10 views

Uploaded by Arturo Mora Santos

- Fem Notes
- Introduction to Finite Element Methods
- 2_Introduction to FEA
- FEA QUESTION WITH CLASS NOTES AND FORMULA BOOK
- VEM_PT-06_en
- Stress and Strain
- finite element analysis of transfer floor
- FEA in Practice 400
- Steady State Heat Conduction Heat Transfer FE Learning Module_v1_01272011_Watson.ppt
- FEM 16Node 37Mem
- 2003 Hadi FEM Pavements
- Abaqus
- 9. Eng-The Modernization of Gear Micropump Casing With the Use of Finite-Waclaw Kollek
- Finite Element Analysis of Von Mises Stresses & Deformation at Tip of Cutting Tool
- Generalized Methods for Finite Element Interfaces
- Phantom Node Method
- YNMI_MKP3
- FEMConvergence.ppt
- Machining
- Fem Convergence

You are on page 1of 5

Department

Boston, MA 022tf.

U.S.A.

and

J. A, METZLER

Department

of Mathematics.Drew University, Madison,NJ 07940,U.S.A.

(Recoined

jarpublicationI L&ember

1977)

~~t-~~~eF~~~

experiments show that the CF~OF in the computed finite eicment sobztion aad its derivatives

vanish on typicalerrornodal&es insidee~cbfiniteelement.A itKoretica1

explanation

isgivento thisphenotnenon,

which was previously discovered for distinct. special points. Systematic classification of these lines for different

element types afid problems appears to be a worthy undertaking.

finite element svlessescomputed in rectangularelements

at the Gauss points are superior in accuracy, there have

been

reports

on different

such special points in

rectangles121and triangies[31. Using the best energy fit

techniquef4J. whereby minimization of the error in the

energy is carried out over a singie typical element with

an assumed polynomia1 exact solution that assures a

globaily admissible finite element sobtion, it is shown

here that there are entire lines (surfaces in space) inside

the ekment on which accuracy is superior and hence the

variety of observed special points.

These nodal tines depend on the etement. o~g~~~~

probkm and eventually location, as shown ~eoretical~y

and nume~c~ly in this paper.

of

from

the

minimization

or

equivalently

element

trial function,

and

the

finite

respectively.

alx + a2y + a~xy, -I IX. .v5 1, inside each element and

accordingly the choice u = aax2 + a,xy + a& is made.

Minjm~tion

of (21 yields nt = 0, a2 = 0 and oj = al such

that ti = aa+o~x~. Equating u,, tt, with

ir,,

&

produces aox = 0, and a2y = 0, and the errors au, h

u. - ri, and Su, = u, - ri, are changing signs on the lines

x = 0 and y =O, respectively, Choosing the free

Vtestxuch suppwtcd by the O&e

N~t~~~~36.

CAS Vol. 9. No. LA

to the q~~atic,

meting that it is exte~~ie

over neighboring elements. Also, since any smooth solution is, by Taylors theorem, almost a polynomial inside

each element, it is expected of the errors to change signs

on x = 0 and y = 0 in general. One is also tempted to

conjecture (as was done in [4]f that the best place to

compute rl is at the nodes. Numeric

experiments,

however, refute this, at kast in the bilnear case.

For the biiadratic

element rS= oo+olx + n2y + a$

-Irsx,pIf.

+ acxy + usy'

t u6x2y + u,xy2 t ullx2y2.

and consequently the choice u = bti+ a,xy + a2xy

+ a$ is made. Similar argumncts lead here to the conch&on that Su, changes signs along the tines x = *g13f3f

and btr, along y = rg(313f. For Su one is again led to

expect the best accuracy at the nodes.

To numerically observe ail this and to see the effects

of numerical integration, the equation rt,, + lYY t I = 0 is

sofved in a square region with K = 0 on its boundary.

Finite element calculations are carried out with bilinear

and biquadratic elements (because of symmetry only one

quarter is considered,} The error nodal fines of &u, and

6u, for a 7 X 7 mesh of b&tear elements and the shaded

element as in Fig. f(a). are shown in Figs. f(b) and (cl

Figures l(d) and (e) show the nodal fines of 6~ and &I,

for the biquadratic element (3 x 3 mesh and an element at

the middle of the quadrant), with exact integration and a

2 x 2 (broken line) Gauss lotion

scheme. ff $ or &,

are computed at the Gauss point then the 2 X 2 integration results, as can be seen from Table I, in a

certain loss of accuracy.

interpolate

PLATEBENDING

Here one is called to minimize (Poissons ratio Y = 0).

