Media Relations at Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Fine Art. She plans to pursue a career in arts marketing and public relations.

Project Overview

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ADVISORY BOARD
Dana A. Casto Director of Marketing & Communications, School of Music, Carnegie Mellon University Dana Casto is currently the Director of Marketing and Communications for Carnegie Mellon’s School of Music. Dana is primarily responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of a comprehensive program in public relations for the School, which presents more than 300 concerts and programs annually with numerous partnerships in the Pittsburgh arts community. Prior to coming to CMU, Dana was a Project Manager for the Arts Education Collaborative where his major responsibilities included being the editor for the monthly newsletter and facilitating collaborations and partnerships with arts and cultural organizations. Dana completed a graduate degree in arts management at Carnegie Mellon University and also holds a bachelor’s degree in music performance from Capital University. Matt Hannigan Co-founder and Deputy Director, The Spout Fund Matt Hannigan is a co-founder of The Sprout Fund and currently serves as its Deputy Director. Sprout supports innovative ideas and grassroots community projects catalyzing through a variety of grantmaking, civic engagement, and public art programs. Since 2001, Sprout has made community-decided investments totaling more than $4 million in nearly 500 early-stage projects, organizations, innovators, and activities. In addition to his work with Sprout, Matt is an adjunct faculty member at Carnegie Mellon’s Heinz College where he teaches a course on Creating Results-Oriented Programs. Amelia Haviland Associate Professor of Statistics and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University Amelia M. Haviland, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Statistics and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University and an adjunct senior statistician at RAND. Dr. Haviland’s research focuses on causal

analysis with observational data and analysis of longitudinal and complex survey data applied to policy issues in health and criminology. Her prior work includes studying connections between benefit design and health care costs and quality, relationships between patient safety and medical malpractice, and disparities in health care quality. She is the recipient of the Anna Loomis McCandless Chair, a MacArthur Fellowship for Younger Scholars, and the Wray Jackson Smith Scholarship (ASA). Greg Lagana Director of Student Projects, Center for Economic Development, Carnegie Mellon University Greg Lagana’s key responsibility as Director of Student Projects is to provide career and awareness and learning opportunities for Heinz College students interested in economic development in the U.S. context. Greg also manages the CED’s ‘Executive Fellows’ program, an initiative with the goal of providing meaningful and impactful system synthesis projects with CED’s regional partners in economic development. Additionally, Greg coordinates the ‘Practitioner’s Edge’ workshop and seminar series, a part of which includes a workshop on the use of input/ output models in economic impact studies, as well as workshop/seminars on retail location decisions to give Heinz students exposure to some of the more practice specific skills in economic and community development. Eileen Meddis Director of Corporate Human Resources, Carnegie Museums As Director of Human Resources, Eileen Meddis is responsible for the development and implementation of human resource strategies, structures, and tools. Her department acts as a strategic partner in the design of programs and policies to meet the organization’s goals in areas including employment, compensation, and employee and labor relations. She also serves as an adjunct faculty member at Carnegie Mellon’s Heinz College, where she teaches graduate-level courses in HR management. Eileen earned a B.A. summa cum laude in history from the University of Pittsburgh and a Juris Doctor degree from

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the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. She holds the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) designation from the Society for Human Resources Management. Marilyn Miller Russell Chair and Curator of Education, Carnegie Museum of Art (CMoA) At the CMoA, Marilyn Russell is responsible for the direction of the museum’s interpretive programming for the permanent collection and for an array of approximately 14–16 special exhibitions annually. As Curator of Education, Marilyn leads a team of museum educators and teaching artists to design and present a variety of educational opportunities for adults and for children. Programming for school students and teachers under her direction focuses on visual art as a catalyst for interdisciplinary learning. Her recent research has focused on how experiences with original works of art can pair content knowledge with learning skills and advancing students’ abilities in how to learn as well as what to learn. David Seals Director of Communications, Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council (GPAC) David Seals oversees marketing, external communications and public relations, as well as community-wide initiatives for the arts community at GPAC. He also oversees Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts and Business Volunteers for the Arts, consulting programs that connect attorneys and business professionals with arts clients who need pro bono consulting. At GPAC, David has administered five grant programs that awarded nearly $400,000 annually to more than 100 grantees, assisted with the development of over 100 professional development programs, played a key role in developing the Arts Council Annual Meeting, and managed production logistics for two Work of Art Awards performances. Greg Seigle Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Greg Siegle’s research program examines neurophysiological substrates of cognition and

emotion in depression and anxiety through the lifespan using self-report, behavioral, physiological, and neuroimaging (MRI) assessment, as well as computational modeling. A specific goal of this work is to better understand what cognitive and brain processes predict and change with recovery, and how to improve treatments by targeting these mechanisms more directly. The role of sustained emotional information processing (e.g., rumination) is a particular focus of this work. Dr. Siegle directs the Program in Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, which has a number of ongoing projects. He is also on the executive team of the Mood Disorders Treatment and Research Program (MDTRP) which is the clinical trials unit for Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. They do their psychotherapy and psychopharmacology studies through the MDTRP. Andrew J. Swensen Program Manager, Pittsburgh Music Alliance Andrew Swensen, Ph.D., provides nonprofit consulting and holds positions as adjunct faculty at Carnegie Mellon University and Point Park University. He also serves as Producer for the film, Journey to Normal, and as the Program Manager for the Pittsburgh Music Alliance. Earlier positions include Director of Pittsburgh Filmmakers and Special Assistant to the President at The Pittsburgh Foundation. Dr. Swensen began his professional career in academic life, with faculty positions at Brandeis University, Hamilton College, Wellesley College and Western Michigan University. He has taught courses in comparative literature, cultural studies, the history of ideas, religious studies, and Russian literature. He received his Ph.D. in 1995 from the University of Wisconsin. Teresa Thomas Assistant Vice President for Media Relations, Carnegie Mellon University Teresa Thomas supervises internal and external communications at the university and is a graduate of the University of Pittsburgh.

Project Overview

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PROBLEM STATEMENT
What makes the arts valuable? An often incomplete articulation, the case for the arts today touts its instrumental benefits - those that accrue by using the arts as a means to an end, such as fostering economic growth, and enhancing student development. However, this argument overlooks the intangible value of the arts - its intrinsic benefits. How can the transformative impact of art on the individual and community be quantified and what are the metrics for that measurement? How can a refined vocabulary communicate the value of something as multifaceted and subjective as the arts? This project attempted to adapt language developed by WolfBrown in their study, Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of Live Performance, for the performing arts in an effort to create a vocabulary for the visual arts experience. By surveying targets’ reactions and responses to artwork at the Carnegie Museum of Art, henceforth referred to as CMoA, the project attempted to work towards a methodology to measure the intrinsic impact of visual art that can be replicated throughout other institutions in future studies.

KNOWN EXCLUSIONS
Adult responses only This project excluded anyone below the age of 18; additional consent and implementation considerations would have been required to include children in the surveying process. Alternative viewing options The “visual art experience” was defined as an individual, on-site experience at a visual arts institution. The team chose not to examine other ways to view or experience visual art such as digital media or public art. Individual artworks The team did not attempt to make a value judgment of any of the individual artworks or exhibitions on display at the CMoA. We sought to measure the impact of the visual art experience (as defined above) as a whole. Institutional specific factors This research included environmental factors applicable across the spectrum of visual arts presentation. However, the team wanted to exclude any institutional specific biases as the intention was not to measure the museum’s affect on visitor impact, but rather the impact of visual art. While many institution-specific factors might affect a visitor’s experience, they were not explored in order to make this research applicable to other institutions. Demographic data Only demographic data relevant to this research was included in the survey instrument. An investigation of a variety of demographic data may have yielded new and interesting findings, but was outside the reasonable scope of this project. New learning The team was not looking to see if visitors to the CMoA saw something new or learned something about an artist, artwork, style of art, or other related topic. Due to the volume of artwork on view at the museum, the probability that a visitor will see something new at the CMoA is extremely high and therefore this aspect could not be explored with sufficient depth within the scope of this project.

PROJECT SCOPE
Adapt language to create a vocabulary One of the primary goals of this project was to translate the specific language in the WolfBrown study, Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of Live Performance to be applicable for the visual arts experience. Create a research instrument In order to investigate the intrinsic impact of visual art, the team set out to create a survey prototype to measure visitors’ reactions and responses to their visual arts experience at the CMoA. Create a methodology or framework Lastly, we worked to develop a methodology for measuring the intrinsic impact of visual art that can be replicated by the CMoA and other visual arts institutions in future studies.

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LIMITATIONS
Several key limitations dictated the scope and exclusions of this project: Financial Resources The budget for the entire project was USD750. This monetary restriction required careful project planning and excluded some possible avenues of research. Level of Expertise This project was the graduate thesis project conducted by nine Master of Arts Management students and as such, was developed within the limitations of our collective student expertise. However, the team consulted and worked closely with a variety of experts in the field for the duration of the project. Personnel Resources The project team comprised nine members. While the help of volunteers was solicited for certain phases, the nine core team members were responsible for each step of the project. Time The entire project, from project design to implementation to conclusions, was conducted over the course of 17 weeks. This fixed time frame restricted the possibilities for research and exploration to only those feasible given the combined limitations of all of the available resources. Self Reporting The data collected from survey respondents was entirely self-reported. Therefore some inherent bias will be present in our findings.

ASSUMPTIONS
Our team operated under the following internal assumptions: • Visual art has an intrinsic impact • Visual arts have the ability to transform individuals and communities • Instrumental benefits are an important piece of the current argument and should be paired with intrinsic benefits • The current argument for support of the arts is missing key elements

Project Overview

BACKGROUND

RESEARCH
Intrinsic Impact Research Expert Interviews

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INTRINSIC IMPACT RESEARCH
n examining previous research of intrinsic impact for arts and culture, the team reviewed several bodies of study from RAND, WolfBrown, Liverpool Arts Regeneration Consortium, and the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA). These studies incorporated a variety of elements, which were all taken into account by the team with regard to venue, discipline, time, audience, methodology, and overall purpose.

affects the impacts received. Through this study, Wolf Brown developed six constructs of intrinsic impact which our team references throughout the project: ‘Captivation’, ‘Intellectual Stimulation’, ‘Emotional Response’, ‘Spiritual Value’, ‘Aesthetic Growth’, and ‘Social Bonding’. The analytical framework and evaluation implementation that WolfBrown developed served as a baseline for the structure of our intrinsic impact measurement.

Gifts of the Muse

How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool

Gifts of the Muse was a groundbreaking report by the RAND Corporation discussing the difference between instrumental and intrinsic impacts within the arts. The paper discusses the historical arguments for investment in the arts as largely driven by measurable economic and social goals. While it recognizes those arguments are sound, the paper demonstrates they are insufficient in presenting a complete view of public value for the arts. Thus, a form of measurement and attention to the intrinsic benefits of the arts is required. The aim of the RAND report was to improve the understanding of the full spectrum of benefits the arts provide, both on a private, individual level, as well as on a larger societal scale. The paper outlines and describes the intrinsic benefits for the arts as a whole and explains what developments should be taken in the field to address them.

Lastly, the team reviewed How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool, a pilot study commissioned by the Liverpool Arts Regeneration Consortium, and conducted by Baker Richards and WolfBrown. Similar to the WolfBrown study mentioned above, this study involved eight arts and cultural institutions of both visual and performing arts disciplines, who surveyed their audiences about their arts experience. This survey also incorporated ‘Readiness to Receive’ and the six constructs that were outlined by WolfBrown. Specifically, our team examined the adaptations the Tate, Liverpool made when implementing the survey in their institution. While the Tate specifically focused on specific exhibits, our team found their research to be helpful in framing our work that would consider the CMoA in its entirety.

Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of a Live Performance

Another main point of reference used in Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art was WolfBrown’s work in the performing arts. Their study, Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of a Live Performance, involved six university presenters and a study of a total of 19 performances from a variety of performing arts disciplines. This study was inspired by Gifts of the Muse. The report focused on three major hypotheses: 1) that the intrinsic impacts derived from attending a live performance can be measured, 2) that different types of performances create different sets of impacts, and 3) that an audience member’s ‘readiness-to-receive’ the art

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EXPERT INTERVIEWS

he team spoke to experts in the arts industry in an attempt to create a fuller picture of the landscape in which intrinsic impact arguments must be based. We sought their perspectives on topics we felt were salient to the study. Among the interviews conducted, we were able to gather opinions from curatorial, funding, marketing, education, and development fields. The key takeaways from our conversations are discussed below as aggregates of opinions expressed, rather than direct quotes from individuals. The opinions expressed do not claim to represent the industry completely but are a

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sampling of the beliefs of some professionals in the arts field. “What value do you see in the intrinsic impact argument?” From the funding perspective, intrinsic impact arguments work best at the community level and in individual arts organizations. Professionals at the federal level argue that the most challenging argument comes from naysayers who believe that the government should not invest in the benefit of the individual when there are many more pressing societal issues to be addressed. Activities that impact individuals should instead be addressed locally, where they are likely to have more value. Projects are therefore typically pitched to funders as opportunities for instrumental benefits. However, one funding professional’s take on the situation was particularly insightful: asking arts professionals about their use of the intrinsic impact argument is likely to yield a lack of response. A majority of grant applications do, in fact, make the intrinsic argument, but not as a consideration separate from instrumental benefits. The belief that funders are only interested in tangible results often causes the intrinsic arguments to suffer due to a lack of grounding in data that will allow intrinsic benefits to stand on par with instrumental benefits. The interviewee’s belief was that intrinsic impact arguments are being made, just not with consistent language or reference to constructs that have been validated in social research circles. This need corresponds with this project’s aims to support the efforts to create a unified language across the field. In the development field, the general opinion appears to be that the intrinsic impact argument is fairly weak due to challenges in quantifying or describing its value. With an experience that is so subjective, providing hard evidence for transformative impacts in individuals is not only difficult but also of little interest to most funders. The problem seems to be rooted in a lack of clearly defined goals at the beginning of an art venture; unclear objectives make measurement of effectiveness patently difficult. One development professional was of the opinion that, “The museums that survive in the future will be the

ones to figure this out.” “How is intrinsic impact being used in the case for the arts today? What language is currently being used?” In the experience of the funding professionals we interviewed, arts organizations tend to use anecdotal information in grant applications to tell their story. Unfortunately, without grounding in data, this information lacks strength. It seems evident that arts professionals need to find a way to translate nebulous concepts into formal, consistent language and to develop tools that can combine anecdotal information with quantitative data to create more solid arguments in making a case for the arts. Still, funding agencies do not ask this information of their grantees. One professional’s opinion was that the best way to encourage this approach to grant writing is for sponsors to attempt to draw this information from arts organizations. There is a sense that this lack might be due to a weak grasp of the context and language that can effectively communicate intrinsic benefits and a subsequent lack of resonance with funders. Conversely, another development professional challenged this belief, making the case for arts organizations’ vulnerability in evaluation. An argument was made for the fact that art is not created solely for an audience. Measuring the impact of art created by an organization on an audience might create a situation of marketcontrolled production with the audience gaining power in the interaction. The question raised might then be, “Why create art if its impact cannot be measured?” The many dangers of this approach are lead by the attribution of causality to an extremely complex experience. “What are funders interested in learning about in grant applications?” The curatorial and fundraising perspectives sought were supported by a funder’s perspective in response to this question: funders are interested in clear pictures of goals and objectives. These are often best conveyed through instrumental arguments. One funder’s opinion was that applicants offer (intrinsic) arguments that tend

Background Research

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to address outputs rather than outcomes, which are inherently weak. These are also often low on external validity and undermine the applicability of intrinsic arguments across the industry. “What do you want to learn about the visitor experience?” We found an interesting range of responses to this question from curators, grant writers, and funders. One curator tended to seek out more intellectual responses to artwork and received this feedback indirectly, through other departments that were in direct contact with visitors. Another curator sought to learn about what artwork elicited emotional responses and signs of intellectual stimulation among visitors. Additionally, the latter was also interested in the visitor’s learning about the world and the self through the experience of viewing artwork, in the hope that exhibits would plant seeds of thought in visitors. A similar response was echoed by a development professional who added that while curatorial interest often drives the organization and creation of exhibitions, the museum needs to make a concerted effort to understand what visitors learn by way of their visual art experience, how their beliefs were affected, and the result of their visit to the museum. A similarly exploratory opinion was expressed by a funding professional who wanted to learn about what distinguished a regular visitor as well as the non-aesthetic effects of an art experience like quasi-educational opportunities and family time. “Is there interest in intrinsic impact research?” This query received a fairly uniform response from funding professionals. While there is interest in intrinsic impact research, it would only bolster a case for the arts that included instrumental arguments, not replace it. As research about this topic develops, it might appear that we, the arts industry, are counting the wrong things as markers of what makes an arts organization successful; perhaps success should not be anchored in the number of individuals reached, but rather in the depth of impact that endures in each individual. However, with limited capacity

to carry out consistent impact measurement, arts organizations are likely to be hard-pressed to explore this facet of the intrinsic impact argument. “In what ways do you think this kind of data will be useful?” Across all the professional interests we consulted, the responses to this question might help to inform further exploration of the intrinsic impact of visual art. There was unanimous agreement on the need for qualitative data to be statistically significant, valid, and reliable. The feeling was that with solid data backing an intrinsic impact argument, any arts professional would be interested in using this information across a variety of organizational needs: • Grounded intrinsic data would be able to help arts professionals quantify artistic goals that often fall short in a system of measurement. This may be largely due to a lack of explicit conversation about specific outcomes sought. • Deep data would be able to inform arts organizations about the connectedness they enjoy with their audience, perhaps even helping dispel weak assumptions about their audiences; this aspect of data use might be a somewhat uncomfortable experience involving an exploration of organizational weaknesses. Reliable data would be able to act as an internal barometer for arts organizations that need to stay relevant in an increasingly competitive media environment. Solid research of intrinsic impact might be able to conclusively state that a consistent vocabulary either does not exist or is underutilized by the arts industry. This is encouraging to arts professionals in that the challenge is merely a framing issue. The evolution of a common language that can capture the intrinsic value and impact of visual art will allow professionals to express more succinctly the beliefs that led them to work in the arts industry.

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The development of measurement tools for intrinsic impact on audiences is a potent field building exercise. These tools will aid in the deconstruction of the concept of inspiration that might be used in exhibition design. Statistically significant data might aid in an internal evaluation of success separate from attendance numbers to give arts organizations a more wholistic picture of the impact they have on their audiences.

Background Research

SURVEY

DESIGN
Survey Design Process Research Questions Key Constructs General Adaptations from Previous Research Pilot Test Survey Instrument

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SURVEY DESIGN PROCESS
n their guide to survey writing, researchers Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink advise that individuals begin the survey writing process by constructing general questions to guide their research (20). Survey researchers can only write specific survey items after drafting these overarching questions and clarifying the key ideas embodied within them (20). For this reason, the team began its survey design process by formulating general research questions. We then defined the constructs included in the research questions and conducted background research, including interviews with advisory board members and other individuals in the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) community, in order to enhance our understanding of the survey constructs. Lastly, the team wrote individual survey items intended to collectively answer the research questions.

● Does

observing visual art cause adult CMoA visitors to experience an emotional response?

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KEY CONSTRUCTS
he two key constructs examined in this study, ‘Readiness’ and ‘Impact’, were based on the constructs explored by WolfBrown. Within both of these we looked for specific visitor behavior that would inform all the other constructs. The team also added the ‘Extended Engagement’ construct to explore the level of engagement a visitor experiences with artwork(s) and how this endures over time. A discussion of the explanatory variables we used describes how the sample was stratified during analyses.

Readiness Constructs
A visitor’s readiness to receive a visual art experience was measured by investigating their anticipation or expectations prior to or at the beginning of their visit. Additionally, the context of their visit or prior knowledge and experience with the visual arts informed this construct. Anticipation: A visitor’s expectations for a visual art viewing experience • A visitor’s motivation(s) for visiting the CMoA on the day of the survey • How excited a visitor was to see artworks when s/he arrived at the museum Context: A visitor’s prior experience with and knowledge of visual art • A visitor’s perceived knowledge of visual art in general • How many times a visitor went to a visual art gallery or museum in the last 12 months • A visitor’s perceived frequency of creating visual art in the last 12 months • How many times a visitor attended a visual art class or lecture in the last 12 months • Whether a visitor did any research about the artists and/or artworks displayed in the two weeks preceding his/her visit

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS
he team developed the survey research questions below based on previous research done by WolfBrown in Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of a Live Performance and WolfBrown and Baker Richards in Intrinsic Impact: How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool. Although the following is based on previous studies, we tailored research definitions and indicators to fit our project’s scope and goals. 1. What is the relationship between adult CMoA visitors’ readiness to receive visual art experiences and the nature and extent of the benefits those visitors receive from their visual art experiences? 2. Questions about individual impact constructs: ● Does the experience of observing visual art captivate adult CMoA visitors? ● Does the experience of observing visual art intellectually stimulate adult CMoA visitors?

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Impact Constructs
Captivation: The degree to which a visual art viewing experience engaged a visitor • The extent to which a visitor lost track of time in the galleries • Whether any artworks grabbed a visitor’s attention enough to momentarily become his/her primary point of focus/ *Clarification: Whether a visitor found an artwork’s physical appearance, the ideas expressed by the artwork, or both, most arresting • How much time a visitor spent in the galleries Intellectual Stimulation: The degree to which a visual art viewing experience caused a visitor to contemplate the artwork on display and its significance • The extent to which any artwork(s) challenged or reinforced a visitor’s personal viewpoint • Whether a visitor could relate any personal experiences to the artworks displayed • Whether a visitor found viewing the artworks inspirational • Whether a visitor had questions about the artwork(s) displayed

Emotional Response: The degree to which a visitor had an emotional reaction during his/her visual art viewing experience • Whether a visitor recognized an emotion in any of the artworks displayed • The extent to which a visitor felt anger, fear, joy, love, sadness, and/or surprise when looking at artwork(s) • Whether a visitor found viewing any artwork(s) inspirational

Extended Engagement
Extended engagement is a prediction of whether an individual will increase his/her involvement in the arts as a result of his/her visual art viewing experience. • Whether a visitor was more likely to attend a visual art class or lecture in the following six months • Whether a visitor was more likely to visit an art museum or gallery in the following six months • Whether a visitor was more likely to create art himself/herself in the following six months • Whether a visitor was more likely to talk about art with others in the following fourteen days

Explanatory Variables
The survey measured the variables defined below to stratify the population of interest during analyses: Note on Inspiration. WolfBrown originally included •Decision-making Status: Visitors’ self“inspirational” as an indicator of spiritual value (Brown reports on whether they made the decision 34). However, when further research revealed that to visit the CMoA the emotional and spiritual dimensions of impact •Party Size: Visitors’ self-reports on the were highly correlated, a decision was made to merge number of people that accompanied them the construct of spiritual value into the construct of •Party Composition: Visitors’ indication of emotional response (Baker Richards 20). Although their connections to other individuals in prior research indicates that the marker for inspiration their party belongs under the construct of emotional response, all •Areas Visited: Visitors’ reports on galleries of the participants in our pilot test agreed that they felt visited as well as time spent in the Carnegie an inspirational viewing experience would provide them Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with new ideas. This suggests that inspiration may be •Cultural Identity: Visitors’ identification as a more of an intellectual impact. Given these differences member of a racial or ethnic group in meaning, the proper placement of this indicator •Gender: Visitors’ identification as male or needs to be explored further. female

Survey Design

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• •

Educational Attainment: Visitors’ indication of the highest level of education completed Age Group: Visitors’ self-reports on belonging to a particular age bracket as listed in the response options

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GENERAL ADAPTATIONS FROM PREVIOUS RESEARCH
n order to explore intrinsic impact in the visual arts the team felt it was necessary to make certain adaptations to the existing intrinsic impact research. This extended to the exploration of constructs, specifically how applicable they were to the field. Due to the limitations of the project’s scope and available time we also did not include some of the more complex constructs since they would not have been explored adequately.

CMoA, the team found it difficult to write reliable items that could specifically measure what a visitor learned while in the museum. We also felt we could not accurately measure changes that occurred in a visitor’s general attitude toward visual art, but did feel that we could reliably measure visitors’ attitudes in terms of specific behavioral intentions. After arriving at this conclusion, the team decided to explore behavioral intentions by exploring the construct of ‘Extended Engagement’, which is defined as, “a prediction of whether an individual would increase his/her involvement in the arts as a result of his/her visual art experience”. Indicators of ‘Extended Engagement’ include whether a visitor believes s/he is more likely to attend a visual art class or lecture, make visual art himself/herself, or visit a visual art museum or gallery in the six months following a CMoA visit. A visitor’s likelihood of talking about the artworks seen at the CMoA during the two weeks after his/ her visit was an additional measure of ‘Extended Engagement’.

Aesthetic Growth & Extended Engagement
To begin with, the team decided not to utilize the WolfBrown impact construct of ‘Aesthetic Growth’, defined as, “the extent to which an individual was exposed to a new style or type of art, or otherwise stretched aesthetically by the performance” (Brown 9). In conversations with multiple individuals, the team learned that “aesthetic growth” was a term people in the visual arts field found difficult to define. Furthermore, CMU Aesthetics Professor Andrew Swensen, advised the team that aesthetic growth encompasses the constructs of ‘Captivation’, ‘Intellectual Stimulation’, and ‘Emotional Response’ (Swensen). Aesthetic growth is therefore an over-arching transformation that occurs when people view visual art; it is not a single construct. While there is also a component of aesthetic growth that is related to learning about visual art, the team decided that measuring this learning was out of our scope. Since we chose to examine visitors’ responses to all of the artworks in the

Social Bonding
The team chose not to investigate the WolfBrown impact construct of ‘Social Bonding’, defined as, “the extent to which the [visual art experience] connected the individual with others in the [galleries], allowed her to celebrate her own cultural heritage or learn about cultures outside of her life experience, and left her with new insight on human relations” (Brown 9). We opted to exclude the exploration of this construct from the scope of the project after discovering difficulties in reliably measuring ‘Social Bonding’. For instance, we learned that questions regarding culture were prone to ambiguous interpretations and that they needed effective baselines in order to measure changes in cultural connectedness (Siegle). Due to scheduling limitations, the team felt we could not adequately address these concerns and therefore did not feel we could research this construct through our survey instrument.

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Relevance
The team made the decision not to address the WolfBrown readiness construct of ‘Relevance’, or “an individual’s comfort level with the performance experience—the extent to which they are in a familiar situation, socially or culturally” (Brown 9). This follows the example set by the study, Intrinsic Impact: How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool, which likewise did not look at the construct of relevance (Richards 7). The team elected not to look at the relevance construct primarily due to limitations in terms of survey length. However, we included the indicator of frequency of museum attendance, analogous to WolfBrown’s relevance indicator of regular attendance at live performances (Stop Taking Attendance 18), under its definition of ‘Context’. The team felt this indicator fit under the ‘Context’ construct because it demonstrated whether a visitor had viewed visual art in a museum during the past year, which falls under the umbrella of prior experience.

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PILOT TEST

focus group was conducted to pilot test the survey to examine comprehension of language and survey design. The conditions of taking the survey were simulated with a group of six participants at the CMoA. The participants represented a variety of demographic categories to provide diverse perspectives. Participants were given time to visit the museum galleries before taking the survey and were led in a group discussion after completing the survey. Several key findings from the pilot test were instrumental in improving the survey before its implementation. The team discovered that most of the language and concepts explored in the survey were clearly understood. One recurring comment from participants was to make the survey look short and more attractive. While participants completed the survey within 15 minutes, the appearance and layout of the survey was intimidating. For details of the pilot test key findings, please refer to Appendix B.

Exhibit 1.1: Results of Pilot Test Feedback

Topic for Exploration
Survey length

Feedback
The survey looks long, but didn’t take a lot of time to complete.

Resolution
1. Add estimated time to take the survey in the introduction 2. Put easy questions such as demographics at the end 3. Reformat the survey to make it look shorter Focus our questions on the art experience, rather than the institution. The answers validate our question.

Survey Goals

Are we evaluating the art or the museum? Yes, I can remember clearly how many times I visited an art museum or gallery last year.

Frequency of visit (item 5)

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Topic for Exploration
Definition of “research” (item 7)

Feedback
I would define research as looking the artworks up beforehand, learning about them in a class. It’s pretty broad. Do you want to know people’s motivations or prior knowledge?

Resolution
We are testing how people actively searched information about the exhibitions. The interpretation fits our expectations.

Captivation (item 9)

I had an experience where an artwork “momentarily pushed everything out of my mind”. It’s too extreme. There are always other thoughts going on.

Change “to momentarily push all other thoughts out of your mind” into “to momentarily become your primary point of focus”. Split the question into two behavioral questions. Ask about whether they engaged more in art.

Extended Engagement vs. Aesthetic Growth (items 16,17)

What does “aesthetics” mean? What do you mean by “pay more attention to your surroundings”? Does it indicate you appreciate natural beauty, or you have heightened acuteness? I’m confused about the word “energy”. I feel tired because it’s end of day, but I like the artworks.

Emotional Response

Delete the question about whether people felt they gained energy after the visit.

Map

I can’t tell from the map which floor it is. There are two questions about the map, each with different instructions (to check or to circle the galleries). It’s confusing. I don’t fill in demographics questions as a policy. I don’t like to be identified.

Eliminate one of the two questions. Only ask people to check which galleries they went to. 1. Provide incentives for them to complete the survey 2. State the confidentiality clauses clearly at the beginning

Demographics

The following pages contain the final version of the survey that was distributed in the CMoA.

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Exhibit 1.2: Survey Instrument

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Survey Design

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Bradburn, Norman, Seymour Sudman, and Brian Wansink. Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design- For Market Research, Political Polls, and Social and Health Questionnaires. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004. Print. Brown, Alan, and Jennifer Novak. “Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance.” WolfBrown, Jan. 2007. ---. “Beyond attendance: a multi-modal understanding of arts participation.” National Endowment for the Arts, 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. ---. “Stop Taking Attendance and Start Measuring the True Impacts of Your Programs.” Arts Presenters Conference. 11 Jan. 2008. “Intrinsic Impacts.” IntrinsicImpact.org. WolfBrown, 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. Iraossi, G. The Power of Survey Design: A User’s Guide for Managing Surveys, Interpreting Results, and Influencing Respondents. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006. Print. Richards, Debbie and Alan Brown. “Intrinsic Impact: How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool.” June 2011. Siegle, Greg. Personal interview. 2 Mar. 2012. Swensen, Andrew. Personal interview. 23 Feb. 2012.

WORKS CITED
Survey Design

IMPLEMEN-

TATION
Population and Sample Size Methodology Results and Lessons Learned Focus Groups Personal Interviews

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QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION
n order to streamline the process of implementing our survey instrument, the team set down guidelines for sample selection, survey administration, and tracking measures. This process required adapting some of the methodology WolfBrown used in their study to the context of a visual art organization. Major adaptations centered on the difference in expectiations of audience behavior from the performing arts to the visual arts. Performing arts typically have audiences that are stationary for a set period of time at a single venue. In contrast, visual arts audiences typically cover multiple venues over variable periods of time and are a mobile, constantly moving audience. The differences in typical audience experience guided the majority of the team’s design decisions and a discussion of the implementation process follows.

POPULATION & SAMPLE SIZE
Determining Population Size at the CMoA
The limitations of our study only allowed for six weeks of survey administration at the CMoA. In consideration of the context of our study, we collected annual visitor data from the CMoA and CMNH (recorded jointly by the institution) and segmented average attendance data for the months of March and April to reflect our study’s data collection period for an appropriate population estimate. In order to determine which days the team would collect data at the museum, we computed daily traffic averages based on CMoA attendance data during the first and second quarters of the previous two years. Consequently, we were able to identify high and low traffic days and develop a logistical plan for each type of day. The team also chose to survey visitors ages 18 and above only which was reflected in the exclusion of school group attendance data.

