Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies

Vol. 9-1 (2009)

EDUCATION, HEALTH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A SURVEY OF QUANTITATIVE ECONOMIC STUDIES, 2001-2009 GUISAN, Maria-Carmen* Abstract. We analyse the relationships of health, education and income per capita in developed and developing countries in year 2005, as well as the main conclusions of more than sixty studies published by our Association for the period 2001-2009, applied to OECD countries, Latin America, Africa, Asia and World comparisons. We analyse the relationship between Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) and health expenditure per capita in OECD countries and the conclusions show that the initiatives to increase coverage of health care to all the population in the United States is an important step to lower the relatively high value of YPLL in this country in comparison with other developed countries of Europe and other areas. Regarding developing countries we call attention to the role education to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and thus recommend to increase international cooperation. Keywords: Health Expenditure, Education and Development, YPLL JEL Codes: I0, I1, I2, O51, O52, O53, O54, O55, O56, O57 1. Introduction and World comparisons In this section we present data and studies related with World comparisons. Section 2 present a comparison of OECD countries and sections 3 to 5 a summary of studies related with Latin America, Africa and Asia. Most of the cited articles are free downloadable at the journals Websites with links from the on line Annex. Education and health expenditure are highly correlated because more educated population usually contributes to increase real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, thrrough several causal relationships as those analysed in Guisan, Aguayo and Exposito (2001 a), Guisan and Neira(2007), Guisan(2009) and other studies. Other World comparisons which present interesting empirical evidence are, among others, the following ones:
*

Maria-Carmen Guisan, Profesor of Econometrics, Faculty of Economics. University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), mcarmen.guisan@usc.es

Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies

Vol. 9-1 (2009)

Guisan, Aguayo, Exposito (2001 a) estimate cross-country models of Education, Industry and Fertility, which show the important impact that education has on the moderation of high fertility rates and for economic development. Guisan,Aguayo, and Exposito (2001 b) present a general view of the evolution of World education and development during the 20th century. Di Pietro (2006) analyses Income per capita, health and cross country IQ. Miles (2003) present a quantile regression approach to education and development. In the Annex we include a summary in English of some interesting studies published in Spanish, including: Guisan and Neira (2001) and Neira(2007). Graphs 1 and 2 show the positive impact of education on GDP per capita and table A1, in the Annex, presents correlation coefficients between the stock of human capital and economic development, generally represented by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita.
Graph 1. Years of Schooling and GDP per capita in 132 countries, year 2000
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0

Graph 2. Past expenditure in Education and GDP per capita

GDP per capita, thousand $PPP

TYR: Total Years of Schooling average

Gdp per capita, thousand $ PPP

Education expenditure: average of the last decade

2. Education, Health expenditure and YPLL in OECD countries Table 2 presents education and health expenditure in OECD countries in year 2005, expressed in dollars at 2005 prices and PPP, and table 2 shows the percentage of health and education expenditure on real GDP together with some indicators of health assistance related with years of potential life lost (PYLL or YPLL) for male, female and general population (see definition in footnote of table 3). 130

2005 Country Health Education Health GDP Expend. 131 . Per capital Australia 2999 1949 4948 33951 Austria 3397 1852 5249 33496 Belgium 3384 2030 5414 32063 Canada 3460 2086 5546 35002 Czech Rep.Guisan.C. Health and Education expenditure and GDP per capita. 1447 963 2410 20366 Denmark 3179 2944 6123 33196 Finland 2523 1836 4359 30695 France 3306 1863 5169 29759 Germany 3251 1673 4924 31380 Greece 2468 1311 3779 24928 Hungary 1440 926 2366 16958 Iceland 3371 2773 6144 35009 Ireland 2399 1764 4163 38693 Italy 2278 1465 3743 28122 Japan 2473 1746 4219 30310 Korea 1263 1596 2859 21342 Luxembourg 5389 4106 9495 68211 Mexico 696 772 1468 12432 Netherlands 3425 1847 5272 35111 New Zealand 2223 1662 3885 24916 Norway 4329 2702 7031 47319 Poland 843 848 1691 13786 Portugal 2029 1192 3221 20656 Slovakia 890 818 1708 16175 Spain 2260 1268 3528 27377 Sweden 3012 2080 5092 32298 Switzerland 4069 2193 6262 35839 Turkey 716 275 991 10841 UK 2387 2001 4388 32695 USA 6383 2933 9316 41718 Source: Elaboration from OECD and WB data. & Education per capita per capita per capita Exp. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Table 2. M. Education. Expend. Expenditure and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in $ at 2005 purchasing power parities (PPP). Note.