The potential energy

336

and

Su,=aaox(xt

6uy = f a&

1)(x-

1)

+ 1NY-

1)

with SuIy being identically zero. Thus the nodal lines for

Su, are x = - 1, x=0 and x=1. Those of 6u,. y=-1,

Y = 0 and y = 1. while Su,, and &a,, change sign on the

tines

that

pass

through

the

Gauss

points

(M3/3). W/(3/3)) and parallel to the x and y axes,

respectively.

Figure ZtaHd) shows the experimental error nodal

lines for 6~. &,, Su,, and SuX, in case of a simply

supported plate uniformly loaded and discretized as in

Fig. 2(e).

elements. Nodal lines for 6u (b) and 6~. (c) in case of a mesh of

bilinear elements as in (a). The nodal lines in (d) and (e) are for

8u and 6u,. respectively. for exact and a 2x2 Gauss scheme

(broken line). and a 3 x 3 mesh of biquadraticelements as in Fig.

3(e). The marked points 0 are Gauss points.

Gauss points in Fig. I(e) for a biquadratic

element and a 3 x 3 mesh discretizing a uniformly loaded membrane. Once for exact (3 x

3) and once for a 2x2 Gauss integration

Scheme

au,

3x3

Point

1

2

3

4

max (Su, )

-0.35lf-4

-0.45d-4

-0.IZd-4

0.848-2

0.3ld.2

17=

cii

and accordingly

1( = aox

+ nlx3y

axy

rectangular

2x2

-0.61d-4

0.20d-3

-0.33d-3

0.25d-3

OAOd-2

element

i<3,j<3,--lIX.~LTl

Id)

fCcl

(5)

+ a2x2yZ + a3xy + a.iy4,

1q

I

I_________

_

lel

Fig. 2. Nodal lines of Su (a). 6u, (b). 6u,, fc) and Su,, (dt in case

of a simply supported square plate uniformly loaded and discretized by a 3 x 3 -.mesh (e) of bicubic _elements

_ (nodal values u.

u,. u,. u,,). The marked points l are Gauss pomts

Displacement.

Table 2. Rotating

sphere with biquadratic

elements.