Exhibit 2.1: Museum Attendance

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Sample Requirements and Goals
The team attempted to collect a random sample that included the widest possible selection of visitors. We decided upon using a confidence level of 95% and a margin of error of 5%, which set our base sample size at 397 (rounded up to 400 for goal-setting purposes). This sample size could be extrapolated to a population size between 10,000 and 1,000,000, which corresponds with CMoA annual visitor attendance rates (Russell). Historical survey response rates in the range of 2040% at the CMoA informed our calculation of our target total sample size. We used a conservative projected response rate of 20% to arrive at a total sample size of 1,985 visitors that we needed to approach in order to reach our target. Exhibit 2.2: Sample Size Base Sample (total number of respondents needed) Response Rate Final Sample Size (total number of people needed to be approached) CMoA Historical Response Rate Margin of Error Confidence Level Degree of Variability 397 20% 1,985 20% 5% 95% 50%

temporary exhibition spaces that include the Heinz Galleries, the Forum Gallery, and the Heinz Architectural Center. Other small side galleries and freestanding displays exist throughout the museum in addition to the larger galleries.

Temporary Exhibitions on Display
When designing the methodology for our study, the team took into consideration the many different temporary exhibitions during the period of data collection. The following exhibitions, and their respective galleries, are listed below. Exhibition titles and descriptions come from the CMoA’s official website: web.cmoa.org Teenie Harris, Photographer: An American Story The Heinz Galleries “Carnegie Museum of Art presents a groundbreaking retrospective of African American photographer Charles “Teenie” Harris (1908– 1998), featuring nearly a thousand of Harris’s most beautiful, appealing, and historically significant images… Drawing on 10 years of research into the archive, Teenie Harris, Photographer: An American Story features immersive life-size projections combined with a newly commissioned jazz soundtrack. A large-scale chronology and a webbased interactive introduce visitors to the rich visual resources of the archive and offer access to firsthand accounts by Harris’s contemporaries. The final section of the exhibition is dedicated to an in-depth evaluation of Harris as an artist.” Cathy Wilkes The Forum Gallery “Carnegie Museum of Art presents the first solo American museum exhibition to combine the painting and sculptural installations of Irish artist Cathy Wilkes (b. 1966). Often examining personal experiences, including motherhood, Wilkes is best known for vulnerable, haunting sculptures and installations in which sculpted and found objects are altered and arranged into humanistic—if sometimes disturbing—domestic scenes.”

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RESEARCH LOCATION: THE CARNEGIE MUSEUM OF ART
ocated in the North Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, the CMoA is one of the largest museums in the city. The CMoA presents a wide array of art across the various galleries of the museum. The Scaife Galleries, the museum’s largest group of galleries, holds the museum’s permanent collection ranging from ancient and classical to contemporary art as well as Asian and African art. Their other permanent galleries include the Bruce Galleries, which house decorative arts, the Hall of Sculpture and the Hall of Architecture. The museum has numerous

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Picturing the City: Downtown Pittsburgh, 2007– 2010 Gallery One (Works on Paper Gallery) “Experience Pittsburgh through the lenses of nine photographers who call the city their home. Inspired by the city’s century-old tradition of documentary photography.”

secondary access point in the museum and the only other point at which visitors can access the CMNH. These factors played a major role in our team’s decision of where to place the two survey stations needed for our study.

The Primary Survey Station The primary survey station was situated at the Maya Lin top of the Scaife stairs. Museum staff noted The Heinz Architectural Center that this location was the traditional entrance “Maya Lin’s work embraces architecture, to the museum and that visitors were making a sculpture, nature, and ecology, taking a truly conscious decision to specifically enter the CMoA original approach to landscape. The spare yet by choosing this path. This was the deciding powerful works on view in factor in placing the primary Maya Lin are imaginative resurvey station at this location Exhibit 2.3: Incentive Sign-up Sheet creations of natural forms and as the most logical area transformed into objects of to establish the interception contemplation… Ranging threshold. In addition, the from room-sized installations space contained a table evoking mountainous for survey materials to topography to delicate wall be placed on and a bench installations of silver pins for participants to sit on. tracing the flow of American Based on the suggestion rivers, Lin’s works evoke of Jennifer Novak Leonard her own unique experience of WolfBrown, the survey of the environment while station had a sign to advertise encouraging visitors to our study and all survey staff consider the physicality were required to wear name of the world in which we badges. Ms. Novak Leonard live and our sympathetic believed that these steps existence with nature.” would help brand the study as different from the CMoA’s regular surveys and give the Unique Features of the stations a sense of legitimacy CMoA for visitors. Numerous aspects of the layout and design of the CMoA affected the way in which our implementation was designed. The dual nature of the institution, housing both the CMoA and the CMNH, was the predominant factor in our team’s planning process. While the institution houses both museums, the architecture and placement of the galleries presented two very clear entry and exit points to the CMoA: the Scaife stairs and the Grand Staircase. The Scaife stairs, located at the entrance to the museum, is considered the primary entry point to the CMoA according to museum staff. The Grand Staircase is the The Secondary Survey Station A secondary survey station was situated at the Grand Staircase, which was the exit point for three CMoA galleries but also the other main exit point for the CMoA. The exit interceptor was stationed in this area to remind intercepted visitors of the study as they approached the staircase exit. It is important to note that there was no threshold associated with this area and the exit interceptor only approached those visitors who had previously been intercepted for the study. This decision was made to avoid creating a situation of double selection.

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METHODOLOGY
The Survey Instrument
Our study used a paper instrument that contained 33 questions on two double-sided letter pages, each with a unique identifying code, that was presented to respondents on clipboards. The team decided on a paper medium for the survey to avoid creating a bias against visitors with a low aptitude for more sophisticated technological survey tools. Completed surveys were collected and subsequently stored in an offsite location for eventual data entry. For this study we used manila envelopes, with collection session data recorded on the front, as a way to categorize completed surveys into batches. Due to the generosity of the museum’s membership department, the team was able to offer potential respondents an incentive to participate: the opportunity to win a raffle prize of either a free dual membership or a renewal of an existing annual membership at the same level. Respondents entered their names and contact information on a sign-up sheet that doubled as a sign-up sheet for focus group participation along with the instrument’s survey code: see Exhibit 2.3

with tokens at the Grand Staircase exit to administer the survey to them at that location The instrument was designed as an exit survey that would capture visitor response at the end of their visual art experience. The paper instrument was two double-sided pages long and took between five and ten minutes to complete. To allow respondents to budget enough time to complete the survey, the survey pitch included information about the time requirement.

Sample Selection Guidelines
The Interception Threshold Despite sharing space with the CMNH, the entry and exit points to the CMoA are distinctive. A main point of entry to most of the art galleries is via the Scaife stairs, which doubles as an exit point along with the area known as the Grand Staircase. The landing at the top of the Scaife stairs requires visitors to make a choice to enter either the Heinz Galleries or the Scaife Gallery. We attempted to use a selection method that was bias-free and accomplished this by defining physical selection thresholds – we made the decision to approach visitors that reached the top of the Scaife stairs as well as those that used the elevators to reach same landing. This way, visitors that had reached the landing had made the choice to enter one of the two galleries at the CMoA and by approaching visitors in this area we were able to select our sample with minimal gallery selection bias. Controls for High and Low Traffic Patterns While determining the target sample size and collection days, the team was able to identify high and low traffic patterns abd their probability during the week. On low traffic days with an average of fewer than 600 visitors, every individual was approached upon crossing the threshold. Due to concerns about being able to cope with the volume of visitors on high traffic days with an average of over 600 visitors, every third individual, pair or group of visitors that crossed the pre-defined threshold was approached.

Using an Intercept Methodology
A primary difference between our study and WolfBrown’s study was in the expected behavior of the audience being surveyed. The nature of the performing arts experience allowed WolfBrown to place surveys on every “nth” seat before the audience arrived, ensuring a sampling methodology that was easy to execute. At the CMoA we were attempting to survey a highly mobile audience and chose an intercept method that comprised the following tasks: • Intercepting visitors once they crossed a predefined threshold, asking them to participate in our study and handing them a selection token once they agreed • Administering the survey to selected visitors at the Scaife stairs that had agreed to participate at the end of their museum visit • Spotting and intercepting selected visitors

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During the course of survey administration we discovered that visitor traffic flow did not vary significantly between high and low traffic days. Further, the team discovered that we were, in fact, able to efficiently execute visitor interception on high traffic days. The team consulted with a survey expert at this point and determined that with the use of weighting survey responses collected from every third visitor, it was possible to switch completely to intercepting every visitor that crossed the threshold.

The Use of Tokens Given the challenges of the museum layout in that there was no barrier of entry between the CMoA and CMNH, the survey administrator needed a Other exclusions included all individuals under method to identify visitors who had crossed the the age of 18. To counteract potential errors defined threshold, been selected to participate, in selection, not only did the preliminary and had agreed to participate. This was instructions on the survey instrument detail accomplished through the age requirements but the use of stickers that were Exhibit 2.4: Intercept Token instrument also asked handed out at the point of respondents to disclose interception to visitors who their age. School groups or had agreed to complete any other type of guided the survey. The token, tour, such as docent tours, adapted from a method were also excluded, as used by WolfBrown in were CMoA staff members their study would not only (identified by badges). identify selected visitors The entry interceptor was (Marinshaw) but would also serve as a reminder responsible for determining the eligibility of to visitors to complete the survey: see Exhibit 2.4 potential respondents. Counting Visitor Interceptions In order to track the implementation of our survey guidelines, two different counting measures were used. The first was a physical clicker, handled by the entry interceptor, that was used to maintain a tally of every visitor approached. This count was used to track the number of visitors approached, and was then used to calculate the rate of rejection. The second counting measure used was the number of stickers handed out, which when compared to the number of completed surveys, would determine the response rate we secured. Rules for Groups and Other Exclusions One of the major interception guidelines concerned the treatment of groups that crossed the threshold. We determined that collecting

responses from multiple members of one group was likely to skew results. Therefore, the team made the decision to allow one person from each group, regardless of the size of the group, to complete the survey. A group was defined as two or more visitors that crossed the threshold together in the same party (Marinshaw). When intercepted, the entire group was solicited for the study and allowed to select a respondent. The group’s self-selection of the respondent was allowed in order to prevent interceptor selection bias. Each group approached was counted as one solicitation for the counting measure, as if a single person were approached.

Occasionally, visitors that had not been intercepted approached survey administrators with a desire to participate. Since the selection method allowed for all visitors to be approached, these individuals were allowed to take the survey at the Scaife stairs only if they met all of the following conditions in addition to the age requirement: • They were not part of a group that had already been approached • They were not part of a school group or guided tour • They had finished their visit to the museum The survey administrator was responsible for making this determination. If the visitor met all the conditions, they were given the same instructions

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that intercepted visitors received. A token sticker was marked, and the entry interceptor counted an additional solicitation. Observing Missed Opportunities While an interception was in progress, it was expected that a certain number of visitors would be able to cross the defined threshold and enter the galleries without being approached. These visitors were not counted as rejections, since they had not been intercepted, but as missed opportunities. To determine the characteristics of the individuals missed, the missed opportunities were observed on two days of data collection. Observers recorded estimates of age and other visible characteristics that were later compared to the survey data in order to draw out similar demographic patterns. Through the use of data from these sessions, we were able to determine that there was no discernable pattern in the missed opportunities.

and asked to display it prominently. Groups that were intercepted and agreed to participate were allowed to select one respondent who was handed the sticker. In addition to approaching visitors, the entry interceptor was responsible for the two counting measures mentioned earlier – the clicker and sticker counts. The Exit Interceptor As mentioned earlier, the CMoA has two potential exit points. In order to achieve as high a response rate as possible, an exit interceptor and survey administrator were stationed at the secondary survey station, the Grand Staircase. The purpose of the exit interceptor at this location was to act as a reminder to participants to complete the survey if they had chosen to exit the museum through the Grand Staircase. To prevent double selection, the exit interceptor only approached visitors with visible sticker tokens. Further, interested individuals that had not been intercepted at the top of the Scaife stairs were not allowed to complete the survey at the Grand Staircase. The Survey Administrator The survey administrator was responsible for handing the survey to intercepted visitors on their exit from the museum. The team members or volunteers managing this role were positioned at both survey stations and were responsible for all survey materials. Due to staffing constraints, an exit interceptor would occasionally also assume the role of survey administrator at the Grand Staircase. Finally, the survey administrator was responsible for recording all data collected through the counting measures on the batch folder.

Roles and Staffing Requirements
Each of the 30 data collection sessions required between three and four individuals to manage the session according to the implementation guidelines set down. All nine members of the team as well as eight CMoA volunteers managed this process. Each volunteer was provided with implementation instructions (refer to Appendix C1) and also received some amount of training by a team member. Each session was staffed by at least one team member; volunteers did not run any session by themselves. The Entry Interceptor The primary job of the entry interceptor was to approach visitors after they crossed the defined threshold and pitch the study to them. The entry interceptor followed a script that included an introduction of the study as a CMU student project, a one-sentence explanation about the study, a request to participate, and upon agreement, instructions on the time requirement and the location of where the survey could be completed. Respondents that agreed to participate were handed a sticker

Reporting and the Creation of Survey Batches
Completed surveys were placed in an envelope upon receipt and were collated at the end of each session. Each envelope contained a summarized record of the day’s total clicker count, total sticker count, total survey count, date, and team members and volunteers responsible. Through this creation of batches, the team was able to

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track and manage the large number of completed surveys and identify specific survey instruments according to their batch number and survey code.

Data Collection Sessions
The team made an effort to survey museum visitors each day of the week on at least two different occasions. While we were able to conduct data collection sessions at similar times on each day, scheduling conflicts with museum activities required a degree of flexibility. Each data collection day comprised at least one session, defined as a 2.5 - 3 hour period. Some high traffic days, typically over the weekend, would comprise two sessions, resulting in an increased total hour count and an increase in completed surveys. Our scheduling was heavily weighted towards high traffic days in the first three weeks of the collection period in an attempt to meet our targets. A mid-way situation assessment revealed that not only was the team was on track to collecting the target number of surveys but also that more low traffic days could be sampled as well. The collection schedule was then updated to reflect this knowledge. A unique feature of the CMoA included the museum’s long-standing policy of free visitor admission for four Thursday evenings during our collection period. This offer resulted in high visitor traffic that was adjusted in our collection schedule as well. Anecdotal observational information suggests that these nights were instrumental in widening the demographic range of our respondents.

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RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED
n total, 1,562 visitors (groups are counted as a single visitor) were approached to take the survey. Of these, 1,268 visitors accepted our token and agreed to take the survey at the end of their visit. We received 657 completed surveys at the end of our six weeks, indicating that 81% of visitors approached accepted a token and 52% of individuals that accepted a token completed the survey. Overall, the team enjoyed a response rate of 42%. The total number of visitors approached was below our target of 1,985. This was due in part to the cancellation of some data sessions to accommodate scheduling conflicts and adjustments to the CMoA’s programming and events schedule. These changes brought the total number of data collection sessions down from 30 to 24. Despite these cancellations, we were able to achieve our data collection goal over six weeks at the museum – an important achievement in that the data collected was not clustered around a few days, contributing to the randomness of data and respondent variety. The overall response rate of 42% was close to the high end of the historical scale of responses achieved at the CMoA. This is especially significant in light of the fact that while the typical CMoA survey is between one and two single-sided pages long, ours was a two-page, double-sided survey. Our experience at the museum indicates that despite the length of the survey instrument, it is possible to conduct fairly detailed visitor experience studies at the CMoA.

Exhibit 2.5: Summary of Data Collection Period Sunday Number of days Total Number of hours 4 15.5 Monday 0 0 Tuesday 2 6 Wednesday 2 6 Thursday 4 15 Friday 1 3 Saturday 5 24

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One of the main lessons our team took away from the implementation of our research at the CMoA was an understanding of the unique aspects of the visitor paths in a visual art institution. Working with the CMoA’s Education Department to understand visitor flow and common entry points greatly contributed to the success of the intercept methodology used. The uniqueness of the CMoA’s layout also had a marked effect on our original traffic controls. We believe that traffic controls should still be considered in future studies based on the specific institution or presenter’s unique historic traffic patterns.

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QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION

he team’s primary research instrument was a two-page, double-sided paper survey designed and administered specifically for this project. During the development and design of the survey, questions arose concerning the constructs and other elements adapted from the WolfBrown study. Despite being a valuable element in the WolfBrown study, since our survey instrument was administered to visitors once, the change of the impact of art over time was outside the reasonable scope of our project and primary research tool. To address the questions that developed, the team consulted with different experts in the field as well as advisory board members. Prior to implementation, the survey instrument was pilot tested to examine interpretation and comprehension of language among participants not related to our study. Once the survey instrument was launched, the need to gain deeper perspective on decisions made in the adaptation and design process led to the development of qualitative research methods.

with self-selected museum visitors during the implementation of our team’s survey. Due to the time constraints of the project, we planned to conduct two focus groups. The sessions were planned to take place within the museum and explore the following areas of interest: • Interpretation of language used in describing intrinsic impact constructs • Comprehension of concepts underlying the constructs with an emphasis on an exploration of visitors’ thought processes • Further exploration of decisions made in the survey design process and to highlight areas for future study • Examination of change over time by correlating survey responses with focus group participants’ discussions *Note: While the element of change over time was outside the scope of the project, the team decided to explore the concept through focus group discussions.

METHODOLOGY
Session Design
The focus group sessions were designed to present two different groups with identical experiences at the CMoA. Each session was split into two components: the classroom discussion and a gallery talk. These sessions aimed to engage previous survey respondents in discussion about their thought processes and interpretations of questions answered in the survey. The sessions focused on the three main impact constructs, ‘Emotional Response’, ‘Captivation’, and ‘Intellectual Stimulation’. The exploratory construct, ‘Extended Engagement’ was excluded from the discussion plan because our participants did not have an adequate amount of time between the completion of the survey and the focus group session. Since the construct was intended to examine change over a longer time frame respondents’ answers were likely to have been biased towards a shorter time period.

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FOCUS GROUPS
ocus groups were determined to be the best method for the qualitative research. These focus groups were to be conducted

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The construct, ‘Social Bonding’ was removed from the survey because of the complexity of the concept of culture, but was included in focus group discussions to explore respondents’ interpretation of connection/disconnection to a culture. A discussion guide was written to aid the moderator with facilitation of group conversation. The section for classroom discussion focused on seven essential questions with a series of subquestions and additional discussion points. The section for the gallery talk comprised a series of short questions to stimulate conversation about thought processes when interacting with a piece of art. The discussion guide can be found in Appendix C2.

lead participants through the process of charting the change in intensity of their chosen emotion over time and to facilitate discussion about why these changes occurred.

Gallery Discussion
The second half of the focus group was to take place in front of several different artworks within the CMoA galleries. During the gallery talk, participants would be guided in a discussion about the thought process and criteria they used to relate impact constructs while considering the artwork before them. The moderator would take into consideration the fact that the artwork chosen for discussion may not be reflective of the artworks participants recalled while completing their surveys. The goal of the gallery talk was to provide participants with a real-time visual art experience that would encourage them to discuss their thought processes in the moment, while avoiding projective answers. Participants would be encouraged to share how they evaluated the artwork without providing an actual judgment of the work. Based on advice from the CMoA Educational staff, our team preselected three pieces of artwork to represent a range of pieces a visitor might have experienced at the museum. The selection of artworks included an Impressionist painting, a contemporary art installation that occupies an entire room, and a conceptual piece of decorative arts.

Classroom Discussion
The classroom discussion followed the framework of a traditional focus group. Participants would sign a research waiver followed by lunch. The first few minutes would be devoted to ice breaker questions and trust-building exercises. A copy of the research waiver can be found in Appendix D2. The focus of the classroom discussion was to ask participants to think back to their experience at the CMoA on the day that they took the survey. Participants would be reminded of particular survey items related to constructs being explored, and then asked to explain their thought process as they answered questions. Particular emphasis would be placed on recalling actual experiences as opposed to projecting possible experiences, which was important for the purpose of examining responses over time. One activity in the classroom session is related to the concept of feeling an emotion in response to a visual art experience. Participants would be given a blank graph where the X axis represented exponentially increasing time periods from the time of their museum visit and the Y axis featured a blank space for participants to write in the strongest emotion they remember experiencing during their visit. The exercise was intended to

Method for Selecting Participants
Participants were self-selected from the sample population that had completed the survey instrument so that we could compare individual survey responses to specific focus group participants’ discussions. These comparisons would remain anonymous to allow participants to speak freely during the sessions. While selfselection did not allow for a random sample of participants, we used demographic data from survey responses to ensure the focus groups would, at the very least, include a variety of

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participants in terms of age, gender, cultural identity, and educational attainment.

then be compared to identify overall trends in discussion points. Comparison of Individual Reponses to Past Survey Response Correlating survey responses to focus group participants’ discussions would help identify relationships between the way participants recorded their CMoA experience at the time of taking the survey and the way they described the memory of that experience. This information could provide insights about the change of impact over time. The individual correlations could then be compared across focus group participants for general themes or trends. Pennebaker Analysis Advisory board member, Greg Siegle, suggested the use of a linguistic analysis and word count software developed by James W. Pennebaker (LIWC). This software would provide a statistical and rigorous analysis of the language used by participants and to examine the language used in describing intrinsic impact in a more objective manner.

Roles and Staffing Requirements
The focus groups were to be carried out by three members of the team, one of whom would assume the role of moderator and two who would be silent observers. The guidelines for each of the roles can be found in Appendix C1. Moderator The moderator was to be responsible for facilitating coversation by posing predetermined questions and following the discussion guide. S/he would use discussion points and subquestions to guide the focus of conversation and examine topics in more depth or from a different perspective. The moderator was to ensure all participants were engaged in conversation and that the environment remained comfortable for everyone. S/he would also be mindful of questions being discussed in a fashion that was not weighted towards socially acceptable responses. Observers The two observers’ roles were to record any interesting group dynamics, gestures, and other points of interest during group discussions. Observers would refrain from participating following their introduction at the beginning of the session, to avoid drawing attention away from the moderator’s role of guiding the discussion. One observer would have the additional job of recording the discussion by way of a digital audio recorder for future transcription. Two observers were necessary to offset possible observer bias experienced during the focus group.

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JUSTIFICATION FOR CHANGE FROM FOCUS GROUPS TO INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS

hrough the first four weeks of survey administration, over 65 visitors registered to be contacted for the focus groups. Unfortunately, after being contacted, the final response rate did not meet the minimum number necessary to run the focus group sessions. We believe that this was a result either of scheduling conflicts or insufficient incentives due to budgetary limitations. The focus groups were scheduled to be held near the end of the survey administration phase of the project. When the decision to cancel the focus groups was made, only four days of survey collection remained. However, to ensure the collection of qualitative data, a solution was devised to conduct one-on-one

Analysis Methods
Identifying Central Themes Each of the focus groups would be transcribed from audio recordings, using pseudonyms like “Participant A” to identify speakers. Within each group, the team would identify general themes from essential questions. Individual groups would

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personal interviews with museum visitors. Since all interviews were to be conducted during the final four days of survey administration, the qualitative data collected would not be representative of the full population. Despite its lack of representativeness, we believe that the qualititative data collected was useful as a comparison point to the quantitative data collected and provided an additional level of depth in our analyses. Three key aspects of the focus group research were not included in the personal interview format: change of impact over time, correlation of survey responses to a discussion, and effects of group discussion. However, an examination of the interpretation of language and concepts of intrinsic impact and visitor thought processes when interpreting concepts were still possible. While our team was unable to conduct focus groups, future studies would benefit from the insight they could provide.

3. 4.

The concept of losing track of time Personal experiences in a visual art gallery and ways that visitors focus on artwork 5. Discussion with others and asking questions about the artwork 6. The concept of finding artworks inspirational 7. The concept of connection and interpretation of culture in artworks 8. Whether or not an artwork affected a personal viewpoint The eight concepts were formatted into eight main questions with sub-questions and discussion points to help the interviewer guide the conversation. A pilot test of the personal interviews was conducted to test clarity of questions and concepts. Based on pilot test feedback, language was adjusted for clarity and Exhibit 2.6: Personal Interview Selection Protocol

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PERSONAL INTERVIEWS

he personal interviews were designed to be completed in under 20 minutes based on an assumption that the shorter format would be more appealing than focus groups to potential participants. We were able to conduct 15-30 minute interviews with nine individuals over the last four days of our survey administration at the CMoA.

METHODOLOGY
Discussion Guide Design
The discussion guide from the focus groups was adapted to form a guide for the personal interview format. The new discussion guide focused on eight different concepts originally intended for exploration in the focus groups: 1. The recognition of emotion in a work of art 2. The experience of feeling an emotion in a work of art

flow. Each of the pilot interviews was within the desired 15-20 minute time frame.

Interviewer Guidelines
In an attempt to avoid inter-interviewer variability, one member of the team conducted all the personal interviews. These were conducted in the same location as the survey administration, at the top of the Scaife stairs, but still allowed enough privacy for the respondents to feel comfortable. The interviews were taped for future transcription and the interviewer was responsible for having

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participants sign a research waiver, a copy of which can be found in Appendix D3. The interviewer built trust with participants by repeating and commenting positively on all participants’ answers to reinforce that all responses were valid and appreciated. Across all interviews, the questions were framed to minimize the effect of social desirability bias as well as question order bias on reponses.

Analysis Methods
Full transcripts were created from each recorded interview and were analyzed for common themes. A deeper level of analysis, including the Pennebaker software, was not carried out since the group of personal interview respondents was not representative of the larger sample of the study. Focusing on the central themes identified pertinent information and provided perspective on survey design decisions. This process was also helpful for highlighting areas of interest for future studies.

Method for Selecting Participants
Museum visitors that participated in the personal interviews were selected from the same population as survey respondents. To ensure a variety of participants, every third visitor who approached the survey station was offered the options of either completing a paper survey or participating in a personal interview. An additional incentive of a 20% discount at the CMoA store was offered to interview participants. Respondent demographics are listed below while full transcripts of the interviews can be found in Appendix E. Participants listed together were part of a group and were interviewed together. Exhibit 2.7: Personal Interview Respondent Demographics Participants A&B Male and Female, both Caucasian, between the ages of 25-35 Participant C Participant D Female, African-American, between the ages of 45-55 Female, European Caucasian, between the ages of 55-65 Female, African-American, between the ages of 30-40

CENTRAL THEMES
Emotional Response
Participants were comfortable discussing the variety of emotions they experienced during their museum visit. When speaking about emotion, participants often described specific experiences. One instance of a finding was that multiple participants confused the concepts of recognizing and feeling an emotion. It was not clear if this was due to the design of the interview question or confusion of the concept itself.

“Loss of Time” Experience
Participants understood the concept of losing track of time while in the CMoA galleries. An area for future study could be the different types of pressure visitors felt and how it affected the way they spent their time in the galleries. The experience of losing track of time was described as being both voluntary and involuntary, but there was a consistent concern with outside pressures such as meetings or other plans. CMoA visiting history also seemed to affect individuals’ experience of losing track of time.

Participant E

Participants F&G Both Male, Caucasian, one between the ages of 45-55, the other between the ages of 80-90 Participant H Participant I Female, Caucasian, between the ages of 45-55 Female, Caucasian, between the ages of 35-45

Gallery Experience and Points of Focus
Participants focused on particular works of art for a range and combination of reasons from

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the formal aspects to the content of the art. The concept of having an artwork become a primary point of focus seemed to be commonly understood, reinforcing a decision about language on the survey. The time spent focused on a particular artwork and descriptions of what constituted focus could be areas for further exploration.

in two ways. One was as an experience comparable to an emotional response. The second and more common response was to describe inspiration as a type of catalytic experience: being inspired “to do” something. This brought greater understanding to the concept of inspiration and is an area to be explored further.

Discussion with Others and Asking Questions
Discussing artwork with others was described in a variety of ways as having an effect on a visitor’s experience. One of these included a discussion of how eavesdropping on other visitors’ conversations affected participants’ experiences. Respondents also named a variety of people to whom they would pose questions, including other visitors and even subjects of the artwork. This reinforced a survey design rationale that crafting a question that asked a visitor who they would pose their question to would have been far too simplistic and would not have adequately measured the complexity of the concept.

Connection and Interpretation of the Concept of Culture
Questions about connection or disconnection to a culture were met with an extreme variety of responses. and reinforced the assumption that culture was too complex a concept to be covered within the scope of our study, but would be a valuable point for further research.

Effect of Experience on Personal Viewpoints
The concept of how an artwork might affect a participant’s viewpoint seemed to be easily understood and discussions on this threw up interesting connections between this concept and the question covering discussion with others.

Interpretation of the Concept of Inspiration
The concept of inspiration seemed to be interpreted

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Russell, Robert. “Estimating Museum Attendance.” The Informal Learning Review. Print. Marinshaw, Kyle. Ratzkin, Rebecca. “Data Collection Guidelines: Intercept Methodology for On-Site Survey Administration” National Endowment for the Arts, Pilot Study: How the Arts Affect Audiences. WolfBrown 2011. Brown, Alan, and Jennifer Novak. “Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance.” WolfBrown, Jan. 2007.

WORKS CITED
Implementation

DATA

ANALYSIS
Population and Sample Size Methodology Results and Lessons Learned Focus Groups Personal Interviews

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INTRODUCTION

he following sections describe how we conducted the survey data analysis and the key findings we drew from the statistical results. At the outset, it is important to note that this study is exploratory in nature. This was largely due to the fact that the field of intrinsic impact research is relatively new and we had very few hypotheses when we started this project. Since we investigated relatively new ideas about intrinsic impact, we recommend that future studies test the findings of this study.

different methods (every person and every third person) were used to select potential respondents, advisory board member Amelia Haviland advised the research team to weight the responses of individuals who were approached using the every third person method of selection. Data from the 23 respondents selected in this manner were therefore counted three times in all analyses. After weighting, the dataset contained 698 total observations. To learn more about the basic characteristics of respondents, please see the frequencies in Appendix G1. Although we methodically approached CMoA visitors to ask them about taking the survey, selected respondents ultimately made the determination as to whether they would complete the survey. There is therefore a degree of selfselection in the survey population. In order to see whether self-selected respondents fundamentally differed from CMoA visitors who refused to take a sticker or inadvertently did not receive a sticker, the team collected observations at the CMoA. These observations, conducted by two team members, independently recorded the estimated gender, cultural identity, age, and group size of CMoA visitors who refused stickers or were not given the opportunity to take stickers. We collected these observations on two occasions and then compared the observed characteristics of individuals who took surveys with those who did not take surveys (Haviland). While the research team cannot guarantee perfect accuracy, the observations appear to indicate that in terms of observable characteristics, the population of survey takers does not fundamentally differ from the population of nonsurvey takers.

Population Surveyed
The data analysis detailed in this section examines data from 652 unique respondents. Since two Exhibit 3.1: Demographic Visualization

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Exhibit 3.2: Database Screen Capture

Focus of Exploration
The team sought to answer the following seven research questions with our data analysis: 1. What is the relationship between adult CMoA visitors’ readiness to receive visual arts experiences and the nature and extent of the impacts those visitors receive from their visual arts experiences? 2. Does the experience of observing visual art captivate adult CMoA visitors? 3. What increases the odds that adult CMoA visitors will be captivated when viewing visual art? 4. Does the experience of observing visual art intellectually stimulate adult CMoA visitors? 5. What increases the odds that adult CMoA visitors will be intellectually stimulated when viewing visual art? 6. Does visual art elicit an emotional response from adult CMoA visitors? 7. What increases the odds that adult CMoA visitors will experience an emotional response when viewing visual art?

a front-end and back-end interface. Given the limitations of the server, we set up a number of rules to prevent users from editing past forms or viewing results of previous data entry. A screenshot of the Microsoft Access database and form can be seen in Exhibit 3.2. In the database form three survey items required the use of sub forms, which allowed for multiple responses on a single survey item. These items are: Reason for Visit to the Museum, Persons in Respondent’s Group, and Galleries Visited. After all of the Note: These research questions differ slightly from the data had been entered, we created five questions included earlier in this document. We modified queries with collective output of the survey the question list and wording in order to better reflect responses, batch information, and sub form what we hoped to learn from our research. cross-tabbed results. The information was then transferred to Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System (SAS) for further evaluation.