36 5.63 12.26 15.46 13.83 5.02 13.15 12.40 3842 2227 4568 Luxembourg 7.20 4.82 5.67 3499 2068 4143 Belgium 10.87 18.71 14.60 2. female and male).02 3103 2266 3259 New Zealand 8. % H+E is the sum of % of Health and Education expenditure per capita on GDP per capita.69 3360 2212 4044 Greece 9. year 2005 Country % % % YPLL YPLL YPLL Health Edu H+E general female male Australia 8.49 5. YPLLM (male).33 5066 3633 6291 Source: Note: Data of years around 2005 for YPLL (years of potential life lost from OECD data.30 7.12 13.56 5804 3343 7732 Spain 8. for people dying below 70 years old).55 2681 1744 3118 Ireland 6.57 3228 2289 3946 Austria 10.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol.86 3026 2118 3710 Poland 6.83 4338 2430 5486 Denmark 9.30 6.89 3304 2000 4399 Sweden 9.26 17. and YPLL (general. 132 . except in Belgium 1999.63 7.76 3364 2289 4008 Italy 8.33 15.12 17.16 3394 2017 4562 Hungary 8.21 11.50 5. Percentage (%) of Health and Education expenditure on GDP per capita.44 15.47 2952 2100 3488 Turkey 6.92 6.77 2825 2011 3191 Switzerland 11.59 4041 2747 4540 Norway 9.14 na na na UK 7.92 3427 2378 4080 Mexico 5.21 13.73 11.35 6.55 6. 9-1 (2009) Table 3.92 17.89 4159 2848 5471 Canada 9.48 13.53 15.26 15. 7.20 3974 2255 5094 France 11.74 14.56 10.14 5.06 10.44 3909 2493 4311 Finland 8.90 6.27 5638 3211 7962 Portugal 9.10 5.77 15. YPLLF (female).33 16.92 2757 1831 3397 Korea 5.81 6777 5027 8528 Netherlands 9.67 15.60 6.59 4411 2858 6024 Slovakia 5.26 4.75 5.16 5.92 7.22 5.90 5.33 6.37 3840 2252 4665 Germany 10.11 6.42 3549 2564 4220 USA 15.89 5.54 9.98 14.84 3487 2554 4168 Czech Rep.95 6784 4032 9235 Iceland 9.11 6.15 5. Not available data for YPLL in Turkey (likely similar to those of Mexico).31 3185 1887 3605 Japan 8.10 4.96 15.58 8.03 22.76 13.

C.000 1.000 Mx 5.000 0 2.000 60. 133 .000 Graph 4.000 20. Health expenditure and years of life lost in OECD:YPLLF 6.000 Health expenditure per head ($2005PPP) Health Expenditure per head ($ PPP2005) Graph 5 shows the positive relationship between Health Expenditure and real GDP per capita of OECD countries in year 2005 Graph 5. Graph 3.000 4.000 0 -2.000 6. OECD countries. elaborated from OECD data.000 3.000 5. in the Annex present the correlations between the variables and table A3 to A5 estimated econometric models.000 2.000 40. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Graphs 3 and 4 show the important impact of health expenditure in the diminution of both male and female values of YPLL per one hundred thousand inhabitants.000 8.000 0 -1.000 USA 3. 2005 7. M.000 6.000 Es 4.000 2.000 2.000 Es No GDP per head ($2005 PP P) Table A2.000 Ha ep nitu p rh a ( 20 PP el th x e d r e e d $ 0 5 P) e USA 6.000 0 10.000 Es 1.000 0 -2.000 0 2.000 50.000 4.000 8.000 4.Guisan.000 30. Health expenditure and years of live lost in OECD: YPLLM 10.000 Hu Mx 8.000 PYLL M USA PY L LF 6. Education. Health expenditure and GDP per head.000 4.