twenty-five

points in Fig. 3(a). Integration with 3

v=o.3

2

4

5

6

i

IO

II

I2

I3

I4

IS

16

I7

I8

I9

20

21

22

23

24

25

-0.102d

00

-0.906d-O

I

-0.7641-01

-0.6341-01

-O.S42d-01

-0.2371-01

-0.1 l3d-01

0.6061-02

0.218d-01

0.306d-01

0.220d-01

0.3261-01

0.516d-01

0.682d-01

0.723d-01

-O.l99d-01

-O.l26d-01

0.551 d-02

0.206d-01

0.137d-01

-0.9751-01

-0.959d-01

-0.853d-01

-0.835d-01

-0.120d00

-0.11 Id-02

-0.119d-01

-0.I IOd-02

0.148d-01

0.109d-02

0.1881-03

-0. IOSd-01

O.l36d-02

0.19ld-01

0.4701-02

-0.2641-03

-0.1l6d-01

0.27Od-03

O.l87d-01

O.lSId-02

-0.7171-03

-0.129d-01

-0.820d-03

O.l86d-01

-0,204d-02

0.386d-03

-0.I l8d-01

0.1431-02

0.2371-01

0.166d-02

lines

in finite element5

337

3 Gauss integration points and

-0.232d-01

-O.S54d-01

-0.660d-01

-0.68 I d-01

-0.4lOd.01

-O.l74d-01

-0.498d.01

-O&iOd-01

-0.593d-01

-0.32ld-01

-O.l78d-01

-O&Id-01

-0.543d-01

-0.7341-01

-0.387d-01

-O.l95d-01

-0.477d-01

-0.492d-01

-0.1 l9d 00

-0.533d-01

-O.l59d-01

-0.448d-01

-0.538d-01

-0.125d

01

-0.459d-01

0.277d00

0.4671-01

-0.457d-01

0.74Od-01

0.329d00

0.219d 00

-0.764d-02

-0.987d-01

O.l88d-01

0.270d00

0.204d00

-0.308d-01

-0.12Sd

00

-0.408d-02

0.25Sd00

0.255d00

-0.4351-02

-O.lWd

00

0.24Od-01

0.309d00

0.345d00

0.534d-01

-OMd-01

0.84Od-01

0.403dOO

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

II

I2

13

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

I9

20

21

22

23

24

25

-0.ll2d

00

-0.8251-01

-O.SSBd-01

-0.398d-01

-0.319d-IO

-0.704d-01

-0.370d-01

-0.47Sd-03

O.ZSSd-01

0.3874-01

-0.4491-01

-O.l23d-01

0.3271-01

0.718d-01

0909d-01

-0.6536-01

-0.413d-01

0.284d-02

0.502d-01

0.719d-01

-O.lIZd

00

-0.102d

00

-0.748d-01

-0.4621-01

-0.618d-01

-0.5 l9d-02

-0.170d-01

-0.3621-02

O.lSSd-01

-0.502d-02

-0.257d-02

-O.l46d-01

0.2331-03

0.219d-01

-0.502d-03

-O.l64d-02

-0. ISOd-0.4761-03

0.219d-01

-0.664d-02

-0.7596-03

-0.IS7d-01

-O.l43d-02

0.219d-01

-0.144d-01

0.159d-02

-0.137d-01

O.l8Sd-02

0.293d-01

-O.llld-01

ELAsTlcITY

spherical shell for which analytic solution to compare

with the approximate is available [S] (errata to this paper

in the Appendix). The spherical strains]61 are too involved for a theoretical prediction as in the preceding

section and analysis is confined to the numerical. Of

O.IMd-01

-0.835d-02

-0.4276-02

0.2016 00

-O.l09d-01

0.222d-01

-0.885d-03

-0.7SSd-02

-0.223d-02

0.121d

00

0.2661-01

0.3886-02

-0.6801-02

-0.20ld-01

-0.457d00

0.278d-01

O.S84d-02

-0.7lld.02

-0.2331-01

-0.l16d

00

0.297d-01

0.707d-02

-O.l02d-01

-0.3224-01

-0.93Sd-01

0.244100

0.446d-01

-0.344d-01

0.713d-01

0.296100

0.197600

-0.222d-02

-0.82ld-01

0.2221-01

0.244d00

0.192d 00

-O.l94d-0

I

-O.IOSd00

0.272d-02

0.234d00

0.24Sd00

0.814d-02

-0.8871-01

0.292d-01

0.285d00

0.331d00

0.6281-03

-0.479d-03

0.838d-01

0.371d 00

order of numerical integration and Poissons ratio v.

Figures 3(aHd) shows the nodal lines for the strain

error 6r, &.B, SEe and the shear Sy, for a 3 x 3 mesh of

biquadratic elements and the shaded element in Fig. 3(e).

Figure 3 refers to a 3 x 3 Gauss integration scheme and

v = 0.3.

338

Table 4. Same as Table 2 but with 2 X 2 Gauss integration points and p = 0.3

Point

WG

I

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0.869d 00

-0.873d-01

-0.549d00

-0.6166-01

0.884d00

0.617600

-0.3201-02

-0.320d00

0.19Od-01

IO

II

14

0.714d00

O.Z%d-oI

0.489d-01

0.64Sd-01

O.SSSd-O!

If

0.226d-01

12

13

16

17

18

I9

20

21

22

23

24

25

-0.74Od00

O.iZld51

0.504d00

-0.78Od-02

-0.149dOI

-0.t32dOl

-0dSSd-01

0.838100

-0.129d00

-0.365101

We*

sci&

O.?%d-OZ

-O.!OOd-O!

-0.394d-02

O.IS?d-@I

0.123d-01

O.!%d-OZ

-0.87Sd-02

0.2761-02

0.196d-01

0.399d-02

-0.238d-02

-0.102d-OI

0.361d-02

0.187d-01

-0.641d-02

0.85Sd-03

-0.120dW

-0.8706-03

0.18Od-01

-0.22Od-02

09976.02

-O.!!Sd-O!

-0.527d62

0.225d-01

0.216d-01

-0.485d-01

-0.5376-01

0.808d-01

-O.SZOdi)I

-0.193d-01

-0.133d-01

-0.452d-O!

-0.505d-01

-0.66Sd-O!