METHODOLOGY
Database Development
We created a database in Microsoft Access to input survey data. A form that replicates the survey instrument is used in Access to allow for easy data entry. Also included in the form is the batch entry representing daily survey results with information about missed opportunities, personnel representation, and survey response numbers. In order to make the database available for multi-user entry, we split the database into

Statistical Tools
We used a number of statistical tools to analysis the data we collected, including frequency analyses, chi-squares, Fisher’s exact tests, independent samples t-tests, paired t-tests, one-way ANOVAs, and forward stepwise logistic regressions (For explanations of these tests, please see Appendix H). Frequency analyses were done in Excel, and other statistical tests were done in SAS. Our statistical advisor, Skyler Speakman, recommended the forward stepwise logistic

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regression model since we had many variables that could be included but few a priori hypotheses about the relationships between these variables (Speakman). While this approach is appropriate and widely accepted in exploratory research, it is

impossible to determine which associations have occurred by chance, associations with p-values near the alpha = 0.05 level and small effect sizes are those most likely to have occurred by chance (see Appendix G2 for p-values and effect sizes).

Exhibit 3.3: Captivation Impact Infographic

not recommended for testing a priori hypotheses. For one, the large number of t-tests performed by a stepwise procedure increases the probability of error in a model (McClave, Benson, and Sincich 738). For future studies aiming to replicate our results, we recommend specifically testing the logistic regression models we developed (for detailed information, please see Appendix G3). Due to time limitations, we were not able to estimate predicted probabilities. We recommend that future analyses examine predicted probabilities in order to learn more about the relationships between the readiness, impact, demographic, and circumstantial variables measured in this study.

Although the testing procedures used in this study may have detected effects that were not truly significant, there is little chance that the tests failed to detect any statistically significant associations. This is because the study’s large sample size gave tests the high statistical power required to detect weak and moderate associations between survey items.

Construct Indexes
Due to time and resource constraints, we did not use construct indexes in this study. However, we do recommend that future studies develop and test construct indexes in order to examine the relationships between constructs rather than simply investigate the relationships between individual variables.

Number of Tests
Because we did not have many a priori hypotheses and wanted to be thorough when exploring possible associations among impacts and variables, we performed a large number of statistical tests at the alpha = 0.05 level. We investigated 36 unique indicators in a total of approximately 1,260 statistical tests (see Appendix G for lists of tests). Because of the large number of tests performed, it is likely that we found that some associations between survey items were statistically significant when they really occurred by chance. Associations that occur by chance will not be replicable in other studies. While it is

Missing Data
We deemed a “completed survey” as any survey that had at least one valid response. For the questions where respondents provided no answer or an invalid answer, we left as missing data. These missing data caused the sample sizes for all of the statistical tests differ from one another. Statistical tests between two variables included data from 74.2%-98.7% of respondents. Since

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logistic regressions involved more variables, these sample sizes were generally lower, including data from 69.9%-95.1% of respondents. Most of the tests with the lowest sample sizes involved Item One, which had a sizeable percentage of respond errors, or Item 24, which was not applicable to all respondents and therefore skipped by many.

• •

their primary point of focus. 88.7% of respondents somewhat or completely lost track of time while in the CMoA galleries. 81.1% of respondents spent at least one hour in the CMoA galleries

KEY FINDINGS
1. Adult CMoA visitors generally experienced impacts falling under the constructs of ‘Captivation’, ‘Intellectual Stimulation’, and ‘Emotional Response’.

Intellectual Stimulation
• • • 72.0% of respondents said that the artworks in the CMoA challenged a personal viewpoint somewhat or a great deal. 88.3% of respondents reported that the artworks in the CMoA reinforced a personal viewpoint somewhat or a great deal. 86.4% of respondents related personal

Exhibit 3.4: Intellectual Stimulation Infographic

Based on these results, it appears that there were intrinsic impacts that occur when visitors were engaged in a visual art experience at the CMoA.

• • •

Captivation
• 88.8% of respondents reported that at least one of the artworks they saw in the museum grabbed their attention enough to become

experiences to the artworks on display. 77.9% of respondents discussed the artworks with other visitors while in the CMoA galleries. 95.6% of respondents found viewing the CMoA’s artworks inspirational. 42.5% of respondents had questions about the artworks on display.

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Emotional Response
• • 95.2% of respondents recognized emotions in the CMoA’s artworks. Respondents generally felt moderate levels of joy, love, sadness, and surprise when looking at the CMoA’s artworks. They also felt low levels of anger and fear. Visitors rated each emotion on a 1-5 scale. Below is the actual item where respondents were asked to rate the level of each emotion they felt while looking at the CMoA’s artworks.

readiness-to-receive are not always associated with higher levels of intrinsic impacts. Impact is simply too unpredictable, and too much depends on the performance [or in this case, the visual art] itself” (WolfBrown 19). We discovered that the extent of the relationship between readiness and impact varies by indicator. For instance, respondents’ pre-visit levels of excitement and knowledge of visual art were statistically related to most impacts, while other readiness indicators were statistically related to very few impacts. However, most of these readiness-impact relationships were practically of little significance. There were several instances where readiness was notably associated with visitors’ odds of experiencing certain impacts. For example, being very excited to come to the CMoA increased a visitor’s odds of experiencing a total of five impacts. These impacts fell into the categories of captivation (losing track of time completely), intellectual stimulation (having a viewpoint challenged a great deal), emotional response

Exhibit 3.5: Emotional Response Infographic

Item 17. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks. (Circle one number for each emotion.) Not at all Moderately Extremely Anger 1 2 3 4 5 Fear 1 2 3 4 5 Joy 1 2 3 4 5 Love 1 2 3 4 5 Sadness 1 2 3 4 5 Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 Exhibit 3.6 displays the mean levels of anger, fear, joy, love, sadness, and surprise felt by respondents. 2. A respondent’s readiness to receive a visual arts experience often did not determine the impacts s/he received from that experience.

Exhibit 3.6: Levels of Emotion

This matches a similar finding in the study Assessing the Intrinsic Impact of a Live Performance. In this study WolfBrown concluded, “Higher levels of

(love), and extended engagement (being very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks and visit art museums more often in the future). In order to see the amount by which being very excited increased the odds of these impacts occuring, please see Appendix G2. Since the excitement indicator is part of the anticipation construct, this affirms WolfBrown’s finding that impacts typically

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appear to be more associated with anticipation than context. On the other hand, extended engagement appears to be more correlated with context than anticipation. Most notably, past class attendance was strongly associated with the odds that respondents would be very likely to attend more art classes in the future, and past art creation was even more strongly correlated with the odds that respondents would be very likely to create art more often in the future. (Controlling for other factors, individuals who attended at least one visual art class in the past year had 7.534 times higher odds [p < 0.0001] of being very likely to attend art classes more often in the future. In addition, controlling for other factors, individuals who created art occasionally or frequently in the past year had 63.047 times higher odds [p < 0.0001] of being very likely to create visual art more often in the future.) It appears that if respondents have high levels of context, viewing visual art in museums renews their motivation to continue actively engaging in various visual art behaviors. 3. Demographic and circumstantial variables were often not correlated with the impacts respondents derived from their visual art viewing experiences.

0.0176], feeling a high level of love [1.598 times the odds of other respondents; p = 0.0267], and being very likely to create visual art more often in the future [1.726 times the odds of other respondents; p = 0.0355].) All other variables were correlated with the odds of merely one or two impacts occurring. While demographic and circumstantial variables may be slightly associated with impact in some instances, our findings suggest that any individual who sees art has an opportunity to be impacted in some way. 4. Emotions are related to nearly all other impacts.

In conducting t-tests and ANOVAs, we found emotions to be connected to most other impact indicators. Individuals who experienced higher levels of emotion while in the museum generally tended to experience other impacts at higher levels as well. In order to view the p-values and effect sizes for the relationships between emotions and other impacts, please refer to Appendix G2. In the logistic regression models, most impacts were associated with the odds of only one or two other impacts occurring; however, each emotion was associated with anywhere from three to six other impacts. Emotions were especially correlated with one another: see Exhibit 3.7 Among the six emotions studied, the most strongly related pair was joy and love. They had a high Pearson’s correlation value (r = 0.68) and were also associated with one another in the logistic regression models. Controlling for other factors, visitors who felt a high level of love had 10.179 times higher odds (p < 0.0001) of feeling a high level of joy in the galleries. Similarly, controlling for other factors, visitors who felt a high level of joy had 11.991 times higher odds (p < 0.0001) of feeling a high level of love while in the museum. Also noteworthy is that controlling for other factors, two emotional (joy and fear) and two

We used the survey to measure several demographic and circumstantial variables, such as which galleries respondents visited. We chose to include these variables based on the results of previous research and/or commonly held assumptions that indicated these variables might affect what impacts visitors receive from their experience in an art museum. Ultimately, we found that these variables had little to no association with impact. Age was most commonly related to impact, and it was only associated with the odds of respondents experiencing three impacts. (Controlling for other factors, being between the ages of 18 and 44 increased a respondent’s odds of having an artwork become his/her primary point of focus [1.940 times the odds of other respondents; p =

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Exhibit 3.7: Correlation of Emotions with Impacts

intellectual (being challenged a great deal by the artworks and having questions about the artworks) indicators are associated with feeling a high level of surprise. Surprise seems to be more related to intellectual impacts than the other emotions studied. 5. Being very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks in the future and being challenged a great deal were associated with respondents’ odds of experiencing numerous other impacts.

Controlling for other factors, individuals who were very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks

in the future had increased odds of feeling a high level of sadness (2.082 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0010), feeling a high level of love (2.157 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0018), being inspired (15.627 times the odds of other visitors; p < 0.0001), having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal (2.338 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0001), spending at least an hour in the CMoA galleries (1.950 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0040), having an artwork become their primary point of focus (3.128 times the odds of other visitors; p < 0.0001), and recognizing emotions in the artworks (3.096 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0171). Interestingly, the future discussion indicator was associated with

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the odds of more impacts occurring than was the indicator of discussing the CMoA’s artworks while in the galleries. In addition, a respondent’s odds of being very likely to discuss the artworks in the future increase as s/he experiences additional impacts during a visit. This differs from other indicators in the extended engagement category that appear to be more related to a respondent’s past experiences with the visual arts. This again supports the idea that anyone can be impacted by the visual arts; impact is primarily dependent on a visitor’s visual art experience. When a visitor experiences just one impact, s/he suddenly has higher odds of experiencing other impacts as well. Furthermore, controlling for other factors, individuals who had a personal viewpoint challenged a great deal in the galleries had higher odds of feeling a high level of surprise (2.314 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0002), feeling a high level of joy (1.932 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0269), having a personal viewpoint reinforced a great deal (2.172 times the odds of other visitors; p = 0.0009), and losing track of time completely (2.858 times the odds of other Exhibit 3.8: Future Discussion Network

Exhibit 3.9: Viewpoint Challenged Network

6. Respondents did not need to be captivated in order to experience other impacts. In Assessing the Intrinstic Impacts of a Live Performance, Brown and Novak write, “Captivation is the lynchpin of impact . . . for this reason, we have come to think of captivation not only as a desired outcome with intrinsic worth independent of other impacts, but as a precondition for other impacts to occur” (WolfBrown 11). Largely because of the results of WolfBrown’s study, we hypothesized that captivation indicators would be strongly related to the other impact indicators. However, what we actually found is that being captivated was not integral to being impacted by the visual art experience at CMoA. We considered the indicator of an artwork becoming a respondent’s momentary point of focus as central to the idea of captivation. This indicator was weakly related to most other impact indicators, but individuals who had something become their primary point of focus did experience moderately higher levels of fear (p < 0.0001, d = 0.529), joy (p = 0.0008, d = 0.523), and sadness (p < 0.0001, d = 0.541). Although this indicator was statistically related to many other impact indicators, it was practically related to very little. We also found the primary focus indicator to be correlated with the odds that respondents would

visitors; p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that individuals may not expect to be challenged when they come to the museum but that they enjoy being challenged by visual art.

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experience only two other impacts. Having an artwork become a primary point of focus was associated with 3.017 times higher odds (p = 0.0002) of having questions about the artworks. Exhibit 3.10: Primary Focus Network -1

increase the odds of visitors being very likely to become more engaged in the arts in the future. Notably, these associations show that there are multiple ways in which visitors can experience heightened odds of being very likely to increase their future arts engagement. (It also shows that there are multiple ways to increase the odds.) For instance, controlling for other factors, individuals who are very excited to come to the CMoA have 2.040 times higher odds (p = 0.0004) of being very likely to visit museums more often in the future. However, people do not need to be very excited to come to the CMoA in order to be very likely to increase their frequency of art museum visits. Excitement is not at all associated with the level of joy people experience while in the CMoA, and controlling for other factors, people who experience a high level of joy in the CMoA galleries have 1.899 times higher odds (p = 0.0013) of visiting art museums more often in the future: see Exhibit 3.12 This finding affirms what was stated in the second key takeaway that individuals do not need to be “ready” for a visual arts experience in order to be impacted by that experience. There are many paths that increase a visitor’s odds of experiencing intrinsic impacts. By examining their actual behavior rather than asking respondents about their behavioural intentions, the field of intrinsic impact research can be furthered by learning how these elements may lead to tangible instrumental returns.

In addition, controlling for other factors, having an artwork become a primary point of focus was associated with 1.934 times higher odds (p = 0.0070) of being very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks in the future. Again, we expected this indicator be related to the odds of more impacts Exhibit 3.11: Primary Focus Network -2

occurring. 7. Intrinsic impacts are associated with a high likelihood of instrumental returns.

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CONCLUSIONS
ith the large sample size we had from the survey, a total of 698 observations, we were able to analyze the survey data utilizing multiple statistical and analytical tests. The results we had from the tests indicated that there are numerous relationships between survey items and they are statistically significant (the full list of test results can be found in Appendix G). We categorized the test results into seven key findings on the intrinsic impact of visual art. These

The data from this study can be used to hypothesize whether certain impacts or variables

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Exhibit 3.12: Value Chain Infographic

findings can be further researched for verification of construct relationship. They are replicated below: 1. Adult CMoA visitors generally experienced impacts falling under the constructs of captivation, intellectual stimulation, and emotional response 2. A respondent’s readiness to receive a visual arts experience often did not determine the impacts he/she received from that experience 3. Demographic and circumstantial variables were often not correlated with the impacts respondents derived from their visual art viewing experiences 4. Emotions are related to nearly all other impacts 5. Being very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks in the future and being challenged a great deal were associated with respondents’ odds of experiencing numerous other impacts 6. Respondents did not need to be captivated in order to experience other impacts 7. Intrinsic impacts are associated with a high likelihood of instrumental returns It must be mentioned that the above findings are assumptions and conclusions that we were able to determine from the statistical results. The tests are reliable and we were able to provide a number of hypotheses in regards to causal relationships based on the results. However, the data set and the

hypotheses can and should be further evaluated and tested before such results are considered verifiable and can lead to predictive behaviors and causal relationships. With the data from this study, we were ultimately able to determine that there is an intrinsic impact of visual art and that visual art institutions will be able to gain insight into the experiences of their visitors. Further study into this research may enable institutions to modify intrinsic impacts to create instrumental results.

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Exhibit 3.13: Relationship Web of Emotions and Constructs

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Haviland, Amelia. Personal interview. 20 Mar. 2012. McClave, James, Benson, P. George, and Sincich, Terry. Statistics for Business and Economics: Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print. Speakman, Skyler. Personal interview. 17 Apr. 2012.

WORKS CITED
Data Analysis

CONCLUSIONS &

RECOMMENDATIONS
Population and Sample Size Methodology Results and Lessons Learned Focus Groups Personal Interviews

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THE VALUE OF INTRINSIC IMPACT RESEARCH
n the final stages of the project it was important for the team to examine not only the reasons behind this research, but also the value in diving into these concepts of intrinsic impact. Going into this project, we found the current system for intrinsic impact assessment was disconnected and insufficient. We found that in the arts industry on one hand there were quantitative measures such as attendance numbers, on site purchases, membership rates, and other easily managed data. On the other, there was extremely specific qualitative information, which only provided a sliver of someone’s experience, and was largely anecdotal and immeasurable data. Through the adaptation of an intrinsic impact method, creation of a research instrument, and the analysis of terms and measures, our project attempted to bridge this gap between the current quantitative and qualitative assessment mechanisms. We focused on collecting data that was both governable and focused, connecting the numbers to the stories to better understand the nature and extent of the visual arts experience. In contrast to other methods of impact assessment currently used by many visual arts institutions, our project attempted to provide a bird’s eye view to understand qualitative impact in a quantitative way that can be both manageable and insightful. We are beginning to comprehend the intrinsic impact of visual art through the analysis of our data that has helped provide us with a better understanding of a visitor’s experience. The survey instrument attempts to provide the terminology for articulating this experience. Through this more clearly defined vocabulary, we hope to begin a movement towards the creation of a common language that facilitates shared conversations across different departments in a visual arts institution. People within seemingly disparate departments will hopefully be able to communicate through a shared terms and

measures. This communication can potentially lay the foundation to share ideas and thoughts within an institution. Visual arts presenters across arts forms will have the tools to understand the intrinsic impact of their art on visitors. These conversations can evolve across all activities from disscuring programming to designing education outreach to viewing the final exhibition. However, the benefits of a common language are not exclusively for those who work in the arts. There is potential for a shared discussion with policymakers, donors, even with every day visitors who experience the impacts of visual art. We hope to create an atmosphere where the articulation of the experience of art is not only feasible but also adventageous.

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CONCLUSION

hrough the 17 weeks of our research, adaptation, data collection and analysis, our team undertook a rigorous study to answer the question of how the intangible value of the visual arts could be measured. From the level of response to our survey, the data that was collected, and the statistical relationships that we extracted, we can conclude that it is, in fact, possible to measure the intrinsic impact of the visual art experience by utilizing advanced statistical analytics. We also found that further adaptations are still needed from WolfBrown’s study of intrinsic impact within the performing arts, which we were unable to pursue fully due to time restrictions and the scope of our project. One area in particular that needs further adaptation is in the constructs of impact. The depth and complexity of these constructs require further examination and research in order to more fully understand their definition. For our project we excluded certain constructs from prior studies, social bonding for instance, because of the vast differences in respondents’ comprehension of the construct.

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For example, one component of social bonding is the nature of connection or disconnection to one’s culture. Upon consultation with different advisory board members we determined that even the concept of “culture” was too complex for inclusion in our survey instrument. The sheer range of responses that we received about how individuals defined the term “culture” in the qualitative data we collected further highlighted the complexity of the construct of social bonding. We faced a similar challenge with the construct of “Aesthetic Growth”. However, we were able to incorporate elements of WolfBrown’s definition of aesthetics in our survey, such as the desire to create art in the future. We grouped these elements under an exploratory construct entitled ‘Extended Engagement’. The team also excluded WolfBrown’s construct of “Relevance”, following the example of, ‘Intrinsic Impact: How Audiences and Visitors are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool’ (Baker Richards 7). • The team also concluded that intrinsic impact assessment should be conducted within specific visual arts fields. The number of distinct differences between the performing arts experience and the visual arts experience directly affect the ways in which a person is impacted and how the measurement of that impact must be designed. The performing arts primarily center around viewing one performance at a time, while the visual arts typically comprise multiple artworks to be viewed in a single visit. Consequently, we chose to define our measurement environment as an ‘experience’. Another variation between the performing and visual arts disciplines is in the audience and amount of time for the intake of art. In the case of performing arts there typically is a stationary audience with a relatively fixed performance time. This is not the case for visual art presentations, where the audience is mobile and free to move around for a flexible amount of time.

Lastly, while WolfBrown chose to use linear regression for the analysis of their data, we found that logistical regression would generate the best results for our study.

Finally, the team conducted numerous interviews throughout the research process. They spanned a wide array of accredited professionals with a variety of perspectives on the field of intrinsic impact research in the visual arts. Considering their comments and our own conclusions about the need for further exploration, we determined the best use of our work at this time is in the area of audience research, both within the CMoA and the visual arts field. Incorporating the results of this study as rationale for funding or policy arguments may be appropriate only after further development but is not recommended at this nascent stage of study.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

oving forward with this work, we recommend three specific areas of action. The first is for the CMoA to invest further in intrinsic impact assessment. The second is to further this research in the field. The third is to expand the work to multiple institutions. Our team recommends that the CMoA invest further in this research in order to refine the framework and increase their opportunities for shared conversations. With continued investment, the CMoA would be able to customize the current survey and methodology to their specific needs within the institution. For example, if they wanted to use our framework to specifically examine a gallery or exhibition or as a means of program evaluation, it would require additional investment in terms of staff, research, and data analysis. However, we believe that these investments will be fruitful as this work will benefit CMoA in creating a deeper understanding of their visitors. We also strongly recommend that the CMoA as well as other organizations in the arts take action

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to further this research. While there are several directions that this research could advance in, we see testing the constructs to be one of the first points of continuation. Additionally, we believe it is important to further explore the language, noting some previously discussed elements such as the definition and interpretation of ‘culture’ and ‘inspiration’. One mechanism to incorporate for this recommendation is the use of further qualitative research. Our final recommendation is to expand the research of intrinsic impact outside the CMoA. Our project was conducted within this specific institution, and while we did not build our survey prototype exclusively to this museum, we do recognize the limitations that it creates as we were not able to compare methodology or response in other settings. Similarly, it would be beneficial to expand the work to other forms of visual art presentation, such as public art or installation art. This expansion would aid in refining the research and language that is used to measure the intrinsic impact of visual art to execute a more detailed and aggregated analysis for a wider application in the field.

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I

NOTE FROM THE PROJECT FOUNDER, JESSICA ROSENBERGER
n closing, it is our hope that this research will lead to a continued investment of intrinsic impact assessment within the visual arts field. The arts have a transformative power on not only the individual, but also the community as a whole. They have the ability to make us think, cry, laugh, love, and create. The arts are a reflection of what society was, is, and strives to be in the future. The arts create a unique impact that separates that experience from all other human experiences. This experience is multifaceted and extremely subjective, and the ability to articulate its impact, will be essential in establishing its value to society in the future. Through the work that we have adapted from the performing arts, and the groundwork that we have laid in the visual arts, our team hopes that intrinsic impact research will grow to become a field wide phenomenon.

Conclusions & Recommendations

APPENDICES
Population and Sample Size Methodology Results and Lessons Learned Focus Groups Personal Interviews

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APPENDIX A: Survey Instrument Design Rationale

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INTRODUCTION

his survey is being conducted on behalf of Carnegie Mellon University’s Master of Arts Management program. Your participation in this survey is truly appreciated and will help students at Carnegie Mellon better understand the experiences people have when they look at the works of art on display in the Carnegie Museum of Art, also referred to as the “CMoA.” Please complete all survey items to the best of your ability. The survey should take between five and ten minutes to finish. You will not be identified in any reports on this study, and your records will be kept confidential to the extent provided by federal, state, and local law. Only adults age 18 and above are eligible to participate in this survey. Please note that in this survey the term “visual art” covers architecture, ceramics, decorative arts (e.g., furniture), drawing, multimedia art (e.g., art involving sound or video), painting, photography, and sculpture. The team followed guidelines from Dillman when constructing the above survey introduction. Dillman recommends that researchers gain respondents’ trust and demonstrate the importance of a questionnaire while introducing respondents to a survey (Page). This survey introduction explains to respondents who the researchers are and why they need respondents’ complete and accurate responses. To assure respondents that researchers will protect their data, the introduction states that respondents will remain anonymous in data reporting and that their data will be kept confidential to the fullest extent provided by law (Dillman). In addition, survey researchers advise that instructions for survey completion be included when they are needed to answer an item (Dillman). Instructions meant to accompany specific items should therefore fall within item numbers (Dillman), but general instructions that apply to an entire survey can be included in a survey introduction. For this reason, the survey introduction above includes only general directions for survey completion. Respondents receive the definitions for the terms “CMoA” and “visual art” since these terms are used multiple times throughout the survey. In addition, the introduction states basic directions including eligibility criteria and a request that respondents complete all survey items as accurately as possible.

CONCLUDING NOTE
Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey! Please hand your completed survey to the survey administrator. This concluding note contains both a thank you and instructions for turning in completed surveys. A thank you is included because Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink recommend ending all surveys by thanking respondents (294). In addition, following the aforementioned rule of placing instructions exactly where they are needed in the survey (Dillman) required that instructions about what respondents should do with finished surveys also be included here.

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A

GENERAL SURVEY STRUCTURE

ccording to researcher Norbert Schwarz, “A questionnaire is like a conversation . . . constantly switching topics makes it appear that the questioner . . . is not listening to the respondent’s answers” (Schwarz). Following Schwarz’s advice, the research team elected to structure its survey by topic. The team first organized survey items around four major topic areas, which are distinguished from one another by section headings. The four resultant sections are: Before My Visit, During My Visit, About My Visit, and About Me. The first section, “Before My Visit” explores visitors’ readiness to receive a visual arts experience through the constructs of anticipation (Items 1-3) and context (Items 4-8). The item regarding respondents’ motivations for coming to the CMoA was selected as the first item because it is applicable to all respondents (everyone has some reason for coming to the CMoA), interesting, and connected to the survey’s general purpose (Dillman). In addition, the introductory items about anticipation are not sensitive or threatening (Dillman). After answering items about what occurred before arriving at the CMoA, respondents move into the section entitled “During My Visit.” This section focuses on visitors’ in-museum experiences through the lenses of captivation (Items 9-10), intellectual stimulation (Items 11-15), emotional response (Items 16-17), and extended engagement (Items 18-19). Within the larger topic of in-visit experiences, the research team arranged items by construct. As a secondary consideration, the research team kept items with similar response sets together within each topic area (Dillman). Respondents next respond to items in the section called “About My Visit.” This section of the survey seeks to learn more about some of the variables impacting visitors’ experiences, such as where they went in the Carnegie Museum, how long they spent looking at the artworks, and who came with them to the CMoA. Finally, respondents answer demographic questions in the “About Me” section. These demographic items, which are the most threatening items on the survey, are the last survey items (Items 25-28) so as to prevent respondents who find these items too sensitive to answer from dropping out of the survey before answering all of the other items (Dillman).

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FORMATTING
o as to make the survey look shorter, the team decided to print the survey on two-sided paper (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 306). It also elected to follow multiple survey researchers’ advice by generally keeping responses to items in a single column (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 292; Dillman). Although this made the survey appear longer to respondents, it kept items and answer choices easy to read. However, the research team listed the response choices for two demographic items in Section Four in two columns so as to keep the survey length to two pages front and back (four pages overall). Based on feedback from the pilot test regarding perceived survey length, we felt it extremely important to keep the survey from extending to a third printed page. In addition, all items on the survey were numbered so as to keep skip logic clear (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 286). Only three items on the survey required skip logic, and we kept the formatting of these three items consistent. To identify follow-up items as subparts of the previous items, we indented these follow-up items and identified them with letters rather than numbers (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 286).

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MECHANICS OF INDIVIDUAL ITEMS
General Considerations
Before delving into an item-by-item look at the rationale for creating survey items in a particular manner, some general concerns applicable to multiple survey items will be discussed here. First of all, researchers advise survey writers to craft items that are very specific in order to solicit accurate answers from respondents (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 61). For this reason, many of the survey items indicate that respondents should answer while keeping in mind their experience looking at the artworks in the CMoA on the day of their survey completion. In addition, the team aimed to keep the language in the survey at or below 8th grade reading level. This followed a recommendation from Jennifer Novak of WolfBrown, who highlighted the importance of keeping survey items understandable for all respondents (Novak-Leonard). As a result, the final survey instrument has a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of 7.6 (just below 8th grade reading level). Furthermore, the team opted to use response scales with adjectives, rather than numbers, whenever possible. It decided not to use numbers in conjunction with adjectives (with one exception explained during the item-by-item rationale) because sometimes respondents’ interpretations of numbers and adjectives may conflict with one another (Krosnick and Fabrigar). Such conflict can lead to inaccurate survey responses when respondents do not know whether to select the response option with the adjective or the number that best fits their answer. Finally, the team did not perceive individual survey items as threatening unless otherwise noted in this document. According to Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink, “the easiest way to determine the threat of a question is to ask ourselves whether we believe respondents will feel there is a right or wrong answer to it” (52). We followed this general rule when estimating the sensitivity of all survey items.

Survey Items & Rationale
Section One: Before My Visit (Beginning of Mechanics Rationale) 1. Rank your top three responses to the following statement: I chose to visit the CMoA today because I wanted to . . . (Write the number 1 next to your first choice, the number 2 next to your second choice, and the number 3 next to your third choice from the list below. Use each number only once.) __Spend time with others (e.g., family members, friends) __See a particular exhibition or artwork(s) (please specify):____________________ __Relax and get away from the routine of daily life __Learn about visual art __Have fun __Introduce others to artwork __Discover things about the human experience __Discover new things about myself __Be emotionally moved __Other: ____________________________________

This is an item that asks respondents to rank extreme preferences from a list of alternatives (Bradburn,

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Sudman, and Wansink 167). Respondents were asked to rank, rather than check, items so that a respondent’s top three choices for coming to the CMoA could be identified and directly compared with other respondents’ top three choices for visiting the museum. The response categories were adapted from those used in WolfBrown’s study “Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance.” The research team altered the original response categories so as to cover all possible answers (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 327). In order to eliminate bias in the ordering of response choices, we listed response choices in reverse alphabetical order (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 291). The instructions for this item changed twice during the survey implementation process. Each time, the team added more detail to the instructions so as to prevent respondents from answering the question by checking all that applied or ranking every item. The three versions of the survey instructions are included below: Version One: Please complete the following statement: I chose to visit the CMoA today because I wanted to . . . (rank your top three choices from the list below). Version Two: Rank your top three responses to the following statement: I chose to visit the CMoA today because I wanted to . . . (Use the numbers 1, 2, and 3 to rank your top three choices from the list below.) Version Three (Final): Rank your top three responses to the following statement: I chose to visit the CMoA today because I wanted to . . . (Write the number 1 next to your first choice, the number 2 next to your second choice, and the number 3 next to your third choice from the list below. Use each number only once.) 2. Before today’s visit to the CMoA, how excited were you to see the museum’s display of visual artworks? • Not at all excited • Somewhat excited • Very excited

The response set to this item consists of a unipolar response scale, which is defined as a response scale “reflecting varying levels of the same construct with no conceptual midpoint and with a zero point on the end” (Krosnick and Fabrigar 142-143). The scale consists of three points so as to simplify data analysis procedures and keep response scale categories mutually exclusive (Speakman). As Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink recommend, the list of response choices begins with the least socially desirable end of response set so that respondents are sure to pay attention to all response choices, rather than immediately choosing the desirable response without glancing at the others (161). A similar response scale was also used in items 10, 11, 18, and 19. 3. Was it your idea to visit the CMoA today? • No • Yes

For this item, we decided upon a no/yes response structure because we were only interested in learning whether respondents made the decision to come to the CMoA. As with all other no/yes items in the survey, the response choices of “no” and “yes” are arranged alphabetically so as to avoid bias (Bradburn, Sudman,

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and Wansink 291). Since we assumed all respondents would be able to recall whether they had made the decision to attend the museum, it did not include an “I don’t know” response option for this item. 4. What would you say is your level of knowledge about visual art in general? • None • Low • Medium • High

The response set to this item consists of a unipolar scale measuring respondents’ knowledge of visual art in general along a continuum ranging from zero knowledge to a high level of knowledge. Unlike the unipolar scale used in Item 2, this scale has four points. We chose to use a four-point scale for this item since it had four clearly mutually exclusive terms it could use to describe respondents’ levels of knowledge. A similar four-point unipolar scale was also used in Item 6. 5. In the last 12 months, how many times did you visit any visual art museum or gallery? (Please do not include today’s visit in your calculations.) • 0 • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 or more

The team felt that visiting a visual art museum or gallery was likely a highly salient event for most respondents because it requires advance planning and cost, and does not happen regularly for most Americans (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 64). As for the time frame, we decided it to be 12 months based on the advice from Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink , which suggests that a time frame of a year or more is appropriate when asking about events with high salience (37). In addition, this item asks about the socially desirable behavior of becoming “cultured” by going to a visual art museum or gallery. We therefore asked respondents only about their current museum-going behavior. It is less threatening to ask if respondents currently engage in a socially desirable behavior than to ask whether respondents have ever engaged in a socially desirable behavior (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 81). This principle holds true for Items 6-7 as well. The team chose to measure the frequency of respondents’ behavior with a numerical scale adapted from that used by the Liverpool Tate in the study “How Audiences and Visitors Are Transformed by Cultural Experiences in Liverpool.” Unlike the Tate scale, we included “0” as its own category, as recommended by Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink (165), since we were interested in distinguishing first-time visitors. 6. How often would you say you have created visual art in the last 12 months? • Never • Rarely • Occasionally • Frequently

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As alluded to earlier, this response set consists of a four-point unipolar scale. Rather than asking respondents to identify the exact number of times they created visual art in the past year, we developed a response set consisting of terms verbally describing the frequency of a behavior. Survey research indicates that it is much easier for respondents to identify the frequency of their behavior with vague quantifiers than with numbers (Lenzner, Kaczmirek, and Lenzner). The research team therefore chose to use vague quantifiers for this item since it felt that it might be difficult for certain individuals to recall exactly how many times they had made visual art during the last year. In addition, the team did not require the exact number of times each individual made visual art during the last year; it only needed to know a general estimate of how frequently each respondent made visual art during the last year. 7. In the last 12 months, how many times did you attend a visual art class or lecture? • 0 • 1-3 • 4-6 • 7-9 • 10 or more

As with the previous two items, the research team felt this item asked respondents about a highly salient event—attendance at visual art classes or lectures. Like Item 5, this item also asks respondents to identify their frequency of engaging in two different behaviors. Again, the research team did not feel a need to distinguish between those who attended only visual art classes, only visual arts lectures, or both. It only cared how many educational events (classes and/or lectures) respondents attended during the previous year. To determine the appropriate response set for this item, the team researched the number of arts classes in series offered by two of the major providers of adult visual art classes in the Pittsburgh area: the CMoA and the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts. It then crafted its response set with these numbers in mind so as to keep the response set as applicable to respondents as possible. As with Item 5, a response of 0 was separated from all other response options. Finally, the team elected to use numbers, rather than vague quantifiers, in the response set for this item because it felt that respondents could more easily remember the exact frequency of attendance at formal visual arts education events than an accurate count of the instances in which they engaged in the making of visual art. 8. In the last 14 days, did you do any research about the artists and/or artworks displayed in the CMoA? • No • Yes This item allows respondents to answer “yes” if they have researched the artists and/or artworks on display. Since doing research in preparation for a CMoA visit is probably a low salience event for most people since it likely is not costly and does not have continuing consequences (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 64). We chose to ask respondents about their behavior in the last 14 days because a time frame of one month or less is appropriate when asking about events with low salience (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 37).