Guisan and Arranz (2003) present the estimation of econometric models of health expenditure in OECD countries. Vieira. due to the limitations in coverage of health assistance to poorest social groups. and Martins (2007). Pereira. The United States has reached very high standards of health average expenditure and quality but YPLL and other indicators do not perform as well as in other developed countries. Spain and Germany. II 1995-2002. There are positive initiatives from Government to develop a mix of public and private policies for health assistance of all social sectors. Korres. Mexico. Martins. and recommend increase of expenditure in education in Turkey in order to reach a higher degree of convergence with economically more developed countries. 1993-2003. 2000-2007. Caruso and Palano (2005) analyse the positive effect of regions with higher degrees of support to universities and research in several European countries. 9-1 (2009) GDP per head is in the range 10000 to 50000 dollars. Vazquez-Rozas and Neira (2008. Europe and other countries in 198099.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol. 1995-2000. Regional Systems of Innovation and Regional Policy in Europe. based 134 . Canada. and health expenditure between 500 and 7000 dollars The most outstanding countries in both variables were Norway (No) and the United States. Guisan (2004) presents and inter-Sector Econometric Model of 151 European Regions. presents a comparison between Turkey and other OECD countries for the period 1960-2000. (2003) analyse the evolution of education and development in the United States. Other interesting studies published in English by our Association related with the positive role of educatio are the following ones: Cosar and Bilidirici(2005). analyse the Innovation Factor in the Productive Process: Comparative Study of European Nuts. present an interesting analysis. Guisan (2009) presents a synthesis of the main factors of economic development and an analysis of European Countries in Comparison with the United States and Canada. and Staikouras. Chionis. and Guisan (2005) analyses Universities and Research Expenditure in Europe and the USA. (2004) present an analysis of . Crespo and Fontoura (2006) analyze the relation between human capital and development in Portugal. 1970-96. including Italy. Guisan and Aguayo (2002).

about the important question of Ethics and Wellbeing in Institutions. Guisan and Aguayo(2007) analyse education. Lamelas (2004) analyses the evolution of structural female employment and higher education in Venezuela. for the period 1960-2000.C.Guisan. Health and Economic Development: A Survey on surveys. 1970-2000. 2. MartinArnaiz(2007) analyses the relationship between education and competitiveness in Latin America. Cape Verde and the UK. Aguayo and 135 . 1960-93. 1975-2000. Guisan and Aguayo. and Neira. Education. Lamelas and Cancelo (2003) present an econometric analysis of the impact of education in the diminution of children mortality in the Andean Community Countries. Carton and Slim (2008) analyses regional convergence in Mexico. 1929-1996. In the Annex we include an English summary of many interesting articles on Latin America published by our Association in Spanish: Aguayo and Lamelas (2003) analyse factors that explain years of life expectancy in MERCOSUR countries. Gimenez (2008) presents an analysis of development factors in Latin America through cluster analysis. elaborates and analyses and index of quality of life in Guatemala (PQIL). Canudas (2001) presents an econometric study of the positive impact of education on industrial productivity in Mexico. health and poverty in Latin America. and Aguayo (2001) and (2002) relating educational level with fertility rates. (2006) inquire about the systems of higher education in Latin America and the financial effort. Fernandez and Fernandez. health and development in Latin America Some interesting studies published in English are the following ones: Guisan. Berumen (2005). production by sector and per head and economic Development in America. Cartagena (2003) analyses education and intergenerational mobility in Colombia. M. (2002) analyse the evolution of education and development in Latin America for the 20th century and challenges for the 21st century. Lamelas (2007) presents and overview of education indicators of Brasil at national and regional level. Cerno (2002) presents an econometric study relating education and life standards of families in the North East of Argentina. in Universities of Portugal. Education.