-0368d-01

-0.195d-02

-0.466d~l

-0.79Od-01

-0.913d-01

-0.769d-01

-0.3!Md-O1

-0.599d-01

-0.325d-01

-0.2Sld 00

-0.ll7d00

-O.!OfJdOO

-0.7681-01

0.275601

Wr

0.371600

0.99ld-01

-0.407d-01

0.28Sd-01

0.236d00

0.219d00

-0.6681-02

-0.964d-01

O.Wd-Ol

0.274100

O.!SSd00

-0.572d-01

-0.l27d00

0.224d-01

0.310600

0.261400

-0.794d-02

-O.IW 00

0.213d-01

0.317d00

0.47Sd00

O.llOd00

-0.777d-01

-0. IOZd02

0.140d-01

-0.113d00

0.29Id 00

I

2

:

5

6

7

8

9

10

Ii

I2

13

14

15

16

I7

18

19

20

::

23

24

25

0.27Sd01

-0.5IOd-01

-0.134d01

-0.4834-01

0.235101

0.181601

-0.3271-02

-0.899100

0.109d51

0.182d01

O.tI4d51

0.29id-01

0.45Id-01

0.43Od-01

0.2241.03

-0.234d01

0.5331-02

0.156d01

-0.4921-02

-0.47Od01

-0.432101

-0.518d-01

0.327dOf

-0.142d00

-0.IS6d02

0.4SSd-01

-0,!23d=Ol

-0.287d-01

O.l9Sd-01

0.8136-01

0.1738-02

-0.IO8d-01

0.313d-01

0.252d-01

0.623d-02

-0.232451

-0.127d-01

0.175d-01

0.2431-01

-0.507d-O!

0.7~d~3

-0.IStd51

-0.Mid.02

0.2371.01

-0.185642

0.553d-01

-0.I47d-01

-0.3996-01

0.3!06-01

o.!6Od00

points in Fig. 3(a), for 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 Gauss inte~t~n

schemes, and Y-0.3 and Y= 0.45. It is evident from

these tables that as Y approaches 0.5 and with a low

integration Scheme[?] it becomes imperative to look for

-0.124dOO

-0.3691-01

0.122600

75IdOO

0.275600

-0.135d-01

-0.279151

0.7831-02

0.168600

-0.286100

0.374d~I

-0.2631-01

-0.579d-01

0.8336-01

0.208d01

-0.302d-01

-0.34Od-01

-0.5671-02

0.7986-01

0.23ld00

-0.1666 00

-0.446d-01

0.8476-01

0.838d-01

-0.20ld00

0.45

0.698800

0.285d00

-0.329d-01

-0.169d00

-0.169d00

0.191d00

-0.6581-02

-0.8474-O!

0.204d-01

0.242100

-0.514d-01

-0.152d 00

-0.1 I4d 00

0.121d00

0.471d00

0.237d00

-0.756d-02

-0.106d00

0.199d-01

0.289100

0.913d00

0.349800

-0.7381-01

-0.239dOO

-0.2tld

00

become disastero~sIy ~0%.

The excellence of the strains at the special points helps

to explain the success of Reissners principie with independent stress fields sampled at the integration points.

~splacement,

II

16 21

(b)

(a)

~

(c)

(4

339

Method, Section 3.4. Prentice-Hall.

New Jersey (19731.

2. 0. C. Zienkiewicz, fsoparametric ekment forms in finite element analysis. In Lectures OR Finite Element Methods in

Continuum Mechanics (Edited by J. T. Oden and E. R. de

Arantes e Oliveira), pp. 379-414. University of Alabama Press

( 19731.

3. T. Moan, Experiences with orthogonal ~iy~mials

and

best numerical integration formulas on a triangle: with

particular reference to finite element approximations. ZAMM

54 501-508 (1974).

4. I. Fried. Finite element method: accuracy at a point. Quart.

A~pi. Math. 149-161 (1974).

5. M. A. Goldberg, V. A. Salerno and hf. A. Sadowsky, Stress

distribution in a rotating spherical shell of arbitrary thickness.

1. Appl. Mech. 127-131 (1961).

6. A. E. H. Love, The hfathemaricai Theov of Eiasticity, 4th

Edn. Section 22. Dover. New York W&+4).

7. 1. Fried, Finite element analysis of incompnssible material by

residual energy balancing. ht. 1. So/ids .StntcturesId.

9934002 (1975).

cr# = [-4v

Fii. 3. Nodal lines of the strain errors &, (a), &* (b), &o (c) and

8, (d) in case of a revolving hollow elastic sphere discretized

with a 3 x 3 mesh of biquadratic elements (c). This case is with a

3 x 3 Gauss integration scheme and Y = 0.3. The marked points 0

are Gauss points.

t (-3 + IOIQ

+ 3(1 - 2V)Pl?.

Be=-

2(7-5~)l-o~~.