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Section Two: During My Visit 9. Did any of the artworks that you saw today grab your attention enough to momentarily become your primary point of focus? • No (Skip to Question 10) • Yes

If “yes,” what about the artwork(s) most captured your attention? • The artwork’s physical appearance • The ideas expressed by the artwork • Both of the above • I don’t know The first part of Item 9 asks all respondents whether any artworks grabbed their attention enough to momentarily become their primary point of focus. Like many of the other impact-related survey items, it uses a no/yes response set since the research team was only interested in learning whether this impact occurred for individual respondents (rather than how frequently this impact occurred during individual respondents’ visits). The second part of Item 9 utilizes a response set intended to accommodate all possible answers (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 326) by allowing respondents to select whether they were most captivated by an artwork’s physical appearance or the ideas expressed by the artwork. In addition, it allows respondents who have difficulty separating these two ideas to respond with “both of the above” or “I don’t know.” 10. Did you lose track of time while in the CMoA galleries? • Not at all • Somewhat • Completely Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink recommend making behavioral items as specific as possible by explicitly indicating the time period in which respondents should examine their behavior (63). In the case of this particular item, we were only interested in learning specifically whether respondents lost track of time while they were in the CMoA galleries. In addition, the team asked only whether respondents lost track of time, rather than whether respondents lost track of time and forgot about everything else (as in the original items from WolfBrown and the Tate). It did this in order to ensure that Item 10 asked only if respondents experienced one particular response to the artwork (lost track of time). If the item asked both whether respondents lost track of time and forgot about everything else, respondents might experience one impact but not the other and they might therefore not be able to answer this item properly (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 325). This item utilizes a 3-point unipolar response scale similar to that used in Item 2. 11. For each row, check the appropriate box to indicate to what extent looking at the artworks in the CMoA . . . Effect Not at all Challenged a personal viewpoint Reinforced a personal viewpoint Somewhat A great deal I don’t know

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With this item we sought to examine the level of impact that works of art had on the individual’s personal viewpoints. Initially we had used the word “belief” instead of “viewpoint” but we wanted to stay away from the weight and significance of using “belief”. This was confirmed in our pilot group test. This item was a minor modification of similar Wolf Brown survey question of “How much were you provoked or challenged by an idea or message?” Item 11 again uses a three-point unipolar response continuum. Unlike the previous two impact items, it also includes an “I don’t know” response option. We felt it necessary to include this response option for any respondents who were not certain whether the artwork impacted one of their personal viewpoints. The effects on the left side of the matrix are listed in alphabetical order in order to keep the item construction as neutral as possible (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 291). 12. Did you relate any personal experiences to any of the artworks you saw? • No • Yes Item 12 is a follow-up of the previous question seeking to discover the depth of which an individual connected their memories and experiences with the artwork they were observing. We want to confirm our belief that viewing art is not simply a surface level examination and that we often make connections between the artwork and ourselves. The team felt that all respondents would find this item straightforward and be able to answer with either a “no” or “yes” response. Therefore, there is again no “I don’t know” response option. 13. While in the galleries, did you discuss the artworks with others? • No (Skip to Question 14) • Yes, I casually discussed the artwork with others. • Yes, I intensely discussed the artwork with others. If “yes,” did your discussion(s) affect your view of the artworks on display? • No • Yes This item came about directly from the Tate-Liverpool survey which asked: Did you discuss the works in the exhibition with others in your party? No/Yes-casual exchange/Yes-intense exchange This item tells us if an individual was so intellectual stimulated with the artwork that they conversed about it with others. The follow up question asking if they were affected by the discussion is very intriguing. It will hopefully show that artwork causes intellectual conversation, which sometimes lead to learning experiences for one or both parties. This item is largely based on similar items in the WolfBrown and Tate Liverpool studies referenced earlier. The research team made a couple of slight changes to the wording of the item in order to make it more specific and therefore easier for respondents to answer (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 61). For instance, it noted that respondents were to provide a “yes” response only if they discussed the artwork with others while in the CMoA galleries. In addition, although the Tate study asked only whether visitors discussed the artworks with others in their party, the research did not wish to prevent respondents from acknowledging discussions with other museum visitors outside their party. Again, the research team felt that respondents

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would be able to remember impactful discussions and have no trouble responding “no” or “yes” to this item. 14. Overall, did you find viewing the artworks in the CMoA inspirational? • No • Yes • I don’t know This item can be seen under either the emotional or intellectual constructs. We decided to put it under the intellectual construct based on responses from our pilot survey group. The question came about after reading multiple questions from the UMS and Tate surveys which used a variety of terminology such as: stir your imagination, spiritual meaning, feeling refreshed or renewed, therapeutic, uplifted or inspired, and empowered. Wolf Brown used the above terminology in emotion and spiritual constructs. We chose not to explore the spiritual construct but decided that the asking about inspiration would fit under our existing constructs and would return interesting information about the depth of an individual’s exposure to viewing artwork and the “transformative experience” that they might have. While WolfBrown originally asked to what extent respondents felt inspired by an arts event, the research team felt that inspiration was a more dichotomous experience (either respondents would be inspired, or they would not be inspired). Since “inspiration” is a word signifying an extreme response, the team found it more appropriate to simply ask whether the artwork inspired respondents. In addition, the team did not include an “I don’t know” response because it felt that respondents who were inspired would be able to clearly recall this. 15. Did you leave the galleries with questions that you would have liked to ask about the artworks? • No (Skip to Question 16) • Yes If “yes,” what is one question that you have? This item came directly from the Tate survey. It seeks to discover if individuals were intrigued enough about the artwork that they would want to learn more. Additionally our client, the Carnegie Museum of Art, would find the written questions to be very informative and helpful to their work. The research team based Item 15 on similar items asked in the WolfBrown and Tate surveys. However, it slightly altered the item in order to indicate that respondents should only respond “yes” if they had questions about the artworks on display. (This eliminated possible questions about other topics outside the scope of this survey.) In addition, the team modified the Tate’s follow-up item in order to provide respondents with specificity regarding how many questions they should write in response to the open-ended item. The team instructed respondents to write only one item in order to limit the amount of qualitative data analysis required for this item. 16. Did you recognize an emotion in any works of art at the CMoA? • No • Yes

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Item 16 is a modification from both items in WolfBrown (To what extent did you relate to, or feel bonded with, one or more of the performers? Not At All – Strongly) and Tate survey (Did you feel a connection with the artist?) In discussions with Andrew Swenson and Greg Siegle we felt that the way we asked this question gave us a better correlation with the following question. We are able to determine if an individual observed an emotion and connect that with whether or not they felt an emotion. We also believed that an individual not recognizing emotion would be very interesting. This item uses a no/yes response set but exclude the “I don’t know” response so as to directly compare between those who did and did not recognize emotions in the artworks and what these individuals felt while looking at the artworks. 17. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks. (Circle one number for each emotion.) Emotion Anger Fear Joy Love Sadness Surprise Not at all 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Moderately 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 Extremely 5 5 5 5 5 5

Item came about as a result of interviews with both Andrew Swenson and Greg Siegle. Both felt that we should provide a list of emotions for individuals to respond to. We chose the above six emotions based on research (Shaver) which states that nearly all emotions can be categorized under these six. Greg Siegle also believes that individuals will not feel uncomfortable relating other terminology to the six listed emotions. This question will give us great insight into the degree of emotion that an individual felt when viewing the artwork at the CMoA. For this item, the team created a numerical response scale with verbal descriptors at both scale ends and the scale midpoint. We elected to construct the item in this manner since this is a questioning format widely used in emotional research (Siegle). Also, following the example set in the Item 11 matrix, we listed the emotions alphabetically. 18. In the next 6 months, how likely are you to do the following activities more often than in the past? Activity Not at all likely Somewhat likely Very likely I don’t know Attend a visual art class or lecture Make visual art yourself Visit an art museum or gallery The extended engagement construct is an experiment for this project. We wish to discover whether or not the experience that an individual has will impact their behavior and decision processes in the future. This item seeks to compare individuals’ post-visit behavior with their pre-visit behavior as investigated in Items 5-7. It therefore lists the same three activities asked about in Items 5-7 in alphabetical order. However, the time frame for future behavior is half of that used in the current behavior items since we felt that a considerable number of respondents might find it difficult to estimate how they will behave over the course of an entire year.

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The team developed a three-point unipolar scale of likelihood as a response set for this item. It chose to ask respondents about the likelihood of future behavior, rather than the frequency of future behavior, because likelihood items gauge future behavioral intentions more accurately if the behaviors in question are performed infrequently, as is the case here (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 134). For respondents who might feel uncomfortable saying how they might act in the future, we also included an “I don’t know” response option. 19. In the next 14 days, how likely are you to talk to others about the artworks you saw today? • Not at all likely • Somewhat likely • Very likely • I don’t know Similar to the previous item, in item 19 we seek to discover whether or not a person will continue their art experience by reflecting on it with others after having left the museum. Rather than ask about the behavior in question over the course of six months, however, we decided to ask respondents about their anticipated behavior over the course of next two weeks. Since talking to others about the artworks seen on a particular museum visit is something likely to occur fairly soon after a visit, webfound this time period more appropriate and realistic than a longer time period. Section Three: About My Visit 20. Map Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink define aided recall as providing survey respondents with clues in order to help them better remember past behavior (58). For respondents to better identify the galleries they visited in the CMoA, we provided them with both verbal and visual aided recall cues in the form of a map of the CMoA’s galleries. 21. Overall, approximately how much time did you spend in the CMoA galleries today? • Less than 15 minutes • 15-59 minutes • 1-2 hours • More than 2 hours We adopted this item from a similar item asked in the Tate Liverpool survey, but specified that the time spent in the galleries, so as not to include time spent in the café or gift shop, etc. We also modified the response set utilized by the Tate in order to make all response options mutually exclusive and therefore more understandable to respondents (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 327). Although this item gathers data related to respondents’ captivation in the CMoA, it is included here because the map is intended to serve as an aided recall device by reminding respondents which galleries they viewed during their visit (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 58). 22. Did you also visit the Natural History Museum during your visit today? • No • Yes We deliberately placed this item after the previous two in order to introduce the idea of the Natural History Museum after respondents answered items regarding the impacts of the artwork they saw, the galleries they visited, and the time spent in the CMoA. By including this item late in the survey, we hoped to keep respondents focused only on the CMoA during previous items.

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23. How many people came with you to the CMoA? (Please write 0 if you went on your own.) _____ For this item, we chose to use an open-ended format so that all respondents could indicate exactly how many other individuals came with them to the CMoA. It allowed for the greatest amount of precision in determining party size (Tourangeau, Rips, and Rasinski 146). In addition, since most parties are generally of a limited size, the team presumed respondents would not have any difficulty providing an exact numerical answer to this item. 24. If you came to the CMoA as part of a group, please indicate who else was with you. (Check all that apply.) • Colleague(s) or classmate(s) • Friend(s) • My child(ren) or grandchild(ren) • My parent(s) • My significant other (i.e. boyfriend, girlfriend, partner, or spouse) • Other relative(s) • Other: ___________________ Item 24 is again similar to items asked by both WolfBrown and the Tate. The survey response set is largely based on that created by WolfBrown; however, we made a couple of changes to the list. First of all, we grouped the original response options of “spouse/partner” and “a date” into one response option called “significant other.” In order to clarify the term “significant other” for respondents, the survey team did include all of these examples with the response option (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 58). In addition, as in the Tate survey, the option of “grandchildren” was included to the option “my children” in order to learn whether respondents came with younger family members who were either their children or grandchildren. The option “other children” was removed but covered under the “other” category, which we added in order to cover all possible responses to the item (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 326). 25. To the best of your knowledge, which of the following describes your cultural identity? • Asian or Pacific Islander • American Indian or Alaska Native • Black or African-American • Hispanic or Latino • White • Mixed • Other: ____________________ • Prefer not to answer Item 25 is also based on the response set contained in the WolfBrown survey. Instead of asking respondents about their “racial/ethnic background,” it asks respondents to describe their “cultural identity.” In addition, we separated the options of “mixed” and “other” in order to distinguish between respondents who identify themselves as having a mixed cultural background and respondents who identify with a cultural group not identified on the list. We also offered a response option of “prefer not to answer” for all individuals who felt uncomfortable specifying their cultural identities. 26. What is your gender? • Female • Male

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Prefer not to answer

Again, to provide an option for respondents who did not feel comfortable identifying themselves as male or female, we included a “prefer not to answer” option. The item is otherwise similar to items asked in the WolfBrown and Tate surveys. 27. What is the highest level of education you have completed? • None • Some grade school • Grade school (finished Grade 8) • High school or GED • Associate’s degree • Bachelor’s degree • Master’s degree • Doctoral degree and above • Prefer not to answer This could potentially be a threatening question because according to Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink, “participating in educational activities” is a socially desirable activity that may be overreported (53). Respondents may be unhappy with the level of education they have attained because they do not feel it is high enough, and this can make the question threatening. Therefore, this item again includes a “prefer not to answer” option. In order to make the item applicable to the Pittsburgh area, we shaped the response set with general knowledge of the educational attainment of Pittsburgh residents. According to the 2010 census, approximately 88% of Pittsburgh residents who are at least 25 years old are high school graduates, and 34% have earned a Bachelor’s, Master’s, or Doctoral degree (USA QuickFacts). High school, Associate’s degree, and Bachelor’s degree, which are presumably the levels near the middle of the actual continuum of Pittsburgh residents’ educational attainment, are therefore listed fourth through sixth on the list of eight possibilities. Although extremely unlikely, the response option of “none” is included so as to keep zero as its own category (Bradburn, Sudman, and Wansink 165). 28. What is your age group? • 18-34 • 35-44 • 45-54 • 55-64 • 65+ Rather than ask respondents to identify their exact age, we asked respondents to identify their age group. The age ranges in the response set exactly match those used in CMoA visitor surveys, with the exception that the age category of under 18 is excluded since this age group is outside of the project’s population of interest.

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Bradburn, Norman, Seymour Sudman, and Brian Wansink. Asking Questions: The Definitive Guide to Questionnaire Design- For Market Research, Political Polls, and Social and Health Questionnaires. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004. Print. Czaja, Ronald, and Johnny Blair. Designing Surveys: A Guide to Decisions and Procedures. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2005. Print. Dillman, Don. Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York: Wiley, 2000. Print. Krosnik, Jon, and L. R. Fabrigar. “Designing rating scales for effective measurement in surveys.” Survey Measurement and Process Quality. Lyberg, Lars, Paul Biemer, Martin Collins, Edith DeLeeuw, Cathryn Dippo, Norbert Schwarz, and Dennis Trewin, eds. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1997. Print. Lenzner, Timo, Lars Kaczmirek, and Alwine Lenzner. “Cognitive Burden of Survey Questions and Response Times: A Psycholinguistic Experiment.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 24.7 (2010): 1003-1020. Print. Novak-Leonard, Jennifer, and Alan Brown. “Beyond Attendance: A Multi-modal Understanding of Arts Participation.” National Endowment for the Arts, 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. Schwarz, Norbert. Cognition and Communication: Judgmental Biases, Research Methods, and the Logic of Conversation. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996. Print. Shaver, Phillip, Judith Schwartz, Donald Kirson, and Cary O’Connor. “Emotion Knowledge: Further Exploration of A Prototype Approach.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52.6 (1987): 10611086. Siegle, Greg. Personal interview. 2 Mar. 2012. Speakman, Skyler. Personal interview. 16 Feb. 2012. Tourangeau, Roger, Lance Rips, and Kenneth Rasinski. The Psychology of Survey Response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print. USA QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau, 2012. Web. 7 Feb. 2012.

WORKS CITED
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APPENDIX B: Quotes from Pilot Test
General Opinions about Length:
• • • • • • “It looks long but it goes by quickly. You look at it and think, ‘Oh my gosh, it will take a half hour to finish, but then it only takes a few minutes.’” “You might have a problem if people don’t know they’re taking the survey until they’re ready to leave. They might not have accounted for the time required to take the survey when planning their visit.” “The shorter the survey, the more accurate the answers. People might already be tired by the end.” *Note that none of the participants felt they became tired while completing the survey. “I wondered if it was over by page three, but it was nice to have the easy demographic questions at the end.” “A survey that is two pages front and back would be much more approachable.” “I wouldn’t know my opinion about a booklet format until I saw it.”

General Opinions about Survey Purpose:
• •

“Do something to make the goal of the survey clearer. Are we evaluating the art or the museum?” “I assumed we were looking at rating the quality of the museum and its collection.”

Item One: • Other ideas included “because I was forced to,” “because I was bored,” “it was spontaneous (I was in the neighborhood and it’s free to go to the museum)” *Note that none of the respondents gave another response to the item; they were only brainstorming here. Item Five: • “You’re able to remember how many times you’ve been to the art museum in the last year because it’s not something you do every day.” • “When I first read this question, I accidentally misread it as the Carnegie” • “Does an art gallery at a school count?” • “It would be easier to answer this question if the answers were given in frequencies (for instance, once a week, once a month).” Item Six: • “I would define research as looking the artworks up beforehand, learning about them in a class. It’s pretty broad.” *Note that participants seemed to agree on this definition • “There is no other preparation you can do; it’s all research.” • “Did you do the research on your own or were you forced?” • “Do you want to know people’s motivations or knowledge? Decide what you want to learn from the visitor.” • “If you see a TV program on art is it research?” Item Seven: *Note that everyone understood what the item was asking Item Eight: • “I got hung up on this: it’s extreme. There are always other thoughts going on.” • “Maybe you could say that the art ‘grabbed you a lot, became your primary focus.’” • “I really liked how this was worded because I could relate. There was an artwork that almost

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• •

hypnotized me. It was really powerful; I don’t know what it did but it definitely did something. I don’t think I could relate as well to the other phrasings that were mentioned.” “Expand on this by asking an open-ended question telling people to describe an artwork and explain their reaction.” “It would take a vague paragraph to describe this. I would be uncomfortable putting it in writing.” *Note that no one indicated they felt comfortable with the idea of identifying artworks by name. Someone mentioned the possibility of a catalogue if this were to be done.

Item Nine: • “I took issue with the idea that content and materials were separate but I understood the question.” *Note that others indicated they thought about content and materials separately. Item Ten: • “I was wondering if this was asking about the exact paintings or groupings in general? If it’s asking about exact paintings, almost everyone might say yes.” Item Twelve: • “I feel it would be very difficult to cover the entire spectrum of impacts; sometimes you can’t explain what happened.” • “The ‘other’ option is really broad: you could go anywhere and I didn’t know what to add in.” • “Make the question clearer about what you’re looking for.” • “Don’t leave the ‘other’ category in with the question the way it is. You may want to add ‘gave me a new perspective’ or ‘did not give me anything.’” Item Fifteen: • “I was put off by this question because it implies you weren’t paying attention before. I don’t know if I will be more attentive but I might change my outlook.” • “Pay more attention to what aspect of your surroundings?” • “Has your visit changed your viewpoint of your surroundings?” • “Are you looking to see if the viewer appreciates natural beauty more? Or are you looking for heightened acuteness (to see if someone is more detail-oriented)?” • “Different attention instead of more attention.” • “Talking about ‘increased aesthetic awareness’ would imply that you were wondering about how people viewed compositional elements.” *Note that all respondents felt the word “aesthetic” was clear. Item Twenty: • “I got tripped up on this. I’m tired from work, but the visit didn’t drain me. I didn’t know how to describe this.” • “What’s spiritual energy? If you relax, are you spiritually energized or not?” • “Maybe you should ask about mood: if people were refreshed, excited, or tired.” • “’Refreshed’ is also a confusing word. Do you have more energy or a new viewpoint?” • “When I go to Phipps I feel refreshed because I feel like I had more oxygen. The art museum is more like a roller coaster because my mind is working overtime. I wouldn’t say I feel refreshed.” Item Twenty One: • All respondents agreed that “inspirational” meant “giving me new ideas”.

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Item Twenty Nine: *Note that respondents were confused initially because they did not receive maps when entering the museum. • “It will be easier to read the map if it is separated into the first floor and second floor.” • “Some of these areas seem kind of large and there are a lot of different areas in them.” Demographics: • “I just don’t fill in demographic questions as a policy. I don’t want to identify myself.”· Suggestion for Additional Questions: • “Were you surprised by anything?”

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APPENDIX C: Qualitative Data Collection Guidelines
C1: Survey Implementation Guidelines
General:
• • • Materials will be stored onsite at the CMoA and retrieved before each session. Volunteers should not read responses to the surveys. Surveys should be placed directly into the envelope. When enough volunteers are available, two survey stations will be set up. One at the top of the stairs before entering the galleries and one on the grand staircase. A survey administrator and exit interceptor will be at the grand staircase and the entrance interceptor and survey administrator will be at the stairs by the Scaife galleries. When there is only one survey station, the exit interceptor will be at the grand staircase to remind visitors to take the survey and direct them to the survey administrator’s location.

Entrance Interceptor:
• • •

Entrance interceptors will approach every person during high- and low- traffic days, defined as less than 700 visitors. Entrance tokens will be given in the form of stickers. These stickers will be attached to both sides of visitor badges to remain visible. Entrance interceptor will stop giving out tokens 30 minutes before the end of each session to allow time for visitors to go through the galleries and return to take the survey.

Exit Interceptor:

Exit interceptors will look for the stickers and direct participants to the survey administrator.

Survey Administrator:
• • • • •

Systems team members will reserve the role of system administrator when possible. The survey administrator will remain stationed in a predefined location (at the top of the stairs before entering the Scaife galleries or at the grand staircase. All surveys that have been started will be placed in the envelope, regardless if they have been completed. Only systems team members (researchers) will record information on the survey envelope forms. Survey administrator will inform visitors of the focus group when the participants hand in the survey.

SCRIPT Entrance Interceptor:
Hello, welcome to the Carnegie Museum of Art. There is a research group here today from Carnegie Mellon University conducting a survey about visitor experience when viewing art. We would appreciate your participation in the survey at the end of your visit today. Please save about five to ten minutes to complete the survey. Your feedback will help further the success of this research project and impact the study of the visual arts. You can also enter to win (incentive) after completing the survey. The surveys

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will be available here at the top of the stairs (or at the top of the grand staircase.)

Exit Interceptor:

Before you leave today, please take about five to ten minutes to complete a survey about your experience. The surveys are available here at (location of survey administrator.) After completing the survey, you can to enter your name in a raffle for a chance to win (incentive.) Your feedback will help further the success of this research project and impact the study of the visual arts.

Survey Administrator:

Thank you for agreeing to complete a survey. All of your responses will remain anonymous. Even if you choose to enter your name and email address for the chance to win (incentive), your personal contact information will not be connected to your survey responses. Please try to answer each question as honestly and fully as you can. All feedback will be valuable to this study. Please ask me if you have questions while taking the survey. Once you have completed the survey, please return it to me.

(after survey is completed):

Thank you again for your participation in this research study. Your feedback will greatly enhance the success of this study. To enter for a chance to win (incentive) please provide your name and contact information on this form. Your contact information will in no way be linked to your survey responses and will only be used to contact you if you win the drawing. We will also be conducting a focus group at a later date to further explore the experience of museum visitors as they view visual art. If you are interested in participating in the focus group, please check the box next to your contact information under the Focus Group column. Participants in the focus group will be provided with food and drink as well as an additional incentive (if available.)

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C2: Focus Group Implementation Guidelines
Focus Group Implementation Guidelines: Focus Groups: 1 pilot, 2 actual Dates: March 30, March 31st and April 7th Participants: 8 Moderator: 1 Observer: 1 Observer/ Recorder: 1 Preparation: sign-up sheet/name tags, consent forms, copies of blank surveys, graph sheets, pencils, food and drinks beforehand. Requirement: All team members should arrive 30 minutes in advance to set up and check devices. Each focus group lasts for 90 minutes and includes two sessions. Session 1: Length: 30 minutes Location: Education Classroom Activity: Have food. Discuss questions about their last visiting experience. Session 2: Length: 60 minutes Location: Scaife Galleries, Teenie Harris Gallery Activity: Walk participants to three pre-selected artworks – two in the Scaife Galleries, one in Teenie Harris Gallery. Have discussion about the artworks. Moderator: • Is in charge of coordinating the focus group. Ask questions and control the flow of conversations. • Distributes consent forms in Session 1. • Cover all five main questions of concern, and follow up with five sub-questions. • If time allows, it is suggested that the moderator ask questions according to the following order: 1. Opening questions: get people talking and feeling comfortable (Session 1 at the Education classroom) 2. Introductory questions: get people to start thinking about the topic (Session 1 at the Education classroom) 3. Transition question: go into more depth than introductory questions (Session 2 in the galleries) 4. Key questions: discuss the areas of concern (usually five questions, Session 2 in the galleries) 5. Ending question: summarizes the discussion, seeks any information that has been missed, brings the focus group to closure (Session 2 in the galleries) Observer: • Is in charge of taking notes. • Helps the moderator control time. • Writes down notes that will help analysis afterwards. These notes should be able to reenact the context, identify the respondent, and record interesting findings. • Tries to capture the question asked, the name of the respondent, unusual volume and tone of the speaker, nonverbal behavior of the speaker, and unusual verbal and nonverbal behavior of all other

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• •

participants. Try to make judgment whether these behavior indicate consensus or disagreement. Should not interfere with the group process, but could offer assistance whenever needed. Should have the list of major questions and be ready to give the moderator notice when he/she forgets to ask major questions.

Observer/ Recorder: • Is in charge of recording the conversations and taking notes. • Captures all the essential discussions by recording device. May move about in the room and approach respondent as he/she speaks, with minimal disturbance to the process. • Should collect information in an unbiased manner. • Writes down brief notes as the observer does. • Should not interfere with the group process, but could offer assistance whenever needed.

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C2: Focus Group Discussion Guidelines
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE This following guide outlines the purpose, general wording of questions, and discussion points for the focus groups being conducted. “Discussion points” are reminders for the moderator of subjects to watch for in the discussion or to use as prompts for the group. PART ONE - CLASSROOM SUBJECT - EMOTIONAL RESPONSE QUESTION #1 Purpose of question: Examine interpretation of survey questions 16 & 17 and how they interpreted our concepts of emotion. Q1: We asked you a few questions about emotion in this survey. When you answered the question “Did you recognize an emotion in any work”, what were you thinking of? Q2: Along the same lines, we asked to what extent you felt a series of emotions. What were you thinking of when we asked about feeling emotion when viewing an artwork? Discussion Points: Personal Experience. Physical aspect of artwork vs. the idea expressed in an artwork. QUESTION #2 Purpose of question: Delve deeper into feeling emotion and examine effect over time. Examine question 17 in greater detail. Q2 Part 1: We would like to do a quick exercise using the worksheet in front of you. Going back to those emotions we asked you about, we would like you first to circle three of the emotions you remember being the strongest. Those emotions again were Anger, Fear, Joy, Love, Sadness, and Surprise. Q2 Part 2: If there were other emotions you felt, but were not part of our list, what were they? Please write any other emotions here (point to chart). NOTE: Mention that this is optional, they don’t need to make one up. Q2 Part 3: There are two axes on the chart in front of you. Along the bottom you will notice some time periods and along the side you’ll notice a blank. For this exercise, I’d like you to think back to the museum experience you had the day you took our survey. Of the six emotions provided, I’d like you to pick one of them you remember being particularly strong and write that emotion in the blank. Now we are going to draw a line for that emotion over time. The line goes higher on the chart if you felt it strongly; lower for feeling the emotion fade. (Give examples of how to draw the chart). Q2 Part 4: Now we’d like to discuss everyone’s drawings. What were some of the things you were thinking about when completing this exercise? For your drawings, if you drew a peak at any point, what was running through your mind? Discussion points: Encourage them to jot down words on the worksheet for the graph.

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SUBJECT - CAPTIVATION QUESTION #3 Purpose of question: Examine interpretation of question 10 and the concept of losing track of time. Q3: In the survey, we asked if you “lost track of time while walking through the CMoA galleries”. “Lost track of time” WHAT DOES THIS PHRASE MEAN TO YOU? NOTE: Give participants a range using two very extreme examples to avoid group pressure for a socially acceptable response. This examples focus on the extreme of daydreaming to being overwhelmingly concerned with the time. Discussion points: Outside factors affecting keeping track of time? What the experience for those who were more aware of time? Describe experience of “lost track of time”. QUESTION #4 Purpose of question: Examine interpretation of question 9, examine different types of focus. Q4: Another aspect we asked about your gallery experience was about whether or not you saw artwork that grabbed your attention. WHAT DOES THIS PHRASE MEAN TO YOU “grab your attention enough to momentarily become your primary point of focus”? Sub-question We’d like you to describe how you experience art when walking through the galleries. NOTE: Give participants a range using two very extreme examples to avoid group pressure for a socially acceptable response. This range describes both walking through galleries and focusing on artwork. Discussion Points: Pushing other thoughts out of mind? Keep an ear out for descriptions of voluntarily versus involuntarily being drawn in or pulled away. How long did a focused on work stay with you? Ingallery vs. Post-gallery? SUBJECT - INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION QUESTION #5 Purpose of question: Understand the effects of discussion Q5: Outside of the conversation we’re having now, did you talk with anyone about your experience at the museum? What sort of things did you talk about? NOTE: Emphasize that not talking to someone is also something we are interested in. Avoid “talking” becoming a socially acceptable response. Discussion Points: Did you talk to some while you were still at the museum? Who did you talk to? Did you talk about your museum experience after you left the museum? Who did you talk to? Was there someone you would have preferred to have a discussion with? Was there any reason someone did NOT want to discuss something? QUESTION #6 Purpose of question: Understand concept of Inspiration and feeling inspired Q6: WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF WHAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT, WHAT DOES THE WORD “inspiration” MEAN TO YOU? Sub-question: What kind of things went through your mind? What would be your criteria for considering yourself “inspired”?