similarly to the poor countries of Africa and Asia Graph 6 shows the positive impact of past education expenditure on current health expenditure per capita. In spite of the already low level of expenditure per inhabitant in education in many Latin American countries.600 2.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol. like Haiti. It is recommended an increase of support to education in Latin America. Health and past Education expenditure: America 5.600 2.000 0 400 800 1. Unfortunately a few countries.000 H ealt h expenditu re 3. th o u sa n d $ PP P Graph 7.000 1. in America.000 2. Graph 6.000 Education expenditure per capita.000 G D P p e r ca p ita in 2 0 05 . Development and past Education expenditure: America 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 4. important advances for the period 1990-2008 have increased production per head and paved the way for future advancements in economic development and health welfare.200 1.000 0 0 400 800 1. 136 . and we may notice that Latin American countries are already very far from reaching development levels of both countries. pasta decade Education expenditure. 9-1 (2009) Exposito(2001) show the positive impact of human capital in Latin America for the period 1965-90. in order to foster convergence towards the high levels of the more developed countries. and graph 7 the impact of past education expenditure on GDP per capita.200 1. annual average 1995-2005 The highest levels correspond to the United States and Canada. have not yet experienced a great advanced in the total years of average schooling of population and need urgently international cooperation in this regard. together with other factors.

Osakwe (2007) analyses primary commodity and manufacturing exports in Africa. M. In the Annex we present a summary in English of some interesting article published in Spanish on Africa.C. respectively.. y Exposito (2001 b) and (2006). annual average 1995-2005 137 . health and development in Africa and Asia Some interested articles published in English are the following ones: Amaghionyeodiwe and Osinubi (2007) inquire about Higher Levels of Schooling and Higher Returns To Education In Nigeria?. M. past average Education expenditure per capita. Guisan and Exposito (2001 a) and (2002). Guisan and Exposito (2005) estimate some econometric models that relate education and development in Africa for 1950-2002. th o u sa n d $ P P P South Africa 10 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Namibia Botswana Tunisia 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Education expenditure. Jaunky.Guisan. Health and Economic Development: A Survey 3. Graphs 8 and 9 show. Education. M. Education. Guisan. and Exposito (2009). the positive impact of past education expenditure on current health expenditure per capita and GDP per capita in African countries. present a cross-section econometric model of 39 countries in 2000-2005 to explain the positive impact of Education to foster development and health expenditure in Africa. geography an education. Health and past Education expenditure: Africa 900 800 700 H e a lth e xp e n d itu re Graph 9. and Khadaroo 2009) analyse health care expenditure and GDP in Africa. Development and past Education expenditure: Africa 12 G D P p e r ca p ita in 2 0 0 5 . analyse the evolution of education and development in African areas and countries for the last decades of the 20th century.C.C. Graph 8. including the following ones: Guisan. 1992-2002 in relation with foreign aid.

000 Education expenditure per capita. 3-2. Vol. in Asia and Pacific. Applied Econometrics and International Development. The Annex includes a summary in English of articles published in Spanish: Guisan and Exposito (2008) on Philippines and Guisan.200 800 400 0 0.600 1.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol. B. Aka.400 GDP per capita in 2005.2 1. F. past average Education expenditure per capita.6 0 400 800 1. and graph 9 the impact of past education expenditure on GDP per capita. 1960-2002. Japan and other Asian Countries. Graph 6.4 0. N. Guisan and Exposito (2003) on education and development of AsiaPacific countries in 1980-99. India. “Health. Some interesting studies published in English are the following ones. (2006) analysis the positive impact of education and development on health in India with “A Note on Polio Count”. 9-1 (2009) 4. and Dumont.C. (2003). past average 1995-2005 References Aguayo. trade and Development in India.000 Health expenditure per capita 1. and Lamelas. Cancelo and Exposito (2007) on China. China. 138 .600 2.200 1. Mukherjee. Graph 8 shows the positive impact of past education expenditure on current health expenditure per capita. E.8 1. J. 1970-2000”. (2008). Development and past Education expenditure: Asia 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2. Health and past Education expenditure: Asia 2. Guisan (2004) estimates some econometric models of human Capital. Vol. Asia and Pacific. 8-2. “Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en los paíies del Mercosur. thousand $ PPP Graph 7. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. Education and Economic Growth: Testing For Long-Run Relationships and Causal Links in The United States”.0 0.

