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Branden Darmetko Exam 2 Essays

1. Compare and contrast the differences between a primary vs. a secondary immune response. The primary and secondary immune responses are quite similar to one another being made up of the same microorganisms, yet at the same time differ in many ways. However, before drawing the distinctions between these two immune responses we need to know a bit more background information. The first encounter between a young lymphocyte and an invading antigen usually takes place in the spleen or lymph node. If the cell is a B cell, the humoral immune response begins, producing antibodies to fight against the non-self pathogens. Specifically, when the antigen binds to a selected receptor on a B cell it stimulates the B cell to grow and multiply by copying itself to fight the foreign invaders. These clones have completely identical receptor cites which differentiate into plasma cells. This process of duplication can take three to six days. The plasma cells secrete antibodies that fight the invaders and are the effector cells of the humoral response. A plasma cell usually lives for four to five days producing large amounts of antibodies. The level of plasma antibodies rise to reach a peak level in ten days. Some clone cells do not become plasma cells to produce antibodies, some clones become memory cells. These memory cells hibernate in the body until called to action by a repeated offender. When a pathogen once again invades the body, these cells rapidly recognize the same foreign antigen and mount an immediate attack. The bodys ability to create plasma and memory cells from a first encounter with a foreign antigen is known as primary immune response. The secondary immune response is based on immunological memory, the ability of the sensitized memory cells to be on alert. Within hours of recognizing an old enemy, an army of plasma cells are generated. The similarities of these two immune responses are fairly direct. They both use the same initial system to begin and the secondary immune response builds itself from the primary immune response. However, these immune responses differentiate in that the secondary immune responses are more prolonged, faster in response time, and are much more effective. #6. Explain the role of MHCI, MHCII proteins in the immune response. MHC proteins play an important role in the immune response. Unlike primary and secondary immune responses that deal primarily with the B cells, MHC proteins interact with T cells that mature in the Thymus after originating in the red bone marrow. B cells deal with the obvious intruder, in terms of a pathogen, however they are useless in terms of dealing with

infectious microorganisms that can infect healthy cells to reproduce. This is where MHC proteins come into play. As a side note: there are two major types of T cells; helper and cytotoxic T cells. Helper cells coordinate cellular immunity by: direct contact with other immune cells, mediating the humoral response by interacting with B cells, and by releasing cytokines. Cytotoxic T cells kill foreign cells directly by apoptosis (cell suicide). T cells can only respond to processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on the surfaces of body cells. However, how do infected cells communicate with the T cells that they have been attacked? This is where the MHC proteins come in to do just that. Class I MHC proteins are displayed on all body cells except RBCs and are recognized by cytotoxic T cells. MHCI proteins, synthesized at the ER, bind to a protein fragment and then attach to the plasma membrane to display its attached protein. This allows the cytotoxic T cells to see what infectious microorganisms are hiding in the body cells. Without this system, viruses and bacteria could live in peace inside a body cell, undetected by B cells. Class II MHC proteins are typically found on the surfaces of cells that usually present to Helper T cells; (CD4 cells pg 787-789) dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC II proteins are synthesized at the ER and bind to peptide fragments. The difference between the two proteins is that MHC I proteins display endogenous antigens (from within the cell), while MHC II proteins display exogenous antigens (antigens from outside the cell). 3. Discuss/Discribe the Complement System and the contributions it makes to the defense of the body. The complement system refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins, usually in inactive state, that normally circulate the blood. It is considered a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances. When it is activated it amplifies nearly all aspects of the inflammatory process. The complement system also kills numerous bacteria through lysis. Therefore, it complements both the innate and adaptive defenses and is a non-specific defense mechanism. The complement system can be activated by two different pathways which in turn lead to the same results: classical and alternate pathways. The classical pathway begins with antibodies attaching themselves to the surface of the pathogen and complement proteins C1,C2 and C4. This series of events leads to the activation of C3. The alternate pathway is when C3 spontaneously attaches itself and activates itself on the membrane. At this point factors B, D, and P stabilize the protein. Once stabilization occurs the pathways have then converged. C3 then cleaves into C3b and C3a, thus furthering the process of destroying the pathogen. C3b coats the pathogen surface to increase phagocytosis and promotes the insertion of the MAC (C5b-C9) compliment proteins. On the other hand C3a enhances inflammation (through C5a and C3a) to increase the flooding of the pathogen. MAC (membrane Attack Complex) is a group of compliment proteins inserting themselves into the membrane of the cell to ensure lysis of the cell.

Short Answer Extra Credit: Explain how the respiratory system is involved in regulating acid+ base balance in the body. Give examples of conditions which could cause respiratory acidosis and Respiratory alkalosis. It is vital for the human body to keep a balanced pH throughout its life time. Too much or too little of acidity or basicity can be damaging to cells, tissues and organs. One of the main ways that we regulate acid+ base balance with the body is through respiration. To understand this relationship between the respiratory system and pH balance we need to understand carbon dioxide gas (CO2). CO2 is one of two cellular bi-products (the other is H2O) and is a one of the governing mediators in regulating blood supply. If levels of CO2 are too high, blood capillaries expand and in turn allow more blood to reach tissues and organs. CO2 is regulated through respiration and is absolutely vital in regulating pH levels within the body. To determine the acid concentration within the body one can use the partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas (PCO2) in the pulmonary system (this is retrieved through a blood sample and correlates with CO2 levels within blood). However, by measuring plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) one can determine the base concentration within the body. If these pH levels become unbalanced the respiratory system reacts by changing PCO2 within the pulmonary system to correct the disturbance. To control the bicarbonate balance any acid and base that was in excess will later be removed by the renal system through excretion. If immediate pH balance is not sustained the body can fall into either acidosis or alkalosis: too acidic or too basic. Examples of conditions that can lead to respiratory acidosis include pneumonia and respiratory under-ventilation. Alkalosis can be caused by hyperventilation- breathing in too rapidly.