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“I WASN’T INSPIRED, BUT…” DRAW THIS OUT. Discussion Points: Personal experience? Physical aspect of artwork? Content of the artwork? PART TWO - GALLERY EXPERIENCE The focus of this part of the session is to get the group up and moving and looking at some art in the galleries. The art is preselected and we will be viewing 3 pieces (the same group to group) and the overall purpose is to learn more about the thought process people have when thinking about our questions. The following questions are used to guide discussion and will be repeated for each work. The works will be purposely very different from one another and represent a wide breadth in visual art presentation. How do you determine if this work inspires you or not? (not looking for a yes or no, but focusing on evaluation process.) How do you determine if this artwork challenges or reinforces a personal viewpoint? How do you determine if this artwork causes you to feel connected or disconnected to a culture? Follow up: When I use the term “culture” what was the first thing that came to your mind? Was it your culture or another culture? Are there questions you have about this work? When you thought of that question, was there a specific person you wanted to ask? Is the discussion we are having right now affecting your experience with the work? In what kinds of ways? (For example: Changing opinions, forming questions, creating value) Discussion Points: What kinds of criteria are you using when thinking about the answer? Does that criteria change from artwork to artwork? What was going through your mind when thinking about the answer? Physical vs. Content in the artwork? EFFECT OF THE MUSEUM? IF YOUR THOUGHT PROCESS IS DIFFERENT, WHY IS IT DIFFERENT? ALWAYS FOCUS ON THE WHY, NOT THE IF.

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C3: Personal Interview Discussion Guidelines
EMOTION Q1 Did you recognize an emotion in any of the works of art at CMoA? • (Yes) What emotion did you recognize? • (Yes) One artwork or many? • (Yes & No) What were you considering when answering the question? Discussion points: Personal experience, physical versus content. Q2 Did you feel an emotion while looking at CMoA’s artworks? • (Yes) Was it one emotion or a range of emotions? • (Yes) What would you say was the strongest emotion you felt? • (Yes) One artwork or many? • (Yes & No) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? Discussion points: Personal experience, social interaction, physical versus content CAPTIVATION Q3 Did you lose track of time while in the CMoA galleries? • (Yes & No) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? (looking for all descriptions of time) Discussion points: Voluntary versus involuntary, outside factors Q4 Can you describe your experience when walking through the galleries? (Give two extremes) • Did any of the artworks today grab your attention enough to momentarily become your primary point of focus? • Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering that last question? Discussion points: voluntary versus involuntary, people’s different descriptions of focus, focus on a single work or a cluster. INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION Q5 While in the galleries, did you talk about the artworks with others? • (Yes) Can you describe what you talked about? • (Yes) Did your discussion affect your view of the artwork/experience you talked about? In what kind of ways? • (No) Was there someone you might have wanted to? • (No) Was not talking to someone important to the enjoyment of your visit? • (Both) Were there any questions you had about the artworks? • (Both) Who would you have liked to ask that question? Q6 Did you find viewing the artworks in the CMoA inspirational? • (Yes & No) When you were considering if the works were inspirational or not, can you describe what you were thinking about? Discussion points: One artwork of many, physical versus content Q7 Did any of the artwork(s) you saw today affect a personal viewpoint? • (Yes) Can you describe that experience? (look for challenge or reinforce) • (Yes) What was it about the artworks that affected your viewpoint? • (No) Can you describe what you were considering when answering that last question?

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Q8 Did any of the artwork(s) affect your connection to a culture? • (Yes & No) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? • (Yes) Was it a feeling of connection or disconnection? • (Yes & No) When answering the question, what culture were you thinking of? (looking for personal definition)

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APPENDIX D: Consent Forms
D1: Pilot Test Consent Form
Informed Consent Document Title of this research study Pilot Test of Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art Survey Names of the researchers Miao Jiang, Heinz College Jessica Ryan, Heinz College Tom Hughes, Heinz College Description of your involvement in this research study You will participate in 60 minute session with other community members to answer questions asked by a researcher. Before the session begins, you will have an opportunity to view the artwork in the Carnegie Museum of Art galleries. Potential risks and discomforts of your involvement in this research study You will not be at physical risk and should not experience discomfort resulting from the focus group session. However, loss of privacy is a potential risk because the researchers cannot guarantee the participants of the group will not reveal each other’s contributions to the group discussion once it has ended. Measures to be taken to minimize your potential risks and discomforts Because the information you provide will be heard by all participants, extra measures will be taken to protect your privacy. The researcher will remind all participants not to discuss the material once the session ends. Expected benefits to you or to others from your involvement in this research study You will be provided with light refreshments and an opportunity to visit the museum galleries at no cost to you. Because of the information obtained in this study, you and others may ultimately benefit even if you do receive any additional direct benefits at this time. Cost and payment for your involvement in this research study There is no cost to participate, nor is there payment provided for your participation in this research study. Confidentiality of records and data You will not be identified in any reports on this study. Records will be kept confidential to the extent provided by federal, state, and local law. Voluntary nature of your involvement in this research study Your participation in this project is voluntary. Even after you sign the informed consent document, you may decide to leave the study at any time without penalty. Documentation of the consent of your involvement in this research study One copy of this document will be kept by the researchers. You will receive a copy to keep.

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Consent for your involvement in this research study I have read (or been informed) of the information provided. The researchers present have offered to answer any questions I may have concerning the study. I affirm I am over the age of 18 and hereby consent to participate in the study. Printed name Consenting signature Date

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D2: Focus Group Consent Form
Informed Consent Document Title of this research study Focus Group of Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art Names of the researchers Tom Hughes, Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University Purpose of the focus group The purpose of this focus group is to explore the impact of visual art on museum visitors. During this session, discussions will focus on exploring visitors’ experience while in the museum, including how visitors interact with and think about the artwork they view. Description of your involvement in this research study You will participate in a 10-15 minute conversation with a researcher and possibly additional museum visitors. Your participation in the session is entirely voluntary. Focus Group Procedures Participants will engage in discussion in the museum. The researcher will ask participants questions and engage in discussion based on these questions. Data Collection Methods, Data Use and Data Protection Participants’ responses will be recorded with the use of audio-tapes and written notes. This data will be used to provide insight into the evaluation of surveys collected at the Carnegie Museum of Art. Findings from the conversation sessions may be included in a final research report. Participants’ names will never appear in any written reports, publications, or presentations. All surveys, audio recordings and other related documents will be stored in locked files. Records will be kept confidential to the extent provided by federal, state, and local law. Participants agree not to disclose any information provided by other participants after the focus group ends. Potential risks and discomforts of your involvement in this research study You will not be at physical risk and should not experience physical discomfort resulting from the focus group session. However, loss of privacy is a potential risk because the researchers cannot guarantee the participants of the group will not reveal each other’s contributions to the group discussion once it has ended. Also note, potentially sensitive subjects may arise during the course of discussion and may cause emotional discomfort. Measures to be taken to minimize your potential risks and discomforts Because the information you provide will be heard by any additional participants, extra measures will be taken to protect your privacy. The researcher will remind all participants not to discuss the material once the session ends. All participants are also reminded to discuss topics openly and honestly, but to be respectful of the diverse opinions of other participants. Expected benefits to you or to others from your involvement in this research study

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You will have the opportunity to enter your name into a raffle drawing to win a free museum membership. You will also have the opportunity to provide feedback and insight that has the potential to shape studies occurring in this field. You have the opportunity to work collaboratively with researchers and other museum visitors. Because of the information obtained in this study, you and others may ultimately benefit even if you do receive any additional direct benefits at this time. Cost and payment for your involvement in this research study There is no cost to participate, nor is there payment provided for your participation in this research study. Voluntary nature of your involvement in this research study Your participation in this project is voluntary. You may refuse to answer a question at any time. Even after you sign the informed consent document, you may decide to leave the study at any time without penalty. Documentation of the consent of your involvement in this research study One copy of this document will be kept by the researchers. You will receive a copy to keep. Consent for your involvement in this research study I have read (or been informed) of the information provided. The researchers present have offered to answer any questions I may have concerning the study. I affirm I am over the age of 18 and hereby consent to participate in the study.

Participant Name

Consenting signature

Date

Moderator Name

Consenting signature

Date

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D3: Personal Interview Consent Form
Informed Consent Document Title of this research study Focus Group of Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art Names of the researchers Tom Hughes, Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University Purpose of the focus group The purpose of this focus group is to explore the impact of visual art on museum visitors. During this session, discussions will focus on exploring visitors’ experience while in the museum, including how visitors interact with and think about the artwork they view. Description of your involvement in this research study You will participate in a 10-15 minute conversation with a researcher and possibly additional museum visitors. Your participation in the session is entirely voluntary. Focus Group Procedures Participants will engage in discussion in the museum. The researcher will ask participants questions and engage in discussion based on these questions. Data Collection Methods, Data Use and Data Protection Participants’ responses will be recorded with the use of audio-tapes and written notes. This data will be used to provide insight into the evaluation of surveys collected at the Carnegie Museum of Art. Findings from the conversation sessions may be included in a final research report. Participants’ names will never appear in any written reports, publications, or presentations. All surveys, audio recordings and other related documents will be stored in locked files. Records will be kept confidential to the extent provided by federal, state, and local law. Participants agree not to disclose any information provided by other participants after the focus group ends. Potential risks and discomforts of your involvement in this research study You will not be at physical risk and should not experience physical discomfort resulting from the focus group session. However, loss of privacy is a potential risk because the researchers cannot guarantee the participants of the group will not reveal each other’s contributions to the group discussion once it has ended. Also note, potentially sensitive subjects may arise during the course of discussion and may cause emotional discomfort. Measures to be taken to minimize your potential risks and discomforts Because the information you provide will be heard by any additional participants, extra measures will be taken to protect your privacy. The researcher will remind all participants not to discuss the material once the session ends. All participants are also reminded to discuss topics openly and honestly, but to be respectful of the diverse opinions of other participants. Expected benefits to you or to others from your involvement in this research study You will have the opportunity to enter your name into a raffle drawing to win a free museum membership.

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You will also have the opportunity to provide feedback and insight that has the potential to shape studies occurring in this field. You have the opportunity to work collaboratively with researchers and other museum visitors. Because of the information obtained in this study, you and others may ultimately benefit even if you do receive any additional direct benefits at this time. Cost and payment for your involvement in this research study There is no cost to participate, nor is there payment provided for your participation in this research study. Voluntary nature of your involvement in this research study Your participation in this project is voluntary. You may refuse to answer a question at any time. Even after you sign the informed consent document, you may decide to leave the study at any time without penalty. Documentation of the consent of your involvement in this research study One copy of this document will be kept by the researchers. You will receive a copy to keep. Consent for your involvement in this research study I have read (or been informed) of the information provided. The researchers present have offered to answer any questions I may have concerning the study. I affirm I am over the age of 18 and hereby consent to participate in the study.

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APPENDIX E: Personal Interview Transcripts
INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS ORDERED BY DISCUSSION GUIDE QUESTIONS EMOTION Q1 Did you recognize an emotion in any of the works of art at CMoA? • (Yes) What emotion did you recognize? • (Yes) One artwork or many? • (Yes & No) What were you considering when answering the question? Discussion points: Personal experience, physical versus content. A&B TH: To start with, with emotion, I was wondering when you were looking at the artworks today, did you recognize and emotion in any of the artworks? B: Recognize an emotion within ourselves or…? TH: Within the artwork. B: Within the artwork. Yeah, I mean I would say so. Yeah. A: We were mostly looking at the photographs, so. B: Yeah, let’s see. Everything ranging from, what… you know, sort of despair, like the kid that was kind of smiling, but crying. He’s ready to box or something like that. To pure joy, at the, what’s that bar? I forget. The Crawford Grill, or.. TH: The Crawford Grill, yeah. B: Yeah. TH: Cool. I love that boxing photo. A: Yeah. I saw it when we were walking through and I really liked it, and we came to the back where people had picked photos and someone picked it back there. C TH: Would you say that you recognized emotion in some of the artworks today? C: (Yes) TH: What kind of emotions did you recognize? C: Um, you know, curiosity. Is that an emotion? Joy, impishness, respect... I think the gamut of human emotion. You know, people that were maybe disinterested... have things on their mind...so to me there was just a real range of emotions. And to me the fascinating thing was that this is all in black and white... and he captured so much without using color. You almost forgot that you’re not looking at color photos. That you’re looking at black and white. His work is just amazing. D TH: Did you recognize an emotion in any of the works that you saw today? D: Of my emotion? TH: This is about recognizing emotion in the artwork. D: Interesting question. I never thought about trying to find out about what was the emotion of the artist, why they created them. Not today. But I suppose we all bring in our previous experience. So I grew up on traditional European art museums and I had zero emotional reaction to any of the Rembrandts, and the Caravaggio. Then I….met an artist, who is more like a craft art, but whatever, and I finally understood art. That was the first time I had an emotional reaction to art. So when I come to an art museum I have a reaction, not trying to figure out the emotion in the picture.

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E TH: Great. So the survey is all about your experience today and the things you saw. So I guess just to start with the emotion question. Did you recognize an emotion when you looked at the works of art today? E: Yeah. I definitely think it was. We just came out of the Teenie Harris exhibit and it was overwhelming, overbearing, you know, being an African American female and being distant from that time period...it was definitely overwhelming. Made me feel connected, made me have a greater understanding of the pictures. TH: So you are not just recognizing emotions, but you were feeling emotions too? Would you say that those emotions are always the same or were they sometimes different? E: No, they change. Um, through the different, Um, we were in the photo gallery. Where the digital photograph artwork was? You know, you come in on a picture, the emotion was different for every epic set. F&G TH: Let’s start with emotion. Did you recognize an emotion in any of the works you saw today? F: Quite a few different emotions. I saw the people who were celebrating events, who were happy, and the horrid squalor of some situations, the tragedy. G: And as the, um, going back to school, working on masters in geography, and the [ERROR] project was presented as a private example of bad planning. The pictures side by side, the [ERROR] beaten by a police detective. F: The most, the picture side by side, the eight-month-old girl with the jack o’ lantern and right beside it the boy had been beaten by a police detective. H TH: Did you recognize an emotion in any of the works you saw today at CMoA? H: Um, I don’t know if it would be an emotion, but you get sort of a softness or calming, when you look at some of the paintings, and some others that are abstract – I don’t think I get abstract very well, but you know, you sort of don’t feel much of anything. That’s probably about it. TH: When you are talking about the calm you get from the paintings, what is it about the painting? H: It’s probably the colors, for me, the roundness of some of the subjects or the subject matter. Whether it’s sort of a calming scene, also helps a whole lot, some of lines are real bright, or bold, or jaggy in their appearance don’t give that same impression to me. TH: It’s really interesting. It’s one of the many aspects we are really interested in your way of describing the physical and aesthetic nature of the work and draw an emotion from that. A lot of people just speak from the content. It’s really great to hear that perspective. H: Yeah. And I think some of them are a little more religious, you know, the mother and the child. So you sort of get that, religious, in my experience, my religion is my calming, so I get that religious feeling to it. TH: Yeah. So there’s a personal connection? H: Right. And it always helps if I’ve seen... I travel quite a bit, so if I’ve seen the place before, it sort of made that connection too. TH: Where have you travelled to? H: Everywhere. TH: Everywhere? H: Yeah. We are looking at a trip to Romania right now, if my girlfriend can make up her mind, but China, Australia, and India, all over. I TH: I’d love to jump back to what we were talking about earlier, when we were talking about the kid with the boxing gloves and you were talking about recognizing the emotion. That’s one of the questions I have, which is, did you recognize emotion in any of the works? So I’d love to just like, restart that conversation

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we were having… where you were talking about walking through and how he captured the kid with the boxing gloves and the tear. I: Do you want me to talk about that or do you want me to talk about in relation to what I saw today? TH: Um, both would be great! I: Okay, Um…well, I just, the kid was kind of like, it was kind of funny when I saw that picture, because he’s laughing and he’s crying at the same time. And how close he got to that child – it was just like, how, they say the eyes are the window to the soul, but if you’re a photographer, your camera can be a window to the soul too to the people on the other side of the lens. And it was just so, I just, I like those really intimate portraits that get you to see stuff you wouldn’t normally see… you know, not invading anybody’s privacy, but like, getting in there for that moment where you feel like you’re sitting there with that kid right next to him. You know, like you felt like you were in the photo too, but nobody can see you. It’s like how he made his world, that’s what like, I think photography is, kind of like, creation of world. But it’s not like, fantasy, but it’s based on, it’s reality. It’s not like, a cartoon or something, where you’re making a fantasy. The photography actually captures, it creates, it captures and it creates a world that sometimes we can’t see because we’re buzzing by, we’re not stopping and noticing anything. So its great when you can get a photographer who says “Hey, look what you missed, but I got it right here for you to see.” So yeah. So the flowers – they were just kind of making me happy today. I was thinking about this because I’m going to start volunteering at Phipps and that’s what that reminded me of. It’s kind of different. They’re not arranged at Phipps – everything’s kind of like, more natural. But it’s just beautiful though! And I just thought to myself today going in there and seeing these flowers, like, how much I actually love the art of flower arrangement. I just… and I like to take care of plants. Like, how do you decide what heights of flowers to put in there and what things you want to put in that like, that look… TH: It’s like Ikebana, the Japanese art of flower arranging, you know? Stuff like that. I: Are there Japanese? So you think about it – their idea of flower arranging and maybe the Western idea of flower arranging has different theories, like, different things, roles in mind and stuff like that. EMOTION Q2 Did you feel an emotion while looking at CMoA’s artworks? • (Yes) Was it one emotion or a range of emotions? • (Yes) What would you say was the strongest emotion you felt? • (Yes) One artwork or many? • (Yes & No) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? Discussion points: Personal experience, social interaction, physical versus content A&B TH: Cool. So the next question I have is actually kind of what you kind of thought the first question was. Did you feel an emotion when you were looking at the artworks today? B: I felt a little, um, I don’t know… disappointed. I would say that, um, the Hill District is just not what it used to be. It seems to me that it just doesn’t have the same vibrancy and even economic viability that it used to. It’s deteriorating. It’s no longer a destination. A: Yeah, that’s the same I also... I don’t know. I like to come to these things and feel like, pride and happy, like I’m glad that we moved back. And that this even, that they collected this and that it exists and that we can go and see it. So, if we’re like, within a city in general, it’s our community that they make efforts to preserve it and stuff. And we went to the Maya Lin thing too. I thought that was cool. I’m not sure what…. Again, I don’t know if I like that there’s… Like, I don’t know how she makes a living doing this, but I like that there’s an avenue for it and that it has a message, and.. TH: It’s really cool. It’s also really cool to see the different types of emotion you guys are pulling from today’s visit. I was wondering if you could pick one of those emotions, what would you say is the strongest?

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(long pause) B: I kind of resonated when she said pride, and … A: I was going to say, like, enjoyment. B: But there’s appreciation for you know, for the talent and that it’s showcased in the museum. So I would say, you know, pride. Followed closely by the regret, that that neighborhood is sort of a shell of what it once was. A: Yeah. I’m just glad to have the experience to be able to do it again. C TH: Did you feel an emotion while looking at artworks today? C: I did...I think um...I mean the emotion i feel is...his work is so powerful and he’s gone unrecognized for so long and he’s finally getting the appreciation that he deserves... so to me there’s there’s kind of like... pride, for Teenie. TH: Yeah. C: You know, that somebody could just put together this quantity of art...a part of me is like “ok, you got to see a thousand images, there’s only 79,000 more”. I mean, themes could be pulled from more of those. To think that he’s gotten all of that. TH: Out of the emotions you were feeling, what would you say was the strongest emotion you felt? C: When I think of things like this I’m like, is pride an emotion? Pride for him, um, so....I don’t know how to say it. I think...it was that he was using his medium to try and portray the African American community in a positive way. And so to be able to see positive images of African Americans, in daily life, and not in the like, the stereotypical 50’s image you might get from the [ERROR]. I think just pride, and that there are positive things, and that people don’t see those positive things. D TH: did you feel an emotion when looking at the artwork today? D: [ERROR]….Maya Lin is definitely the piece for me and the interest. She is emotional but intellectual at the same time for me. I can play with it in my mind and go around it and to me it has to be three dimensional and physical. But it was interesting to look at the pictures, the photographs, which is not my medium…I’m not really interested in photography. But it plays an aspect of Pittsburgh’s past that’s very interesting and interesting to see and did I have an emotional reaction to it? I think most certainly curiosity…I think everyone has their own reaction, so for me it’s always admiration when I learn something…so that was like, I’m learning something new, I’m discovering a piece of Pittsburgh and the past that I never really knew about. The learning experience, the elation and the tears were something new that fit into my puzzle. TH: Would you say there is one emotion that was strongest? D: Today? TH: Yes, today. D: I think it was my own little excitement of seeing something new. The excitement, the anticipation. E SEE RESPONSE TO QUESTION 1

F&G TH: It’s a very intense photo. So leading into the next question, when you are looking at the artworks, do you guys feel an emotion? So the first question is about recognizing an emotion in the artwork. This question is about did you feel an emotion? F: Well, even knowing some of those things took place, it can be a shock to see it, to actually see it. At the house, with the oil lamps trying to light the hallways and the rooms. That was a real grabber. TH: Would you say that there is a range of emotions? F & G: Oh yes.

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TH: and of that range, was there one that’s the strongest? F: Um… (pause) I liked looking at the celebrations a lot. Some of the, those photos were chilling. G: The ability to find joy amidst the squalor. I can relate somewhat to that myself. TH – These are some really interesting answers. I’m wondering, with these emotions, what was running through your head while I was asking you that question? When you look at an artwork you feel an emotion, what kind of things are running through your head? F: Hmm, are you asking a question of me or what I see.... TH: When you are looking at an artwork and responding. F: I just, try to stay open. The areas I looked at first were the 60s, then I went over to the 40s. Civil rights era, then the wartime. Those are the parts I was most curious about. G: And a lot of that too, since I was born, about the end of Depression, and remembering where we lived, there, are some of the remnants of the inability to pick things up during the Depression. I remembered distinctly where I lived a convent burnt down. The old burnt buildings sitting there for years, we couldn’t do anything about it. So I did feel something, even though I was only this high, (Made gesture with hand) I felt something about how the Depression was. And they obviously, it obviously hit them harder. F: (Speaking to G) Your Dad was never unemployed, though. Neither was my other grandfather. G: But they lived on the edge of it. One of my best friends’ father was off it for years. H TH: So along the same line with emotion, did you feel an emotion when you are looking at the artworks? H: Um, I keep going back to the last one, which is the one we saw, which were the madams with the bit grey bouffant hairdo. And she’s the sort of, you know, light colors, you know, greyish hair, soft skin, and even the ones with the women and children. I guess you a little more calm, or soft, when you see those. Like I said before, even the abstract ones, I don’t get some of the abstract ones, but even reading the little captions, sometimes you can make that, like, you walk up on one, and you think “oh, they captured that”, and you read it, it makes sense. And then some of them you walk up and “yeah, I don’t get that” even when you read the comments. I don’t think they really connected very well, so... TH: Yeah, sometimes I feel that way about the abstract work, too. It is nice to have the comments. Let’s say, emotions. Did you say it was a range of emotions? H: Some of them are more happy, depending on the scene, or the way they have the scene constructed. Some of them are a little more calming, like I said, the pastel colors and stuff. Some of them give you a little charge, like some of the, the one abstract with a lot of, I don’t remember who it was by, a lot of red, that sort of, went across the bottom and up to the top, give you a little more charge, or more zing to, whatever you are looking at, I don’t know what the emotion would be. TH: No, that’ great. And among the emotion you have described, would you say that there’s one that’s the strongest? H: I think for me, the calming ones are the stronger than the abstract. I like to look at art, I like to see the pretty things. (laughter) So when I look at pretty things, I think that’s because they are calming and they help you to see, you know that, emotion. And I don’t come to the museum to be challenged. I come to the museum to see the nice things. TH: Yeah. That’s actually a question coming later. H: (laughed) Ok. TH: No, that’s a great response. And it’s cool that you talk about these more formal things with the colors and everything. I actually come from an arts school background, so I feel the same in a lot of ways too. You know it’s just these colors, the way they wove, it’s hard to explain, but... H: (interrupted) Or even the one with the forest scene, you know, that’s very calming. It’s dark though, but it’s still a very calming scene for me. It’s not pastel, but just the whole, sort of composition of it. You know, the trees, a little deer, a little white beam down the middle, these kinds of things. TH: Yeah, it’s great. Thank you for going into so much detail about it, because this really helps us to

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understand the concept. I TH: I’d love to come back to come back to something you brought up when you were talking about the flower, which is that you said they made you feel happy? Um, that’s actually one of my questions – did you feel an emotion while you were looking at the artworks when you were going through the galleries? I: Yeah. I felt happy and I felt like, really relaxed. I was very like, I was just, it’s hard to describe. I was just like this peace. You know… and then I saw some, they had some orchids in there. And I love orchids – they’re one of my favorites and I was just happy to see them. Um… TH: So you were talking about a range of emotions and I was wondering, is there one that was strongest? I: Um… I can’t particularly discern that, like, which one was the strongest. TH: It was more like you had this range… I: Yeah, like, it’s hard to say which one dominated or anything like that. It was like, I think each piece on an individual level brought out a different emotion, so it was like, some of them reminded you of being out in the woods, you know? And so you’re thinking of like, waterfalls or rain or something, you know? And some of them were more like, this is something I’m going to take and put on my coffee table. So each one had like, a different emotion that it evoked, so… TH: That’s great – that’s something we’re really interested in, so that really interesting to talk to you about how like, there’s a lot of people who are like well this is a strong emotion so it’s great to hear your response, like, no – each one there’s a different emotion and they called up different ideas. So, it’s really great to hear that response in such detail too. CAPTIVATION Q3 Did you lose track of time while in the CMoA galleries? • (Yes & no) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? (looking for all descriptions of time) Discussion points: Voluntary versus involuntary, outside factors A&B TH: Great! It’s great to hear you guys are, um, those are great responses for us. It’s great to hear those emotions and where you’re pulling them from, for your visit. So the next question I’ll ask you is about captivation. Did you lose track of time while you were in the galleries? A: Um… I definitely wasn’t, I wasn’t paying attention to what time it was. Except for that I’m a little bit hungry. So I think I looked at my watch once, but otherwise… B: I tend to keep an eye on time when we’re going through any gallery. Just, mostly because I can be captivated and I don’t want to spend all day… A: Yeah. I don’t think we came up with like, an agenda of how long to stay or anything like that. B: No, that’s true. A: We like walking through the whole thing, but we didn’t like, we didn’t sit. We sat and watched the photos at the beginning, but we didn’t sit. Like, I consciously didn’t really want to sit down at the video thing at the back, because I was afraid I’d end up spending like 45 minutes there or something. B: Yeah. As members, we don’t really feel any pressure to kind of, take it all in at the museum. We can come back. I mean, we walked here, so if we like an exhibit here, we can come and see it. If we want to see, what do you call it… the collections that are here all the time, we can see that anytime. A: Yeah, we usually just come to see a specific exhibit, so there’s no pressure or anything. TH: Cool. It’s really interesting to hear that perspective, of like, since you guys are regular visitor or members, how that affects keeping track of time and loosing track of time… you talked about the lack of pressure. B: Yeah, we kind of take it for granted that we can come back whenever.

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A: Yeah, yeah…because I was actually looking, and it’s like 17 bucks or something. Like, we wouldn’t pay that amount, like each of us, to just come see this. We would like we had to see more…We just come whenever there’s something we want to see. C TH: Did you lose track of time while you were in the CMOA Galleries? C: Yes TH: Great, and could you describe what that experience was like? C: In the moment, you’re just so focused on what you are seeing, in the moment. You know, when you first walk into the room, you hear the music and you see the photos, you’re there. And you know, what is there, 7 screens going on? So there is a lot of images to be taking in. For me, I needed to stay through the songs, through the soundtrack a couple of times just to be able to really see everything. And then to walk around and look at the images, and then walk around and listen to the little tapes, and then spent hours on the computer looking at the archives. So, the subject matter to me was very interesting...I like to take pictures...the history that’s behind it...Some people that can come to the museum and say, well, who are these people? But I’m like this is a history that I have lived through and old enough to understand. So it’s very...to me its been… yes I have to keep track of time near the end because I have to go to work, but I gave myself enough time to be able to enjoy and to be able to...to not have to rush through it. TH: Would you say the losing track of time, was that more of a voluntary thing? An involuntary thing? C: Um, I’m not sure. TH: Another way to describe it, when you walked into the gallery, did you walk in expecting that “I’m going to lose track of time and have this experience”? C: (Nodded Yes) D TH: Did you lose track of time while in the CMoA galleries? D: Um, Maya Lin is one and Rothko would be a second for me. And Monet. But this time I was conscious of the time. TH: Yeah, could you just describe that experience a little bit more? D: So let’s see, I would uh, let Maya Lin draw me in and I would allow the time, to not be conscious of it. But I do know that back of my mind, I have to get to some place after the museum on time. So I do, I am conscious of it, it’s not like I had endless time available today. If I did, I would spend more time. I think for me, I have seen many museum pieces, I know myself, and I know what affects me. I suppose…I know Maya Lin and so I know my reaction to it and I expect it. And so when I go there, I let myself slow down, take it in, and let my mind wander because I have a relationship with her already and so with Monet, and the impressionists and Rothko. Now if I go with somebody that is radically different than me, that is when the museum opens up really. Because then I am supposed to look at something that I didn’t look at before, like the photographs, that was new to me and being exposed to that. E TH: So we are onto the last section and it’s “captivation”. Did you lose track of time when you were in the galleries? E: Yes. TH: Can you describe that experience a little bit, like what was that like? E: Well we did the, because we sat at the digital exhibit. It was just like...you were watching the pictures and you were captivated by what’s on the screen. There are six, I mean seven of them, so your head is flipping and you know you are just trying to catch all the pictures. And then it went off, so we turned the other way, so we could kind of capture more. So the concept of watching time and being aware, kind of lost me. It wasn’t until we were walking a little bit around the gallery, picture gallery part, and was like,

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“Oh, if we are going to see the Warhol Cats & Dogs we better go!” You know, yeah. F&G TH: Great, so we’re going to come to the last section...Did you lose track of time while in the galleries? F: Yea. G: Yea. TH: Can you talk about that experience a bit? What that was like? F: Well... I wear a pocket watch, deliberately so I’m not constantly looking... TH: It’s a great practice. F: But the first time I actually took the watch out to look at it, during the back sections where they’re doing the images, the pictures. When it got to the end, when it got to the credits, that’s when i finally looked at my watch. TH: And so was that....was that an experience you sought out to have or something that just happened. F: Girl down at the desk recommended we come up here, this is the last day of the exhibition. We always... look to see what’s here, but other things we just walked right back out of. Not many, but number one I don’t want to talk about it... TH: But that’s great, thanks for giving such a detailed description... Like knowing about the pocket watch but you still had the loss of time. It’s really interesting. H TH: So the next part is captivation. Did you lose track of time while you were in the galleries today? H: Probably, because I have a meeting at 2:30 today. But yeah, I think the more you spend sort of looking at it and trying to digest it, you do lose track. You know, I’ve been to lots of museums, but not just, especially with the art and flowers, trying to put it together, you do lose a lot more time but even just walking through the museums. I was here with my boss who collects chairs. And I was just telling the person with me, you know, we were here just on the one wall with chairs for two and half hours just talking about the chairs. Because somebody could describe, you know, who made it, what were they doing at that time, what was happening by the time and the country where the chair was made and what was the art in the time. You know, this is when they invented the springs, so every chair had to have a spring, or all chairs back then had to have wheels on. This was the, I’m trying to think of the Art: Deco period and that’s why these are here. I TH: So why don’t we start off with Captivation. Did you lose track of time while you were in the CMoA galleries? I: I did. To be honest, I wasn’t paying attention to time like, I didn’t know what time I went in and I had no idea what amount of time I spent, so I wasn’t aware of it. TH: Would you say that was like, a voluntary or an involuntary thing? I: I find that it’s more relaxing like, if I don’t have as much time to do what I want to do in there, like, I don’t want to feel pressure. So… and I basically, like, when I went in today, I just went in to look at the flowers more so than the artwork… because I’ve gone in to look at the artwork. So, I just wanted to look at the flowers and I did look at some art because you can’t kind of avoid it, so I looked at a little bit of both. TH: Great! That’s what we are looking for as you kind of describe the whole… when we asked if you lost track of time, like why and if it was voluntary or involuntary. So that was great – it was a great detailed response. CAPTIVATION Q4 Can you describe your experience when walking through the galleries? (Give two extremes) • Did any of the artworks today grab your attention enough to momentarily become your primary

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point of focus? • Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering that last question? Discussion points: voluntary versus involuntary, people’s different descriptions of focus, focus on a single work or a cluster. A&B TH: That’s really interesting. You started on this a little bit – I was wondering if you could both describe your experience when you’re walking through the galleries. Um, and just to give you a range, there’s two extremes: one is the person who just like, walks straight through, doesn’t look at a single piece, just like, in and out in thirty seconds… or the person who comes and sits in front of one painting and is engrossed for hours. So those are kind of like the extreme ranges. I was wondering if you guys could describe how you enjoy your visiting. A: Well, I think like, I always like especially things like this, there’s always like a flow to them, the special exhibits or whatever. So I mean, we come in, we read a lot of the stuff that’s written, and then we go in order of the chronological order all the way around. And I would say like, we looked at every picture, but we don’t usually sit there and like, you know… B: Take it in… A: …Stare at one for 20 minutes. Like, we point one or two out to each other as we’re just walking along. But we just look at every one and read the little captions. B: You know, read the little captions A: We didn’t use any of the phone things… B: One to ten seconds per picture depending on how much it captivates me, but I won’t go to like, and Impressionist area and sit and stare at something for an hour. Its like, how could you possibly do that. A: Yeah. I especially like these because… what did we go to? We went to something else recently that I really liked… B: We went to an exhibit for the Fabergé. A: Yeah, and they did a really good job of telling you this story as you went through, and that like, makes a big difference to me, that it depends what you’re saying. If you just go into an Impressionist section, there’s a whole bunch of paintings, you don’t know how they’re related to each other… so, that type of thing. B: And if there’s a historical object, like an object rather than a painting or a photograph, I’ll probably spend more time learning about that [ERROR], rather than just glancing at the thing. A: We’re in the middle of the spectrum, I guess. TH: Yeah. Um, it’s great too because you went straight into the next question and went into a lot of detail, which is what I’m asking about the different way you kind of focus on things and what contributes to that. So it’s really great to hear both your responses and hear your comparisons to the Fabergé show. B: Yeah, we spent a lot of time there for such a small exhibit. A: Yeah. C TH: My next question is: How do you go through the galleries? (Gave two extremes) C: I went in, I read the introductions, then basically I sat down for something like 45 minutes...it was probably that long...just watching the images that were being displayed while I was listening to the music. Then i went in, kind of worked my way around chronologically. Got the tape, and really then listened to the people that were interviewing, they interviewed for the specific pictures. And then I sat down and did the archives for a while, and then I tried to take some pictures discreetly, I wasn’t sure if we could take pictures inside. So I didn’t want to be like, waving my iPhone. TH: I think you can take pictures inside?