Vol. and Palano. R. 6-2. 3-2. 1960-93”. Di Pietro. T. Cosar. M. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. (2001). (2002). N. Health and Cross Country IQ: An Inter-national Comparison”. Caruso. 1-2. “Evolution et problemes de l´enseignement superiur en Europe”. (2008). L.W. Carton. Cerno.A and Osinubi. D. Applied Econometrics and International Development. (2005). Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales.S. (2003).A. Vol. “Estudio econometrico de la influencia del capital humano en el crecimiento de la productividad industrial de Mexico. Applied Econometrics and International Development.C. “Integracion regional y Convergencia: Algunas Evidencias para las regiones mexicanas”. 7-1. (2005). Applied Econometrics and International Development. S. Canudas. “Regioni e Territori nello Spazio Europeo della recerca”. Vol. J. 5-3. Education and Taxation.C. (2001). S. Eicher. “Income per Capita. Cartagena. “Economic centrality. Vol. Vol. 1929-1996”. 139 . R. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. 5-1. Vol. Crespo. “Some Comparisons Between Turkey and OECD Countries: Productivity.Guisan. “Construccion y analisis del Indice de Calidad de Vida en Guatemala (PQIL)”. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales. (2006). per capita income and human capital”. (2007). 1-2. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Amaghionyeodiwe. 6-1. “Do Higher Levels Of Schooling Lead To Higher Returns To Education In Nigeria?”.P. 8-1.(2006). Education. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional.6-1. K. Vol. and Fontoura. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales Vol. M. “Educacion y movilidad intergeneracional en Colombia. 1960-2000”. Berumen. M. N. and Slim. L. Vol. and Bildirici. 2-2. “Vinculo entre Logro Educacional y Caracteristicas de estandar de vida en los hogares del Noreste de Argentina. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. (2006). Vol. C. Vol.

C. Vol. M. 4-2.L. China. M. (2005). Trade and Development in India. Vol. Vol. E. 1960-2002: Econometric Models and Causality Tests”. (2004 b). (2001). Japan and other Asian Countries. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales. 5-2. (2009). Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. 2004. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales. Gamero. 2-1. 6-1.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. Vol. Education. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales. 8-1.(2003). 1995-2000. Research and Manufacturing in EU25: An Inter-Sectoral Econometric Model of 151 European Regions. and Ruzo. Aguayo. 9-1 (2009) Fernandez. O. Guisan M. Guisan. and Aguayo. (2002 a).C.C. Una comparativa de factores de crecimiento en America Latina a traves del analisis cluster. (2008). Marcenaro. Economic Development and Well-Being: Analysis of European Countries in Comparison with the United States and Canada. “Government Effectiveness. 1993-2003. M. 9-1. Vol. “Human Capital. 1-1. S. 3-1.C.C. Applied Econometrics and International Development. 2000-2007”. Guisan. 4-3. Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. “Universities and Research Expenditure in Europe and the USA. Guisan. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales. Vol. Guisan. and Navarro. Gimenez.C. Vol. D. S. 4-1. and Fernandez. An Analysis of Countries and Regions”. E. M. M. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. “Categorizacion de los sistemas de educacion superior latinoamericanos: ¿importa el esfuerzo financiero?”. E. Vol. Applied Econometrics and International Development. Education... (2006). “Rendimiento de las Inversiones Educativas y Diferencias de Ganancias en Andalucia”. “Educacion y desarrollo economico de America Latina en el siglo veinte y perspectivas para el siglo veintiuno”. “Competitividad de la oferta entre universidades regionales”. (2004 a). “Economic Development of American and European Areas in 1951-99”. Fernandez.C. S. Guisan. 140 . M. G. Vol.