57

I-a

- Fem NotesUploaded byMario Tirabassi
- Introduction to Finite Element MethodsUploaded byaap1
- 2_Introduction to FEAUploaded byAdolfo Gálvez Villacorta
- FEA QUESTION WITH CLASS NOTES AND FORMULA BOOKUploaded byAshok Kumar Rajendran
- VEM_PT-06_enUploaded bySenthil Nath
- Stress and StrainUploaded byMuruganandam Ramadass
- finite element analysis of transfer floorUploaded bySyed Fahad Ali
- FEA in Practice 400Uploaded bySanjay Jaiswal
- Steady State Heat Conduction Heat Transfer FE Learning Module_v1_01272011_Watson.pptUploaded byharoon
- FEM 16Node 37MemUploaded byJan Alexis Monsalud
- 2003 Hadi FEM PavementsUploaded byomar c
- AbaqusUploaded bymaka2005
- 9. Eng-The Modernization of Gear Micropump Casing With the Use of Finite-Waclaw KollekUploaded byImpact Journals
- Finite Element Analysis of Von Mises Stresses & Deformation at Tip of Cutting ToolUploaded byIJIRAE
- Generalized Methods for Finite Element InterfacesUploaded byRajaram Kamath
- Phantom Node MethodUploaded byRabindraSubedi
- YNMI_MKP3Uploaded bySaikiran Sayabugari
- FEMConvergence.pptUploaded byNaveen Raj
- MachiningUploaded byShruthi N. Kumar
- Fem ConvergenceUploaded byDivanshu Seervi
- p h RefinementUploaded byVikas Tope
- Ed 9221 — Finite Element Methods in Mechanical DesignUploaded byRajesh Kannan
- gautham_bca_2003Uploaded bydovanvuong
- PM and BCUploaded byAysu Göçügenci
- MCE466-1Uploaded byarunprasadkr
- Lecture on FEM Introduction (1)Uploaded byabuzar
- Marc.TaperedBarUploaded byYogesh Falak
- A Case Study of the Apple Computer StoresUploaded byPaloma Vale
- YamakawaUploaded bypierre_juillard
- 31226-31017-1-PBUploaded byteckhuatl

- Preform Shape Optimization of Connecting Rod Using Finite Element Method and Taguchi MethodUploaded byIJMER
- 19_J_6820Uploaded byMohamed
- A Fast Response Thermocouple for Internal Combustion Engine SurfaceUploaded byrquines
- Finite-element Design of Concrete Structures, 2nd RombachUploaded byCristi Andone
- A Linear Static Analysis of..Uploaded byRaed Zuhair Hasan
- Abstract Book Acex2010Uploaded bySchmetterling Traurig
- MSC Software’s customer case study- Printing TechnologiesUploaded byMSC Software
- DEP 513E Syllabus.pdfUploaded byabimana
- KulkarniUploaded byKunal Pathak
- Typical defects of PV-cellsUploaded byRicardo Sutana
- PLAXIS3DF TutorialUploaded byAdrian Iorgulescu
- Nguyen Et Al-2008-International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in GeomechanicsUploaded byluisfmpereira
- Curriculum for M.tech. Automotive Engg.Uploaded byjithin
- About Composites Fiber ModelingUploaded byAnonymous J6MAha1vGF
- Thin Shell BEMUploaded byetulei
- 17871565_2Uploaded bysepidka
- 2d Heat Conduction FemUploaded byYeoh Kh
- Summary for MethododlogyUploaded byKurdistan Neyaz
- 2D2010-1-Tutorial_02Uploaded byMohamed
- El Cajon Dam Analysis of Behaviour During Construction and First FilingUploaded byjdav1206
- 56-5-CHRUploaded byEric Kerr
- ANSYS_HFSS_L06_2_HFSS_3D_bcUploaded byFabiano Silveira
- CONVEYOR PULLEY DRUMS.docxUploaded byriysall
- Calculation of Stress Time Signals of Multi-bolted JointsUploaded bydemercato
- Psc Box Girder Design Aashto LrfdUploaded bykdb92uce
- Chapter 7 - Finite Element Method for Solid Mechanics (2016!10!10)Uploaded byRick
- Self Powered Rfid PiezoUploaded byGaurav Gaikwad
- GE Generator Technology UpdateUploaded bymohammed52033
- Fatigue Life Analysis of RIMS (Using FEA)Uploaded byraghavgmail
- Frac l09 XfemUploaded bychingon987