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C: Yea, they didn’t seem to be too concerned. Tried to be respectful, tried to be respectful to the people who didn’t want to have their picture taken. TH: Did any of the artworks you saw today grab your attention enough to momentarily become a point of focus? C: I’m going to say a lot of them. I didn’t grow up in Pittsburgh, so for me I always enjoy coming to something that shows the history of Pittsburgh. Because it gives me an idea of what it was like, even though I look at some of the images and I think, hmm, some things haven’t changed at all. And then I think, probably pictures of people, expressing emotion, because that doesn’t change a lot either. As far as people, you know, being happy, whatever it is, there are probably a couple of images that really grabbed my attention that I kind of went back to. D TH: so this is along the lines of what I want to talk about next, can you describe your experience walking through the galleries? Like how you like to do it? (Gave Range) D: I think I’m obviously somewhere in between and it entirely depends on my [ERROR]. I go to Washington DC, for work, and at the end of the day, if I can make it into the museum I will stand in front of the Monet and that’s it. And I will just sit there in front of one painting and I will just be reading and taking it in and just let my mind….go. Today, we came in specifically because we thought the pins were still on, Madeline Albright’s pins? TH: Yeah, we get that question a lot. D: So if I come in specifically then I do walk by stuff. Today I think it was in between because we missed the pins so I was like ok, what else is here? The pictures, the photographs, so we walked in there first, targeting that. And then stopped, and then just let the things be absorbed and spent some time there. TH: when you’re speaking about stopping and letting something absorb, could you describe…what is it about that piece? D: What is it about that piece… TH: that causes you to stop and absorb it D: …. TH: Another way to phrase the question is: I’m interested in that you walk past these other things, but stopped at this piece? D: I don’t think there is one answer to that. Um….I was walking through one gallery and I stopped by one piece and I know because for that particular one it was the color and its symmetry. And because it reminded me of another painter and I wanted to check who it was. Um…So that would be one example. I think there could be endless little things that catch my attention and I want to check it out further and take a second look. E TH: It’s great to get that description about what’s going on. So I’d like you to describe your experience walking through the galleries. And to give like how did you go through the galleries. But I guess there are two extremes to be. There’s a person like runs through, doesn’t look at any art, waves hi to the guard, walks out of the door. And there’s someone that just comes in, just sits there in front of the painting for like three hours. So it’s kind of like the wide range. E: I want to read out the captions, I do the phone...do the audio tours. I do those, my art museum at home has them and I like them. So that’s what I was doing when I kind of looked at the time and said “oh we going have to leave. We’ve spent so much time in this exhibit.” So I didn’t finish the way we were going. I knew I wanted to do this and I wanted to catch the Warhol art : the cats and dogs. TH: When you go through the galleries, did any of the artworks grab your attention long enough to momentarily become your point of focus? E: Um yeah...It was a couple of the pictures. There was a picture of Masons, that we kind of went “Oh

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wow” you forget your people and their on the screen. M: [ERROR] TH: Oh yeah? E: And then the picture of Etta James, she was so young. And I was like, oh my gosh, you know. Someone like, perfect kid. And someone, what’s his name? M: [ERROR] E: Sam Cooke. Some of the pictures did, we were just like, oh my gosh, there were other things I was casually looking and you keep going, there were definitely picture that I saw something. F&G TH: Can you describe how you go through the galleries? Like your way of going through the galleries. I guess to give you two examples: there are two extremes, there’s the people that run through the galleries, don’t look at anything and just walked out of the door. And there’s people who sit in front of one piece artwork for like 8 hours. So those are kind of like the two extreme ranges, so I’m wondering for you guys, how do you go through the galleries? F: Ok, well I started by just looking at the pictures which grabbed my attention. I immediately recognized Dizzy Gillespie of course. Then I saw the people going around to these books of the various [ERROR] pictures were and grabbed one of those and started over with that basically. Then...I work backwards... happened with the way I came in. I vaguely remember the ‘60s, i was well insulated from the riots and that sort of...all that. But, I did notice that the picture of the ‘60s were...were married people, people trying to get in, getting there time in, no smoking buildings or anything like that. TH: there’s some things that you are talking about that I would love to come back to, but I’d love to hear from (G) as well. How did you walk through the galleries? G: I started...First, I try to keep track of him (F)...but I started first and went counter-clockwise. From the last ones towards the first ones...then went back and read all the descriptions and started picking out individual pictures, first I just tried to get a general impression. I do some photography myself, it’s not all that great. It reminded me a lot of old family photos, in many ways. Then I connected back with him, we sort of discussed a few of them along the way. We’re not the most talkative people. F: Oh really?! G: You had to say that? (Laughter) TH: You guys are talking! So this is the last part and this is kind of where I was saying I want you to think about what you were just saying, both of you, about walking through the galleries. Did any of the works, grab your attention enough to become you primary point of focus...momentarily? F: Yes...the one on lying on the pavement, the stopped street car right there. I looked at the word for it... just struck by a car, almost run over by a street car. Came across that just after it happened. TH: Would you say that the way that it grabbed your attention, was that voluntary, was that involuntary? F: Involuntary. G: Involuntary. F: It just pulled me right to it. TH: I know that feeling, and how about you sir (G)? G: Mostly it was the pictures of children that appealed to me, I have a soft spot for children anyhow. I only...we looked through those...I would have to liked...[ERROR]...but there are no pictures of the [ERROR] when everything fell apart. They must have been after the [ERROR] F: This is when he turned professional, really. G: The consequences of the images were...the rise of say, during the war...but always the children. TH: Really draws you in? G: Really draws me in.

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H TH: So you talk about the things you walk up to, this idea of focus that I’m gonna ask about. But to back up a little bit, can you describe your experience walking through the galleries, like, what your way to going through the galleries are? To give you kind of two extremes, there’s people that run through the galleries, don’t look at anything, just walk out of the door. And there’s people who sit in front of the painting for the entire time the museum is open. H: So you mean today or in general? TH: I’d love to hear about today. H: Well today was sort of run from one piece to the next. This was during lunch, so we really wanted to capture the flowers and paintings that were with it and what did we think. In general, I go from painting to painting to painting. When I am in a museum, I’d like to use the headpieces to try to hear about the painting, what story is behind the painting, because a lot of times you miss, you know... there has to be a story behind it. So you want to hear what the story is, whether it’s something that Monet painted and he saw every day and that’s why his many paintings are the same, or whether it’s the one in the corner with the woman in the white, and the gentleman I think it’s Henry the Fifth or something, there’s a story, but there’s a whole story around it, so what’s the story behind it? So depending upon why I came, today was a quick stroll-through, but I come on a regular basis. You know, I have noticed today that they’ve changed some of those paintings. TH: Yea, you know, i think they are changing some around too because they have an impressionism exhibit coming up. H: Right, people are borrowing pieces for other places. TH: Keeping what you have been talking about, it’s really interesting to hear about why you walk up to the paintings. We are interested in this idea of focus. And would you say that any of those works momentarily became a primary point of focus that kind of drew you in? H: Err, I don’t know in general, but some paintings draw you to certain parts of the painting, whether it’s a central character, or the way they stand out against the background, again, that one painting with that background which is just sort of my favorite painting. You know, she’s in white, she has real pale skin, and everything around her is in dark and very vivid and purple and red, vivid red & vivid purple. So whether she draws you, or whether the dark color against the light color, or maybe something pretty against something not so pretty. TH: That’s actually exactly the answer I was looking for. H: You know, so it depends on the painting. People, you know, we look at Miss Scaife over there. She draws you, but then after you’ve seen her, you’d want to see the flowers behind her, but she’s the painting, you know, it’s not about the background, although the background may mean things, there’s a lot of things in the paintings you sort of miss, but if you knew why they were put there, that’s interesting too. TH: It’s really great to hear about these different levels of focus, like, this drew me in but then I want to look at this, but then overall it’s these colors. That’s really really great to hear that kind of level. I I’m interested if you could describe your experience of walking through the galleries. And, I guess, to give you two very extreme examples, there’s the person that just like, runs through the gallery, doesn’t look at a single thing, waves hi to the guard and jumps out the window – you’ll never see him again. And then there’s the person who comes and sits in front of a painting, one painting for the entire time the museums open. So those are the kind of, two extremes of museum visits. So I’m interested in like, what is your museum visit. I: Well, basically I was going to focus on the flowers… so I looked for where the flowers were and tried to stop. But I don’t stop for a long time. I just, I’m the type of person where, I kind of like, my first couple seconds of looking at something give me my impression and I don’t really spend a lot of time analyzing, because I do that with my everyday life. So I like to just experience the beauty without thinking about it

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too much. So that was easy to do with the flowers. With the paintings, they have more of a story, so it’s a little bit harder when you walk in there and you see this painting and then you’re like wondering like, why is that? The flowers, it’s more purely to me, as like, an aesthetic – I walk and just like, a color will stand out. I remember I saw one of the pieces and they just had a fantastic… they were all fantastic in different ways. The one with like, just such a beautiful combination of colors, that you wouldn’t have thought it was put together like that. And the once piece which I absolutely loved, because it was kind of neat, they had these, they almost looked like feathers... silver… I don’t know what they were. TH: Yeah, I know what you’re talking about. I: So, they were just gorgeous. They were like, a blu-ish silver and I… that’s basically what stood out to me today and I was walking through all the flowers. And I was walking through them, I’m always interested in knowing who did the flowers. Like, I want to know who put them together and stuff like that. So I do, it’s kind of like, that’s kind of like my museum experience when I go. It’s typical for me. I don’t spend a lot of time on any one piece. I kind of like, go and quickly absorb and just kind of go to the next thing that just catches my attention. TH: So, um, when you talk about things catching your attention or making you stop, one of the things we’re interested in is, what is it about, what aspects, like, what is it that makes you stop? I: Well, the flowers, I definitely think it’s like, color. Um, or like, I guess to me honestly, it’s something unusual. It’s something I wouldn’t think of or something that’s particularly beautiful. This one piece they had, they had bright yellow next to purple and it was just very striking. So I like that about that piece. And then, like I said, the silver-blue, I don’t know what they were but I just stood there and they were so pretty. And then they had a leaf in there and it was the same color, and it was just… I thought that was one of the prettiest things that I saw. So, it’s hard to tell because I can’t really say one thing that catches my attention – I guess it just depends. TH: No, but your response was great because of all the different levels of detail you just talked about. Like, you know, something unusual and this like, clash of color… those are the kind of things we’re interested in hearing about. What is it that makes people, kind of like, pick the pieces that make them stop. INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION Q5 While in the galleries, did you talk about the artworks with others? • (Yes) Can you describe what you talked about? • (Yes) Did your discussion affect your view of the artwork/experience you talked about? In what kind of ways? • (No) Was there someone you might have wanted to? • (No) Was not talking to someone important to the enjoyment of your visit? • (Both) Were there any questions you had about the artworks? • (Both) Who would you have liked to ask that question? A&B TH: Great. So we’re almost done, we’re on the last section which is Intellectual Stimulation. This is just the wording of the question, but while you were in the galleries did you talk about the artwork with others? B: Just among ourselves. I actually, anytime there was a sign or something written that you could make a context for the photograph, I would point it out to her or like… you know, because this is what was going on with these people’s lives at the time. So I enjoyed read the, any of the text that I could find within the photographs. It was just kind of interesting. Stuff going on from like, pre-WWII to the Civil Rights Movement, you can kind of read the, read people’s thoughts because they wrote them down. A: We went through this like really fast, just because I had read about it and didn’t know much about it, and we’re only like, less than 10 minutes. But, yeah. Which, like, I felt like that was a little bit more… conversation provoking than we had sort of intended to be. Not that the photographs aren’t, but um,

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sort of a lot of the story themselves, whereas this is more symbolic and stuff. That was interesting. So I didn’t know what it was, so we were reading through the stuff and talking about what was actually in that exhibit. TH: When you guys were talking to each other, did you find that the discussion was affecting how you viewed the artwork? A: Um… I mean, I think in this thing, us talking about understanding it, helped us understand it. Like, talking – oh, you read the thing and told me what something was and stuff, so… B: We think so… I mean, I don’t think we changed one another’s thoughts. A: I don’t think we’ll have super in depth conversations or … but about just the specifics of it. [ERROR]. B: I probably would have – I didn’t but, I probably would have struck up a conversation with her about what I was referring to earlier, the deterioration of the Hill District. I was kind of wishing it’s something more like it was… but yeah, that would have been a sample of the conversation. A: Yeah. I think we would probably talk about it more after, but I don’t know. It’s kind of a quiet place. But yeah, we might have more conversation afterwards because [ERROR]. I think that we’d do that. B: Yeah, we’ll probably go to lunch and then we’ll probably continue the conversation about it. TH: Yeah, those are all aspects of conversation we’re interested in hearing about, like the way you guys were talking about approaching each one of the galleries and how you might go forward and talk about it afterwards. Um, there was one other part about talking I was curious about… it was whether there were questions you guys had about the artwork. (long pause) A: I mean, I took this because I thought the stuff was interesting. I mean, I didn’t want to spend a lot more time there but I took this to maybe read some of it. Just to learn a little more about Pittsburgh and stuff. B: I was just going to ask… I would’ve asked like, where he took a lot of photographs – Teenie Harris – but then they showed the map, and I was like, Oh, alright. Question answered. So now I have no questions. A: Not a lot of specific ones. B: Yeah. C TH: While you were in the galleries, did you talk about the artwork with others? C: No, I did not, but I did kind of eavesdrop on a woman who was with her daughter or granddaughter. Someone from that community. So she was able to point out and say “oh, remember so and so?” and “remember this?” So I was able to eavesdrop a little bit on their conversation. Because for her it was personal, it was someone who was actually there, so it was kind of interesting to hear what she had to say. TH: did that effect how you viewed the work that they were talking about? C: Um, not particularly, Maybe paid more attention to those images that they were pointing at, that they were discussing. TH: were there questions you had about the artworks? C: Um, who are these people? Where are they? Are they alive now? What happened to them? What did they do? What is their story? There’s like thousands of stories in there! Some people we do know some of their stories, some of the more famous people. But you know, just the kids, the kids that are running around. It was interesting to see Sala Hudein and think oh yea, he was on the city council. You know and to hear a little bit of his background and see him in some of the photos. TH: The questions you had, who would you have liked to ask them to? C: Probably to the people themselves. What was it like to have your picture taken? Did you see Teenie in the neighborhood? And I think it was always interesting how the kids, it was almost like they almost like gathered around. You had kids that were really interested, the kids that were like not sure, the kids that were like front and center, Kids that were probably hamming it up for the camera. The picture with the cotton candy machine.

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D TH: While in the galleries, did you talk with others about the artworks? D: Yes TH: And who was it that you talked with? D: Um, Julie my friend that I came in with, yes. TH: Great, and could you tell me a little bit about what you guys talked about? D: Uh, specifically I was looking at the Rothko and the one next to it that I was considering, maybe have a little bit of conversation. TH: Would you say that your conversations affected what you thought about the artwork you were talking about? D: Only, yes. TH: And in what kind of ways did it affect it? D: Julie gave me a good explanation of why she thought one was capturing her and the other one was going to be. E TH: So I guess my next question would be, while you were in the galleries, did you talk about the artwork with others? E: Yes, there was a gentleman sitting next to me. There was a lady sitting next to me with her parents and her father lived in that area at that time and he knew a lot of those people. He recognized faces as they popped up. And I so enjoyed their conversation and I actually stopped in, you know, told them I what such a joy it was and introduced ourselves, etc. TH: Did that affect how you viewed the work? E: I think it made it more personal since I’m here, going and looking at things and their historical, you know, pictures and film, and it kind of still detaches still from you from it a little bit. And it becomes personal when that history is live. TH: Did you have questions you wanted to ask about the artworks? E: You know, I think would like to have known more about what happened in the Hill district. You know, it was the one caption under one of the digital exhibits. There is something about the decline of Crawford or something like that. TH: Yeah, the fall of the Crawford Grill. E: I think I’d like to understand what that meant, because we are not from here and I don’t understand. So now we’ll have to Google to find out, to put pieces together. So I think for someone that’s not from Pittsburgh, and I know I have a lot of friends that come here from all over the places, because this is such a cultural center. So I would imagine you guys get a lot of visitors that are not native...Pittsburghers. So I would definitely think it will be nice somewhere to have a caption that kind of gives a little bit more explanation. TH: I guess that’s the question, is there someone you would have liked to ask the question to? E: You know what, yeah, it would have been nice to have someone away from the crowd that had like an “Ask Me” thing, so you know who to talk to. TH: Yeah, a docent. E: Yeah, I see those in a lot of museums around the country. I haven’t seen one in those here. TH: Yeah, it’s the show is so personal and it’s like this assumption. E: Yeah, it is. But I’ve talked to another couple and they weren’t from here either. So you know. TH: It’s great to get this perspective too, from someone outside of Pittsburgh that still feels very effected. F&G TH: Moving on to my next question, when you were in the galleries, did you talk to others about the artworks?

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F: Not a whole lot, there was one fellow that walked around and he talked to anyone that was standing near him. (Pause) TH: Can you talk about that experience? Was that something that would have....the man coming around to talk, how would that have affected your experience? F: It’s positive...I mean, I don’t talk to people easily. Now, I agreed to do this, but...you know. G: I’m the same way as he talked, but got pulled out of it as a reference librarian, I got pulled out of it. One of the things I remember was, these kids would start coming and their teacher would assign them something they weren’t quite familiar with and I started giving them a little explanation of Teenie Harris, something like “He’s the real thing”. So that kind of pulled me up, that I was getting across to them and they could understand. TH: these are great answers and like I said there are no right or wrong answers. So hearing that “No, I didn’t talk to someone else” or someone who did want to talk to someone else, hearing if that was important or not really helps us understand this idea of talking to others about art. H TH: I’d love to keep you on the train of what you are describing, but I’m actually going to jump to another question. While in the galleries did you talk to others about the artwork? H: Yeah, the person who’s with me, he’s over there. TH: What kind of things were you talking about? H: I was curious to see if he saw or felt the same things that I saw or felt, like, did he think they were worked, that it was a good interpretation or not. I think we did agree on most of them. There was one we didn’t agree on, it was sort of the one that had the big grass, that was plumed and it was supposed to be the smoke, it had a river boat in it. And I wasn’t sure I thought that really worked, but he liked it. He said he liked the smoke, that he knew that’s what they were trying to get out of it. TH: How would you say the discussions were affecting your views of the artworks? H: Well I think it helps, because, my, I don’t think anybody’s opinion of the interpretation is correct, so I’m curious in what he thinks : he’s younger than me : so what is he thinking? And I don’t think he’s been exposed to much art, because you know, he said I haven’t been to the museum in quite a while, and yet I was here two months ago. So, seeing and getting his interpretation, which may be a little more literal than mine, was interesting just to see if he thought it worked when I did or vice versa. TH: It’s really interesting to hear about you, as someone who has gone to a lot of museums and travels a lot and is matched with this person who hasn’t been to one in a while, how the discussions affected your visit. It’s really a big thing we are interested in. H: So we take more time, maybe when we see one that did or didn’t work, we probably took more time to try to figure out why we didn’t think it was working or why we thought it was working. You know, is it when you walk up, you see it and you go “oh, that’s good” and then you read it, or is it one you walk up and go “Oh, I have to see what he was thinking, because this doesn’t seem to make any sense to me. I TH: So, I’d like to move on to intellectual stimulation, and this kind of goes back to something you were talking about earlier. While you were in the galleries did you talk to others about the artwork? I: No, because there’s not really anybody around. Like, I mean, I could have I guess. But, the people who were there today, kind of seemed, very kind of absorbed in their own um, appreciation. And I do talk to… I’m a very friendly person, but I just didn’t talk to anybody today. I just was kind of like, I want to go see the flowers and that was it. TH: Would you say it was important to your visit today that you weren’t talking to anyone? I: It was different because, I guess, it could have enhanced my visit a little bit, if I had talked to people, but um, I usually like to take my friends with me and stuff. So I’ll probably come back to this visit, or to this exhibit, and come back with some people.

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TH: I’d love to hear more also, because you brought it up in the beginning of our conversation, about when you come with friends. Like, I’d love to hear a little bit more about like, when you guys come, what do you guys talk about? Does that affect… well, let’s start with that. What kind of things do you guys talk about? I: I know, that Teenie Harris... I bought, we came because of Teenie Harris, not one, not two, but three times because it was such a conversational… and then we were talking about how, um… We talk about what’s pertinent to, kind of, the times, you know, like… The deep contrast between what life was like when Teenie Harris was growing up and how, what the Hill is like now and what the percentage of AfricanAmericans in Pittsburgh were and how it’s changed, you know? The demographics… and there’s so much stuff you can talk about, even the clothes that they wore. They were talking about technique – how he held, the whole essence of photography has changed… because now we have digital cameras, which... anyone can look like a great photographer. Like, you don’t have to be that great of a photographer. You don’t actually have to understand how the camera works... I mean, you have to understand to get it to do what you want it to do, but you don’t have to understand like, aperture, lens, like, all that stuff. TH: And the fact that he was like, one shot, you know? I: Yeah. And to have that judgment, like, to say in a situation, “Oh, that’s the perfect light. I won’t even have to…” And there was no touching up. You know? And he got such, and the thing was that he got such genuine emotions and we talked about some of the things he photographed. Like how he got this little boy who had boxing gloves on – do you remember that? TH: Yeah! I: And he’s crying… TH: But he had that beaming smile. I: And how he got this kid to be like, in this well of emotion and then just to get that raw emotion right there. TH: Yeah. I’d love for you to pause right on those things you’re talking about right now, about emotion, because there’s an emotion section I’d love to talk about. I: Okay. TH: But very quickly, when you were talking to your friends about the artwork, would you say it affected your opinion or affected what about your opinion, or your thoughts on the artwork, like, the conversations? I: It kind of deepened my experience because I got to appreciate things that I wouldn’t have necessarily gotten to appreciate, because my friends would add, I have a lot of very, um, friends that are into art and they know who Teenie Harris is and stuff like that. And we really enhanced the experience, because my friend would be like, “Well, this used to be there,” r, like, so we got a really rich experience out of it. TH: Cool, that’s really interesting to hear. I really liked hearing about how you guys were talking and that it went all the way from like, the content, like how the photo was made to like, all these different things. It’s really great to hear about, that you had to come back three times. So it’s really cool to hear that. I: And I still don’t think I came back enough! TH: I had the same experience with the show. I had to come back, like, I think I saw the show like four times, just because I was like – I came with my friend and we were like, there’s just too much. Like, let’s get up to 1960 and take a break, yeah. I: I said that room that had the slideshows. You could sit in there… because the thing is, you can’t focus on, there’s six places you could sit. So if you sat at one, you could experience, you had to come back at least six times to see that! Because like, there was so many photographs… And what I really loved was the fact that you could, the thing that was overwhelming to me was that they had over a thousand photographs on the wall, and it’s just too much to see all that at once. So, but when I went on the computer… it was so much easier. When I do the computer and looked up stuff on the computer, I could look at what I wanted to look at. TH: It’s an interesting perspective to hear about, how like, that setup was overwhelming but the computer helped you focus. Um, were you finding things on the computer and then trying to find them on the wall? Or was it that the computer just helped you…

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I: The computer helped me because I could look up like, a certain topic and then look under that, and like, from what I wanted specifically. Because it just was on the wall… it was just, sometimes I get overwhelmed at things like, when there’s too many of like, the same thing, but it was just… It was just so much information at one time. It was like, I didn’t know where to begin, like… TH: Yeah, it’s definitely one of those shows where you had to come, like, back to multiple times. INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION Q6 Did you find viewing the artworks in the CMoA inspirational? • (Yes & no) When you were considering if the works were inspirational or not, can you describe what you were thinking about? Discussion points: One artwork of many, physical versus content A&B TH: Cool. This next question is – did you find viewing artworks in the CMoA inspirational? B: No, not in any particular way, I’d say. A: I mean, I’m partially willing to.... I just took a photography class, so… B: Oh, that’s true A: … at Pittsburgh Center for the Arts. So, um, this is, uh, this is the kind of… I really like this. Because in that class, people in every class show some photography, and um, like what I want to do is more similar to this. Like I just wanted to like, take pictures of what I see and experience to have them as a memory and the documentation or whatever. As opposed to people who like, stage pictures and stuff like that. So, I really enjoyed looking at it… I don’t know… So in some ways, I guess. TH: Yeah, that’s great. And I was saying earlier which is interesting that your response was yes as the no responses as well, is I was wondering – when you said no, what kind of things were going through your mind when [ERROR]? B: Well, I interpret the word inspiration as, um, some sort of catalyst or spark to go do something? TH: Yeah. B: And that’s, probably, if I could do anything differently or… so that’s… TH: That’s great. We’re interested in both interpretations, like to hear how people are interpreting the word inspiration. B: I mean, if it was something like a woodworking or like, a furniture exhibit, I might be, I might then be inspired to go try my hand at like, building something. But she’s the artist, the photographer… C TH: Did you find viewing the works in the gallery today inspirational. C: Yes. I want to go out and like photograph my life so that it will be interesting. Maybe someday someone will want to put it up and say [ERROR]. TH: and when you were thinking about that, what kind of things were going through your mind? When I was asking you about inspiration. C: You know I spend a lot of time, I carry my camera around with me or I take out my iPhone. I’d like to be able to...have whatever his gift was to be able to take pictures, to document, to be able to take pictures of people and admire it. And the Urban environment. I’m presently volunteering at a school and i just see like, likes of opportunity to document this, but how to you go into a community and build their trust and respect. Because people need to feel comfortable, you know, people question. That was something that I found very interesting in those pictures and I think maybe it’s because of the changes, you know the technology. There just seems to be more community, out on the streets. Meeting....out in public, hanging out on the stoop. We used to do that in Brooklyn. You know, kids just playing in the streets together. It just...I think technology is taking us away from that and I think because it’s so easy to become isolated with

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your computer that interaction happens less. There’s less meeting, less trust. It was probably easier for him in that time because everyone was out in the street, people weren’t used to...you know in the 40’s and 50’s people weren’t taking pictures all the time. People take pictures, but we don’t always take pictures, we just walk down the street and randomly take pictures. People kind of like, question you. It’s different. So whatever his gift was to go into an environment and have people feel safe, get the opportunity to take pictures of them. D TH: did you find viewing the artworks today inspirational? D: We looked at, we walked through Maya Lin and definitely to me it is inspirational. Makes me think. Maya Lin is great. TH: And, um, when you were considering if Maya Lin was inspirational to you, what kind of things were you thinking about? D: Like, I wish they allowed people to take photographs there. Because especially you go into the first one, rocky mountain, and you could spend like endless hours there taking different photographs, with the light and the shadow and just creating my own art out of her art. Like with the glass drops on the floor, if you let people take photographs. I mean, you could create like endless art out of her art that creates your own interpretation or your own inspiration, and what you take out of that. You wouldn’t take anything away from her art, I think it would just expand it – it makes it everybody’s art. But here you can only just walk by and you’re not allowed to tape it. E TH: So did you find the works in the art museum today inspirational? E: Yeah, definitely it was very inspirational. TH: When I asked you that question, when you consider “inspirational”, what kind of things went through your head? E: Tenacity, not giving up despite the circumstance around you at the time. Looking at where history has come and up to opportunities that I currently have in front of me or my child has in front of me. And being able to be successful in, you know, kind of perfect bubble that he lives in. And you look at the environment that’s this way over there and people were still able to achieve success over there. So you are inspired to know that, you know, that I have to be successful because, you know, so many people paved ways and they had to overcome such defeat to do that. TH: It’s a very powerful show. E: It’s very powerful. F&G TH: On to my next question, did you find viewing the artworks in the gallery today inspirational? F: Overwhelming really... G: To me, that those depicting joyous occasions...the everyday lives...showed what they were up against. One particular way is, is related to...because once upon a time I was a republican...I drifted well away from them. Mainly because the the republican party when I was growing up was the party of...[ERROR]. Couldn’t even know a toe in their shoes. F: The picture that, photo of the dogs with Goldwater, with the dog with the bumper sticker on top… G: Yes F: And these republicans would consider him a bleeding heart...frankly, scare me. TH: Listen, it’s really great to hear you guys make these connections and talk about history, but I do kind of want to go back for one second and what you said about...I asked you about....if the gallery, err, if the artworks were inspirational and you said that were overwhelming and I was wondering if you could talk a little bit more about that? If you could talk a little bit more about why you felt they were overwhelming.