M. and Aguayo. “Educacion. Guisan. and Aguayo. M. “Education. 3-3.C. (2007). 1-1. (2002 b). and Exposito. Aguayo. (2001 b). Applied Econometrics and International Development. and Exposito. and Arranz. and Exposito. M.C. 2-1. M. Exposito.. (2001 a). M. “Health Expenditure.C. Poverty and Economic Development in Latin America 2000-2005”.2. M. E. Trade and Development of American Countries in 1980-99”. E. Applied Econometrics and International Development. Aguayo. Industry. 4-2. Ciencia y Tecnologia: Analisis Comparativo de España.C.T. “Desarrollo economico de China. Trade and Development of European and Eurasian Countries in 1980-99”. “Economic growth and cycles: Cross-country Models of Education. 7. y Exposito. M. and Aguayo. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Guisan. E. Guisan.C. Vol. P.T. P. Guisan.C. M.C. M.C.. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. “Education. Applied Econometrics and International Development. desarrollo y emigracion en Africa. India y paises limitrofes. 1-2 Guisan..C. (2001a). (2003). Vol. Industry. Vol. 1990-2005”. M. M. Union Europea y Estados Unidos. M. 1970-96”. 1-1. Applied Econometrics and International Development. y Cancelo. 141 . Nuevas politicas de cooperacion europea e internacional”. 2001-2006.. Guisan. P. Industry and Fertility and International Comparisons”.Guisan. International Journal off Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies. “Economic Development of African and Asia-Pacific Areas in 1951-99”. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional.. Vol. Cancelo. P. Applied Econometrics and International Development. (2007). E. Vol. Vol. E. Guisan. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. Guisan. P. (2003). “Econometric Models of Private and Public Health Expenditure in OECD countries. M. 6-2. Education. Guisan. “Indicadores de produccion cientifica en Economia. Guisan. M. Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. Vol. 1-2.(2006).C.(2001b) “Education and World Development in 1900-1999: A General View and Challenges for the Near Future”. Vol.C. 3-1.

M. M. and Exposito.. (2006 b). Vol. P. Trade and Development of African Countries in 1980-99”. “Capital humano y capital físico en la OCDE.. P. J. P. (2001 b). Guisan.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol. Guisan. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. (2004). 142 . 2-2. Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. and Exposito. (2005).C. y Exposito. Guisan. Guisan. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional. “Education. Poblacion y Renta”. P. Applied Econometrics and International Development. and Exposito. Poverty and Economic Development in Africa.C. M. (2009). 5-1. “Regional Systems of Innovation and Regional Policy in Europe”. V. Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. Applied Econometrics and International Development. 1-1. 2000-2005”. (2008). D. M. 9-1 (2009) Guisan.P. 8-2. Applied Econometrics and International Development. su importancia en el crecimiento economico en el periodo 1965-95”. 7-2. P. M.C. “Desarrollo economico de Africa en 2000-2005: Educacion. Vol. Korres. 9-1. Development and Health Expenditure in Africa: A cross-section model of 39 countries in 2000-2005”. Chionis.C. P.C. y Neira. Vol. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional Vol. P.C. C. Jaunky. I.M. Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional.C. International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies. “Education. Industry. Vol. M.. A. Industry. 1-2 Guisan.C.C. (2007). M. (2001 a). “Health Expenditure. 3-2. I. (2003). Vol. Gasto de Salud. and Neira. “Health Care Expenditure and GDP: An African Perspective”. 6-1. Guisan. and Exposito. “Education. “Desarrollo economico de Filipinas en 1950-2007: Analisis comparativo con otros países del Sur y Este de Asia”. (2002). “Human Capital and Economic Development in Africa: An Econometric Analysis for 1950-2002”.C. M. and Exposito. Staikouras. 3-2. 4-1. Guisan. Trade and Development of Asia-Pacific countries in 1980-99”. and Exposito. G. Guisan. Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies / Estudios Economicos Regionales y Sectoriales Vol. M. “Educacion y crecimiento: una perspectiva mundial 1960-99”. (2006 a). Khadaroo. Vol. Vol.