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F: Well...all of it is like...jumbled together really. It’s not neatly categorized. Well, it’s sort of categorized with the screens in there but then… you walk in and you see... It’s... it’s... like I said, the girl with the pumpkin and the beating are side by side. and everything in between too. TH: that’s great, thank you for going into that detail because when you said overwhelming I thought one thing and as you went into it I thought “Yea, I can see what he means, the jumble, this next to this.” H TH: So to move on to the next section, did you find any of the artworks today inspirational? H: Not really, I don’t know, not really inspirational. I’m not sure what you mean by that word in the context of art, but, I don’t... TH: Well, the purpose of asking this question is just to follow up, is that we are asking people if they found an artwork inspirational, we want to know what they were considering. So if you are thinking of a work as inspirational, when i asked you that question, what kind of things are running through your head? H: Um, I don’t know, I sort of blanked on that. This doesn’t, it’s not ringing anything in my head. I’m wondering if that’s a good word to use for your survey. TH: No, that’s a really great feedback. H: Because I don’t know how to interpret that. What kind of things are running through my head when I looked at the paintings. TH: I guess it’s more about, so if you were considering if something were inspirational, what are those considerations? H: Um, there’s nothing there. Sorry, I’m ruining your survey. TH: No, that’s really really great input for us. Because then we know that...no one word is understood in the same way across the board, it’s better for us to know. H: Yeah, I can’t say that “inspirational” is the word that came to me when I looked at any of the arts. TH: You have such in-depth response as everything else, which is really interesting. So we have to look into that word a little bit more. (AT THE END OF THE INTERVIEW) H: Yeah, one thing about that “inspiration”. I don’t know what to do with that word, I just don’t know what you are looking for there. TH: Which is exactly the reason we are asking people. So it’s great to hear your perspective too, like, “I don’t know what you try to get out of that question.” H: Inspire me to do? I guess I’m looking at it as a verb, and what did it inspire me... I don’t know. TH: No, it’s great, because that leads us to know that maybe we are not asking the right question, maybe we need to ask it in a different way. So it’s great to get that feedback. H: The only thing I can say it that it inspires me to come and see more art all the time, spend more time at the museum, come with people and see what they think. OK. I TH: So I have three more questions and we should be finished up – did you find viewing any of the artworks at the CMoA inspirational? I: The artwork? TH: Well, the artworks. The questions are all worded the same. I: Well do you mean the flowers or the paintings or both? TH: Sure, whichever, just, if you found them inspirational. I: Um… I’m trying to think specifically. I’m not sure which… ones. Um… (long pause) I did, but I can’t remember specifically what the piece was. Like, I’d seen some orchids and then there was, and then purple is one of my favorite colors and they had these purple, I think they were carnations, I don’t know what they were. But they were this really deep purple and they were next to the yellow. And so the colors were

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really… I’m even really inspired by colors. You know? Even though the orchids were white, I still like the flower and the way that they’re shaped and they almost like, grow off a vine and stuff like that, so that I find inspiring. Like, I find the colors when I look at the purple or I look at the yellow and it kind of wakes me up a little bit. You know? I guess, I was having, before I came I had an interview at the museum to volunteer and um, I was having some stuff on my mind, some heavy stuff. And I’m like, hm, I could go to the museum, you know? And they were telling me there’s this beautiful exhibit and I said okay, I’m going to go. And just looking at certain colors… like, looking at yellow, you think about, most people I don’t mean everyone, I think of the sun when I look at yellow. You know? And you’re usually happy when you look at the sun. So it kind of lifted my mood. The flowers really did too because, like, with flowers, I don’t have to think of the story, like, it wasn’t like, because I already had a lot of stuff on my mind, it wasn’t like, I have to think about like, oh where were they grown? Like, you could think about that… when a piece of art is there it kind of confronts you with like, what am I about? Where’s my story? What am I trying to tell you? And it takes a little bit more investment, you know? So I like the flowers … it’s almost like to me when I watch sports. Like, you can let out your emotion and stuff like that, but you don’t have to analyze everything, you know? TH: That’s a really great comparison I: I found that once I was in a really bad mood, I was having a bad day, and it was the World Series, I forget, it was like 2004, and they were playing.. I don’t remember who played that year, but I was watching and I sat there with my drink and I zoned out for like, a couple hours, an dI like, you like clear your mind… and so… TH: Cool. Yeah, that’s a fantastic level of detail. It was great to hear about like, not only did you say like, yellow was inspiring, but you linked it to like, mood and why and how and you made this analogy to sports. So it’s really great to have all that information to contribute to this idea of why it was inspiring or how it was inspiring. INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION Q7 Did any of the artwork(s) you saw today affect a personal viewpoint? • (Yes) Can you describe that experience? (look for challenge or reinforce) • (Yes) What was it about the artworks that affected your viewpoint? • (No) Can you describe what you were considering when answering that last question? A&B TH: Great – that’s great to hear the contrast between the answers and the reasons you’ve given. Um, so we have two more questions and then we’re finished up. Did any of the artworks you saw today affect a personal viewpoint you have? B: Mm… um, I guess I didn’t think Pittsburgh had, was as affected by the Civil Rights movement as it clearly was. Um, so I guess that changed my perspective a little bit. I kind of thought a lot of that was more concentrated in the south... I didn’t realize… and maybe sporadically up north in smaller volumes. But it seems like it was fairly intense up here, so… I guess. A: Uh, I think we talked about the pride things already a little bit, and that um… I was just saying to someone yesterday about like, I don’t know, like being able to recycle things more and all that kind of stuff. So just like, the environmental message of this and especially why I liked… Yeah, that there was a place for there to be, like, a message in art and stuff like that. I think is really interesting and powerful. And I agree with you a little bit… I don’t know much about this city as... I know a lot about when I grew up which was a lot of change, which is why I like being here so much... and so, um [ERROR] but it’s nice to learn more about … before then it’s basically just like, oh, steel town [ERROR], so to provide more context about that. TH: Great. Thanks again for going into so much detail with the questions. It’s really great to hear all this. B: No, I’ve been in marketing, so I know.

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A: We talk a lot. B: I know the richer the data the better. A: Yeah, he does market research too. C TH: Did any of the artworks you saw today affect a personal viewpoint that you have? C: As much as things change, a lot of times they stay the same. To still be able to look at those pictures and think there are a lot of parts of this city that look as run down, as dilapidated, as run down as those pictures that were taken, how many years ago? So, I still feel, there’s still work to do. I guess that’s why I’m going into social work. We’ve come a long way, but there is still a long way to go. and its who are...as human beings...we’ve been this way for thousands of years. I mean the joy of a child is the joy of a child, you look at those pictures, you can see the joy of child and look out there and you can see the joy of the children. I think the human element of who we are, as human beings. There’s so much to see and do [ERROR]. I have to live a hundred years, there’s so much to take in! I need to live a thousand years! D TH: Did any of the artworks you saw today affect a personal viewpoint? D: Affect a personal viewpoint? What do you mean? TH: Did any of the artworks you saw…challenge a personal viewpoint? Did they, uh, reinforce a personal viewpoint that you already had? D: Hm, I would say that my conversation with Julia about the colors. She said that I’m interested in Rothko because it’s moving, because the edges are not clearly defined. I think that’s a good explanation, but I don’t know whether it affected or changed anything, but it gave me an explanation that I hadn’t thought of before. E TH: Did any of the artworks you saw today affect a personal viewpoint? E: Um, just the viewpoint I said earlier where I felt like that history is just not being told, it’s lost, I mean if you, you could put this exhibit in any city and be it made up to that city. And if you don’t know, unless you are from that city, or lived through that time, or had personal relation, or you’re blessed likely to come and see an exhibit like this. But I think that’s very important, you know we hear about different states as they became colonized, stuff like that. All of that is part of history, but so much so much of what you saw in the [ERROR] states, like I said, the music, the culture, the food. All of that, that you’d like, never hear it. F&G TH: It’s really interesting you guys are making these connections. And this is going to lead to the other thing we are going to talk about with intellectual stimulation. Would you say that, did any of the artworks that you saw today affect a personal viewpoint you have? F: Mm… (long pause) I’ve studied history, so there weren’t any real surprises. TH: Well, this could be challenged or reinforced a personal viewpoint. M: Um… that’s…(long pause) Some of the people I work with are from bad part of town. And… the guys I like the best at work, lives in a house across the street from the drug house. And he’s got grandkids there.... G: I can say that, I was a reference librarian, and the years afterwards. Knowing that, what is supposed to be the case and what it actually was, were often two different things, so there were no real surprises there. I knew that things were not nice. I knew a little bit about the beginning of the decline of the steel industry because I was working in a lab and I stood in a laboratory when the basic oxygen furnaces still went on and it all started vanishing. It became redundant in other words. TH: These are really great responses. They are really helping us understand how we are asking these

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questions and how you guys related to the experience of being here to your history, to what you studied, what’s going on in your lives. It’s really interesting to hear all of this. H TH: The viewpoint question. Did viewing any of the artworks affect a personal viewpoint? And that could be challenged or reinforced. H: No, maybe other than knowing that other people saw the art the same way maybe that I saw the art. Like there’s a bowl that’s round and very clean, might be a Majorica bowl, and yet the artist so clearly saw the round, and green, and the yellows and pulled them out all to make, for me, a good interpretation of piece. So it’s interesting to see that other people see what I saw, and then others that you read about, and you don’t see the same viewpoint, you wonder, what did I miss, or what did they miss, or why am I seeing something different from them? The one with the African gentleman in the picture, and he’s a native, and the interpretation, and I probably would like to talk to that person more because when they looked at it, they wanted to see the fire. Like the light that was reflecting on him was, their interpretation was there’s a fire in the front of them and it was reflected in the painting so their floor arrangement was the fire. And I wasn’t feeling that at all, so we were wondering. And we talked a little bit about that painting, about how did they come up with that, or you know. TH: So when you are forming those questions, who would you like to have asked those questions to? H: I guess the person who designed the arrangement or came up with the ideas. I think the one where they had a very good interpretation. I’m trying to remember which one it was, I think it’s back where the abstract gallery where they did the cow lilies. And they had on there the conversations with persons about the angles, and everything in art was an angle. So that was very interesting to hear that. So I guess if I had to pick somebody to talk to, it would be the person who designed it and being able to say, so, tell me what you were thinking here. And then, when they gave their explanations, they gave the questions, so how did you come to the impression there should be a fire in front of the sky? Because they light on them. Or, you know, he’s looking up there, he’s startled now, I didn’t get that from his expression with the light on him at all, so how did they see that, or why did they see that? Because that’s very different from my view. TH: It’s really great to hear this because most people... you are bringing up all these great points we haven’t heard before, which is fantastic for us. I TH: Um, so I have two more questions – one is, did any of the artworks today affect a personal viewpoint? I: Not really TH: And when you were considering if it affected a personal viewpoint, what kind of things were going through your mind? What were your considerations? I: Like, did I consider if it affects my view personally or how I would behave or something like that. That’s just what I was thinking of. And I don’t think the flowers would determine how I behave, so… TH: No, but that’s great to hear how you interpret viewpoint. Because like, they didn’t do that, but the with all these other things the flowers did. I: Yeah. INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION Q8 Did any of the artwork(s) affect your connection to a culture? • (Yes & no) Can you describe what you were thinking of when answering the question? • (Yes) Was it a feeling of connection or disconnection? • (Yes & no) When answering the question, what culture were you thinking of? (looking for personal definition)

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A&B TH: This is my first foray into research since I’m in graduate school – I haven’t really done much of it before. So this is the final question – did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? (long pause) B: I mean the obvious answer to that is that Teenie Harris is more about African:American culture, but I don’t think it affects any connection of mine. A: Yeah, I mean, I think it affection a [ERROR] I don’t know – I liked looking at it and something that… I think now that we’ve been more back here, having been in Boston, I don’t know, just something that I like, value in my childhood. And now as we get older, we sort of see the difference in how people, that when you were younger you didn’t see so much different – like not necessarily race-y though, but socioeconomic status and stuff like that. I went to Allderdice, so there was a huge, you know, range of people there and people that I was friends with and I think that when you’re that young it doesn’t seem like you’re as different as it, kind of gets when you’re older. A job and you have to make your own money and you don’t just interact in school and sports or whatever, so I guess I was thinking a little about that. Or like, wondering about the people in the pictures too, like, even the ones going all the way back … I guess that was the only other question I had. Where there were mixed-race pictures going all the way back, I was wondering about it. There was like, one woman who looked like, really hippie and she was with this black family and she was wear pants, like really, not appropriate attire for a woman at the time... so I was curious. There were two pictures of them, they were like playing horseshoes or whatever. So it was sort of curious as we went through the exhibit about some of the context about the integration… TH: I know just the horseshoe picture you’re talking about, yeah. Both of your guys’ responses actually lead to another question I had, which is the final question – when I use that word culture, what culture were you thinking of? A: Um, yeah I mean specific to this, I guess Americans think of like, [ERROR] daily culture. How it relates to the world you live in. That’s what I was thinking of. B: I was almost thinking more along the lines of blue collar culture in this particular exhibit. Kind of a lunch pail culture, simple, unionized life. And uh, that came through, that resonated pretty strongly with me. I mean, the steel industry at that time was at, there was a lot of that construction and industrial buildings and things like that. B: Yeah, I guess, just how it relates to the life you’re living. I don’t know. It gets to mean a lot of things. The racial… TH: That’s great, yeah. We’re really interested in what this term culture means to people. This was really good to hear both of you describe it, like also with the last question, how it affected your responses, so … well guys, that’s it! C TH: Did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? C: Um, I think it kind of reminded me. You know, especially the ‘50s, the ‘60s, I was born in the late ‘50s and I grew up in the 60’s. Those images were, even the images earlier, because I looked at the images of the mother and her family. So, it just you know you might say “oh, that was 60-70 years ago”, but looking at those photos for me felt like I was looking at today. TH: When I was using the word culture, what culture were you thinking of? C: I guess just the culture I grew up in, as an African American. Also growing up in the American culture of the ‘60s and ‘70s. It was different than it was now, so [CMoA] really brought me back into that connection. D TH: Did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? D: Connection to a culture…Um, we didn’t spend much time in the museum, but um, like um, I guess culture in a sense of culture, a culture defined by time. I resonate with the impressionists, but I can pass

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by a Caravaggio and not care a bit. So is that culture? Is that change? It’s more like, it doesn’t do anything to me that it’s culturally significant at that time or that it fit into that age and time. It doesn’t do a thing to me, but others it can. So is that cultural? I’m not sure. TH: And when I was using the term culture, what kind of culture were you thinking of? How did you define that idea? D: I think that I would interpret putting the picture into the larger culture of its day. Like um, a Rembrandt or like a person making a photograph today for I guess eternity. To record some person or society, was the purpose and perhaps an impressionist painting did not have that, there’s a different message. So I guess I would use culture as the larger cultural sense of where they are. But then, you know, you walk through Modern Art and you can step back and use the people who are in the museum as part of the exhibit and see their reaction to the art and that creates an internal culture. Especially in a modern museum, where it’s not very obvious why it’s this art. E TH: That’s great. You brought up something, another they I’d like to ask about. You said about being “connected”. This is part of the intellectual stimulation, but did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? E: Yeah, definitely. Being an African American female, I definitely felt a connection to...I’m not so familiar with Pittsburgh, but so many, so much of the history is told all around the country, you know, kind of similarly, but not told on a grand scale of history. But you know it existed, you know it’s there, and it’s vital because it shaped of what exists today. So yeah. F&G TH: My next question would be, did any of those artworks affect your connection to a culture? (Long pause) TH: And this could be connected, this could be disconnected... (Long pause) [ERROR] TH: Sorry, could you say that again? F: Culture is the people, really… TH: Let’s move on to that. That’s actually the part we are interested in. When I was using the word “culture”, what culture are you guys thinking of? (Long pause) When I asked you if that affected your connection to a culture, when I said that word “culture”, what kind of things are popping through your head? G: As a Welshman. Music was what was in my head. F: Yes, we both into music. G: And the fact that my father was very eclectic. You could say, in modern terms, that he was into everything from Bach to bop. F: There were a couple of things that had the wow factor. Dizzy Gillespie sitting on the couch with his trumpet for his instance. G: And really, Dizzy Gillespie records as well. TH: I love Dizzy Gillespie too. G: Right alongside of the recordings of the classics. One of my opinions of about the music was that Fats Waller stride piano on the dry bones is one of the top bits of piano artistry around. TH: So these are really interesting. It’s interesting to hear about how you guys, you make that connection. You (F) were talking about culture like the people and the culture and you (G) were talking about the music and relating it back to the show. It’s really interesting to hear you guys describing this.

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H TH: Because of the time, I’ll jump to the last question. Did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? H: Um, no, I can’t say to a culture. Maybe to a different time, and what was the thought at the time. You know, we’ve gone from the paintings from, the early portraits, maybe religious, and then we get into the steamboat era, and there’s the abstract era. So, makes you think about the span of time, how much things have changed, the way art changed, I think even the way they have the gallery set up, you know sort of, lends the stuff to. Although Matisse is sitting in front, he doesn’t go there. But you know, even the furniture, but as you walk through the paintings, you go from the iconography to the African stuff in the back, and you start wander through the Impressionists, and eventually you wind up in this modern art stuff. So it does affect you how you think about what was going on at that time, why did they paint this, why was this important at the time. TH: And when I was asking you about culture, what culture or cultures were you thinking of? H: Urr, I don’t know, there’s the aristocracy you see, or the wealthy people, there’s art from the poor cultures and how different they are from what we would believe, like all the masks in the back, you see that and you wonder about their views, or you wonder about their culture that is so different from ours. And I’ve seen some of the sculptures in the world and I think every bust is different. I don’t try to look for, you know, this one is better than this or were better than this, but just to know that there are people who think of things so differently than we are. And this mask that looks kinds of strange and crazy with the beads and shells, and the evil kind of look at things. Or you go to the other room, you see the beautiful vases and you think, how beautiful they are, they’ve been creating this for a long time. Yeah, I think you can’t, maybe not so much consciously, but subconsciously, you get affected by how things have changed over the years. Not just cultures as far as where in the world, but different time periods, maybe different religions, you know, it’s all interesting. And I guess that’s why I like art, you know? TH: Yeah great, thank you so much, those are all my questions. And again, thank you for going into so much detail. I TH: So did any of the artworks affect your connection to a culture? I: I don’t know. I don’t know if it’s, I don’t know if it’s culturally related or not because I kind of like defining it as an appreciation of beauty. And I love nature and I don’t think that’s necessarily culturally related. You know, I don’t think it has a cultural relationship. TH: Well, I guess the next part would be, when I was using the word culture, what culture were you thinking of? Like, when I said culture, what sprang to mind? I: I thought of like, my ethnic heritage. So, and I’m Italian and Irish and German and Slovak, so I don’t know like… so I guess in a way it is kind of cultural, because… in a way because, I don’t know if you’d say cultural, but my family has a strong appreciation of flowers and gardening and stuff like that. So that way you could consider it cultural. You know? But, I don’t know if like, even American culture, you can even say we have an American culture. But if there is a deep appreciation for art in our culture, like, I would associate that more with like, European or maybe some other culture. TH: That’s great. That’s exactly the reason I asked the question – to see like, how people interpret it. And how you know, when there’s these cultures but then there’s these ones and then there’s these ones and then there’s this culture too. So it’s really great to hear how you interpret that term. Well, that finished up all the questions I have… Again, thank you for going into so much detail because it’s the detail that really helps our project and really helps us understand these concepts.

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APPENDIX F: Expert Interviews
F1: Survey Design Interviews
CONSULTANT INTERVIEWS During the survey creation process, the team interviewed three individuals about issues related to the development of the survey. The key takeaways from the interviews with these individuals are listed below. Skyler Speakman • In order to avoid an excess of data points and confusing results it is best to keep survey scales in sets of three. As a team we made the decision to maintain scales of three as appropriate, following a format of, “Not at all”, “Somewhat”, and “Completely”. When analyzing data variables like age or education, we grouped multiple data sets into groups of three. • Based on our survey items and the results we were looking for the responses we sought were categorical rather than quantifiable. We looked at counts and percentage of totals rather than averages and ranges. For our data analysis we chose to use conditional probability tables and cluster models rather than statistical regression models. Some of our data was tested with regression models but was treated as categorical data for the most part. • From a statistical perspective, response rate is not as important as the number of responses received. With a larger sample size, we will have a greater ability to detect statistically significant relationships. We will be able to create a smaller percentage of error. However, this may also prevent a proper random sample of museum visitors. Andrew Swensen • Aesthetic growth is an over-arching concept that encompasses the constructs of captivation, intellectual stimulation, and emotional response. It is not a single construct, but rather an overall impact that people have in a visual art viewing experience. Since we have already covered the constructs of captivation, intellectual stimulation, and emotional response, we decided as a team to take off the aesthetic growth construct that is included in the Wolfbrown and Tate study of intrinsic impact. • It is better to provide a list of emotions for individuals to respond to, and either words or images would work. Furthermore, in order to show the level of emotional impacts the respondents had, we can use a numerical response scale to show the strength of each emotion the respondents felt. • When being asked how they were captivated by an artwork, whether by its physical appearance or the ideas expressed by it, some people may find it difficult to separate the two. This is especially true for those who have a higher level of knowledge of visual art. Based on his suggestions, we add the choice of “both of the above” into item 9 of the survey. Greg Siegle • Most emotions can be classified into six overarching categories: anger, fear, joy, love, surprise, and sadness. Researchers can gain a great deal of information simply by measuring the extent to which respondents experienced these six emotions in a particular situation. The team made the decision to ask respondents the degree to which they felt each of these emotions during their visual art experience. • It is extremely difficult to measure social bonding in terms of cultural connectedness or disconnectedness for two main reasons: first, “culture” is an ambiguous concept that individual

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respondents are likely to interpret differently. Second, researchers need baseline measurements in order to effectively guage individual respondents’ changes in cultural connectedness. Due to scheduling limitations, the team was unable to draft and test a set of survey items that could measure the change of individuals’ cultural connectedness or disconnectedness during their visual art experience, which lead to the decision of excluding this concept in our study.

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F2: Data Analysis Interviews
Amelia Haviland The team discussed various issues related to survey implementation and analysis with Amelia Haviland. In these discussions, the team learned that it would need to weight the survey responses received on days when it only selected every third individual to take its survey. It would need to count the responses of individuals who took the surveys on these days three times so as to make this data comparable to the data received when the team asked every eligible individual to take the survey. In addition, Prof. Haviland encouraged the team to see how well its population of survey-takers compared to the general population of CMoA visitors. For this reason, the team selected two dates on which to observe individuals who were inadvertently not given the opportunity to take stickers, as well as individuals who refused to take stickers, during the survey selection process. The team then compared the observable characteristics of these individuals to the observable characteristics of survey-takers who were at the museum on the same day. Greg Siegle The data analysis team met with Greg Siegle to hear his recommendations for analyzing the survey data about visitors’ emotional responses to the CMoA’s artwork. He recommended that the team analyze how the different emotions related to each other with t-tests and Pearson’s productmoment coefficients. He also encouraged the team to use various statistical tests to examine the relationships between the emotional indicators and all of the other items on the team’s survey. Finally, Dr. Siegle urged the team to use measures of effect size to determine which statistically significant relationships were practically significant. Skyler Speakman (2nd Interview) When creating relationships in SAS it would be best to lump as many scale sets as possible. For example: using respondents who visited a museum 4 or more times in the last 12 months as “1” and lumping respondents with less than 4 as “0”. This will enable the statistical tests to run with larger data sets. Trying to isolate the Teenie Harris exhibit is difficult when most visitors visited at least one other gallery and Teenie Harris. In order to try and measure the effect of Teenie Harris it can be rationally argued that a data analyst could weigh the number of galleries a person visited and whether or not they visited Teenie Harris. For example: a person who only visited Teenie Harris would have their responses weighted as 1.00, but a person who visited four galleries and Teenie Harris who have their responses weighted as .25. However rationally this is presented it is quite speculative to assume that a visitor received equal experiences from each gallery. Besides the previous assumption, weighting responses could prevent statistical validity. When creating regression models for this data set the best method of analysis would be using forward stepwise logistic regression models. This is the best approach given the number of variables in the survey instrument. Greg Lagana One way of viewing survey data is through the eyes of the museum or gallery. The data could be used to create a portfolio of the experiences a visitor has while visiting a particular exhibition. The portfolio would showcase the emotions or intellectual stimulation that the artwork could incite. For this project, the team could specifically look at the responses from the Teenie Harris exhibit and attempt to create a portfolio of visitor experiences.

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It would be very interesting to policy makers and museum administration as to whether or not a change of attitude about art results in instrumental benefits. Additionally, this would need to be followed up with the various uses of intrinsic impact data and how programming could be modified to increase instrumental benefits. For the purposes of a regression model, it would be interesting to discover if utilizing various galleries as dummy models could result in differences of emotion or other impacts. The resulting information could provide more conclusive findings to the portfolio of each exhibition.

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APPENDIX G: Data Analysis Test Results
G1: Data Frequencies

1. Please complete the following statement: I chose to visit the CMoA today because I wanted to . . . (rank your top three choices from the list below). Count of Reason for Visiting Be emotionally moved Did not answer Discover new things about myself Discover things about the human experience Have fun Introduce others to artwork Learn about visual art Other Relax and get away from the routine of daily life See a particular exhibition or artwork Spend time with others GRAND TOTAL 110 3 26 106 207 68 84 85 250 428 327 1694

2. Before today’s visit to the CMoA, how excited were you to see the museum’s display of visual artworks? Row Labels Not at all excited Somewhat excited Very excited Grand Total 3. Was it your idea to visit the CMoA today? Row Labels Error No Yes Grand Total Count of VisitIdea 2 167 529 698 Count of HowExcited 46 300 352 698

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4. What would you say is your level of knowledge about visual art in general? Row Labels Did not answer Error High Low Medium None Grand Total Count of LevelofKnowledge 2 2 131 181 366 16 698

5. In the last 12 months, how many times did you visit any visual art museum or gallery? (Please do not include today’s visit in your calculations.) Row Labels 0 1 2 3 4 or more Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of TimesVisit 109 119 124 123 221 1 1 698

6. How often would you say you have created visual art in the last 12 months? Row Labels Did not answer Frequently Never Occasionally Rarely Grand Total Count of OftenCreate 1 136 216 173 172 698

7. In the last 12 months, how many times did you attend a visual art class or lecture? Row Labels 0 10 or more 1-3 4-6 7-9 Grand Total Count of AttendClass 433 52 168 28 15 698

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9. Did any of the artworks that you saw today grab your attention enough to momentarily become your primary point of focus? Row Labels Did not answer Error No Yes Grand Total Count of PrimaryFocus 20 1 76 601 698

9 a. If “yes,” what about the artwork(s) most captured your attention? Row Labels Both of the above Did not answer Error I don't know Skip The artwork's physical appearance The ideas expressed by the artwork Grand Total 10. Did you lose track of time while in the CMoA galleries? Row Labels Completely Did not answer Error Not at all Somewhat Grand Total Count of LoseTime 162 15 1 77 443 698 Count of HowCapture 398 17 6 7 80 94 96 698

11 a. For each row, check the appropriate box to indicate to what extent looking at the artworks in the CMoA . . .(challenged a personal viewpoint) Row Labels A great deal Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all Grand Total Count of Challenged 140 23 1 49 175 698

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11 a. For each row, check the appropriate box to indicate to what extent looking at the artworks in the CMoA . . .(challenged a personal viewpoint) Row Labels Somewhat Grand Total Count of Challenged 310 698

11 b. For each row, check the appropriate box to indicate to what extent looking at the artworks in the CMoA . . . (reinforced a personal viewpoint) Row Labels A great deal Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all Somewhat Grand Total Count of Reinforced 287 24 1 50 73 263 698

12. Did you relate any personal experiences to any of the artworks you saw? Row Labels Did not answer No Yes Grand Total Count of RelateExperiences 9 86 603 698

13. While in the galleries, did you discuss the artworks with others? Row Labels Did not answer No Yes, I casually discussed the artwork with others Yes, I intensely discussed the artwork with others Grand Total Count of DiscussArtwork 10 152 434 102 698

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13 a. If “yes,” did your discussion(s) affect your view of the artworks on display? Row Labels Did not answer No Skip Yes Grand Total Count of AffectView 156 175 163 204 698

14. Overall, did you find viewing the artworks in the CMoA inspirational? Row Labels Did not answer Error I don't know No Yes Grand Total Count of Inspirational 14 1 40 28 615 698

15. Did you leave the galleries with questions that you would have liked to ask about the artworks? Row Labels Did not answer No Yes Grand Total Count of Questions 25 387 286 698

16. Did you recognize an emotion in any works of art at the CMoA? Row Labels Did not answer Error No Yes Grand Total Count of RecognizeEmotion 29 1 32 636 698

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17 a. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Anger) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Anger 367 122 100 41 14 50 4 698

17 b. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Fear) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Fear 420 137 57 24 7 49 4 698

17 c. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Joy) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Joy 33 43 183 231 169 34 5 698

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17 d. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Love) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Love 55 82 160 214 136 46 5 698

17 e. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Sadness) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Sadness 99 114 184 172 82 40 7 698

17 f. Please indicate to what extent you felt each of the following emotions while looking at the CMoA’s artworks (Surprise) Row Labels 1 2 3 4 5 Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Surprise 93 118 209 148 79 42 9 698

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18 a. In the next 6 months, how likely are you to do the following activities more often than in the past? (Attend a visual art class or lecture) Row Labels Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all likely Somewhat likely Very likely Grand Total Count of FutureClass 15 2 30 302 220 129 698

18 b. In the next 6 months, how likely are you to do the following activities more often than in the past? (Make visual art yourself) Row Labels Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all likely Somewhat likely Very likely Grand Total Count of FutureCreate 15 2 11 243 188 239 698

18 c. In the next 6 months, how likely are you to do the following activities more often than in the past? (Visit an art museum or gallery) Row Labels Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all likely Somewhat likely Very likely Grand Total Count of FutureVisit 10 2 13 41 162 470 698

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19. In the next 14 days, how likely are you to talk to others about the artworks you saw today? Row Labels Did not answer Error I don't know Not at all likely Somewhat likely Very likely Grand Total 20. Map Count of Galleries Visited African Art Asian Art Did not answer Hall of Architecture Hall of Sculpture (Balcony) Hall of Sculpture (First Floor) Miniatures Outdoor Sculpture Court Scaife Galleries Ancient to 20th Century Scaife Galleries Contemporary The Bruce Galleries The Forum Gallery The Heinz Architectural Center The Heinz Galleries The Randall Gallery Works on Paper GRAND TOTAL 139 147 20 101 168 104 56 92 350 304 90 49 317 527 104 134 2702 Count of FutureDiscuss 9 3 5 23 180 478 698

21. Overall, approximately how much time did you spend in the CMoA galleries today? Row Labels 1-2 hours 15-59 minutes Did not answer Error Less than 15 minutes Grand Total Count of TimeSpent 371 123 11 2 7 698

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21. Overall, approximately how much time did you spend in the CMoA galleries today? Row Labels More than 2 hours Grand Total Count of TimeSpent 184 698

22. Did you also visit the Natural History Museum during your visit today? Row Labels Did not answer Error No Yes Grand Total Count of VisitNHM 10 2 453 233 698

23. How many people came with you to the CMoA? (Please write 0 if you went on your own.) _____ Row Labels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 16 20 21 25 36 Error/Did not answer Grand Total Count of PeopleWith 136 303 104 59 31 13 5 8 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 28 698

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24. If you came to the CMoA as part of a group, please indicate who else was with you. (Check all that apply.) Count of Group Colleague(s) or classmate(s) Did not answer Friend(s) My child(ren) or grandchild(ren) My parent(s) My significant other Other Other relative(s) Skip GRAND TOTAL 20 118 114 117 43 223 27 54 121 837

25. To the best of your knowledge, which of the following describes your cultural identity? Row Labels American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander Black or African-American Did not answer Error Hispanic or Latino Mixed Other Prefer not to answer White Grand Total 26. What is your gender? Row Labels Did not answer Error Female Male Prefer not to answer Grand Total Count of Gender 15 3 396 278 6 698 Count of Race 4 16 99 13 11 14 13 13 11 504 698

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27. What is the highest level of education you have completed? Row Labels Associate's degree Bachelor's degree Did not answer Doctoral degree and above Error Grade school (finished Grade 8) High school or GED Master's degree Prefer not to answer Grand Total 28. What is your age group? Row Labels 18-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Did not answer Error Grand Total Count of Age 197 104 137 162 86 11 1 698 Count of Education 63 241 9 92 2 4 84 195 8 698

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G2: Statistical Tests Results
KEY
Italics: Result below effect size threshold (0.1 for Cohen’s d, 0.01 for Eta-Squared, and 0.1 for Cramer’s V and r) Blue text for special tests: Welch’s test (conducted for ANOVAs with unequal variances) or Fisher’s exact test (substitute for chi-square when there are expected cell counts that are less than 5) Normal text: Small effect size (0.2-0.49 for Cohen’s d, 0.01 to 0.059 for Eta-Squared, and 0.1-0.29 for Cramer’s V and r) Orange text: Moderate effect size (0.5-0.79 for Cohen’s d, 0.6 to 0.139 for Eta-Squared, 0.3-0.49 for Cramer’s V and r) Red text: Large effect size (0.8 or above for Cohen’s d, 0.14 or above for Eta-Squared, 0.5 or above for Cramer’s V and r) *Note: Only statistically significant results are reported below.