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145 .8884 1. given that GDP per capita in this case overvalues real income per capita.8318 Public education expenditure per capita. GDP per capita (PPP) and Education in 132 countries. year 2000 Correlation GDP per capita Total years of Schooling of population over 15 year old 0.5321 -0. Expenditure and GDP per capita. Health expenditure and GDP per capita in $ at Purchasing Power Parities (PPP). Own elaboration from WB and other international sources.Guisan.3950 -0. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Annex (to be updated with summaries in English of cited articles published in other languges) Correlations: Gross Domestic Product per capita and education Table A1. OECD countries year 2005 YPLLF YPLLM YPLLF 1.8884 YPLLM 0. Education. Data of Education expenditure.9183 Note: TYR total years of schooling.4880 GDP per head -0.C. YPLL: years of potential life lost (f: female.6025 Health expenditure per head -0.0000 0. Correlations: Years of Potential Life Lost and other variables Table A2. m: male). based on Barro and Lee´s data and some own estimations for some missing data.7183 Note: Data of tables 1 and 2 (excluding Luxembourg. M. last years 0. and Turkey due to missing data).0000 Education Expenditure per head -0.2980 -0. Public education expenditure is annual expenditure per capita for the previous decade (1990-1999) applying the percentage of GDP devoted to public education to GDP per capita in $ at Purchasing Power Parities (PPP). Correlations of Potential years of life lost with Education.

0. Health Expenditure per capita and GDP per capita Dependent Variable: HEALTHH. 9-1 (2009) Econometric models: cross-section sample of 28 OECD countries in year 2005 Variables: YPLLF: Years of potential life lost per 100 thousand people of female population living less than 70 years. Note: Data of HEALTHH AND GDPH expressed in thousand dollars at Purchasing Power Parities (PPP). of regression Sum squared resid Log likelihood Durbin-Watson stat Coefficient 0.143 1202. Table A3.570519 Std.708817 648.094569 0.0000 2685.E. dependent var Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion Hannan-Quinn criter.5197 1.004049 t-Statistic 23.Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Vol.83738 Mean dependent var S.87041 15.129 15.6855 11361408 -220. YPLLM: Years of potential life lost per 100 thousand people of male population living less than 70 years. Error 0. elaborated from OECD statistics and other international sources.D. Method: Least Squares. Observations: 28 Variable GDPH05PP R-squared Adjusted R-squared S.708817 0. 146 .82283 15. GDPH05PP: Gross Domestic product per capita (th $ PPP) Source of data: Tables 2 and 3. HEALTHH: Health expenditure (public and private) per capita.35563 Prob.

59679 17.008430 Std.D.6587 2.819 0. Durbin-Watson stat 147 .3767 t-Statistic -2.0506 -1.0228 8.1236 0. HEALTHH C R-squared Adjusted R-squared S.591608 9. of regression Sum squared resid Log likelihood F-statistic Prob(F-statistic) Coefficient -0.208822 1476.181806 3034.0000 2546. Error 0.750 1660. YPLLF and Health Expenditure per capita (male) Dependent Variable: YPLLM.053734 713.53072 1. M. of regression Sum squared resid Log likelihood F-statistic Prob(F-statistic) -0.057794 0.0000 4898.E.D.0084 0. Method: Least Squares. Durbin-Watson stat Table A5.114228 335.123559 0.607 56689567 -243. Observations: 28 Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.088781 0. dependent var Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion Hannan-Quinn criter.850670 9. Observations: 28 Variable HEALTHH C R-squared Adjusted R-squared S.07614 1.238125 0. Education.C.741784 Mean dependent var S.E. Method: Least Squares. Health and Economic Development: A Survey Table A4.075 17.Guisan.50163 17.126318 0.535988 Mean dependent var S.533217 0.14220 16. YPLLF and Health Expenditure per capita (female) Dependent Variable: YPLLF. 0.4989 16.643 733.674680 Prob.5197 13236871 -222.198 0.673874 6708.04705 16. dependent var Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion Hannan-Quinn criter.236391 693.

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