CODES
Reason_1: Top reason for visit Lev_Excite: Level of excitement VisId: Visit idea Lev_Know: Level of knowledge TimesVisit: Visit history OftCre: Art creation history AtCla: Past class attendance DidRes: Reseach for visit PrimFo: Primary Focus LosTra: Lost track of times IS_Chall: Viewpoint challenged IS_Rein: Viewpoint reinforced RelEx: Related experiences Lev_Discuss: Level of discussion Insp: Inspiration Quest: Had questions RecEmo: Recognized emotions FuCla: Future class attendance FuCr: Future art creation FuVis: Future museum visits FuDis: Future discussions Sum_Galleries: Galleries visited VisNH: Visited the Natural History museum Categories_GroupSize: Visiting group size Sum_GroupComp: Visiting group composition Len_Time: Time spent in the CMoA galleries Lev_Ed: Level of education Sum_Culturalid: Cultural Identity AgeGroup: Age group Male: Male P: P-value ES: Eta-Squared WP: Welch’s p FP: Fisher’s two-sided p D: Cohen’s d CV: Cramer’s V ML: Mean levels

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READINESS VS. EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(ANOVAs and Independent Samples T-Tests)

Anger Reason_1 (ANOVA) P = 0.0211 ES: 0.0174

Fear P = 0.0412 ES: 0.0148

Joy P = 0.0377 ES: 0.0148

Love

Sadness P = 0.0040 ES: 0.0235

Surprise

Lev_Excite (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0015

WP < 0.0001

WP < 0.0001

P = 0.0009 ES: 0.0213

P < 0.0001 ES: 0.0362

Lev_Know (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0342

WP < 0.0001

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0795

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0460

WP = 0.0027

TimesVisit (ANOVA)

P = 0.0055 ES: 0.0255

P = 0.0231 ES = 0.0200

OftCre (ANOVA)

P = 0.0117 ES: 0.0167

P = 0.0081 ES: 0.0182

AtCla (ANOVA)

P = 0.0474 ES = 0.0149

DidRes (Independent samples ttest)

P = 0.0099 D = 0.248 ML: 3.9058 vs. 3.6378

P = 0.0122 D = 0.242 ML: 3.6715 vs. 3.3823

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EMOTIONAL IMPACTS VS. NON-EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(ANOVAs and Independent Samples T-Tests)

Anger PrimFo (Independent samples ttest) P = 0.0002 D = 0.400 Experienced significantly higher level of anger

Fear P < 0.0001 D = 0.529 Experienced significantly higher level of fear

Joy P = 0.0008 D = 0.523 Experienced significantly higher level of joy

Love

Sadness P < 0.0001 D = 0.541 Experienced significantly higher level of sadness

Surprise P = 0.0002 D = 0.483 Experienced significantly higher level of surprise

LosTra (ANOVA)

WP < 0.0001

WP < 0.0001

WP < 0.0001

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0452

P = 0.0001 ES = 0.0281

Len_Time (ANOVA)

P = 0.0004 ES = 0.0248

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0430

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0430

P = 0.0004 ES = 0.0238

IS_Chall (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0002

P = 0.0161 ES: 0.0140

WP < 0.0001

WP < 0.0001

P = 0.0014 ES: 0.0220

P < 0.0001 ES: 0.0786

IS_Rein (ANOVA)

WP < 0.0001

WP < 0.0001

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0615

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0709

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0608

WP = 0.0002

RelEx (Independent samples ttest) Lev_Discuss (ANOVA)

P = 0.0437 D = 0.247 Felt significant more anger P = 0.0027 ES = 0.0185

P = 0.0233 D = 0.230 Felt significant more fear WP = 0.0222

P < 0.0001 D = 0.800 Felt significant more joy P = 0.0001 ES = 0.0276

P < 0.0001 D = 0.675 Felt significant more love WP < 0.0001

P < 0.0001 D = 0.614 Felt significant more sadness P = 0.0319 ES = 0.0107

P = 0.0050 D = 0.346 Felt significant more surprise

Insp (Independent samples ttest)

P = 0.0259 D = 0.485 Experienced significantly higher level of fear

P < 0.0001 D = 1.460 Experienced significantly higher level of joy

P < 0.0001 D = 1.389 Experienced significantly higher level of love

P < 0.0001 D = 1.113 Experienced significantly higher level of sadness

P = 0.0002 D = 0.818 Experienced significantly higher level of surprise

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Anger Quest (Independent samples ttest) P = 0.0004 D = 0.299 Experienced significantly higher level of anger P = 0.0033 D = 0.453 Experienced significantly higher level of anger P = 0.0219 ES = 0.0125

Fear P = 0.0078 D = 0.220 Experienced significantly higher level of fear P = 0.0006 D = 0.453 Experienced significantly higher level of fear

Joy

Love P = 0.0377 D = 0.168 ML: 3.5597 vs. 3.3591

Sadness P < 0.0001 D = 0.351 ML: 3.3862 vs. 2.8547

Surprise P < 0.0001 D = 0.511 ML: 3.3382 vs. 2.7346

RecEmo (Independent samples ttest)

P = 0.0002 D = 1.135 Experienced significantly higher level of joy WP = 0.0002

P = 0.0032 D = 0.952 Experienced significantly higher level of love WP = 0.0009

P = 0.0010 D = 0.686 Experienced significantly higher level of sadness P = 0.0142 ES = 0.0137

P < 0.0001 D = 1.113 Experienced significantly higher level of surprise P = 0.0001 ES = 0.0291

FuCla (ANOVA)

FuCr (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0259

P = 0.0401

P = 0.0089 ES = 0.0146

P = 0.0095 ES = 0.0147

FuVis (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0009

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0460

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0395

P = 0.0222 ES = 0.0119

P = 0.0025 ES = 0.0188

FuDis (ANOVA)

P = 0.0305 ES = 0.0109

P = 0.0443 ES = 0.0098

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.1162

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.1016

P < 0.0001 ES = 0.0490

P = 0.0036 ES = 0.0175

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VARIABLES VS. EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(ANOVAs and Independent Samples T-Tests)

Anger Sum_Galleries WP = 0.0430 (ANOVA)

Fear WP = 0.0010

Joy

Love

Sadness P = 0.0010 ES = 0.0215

Surprise

VisNH (Independent Samples ttest) Categories_ GroupSize (ANOVA) Sum_GroupComp (ANOVA) Sum_Culturalid (ANOVA) Male (Independent samples ttest) Lev_Ed (ANOVA)

P = 0.0488 D = 0.1656

P = 0.0105 D = 0.2135

P =0.0437 ES = 0.0158

P = 0.0104 ES = 0.0168

P = 0.0011 ES = 0.0218

WP = 0.0100

P = 0.0003 ES = 0.0257

P = 0.0018 D = 0.256

P = 0.0007 D = 0.276

WP = 0.0031

P = 0.0219 ES = 0.0121

AgeGroup (ANOVA)

WP = 0.0356

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EMOTIONAL IMPACTS VS. OTHER EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlations and Paired T-Tests)

Correlations ( Pearson’s r):

• • • • • • • •

Anger-joy: p = 0.28424 Fear-love: p = 0.28283 Anger-love: p = 0.26309 Surprise-sadness: p = 0.22736 Fear-joy: p = 0.19494 Fear-surprise: p = 0.13805 Anger-surprise: p = 0.10586 Anger-sadness: p = 0.46717

• • • • • • •

Joy-surprise: p = 0.43157 Anger-fear: p = 0.42202 Love-sadness: p = 0.38064 Fear-sadness: p = 0.36504 Love-surprise: p = 0.33627 Joy-sadness: p = 0.31182 Joy-love: p = 0.68193

Paired T-Tests with Effect Sizes (Cohen’s d):

• • • • • • •

Anger-fear: d = 0.224, P < 0.0001 Joy-love: d = 0.273, P < 0.0001 Joy-sadness: d = 0.485, P < 0.0001 Love-sadness: d = 0.309 , P < 0.0001 Love-surprise: d = 0.330, P < 0.0001 Joy-surprise: d = 0.559, P < 0.0001 Fear-joy: d = 1.717, P < 0.0001

• • • • • • •

Anger-joy: d = 1.495, P < 0.0001 Fear-love: d = 1.484, P < 0.0001 Anger-love: d = 1.212, P < 0.0001 Fear-sadness: d = 1.194, P < 0.0001 Fear-surprise: d = 1.051, P < 0.0001 Anger-sadness: d = 1.037, P < 0.0001 Anger-surprise: d = 0.801, P < 0.0001

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NON-EMOTIONAL IMPACTS VS. NON-EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(Chi-Squares and Fisher’s Exact Tests)

PrimFo PrimFo

LosTra P = 0.0029 CV = 0.1322

IS_Rein P <= 0.0001 CV = 0.2385 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2117 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2738

IS_Chall

RelEx P = 0.0003 Phi = 0.1381

Lev_Discuss

LosTra

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2246

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2460 P = 0.0223 CV = 0.1103 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2195

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1404 P = 0.0002 CV = 0.1346 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1594

IS_Chall IS_Rein

RelEx

Lev_Discuss

Insp

Quest

RecEmo

FuCla

FuCr FuVis FuDis

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Insp FP = 0.0052

Quest P < 0.0001 Phi = 0.1514

RecEmo

FuCla

FuCr P = 0.0005 CV = 0.1523 P = 0.0298 CV = 0.0902

FuVis P = 0.0002 CV = 0.1616 P = 0.0050 CV = 0.1060 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1454 P = 0.0172 CV: 0.0994

FuDis P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2315 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2114 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1715 P < 0.0001 CV: 0.2893 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2466 FP = 1.863E-06

FP = 2.376E-08 P = 0.0051 CV = 0.1288 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1706 P = 0.0003 CV = 0.1291 P = 0.0098 CV = 0.1061 P < 0.0001 CV: 0.1451 P = 0.0096 CV = 0.1199 P = 0.0046 CV = 0.1079 FP = 1.370E-09 P=0.0245 CV = 0.1107 P = 0.0027 CV = 0.1368 P = 0.0024 CV = 0.1384 P = 0.0024 CV = 0.1384

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1779 P = 0.0003 CV = 0.1649 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2051 FP = 2.069E-06 P = 0.0012 CV = 0.1246 P = 0.0043 CV = 0.1303 P = 0.0118 CV = 0.1149 P = 0.0177 Phi = 0.0943 P = 0.0105 CV = 0.1219

P = 0.0057 CV = 0.1305 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2008 FP= 9.106E-04

P = 0.0054 CV = 0.1252 P = 0.0294 CV = 0.0899

P = 0.0042 CV = 0.1280 P = 0.0012 CV = 0.1161 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1883

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2684

P = 0.0012 CV = 0.1263

P = 0.0033 CV = 0.1328 P = 0.0033 CV = 0.1328 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.3179

P = 0.0015 CV = 0.1415 P = 0.0015 CV = 0.1415 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2295 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1787

P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2316 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.2316 P = 0.0004 CV = 0.1257 P = 0.0360 CV = 0.0881 P = 0.0003 CV = 0.1264

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160

READINESS VS. NON-EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(Chi-Squares and Fisher’s Exact Tests)

Reason_1 PrimFo

Lev_Excite VisId P = 0.0007 CV = 0.1472 P < 0.0001 CV = 0.1558 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1771

Lev_Know

TimesVisit

OftCre p = 0.0181 CV = 0.1220

AtCla

DidRes

p = 0.0004 p < 0.0001 CV = 0.1637 CV = 0.1993 P = 0.0424 CV= 0.0981

LosTra

IS_Chall IS_Rein

P = 0.0232 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1767 *More than 10% of data missing CV= 0.1170 P = 0.0041 P = 0.0041 CV= 0.1492 CV= 0.1262 P = 0.0011 CV= 0.1367 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0001 CV= 0.1445 CV= 0.1637 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2453

P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1916

P = 0.0009 CV= 0.1352

P = 0.0007 CV= 0.1475

RelEx Lev_Discuss Insp Quest RecEmo FuCla

P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2142 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1651 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2127

P = 0.0006 CV= 0.1781

P = 0.0093 P = 0.0144 CV=: 0.1293 CV= 0.1345

P = 0.0041 CV= 0.1099 P = 0.0007 CV= 0.1458

P = 0.0419 CV= 0.1308 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2234 P = 0.0032 CV= 0.1320 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1616 P < 0.0001 FP= 1.226E- P = 0.0242 CV= 0.2944 05 CV= 0.1188

P = 0.0316 CV= 0.1254

P = 0.0251 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1066 CV= 0.2366 CV= 0.2342 CV= 0.2380 CV= 0.4518 CV= 0.2282 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0010 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2670 CV= 0.1484 CV= 0.6309 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1859 CV= 0.2696 FP= 5.057E-11 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0011 CV= 0.2547 CV= 0.1438 P = 0.0203 CV= 0.1161 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1673

FuCr

P = 0.0067 P = 0.0006 CV= 0.1240 CV= 0.1208 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1421 FP= 1.146E- P < 0.0001 04 CV= 0.2329

FuVis

FuDis

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161

VARIABLES VS. NON-EMOTIONAL IMPACTS
(Chi-Squares and Fisher’s Exact Tests)

Sum_Galleries PrimFo

VisNH P = 0.0276 Phi = -0.0852

Categories_GroupSize P = 0.0082 CV= 0.1452

Sum_GroupComp

LosTra

IS_Chall IS_Rein

P = 0.0111 CV= 0.1035

P = 0.0328 CV= 0.1053 P = 0.0002 CV= 0.1666

RelEx Lev_Discuss Insp Quest RecEmo FuCla

P = 0.0112 CV= 0.1159

P = 0.0008 CV=-0.1288 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.4278 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.2007

P = 0.0002 CV= 0.1599 P = 0.0269 CV= 0.0926

P = 0.0005 CV= -0.1346 P = 0.0002 CV= 0.1551 P = 0.0008 *11% of data missing CV= 0.1331

FuCr

FuVis

P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1652 P = 0.0004 CV= 0.1533

P = 0.0005 CV= 0.1464

FuDis

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162

Len_Time (captivation) Lev_ed PrimFo LosTra p < 0.0001 Cramer’s V: 0.2114

Sum_Culturalid

AgeGroup

Male

P = 0.0003 CV= 0.1268 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1630

P = 0.0030 CV= 0.1325

IS_Chall

IS_Rein

P = 0.0079 CV= 0.1060 P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1890 P = 0.0019 CV= 0.1118

P = 0.0001 CV= 0.1393 P = 0.0137 CV= 0.1143 P = 0.0013 CV= 0.1167 P = 0.0083 CV= 0.1230 P = 0.0030 CV= -0.1183 P = 0.0052 CV= 0.1264 P = 0.0040 CV= 0.1519

RelEx

Lev_Discuss

Insp

Quest

RecEmo

FuCla

FuCr

P = 0.0126 CV= 0.0987

P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1774

FuVis

FuDis

P < 0.0001 CV= 0.1616

P = 0.0004 CV= 0.1457

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163

G3: Logistic Regression Models
Note: Each of the variables included in the regression model for a variable of interest is given its own bullet point. All of the following statements are true if you change only the specified variable and hold the additional variables in the model constant.

Primary Focus:
• • •

The odds of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who has questions about the artworks are 3.404 times the odds (p = 0.0001) of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who does not have questions about the artworks. The odds of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is very likely to have future discussions about the artwork are 3.128 times the odds (p < 0.0001) of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is not very likely to have future discussions about the artwork. The odds of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is very likely to visit an art museum/gallery more often in the future are 2.188 times the odds (p = 0.0033) of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is not very likely to visit an art museum/gallery more often in the future. The odds of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is between the ages of 1844 are 1.940 times the odds (p = 0.0176) of an artwork becoming the primary focus of someone who is above the age of 44.

Lost Track of Time:
• • • • • • •

The odds of a person who relates personal experiences to the artworks completely losing track of time are 7.960 times the odds (p = 0.0048) of a person who does not relate personal experiences to the artworks completely losing track of time. The odds of a person who is challenged a great deal by the artworks completely losing track of time are 2.858 times the odds (p < 0.0001) of a person who is not challenged a great deal by the artworks completely losing track of time. The odds of a person who experiences a high level of anger (4-5) completely losing track of time are 2.713 times the odds (p = 0.0038) of a person who does not experience a high level of anger completely losing track of time. The odds of a person who discusses the artworks with others completely losing track of time are 2.346 times the odds (p = 0.0040) of a person who does not discuss the artworks with others completely losing track of time. The odds of a person who was very excited to come to the museum completely losing track of time are 1.750 times the odds (p = 0.0123) of a person who was not very excited to come to the museum completely losing track of time. The odds of a person who experiences a high level of surprise (4-5) completely losing track of time are 1.708 times the odds (p = 0.0153) of a person who does not experience a high level of surprise completely losing track of time. The odds of a male completely losing track of time are 0.621 times the odds (p = 0.0340) of a female completely losing track of time.

Spent at Least One Hour in the CMoA:

The odds of a person who completely lost track of time in the CMoA spending at least one hour in the museum are 2.9 times the odds (p = 0.0040) of a person who does not completely lose track of time spending at least one hour in the museum.

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164

• •

The odds of a person who is very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks in the future spending at least one hour in the museum are 1.950 times the odds (p = 0.0040) of a person who is not very likely to discuss the CMoA’s artworks in the future spending at least one hour in the museum. The odds of a person who came to see a particular exhibition spending at least one hour in the museum are 1.748 times the odds (p = 0.0172) of a person who did not come to see a particular exhibition spending at least one hour in the museum.

Challenged a Viewpoint:
• • • • •

The odds of a person who lost track of time completely having a viewpoint challenged a great deal are 2.278 times the odds (p = 0.0006) of a person who did not completely lose track of time being challenged a great deal. The odds of a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) having a viewpoint challenged a great deal are 2.236 times the odds (p = 0.0046) of a person who does not experience a high level of joy having a viewpoint challenged a great deal. The odds of a person who was very excited to come to the museum having a viewpoint challenged a great deal are 2.080 times the odds (p = 0.0024) of a person who was not very excited to come to the museum having a viewpoint challenged a great deal. The odds of a person who has a viewpoint reinforced a great deal also having a viewpoint challenged a great deal are 1.930 times the odds (p = 0.0053) of a person who does not have a viewpoint reinforced a great deal having a viewpoint challenged a great deal. The odds of a person who experiences a high level of surprise (4-5) having a viewpoint challenged a great deal are 1.923 times the odds (p = 0.0047) of a person who does not experience a high level of surprise having a viewpoint challenged a great deal.

Reinforced a Viewpoint:
• • • • •

The odds of a person with a medium-high level of artistic knowledge having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal are 2.438 times the odds (p < 0.0001) of a person with little to no knowledge of visual art having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal. The odds of a person who is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal are 2.338 times the odds (p = 0.0001) of someone who is not very likely to discuss the artworks in the future having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal. The odds of a person who has a viewpoint challenged a great deal also having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal are 2.172 times the odds (p = 0.0009) of a person who does not have a viewpoint challenged a great deal having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal. The odds of a person who experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal are 2.111 times the odds (p = 0.0001) of someone who does not experience a high level of sadness having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal. The odds of a person who is white having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal are 0.495 times the odds (p = 0.0020) of a person who is not white having a viewpoint reinforced a great deal.

Related Experiences:
• • •

The odds of a person with a medium-high level of artistic knowledge relating personal experiences to the artworks are 3.2 times the odds (p < 0.0001) of a person with little to no knowledge of visual art relating personal experiences to the artworks. The odds that a person who spends at least an hour in the museum will relate personal experiences to the artworks are 2.848 times the odds (p = 0.0001) that a person who spends less than an hour in the museum will relate personal experiences to the artworks. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) in the museum will relate

Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art

165

personal experiences to the artworks are 2.809 times the odds (p = 0.0011) that a person who does not experience a high level of sadness will relate personal experiences to the artworks.

Discussed the Artworks:
• •

The odds that a person who comes to the museum with at least one other individual discusses the artworks with others are 26.314 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who comes to the museum alone discusses the artworks with others. The odds that a person who completely loses track of time discusses the artworks with others are 3.5 times the odds (p = 0.0002) that a person who does not completely lose track of time discusses the artworks with others.

Inspirational:
• • •

The odds that a person who recognizes emotion in the artworks finds the artworks inspirational are 16.497 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not recognize emotion in the artworks finds the artworks inspirational. The odds that a person who is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future finds the artworks inspirational are 5.278 times the odds (p = 0.0005) that a person who is not very likely to discuss the artworks in the future finds the artworks inspirational. The odds that a person who discusses the artworks with others finds the artworks inspirational are 3.232 times the odds (p = 0.0105) that a person who does not discuss the artworks with others finds the artworks inspirational.

Questions:

The odds that a person who has an artwork become his/her primary point of focus has questions about the artworks are 3.017 times the odds (p = 0.0002) that a person who does not have an artwork become his/her primary point of focus has questions about the artworks.

Recognized Emotion:
• • •

The odds that a person who finds the artworks inspirational recognizes emotions in the artworks are 15.627 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not find the artworks inspirational recognizes emotions in the artworks. The odds that a person who is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future recognizes emotions in the artworks are 3.096 times the odds (p = 0.0171) that a person who is not very likely to discuss the artworks in the future recognizes emotions in the artworks. The odds that a person who does not go to Teenie Harris or Maya Lin recognizes emotions in the artworks are 0.165 times the odds (p = 0.0002) that a person who goes to these exhibits recognizes emotions in the artworks.

Anger:
• • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) also experiences a high level of anger are 11.260 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of sadness experiences a high level of anger. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of fear (4-5) also experiences a high level of anger are 7.410 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of fear experiences a high level of anger. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) also experiences a high level of anger are 6.787 times the odds (p = 0.0006) that a person who does not experience a high level of joy experiences a high level of anger.

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166

The odds that a person who finds the artworks inspirational experiences a high level of anger (45) are 0.110 times the odds (p = 0.0137) that a person who does not find the artworks inspirational experiences a high level of anger.

Fear:
• • • • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of love (4-5) also experiences a high level of fear are 10.398 times the odds (p = 0.0011) that a person who does not experience a high level of love experiences a high level of fear. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) also experiences a high level of fear are 6.371 times the odds (p = 0.0027) that a person who does not experience a high level of sadness experiences a high level of fear. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of anger (4-5) also experiences a high level of fear are 5.738 times the odds (p = 0.0021) that a person who does not experience a high level of anger experiences a high level of fear. The odds that a person who comes to the museum with only his/her significant other experiences a high level of fear are 3.627 times the odds (p = 0.0073) that someone who does not only come to the museum with only his/her significant other experiences a high level of fear. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) also experiences a high level of fear are 0.157 times the odds (p = 0.0012) that a person who does not experience a high level of joy experiences a high level of fear.

Joy:

• • • • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of love (4-5) also experiences a high level of joy are 10.179 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of love experiences a high level of joy. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of anger (4-5) also experiences a high level of joy are 5.085 times the odds (p = 0.0015) that a person who does not experience a high level of anger experiences a high level of joy. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of surprise (4-5) also experiences a high level of joy are 3.093 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of surprise experiences a high level of joy. The odds that a person who is challenged a great deal by the artworks experiences a high level of joy (4-5) are 1.932 times the odds (p = 0.0269) that a person who is not challenged a great deal experiences a high level of joy. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of fear (4-5) also experiences a high level of joy are 0.182 times the odds (p = 0.0014) that a person who does not experience a high level of fear experiences a high level of joy.

Love:
• • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) also experiences a high level of love are 11.991 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of joy experiences a high level of love. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of fear (4-5) also experiences a high level of love are 8.994 times the odds (p = 0.0018) that a person who does not experience a high level of fear experiences a high level of love. The odds that a person who is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future experiences a high level of love (4-5) are 2.157 times the odds (p = 0.0018) that a person who is not very likely to discuss the artworks in the future experiences a high level of love.

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• • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) also experiences a high level of love are 1.883 times the odds (p = 0.0035) that a person who does not experience a high level of sadness experiences a high level of love. The odds that a person who was very excited to come to the museum will experience a high level of love (4-5) are 1.823 times the odds (p = 0.0054) that a person who was not very excited to come to the museum will experience a high level of love. The odds that a person who is between the ages of 18-44 experiences a high level of love are 1.598 times the odds (p = 0.0267) that a person above the age of 44 experiences a high level of love.

Sadness:
• • • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of anger (4-5) also experiences a high level of sadness are 11.251 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of anger experiences a high level of sadness. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of fear (4-5) also experiences a high level of sadness are 4.710 times the odds (p = 0.0085) that a person who does not experience a high level of fear experiences a high level of sadness. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of love (4-5) also experiences a high level of sadness are 2.418 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of love experiences a high level of sadness. The odds that a person who is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future experiences a high level of sadness (4-5) are 2.082 times the odds (p = 0.0010) that a person who is not very likely to discuss the artworks in the future experiences a high level of sadness.

Surprise:
• • • •

The odds that a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) also experiences a high level of surprise are 3.959 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not experience a high level of joy experiences a high level of surprise. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of fear (4-5) also experiences a high level of surprise are 2.636 times the odds (p = 0.0265) that a person who does not experience a high level of fear experiences a high level of surprise. The odds that a person who is challenged a great deal experiences a high level of surprise (4-5) are 2.314 times the odds (p = 0.0002) that a person who is not challenged a great deal experiences a high level of surprise. The odds that a person who has questions about the artworks experiences a high level of surprise are 2.180 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who does not have questions about the artworks experiences a high level of surprise.

Future Class Attendance:
• •

The odds that a person who attended at least one art class in the past year is very likely to attend art classes more often in the future are 7.534 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who did not attend an art class in the last year is very likely to attend classes more often in the future. The odds that a person who is very likely to make art more often in the future also is very likely to attend art classes more often in the future are 3.205 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who is not very likely to make art more often in the future is very likely to attend classes more often in the future. The odds that a person who made the decision to visit the CMoA is very likely to attend art classes more often in the future are 2.160 times the odds (p = 0.0094) that a person who did not make the decision to attend the CMoA is very likely to attend classes more often.

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168

Future Art Creation:

• •

The odds that a person who created art occasionally or frequently in the past is very likely to create art more often in the future are 63.047 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who did not create art occasionally or frequently in the past is very likely to create art more often in the future. The odds that a person who is very likely to attend art classes more often in the future is very likely to create art more often in the future are 5.008 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who is not very likely to attend art classes more often in the future is very likely to create art more often than in the past. The odds that a person who is very likely to visit museums more often in the future is also very likely to create art more often in the future are 3.201 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who is not very likely to visit museums more often in the future is very likely to create art more often in the future. The odds that a person who relates personal experiences to the artworks is very likely to create art more often than in the past are 2.333 times the odds (p = 0.0388) that a person who does not relate personal experiences to the artworks is very likely to create art more often than in the past. The odds that a person between the ages of 18 and 44 is very likely to create art more often than in the past are 1.726 times the odds (p = 0.0355) that a person above the age of 45 is very likely to create art more often than in the past.

Future Museum Visits:

• • • • •

The odds that a person who is very likely to create art more often in the future also is very likely to go to museums more often in the future are 3.839 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who is not very likely to create art more often in the future is very likely to go to museums more often in the future. The odds that a person who visits a museum for at least the 4th time this year is very likely to visit museums more often in the future are 2.932 times the odds (p < 0.0001) that a person who visits a museum less frequently is very likely to visit museums more often in the future. The odds that a person who was very excited to come to the museum is very likely to visit museums more often in the future are 2.040 times the odds (p = 0.0004) that a person who was not very excited to come to the museum is very likely to visit museums more often in the future. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of joy (4-5) is very likely to go to museums more often in the future is 1.889 times the odds (p = 0.0013) that a person who does not experience a high level of joy is very likely to go to museums more often in the future. The odds that a person who created art occasionally or frequently is very likely to visit museums more often in the future are 0.455 times the odds (p = 0.0038) that a person who created art never or rarely is very likely to visit museums more often in the future. The odds that a person who came as part of a group is very likely to visit museums more often in the past are 0.366 times the odds (p = 0.0003) that a person who came alone is very likely to visit museums more often than in the past.

Future Discussions:
• •

The odds that a person who has a viewpoint reinforced a great deal is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 2.411 times the odds (p = 0.0003) that a person who does not have a viewpoint reinforced a great deal is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future. The odds that a person who experiences a high level of love (4-5) is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 2.397 times the odds (p = 0.0002) that a person who does not experience a high level of love is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future.

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• • • •

The odds that a person who was very excited to visit the museum is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 2.230 times the odds (p = 0.0007) that a person who was not very excited to visit the museum is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future. The odds that a person who came to see a particular exhibition is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 2.122 times the odds (p = 0.0011) that a person who did not come to see the artworks is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future. The odds that a person who does research about the artists and artworks in the CMoA is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 1.934 times the odds (p = 0.0370) that a person who does not do research is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future. The odds that a person who has something become his/her primary focus is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future are 1.934 times the odds (p = 0.0070) that a person who does not have something become his/her primary focus is very likely to discuss the artworks in the future.

Appendices

170

Appendix H: Glossary of Data Analysis Terms

Categorical Variable: A categorical variable consists of two or more categories with no inherent order. Gender is one example of a categorical variable because there is no standard way to order the categories of male and female. Dichotomous Variable: A dichotomous variable is a categorical variable that consists of only two groups. Ordinal Variable: Like a categorical variable, an ordinal variable consists of multiple categories. Unlike a categorical variable, the categories of an ordinal variable have an inherent order. For instance, level of education is an ordinal variable because categories like high school or GED, Bachelor’s degree, and Master’s degree can be ordered according to increasing levels of education. However, these categories are not evenly spaced. Interval Variable: An interval variable consists of evenly spaced values, such as integers. Chi-Square: A chi-square tests whether there is a statistically significant association between two categorical or ordinal variables. (In other words, it examines whether the value of one variable changes when the value of the other variable changes.) For instance, this study used a chi-square test to see if there was an association between a respondent’s gender and the extent to which he/she lost track of time while in the CMoA galleries. Fisher’s Exact Test: A Fisher’s exact test is substituted for a chi-square test when one (or more) of the groups being tested is very small in size. Logistic Regression: A logistic regression is used to predict whether an outcome will occur when researchers control for other variables. In a logistic regression, the outcome of interest is a dichotomous variable. For instance, this study used a logistic regression to predict whether an artwork became a respondents’ primary point of focus based on a set of independent predictor variables. One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): A one-way ANOVA is used to test whether there are significant differences in the means of two or more groups. For example, this study used a one-way ANOVA to compare the mean levels of anger felt by respondents in five different age groups (individuals ages 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+). Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient: A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two interval variables. For instance, this study used a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to determine whether there was a weak, moderate, or strong relationship between the levels of joy and anger felt by respondents in the CMoA. The study also used the coefficient to determine whether respondents’ levels of joy tended to increase as their levels of anger increased (a positive relationship) or respondents’ levels of joy tended to decrease as their levels of anger increased (a negative relationship). Paired Samples T-Test: A paired samples t-test examines whether there is a significant difference between the means of two groups. Because researchers conduct this type of test with two groups from the same population, the test accounts for the fact that the two samples being compared are not independent. For example, this study used a paired samples t-test to compare the mean levels of joy and anger felt by the same population of respondents. Independent Samples T-Test: An independent samples t-test examines whether there is a significant difference between the means of two distinct groups. For instance, this study used an independent samples t-test to compare the mean levels of joy felt by males and females.

Measuring the Intrinsic Impact of Visual Art

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