personnel were maintenance responsible for the maintenance of plant and equipment. which his autonomous maintenance by production is Thus.9 References 17. Nippondenso Company Limited first introduced plantplant preventive maintenance in 1960.8 Self-Assessment Exercises 17. Nippondenso had already recognized the importance of operators.1 Concept of TPM Promotion 17.2 Motivation and Identifying Characteristics of TPM 17.A. you will be able to: get into the origin of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) know the characteristics of TPM and getting motivated towards the TPM eliminate variety of losses of an organisation and thereby aiming at the equipment maximising utilisation identify chronic defects and sporadic defects associated with the equipment sharpen the understanding of autonomous maintenance and its relevance operational in context acquire the concept of TPM promotion and its structure Structur e 17. In the 1960's.6.4 Chronic and Sporadic Losses 17. Accordingly.5 17. It was found that maintenance crew.one of maintenance of automated equipment. Nippondenso undertook the automation of its production with the result mid the thatmanufacturing and assembly operations became largely automated. heralded the modernisation of of maintenance in Japan. only by itself. This was the origin of one of the important features of TPM. could not effectively maintain the greatly the number of increased automated equipment. This in a new brought problem .1 Introductio n 17.6.7 Summar y 17. This was the usual form of preventive wide wherein operators devoted themselves only to production jobs and the maintenance. the management of the decided to company change the allotment of duties of the operators of automated equipment in as much as each operator was made responsible for routine maintenance of equipment.S. The induction the preventive maintenance from the U.5.6 Autonomous Maintenance 17. as noted above.S.3 Eliminating Six Big Losses 17.UNIT 17 TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) Objective U s pon completion of this unit.A. maintenance preventive in improving equipment availability and had also by then autonomous introduced maintenance by production operators.2 TPM Promotional Structure Total Productive Maintenance 17.1 INTRODUCTION The origin of total productive maintenance (TPM) can be traced back to 1951 preventive maintenance was first introduced in Japan.1 Prerequisite for Autonomous Maintenance TPM Promotion 17. thereby freeing the maintenance personnel from the routine maintenance tasks and making it for the maintenance department to take up the essential tasks of possible planning based maintenance on equipment 5 . The Japanese took when concepts and techniques of preventive maintenance from the U.

the formal definition of TPM was enunciated by JIPE Plant 1971. Although the contribution of the last four causes. Thereafter. namely set-up. This recognition differentiates productive maintenance from (PM) preventive maintenance. and operation at reduced speeds. in actual practice. and since TPM deals primarily with equipment production and is used in manufacturing industries.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management performance. idling and minor stoppages of the equipment and equipment operating at reduced speeds. The aim maintainability productive maintenance is. Thus preventive maintenance together with MP and maintenance improvement (MI) activities gave birth to productive maintenance (PM). we can now take up in sequence the basic motivations. therefore. the above developments. Nippondenso in to evolve decided PM with all employees participating in it total participation through group small voluntary activity. Two parts of specific the first motive are as follows: i) pursuit of economic life cycle cost of physical assets. Nippondenso evolved TPM between 1969 and 1971. in 17. formal definition of TPM was also enunciated along the same lines. identifying characteristics of TPM. of 3) The use of voluntary small group activity for identifying the likely cause frequency of failure of critical equipment. employees participating in it. whereas productive maintenance must (PM) include not only routine or periodic preventive maintenance activities but the alsoconcept of maintenance prevention (MP) and designing-out-ofcovers much more than just ` routine' or periodic preventive maintenance. and ii) improving the overall performance of plant and machinery. These three motives are as follows: motives 1) Adoption of the life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production 2) equipment. may seem small as compared idling to breakdowns and defective products. Based on this. and minor stoppages. and efforts to fully existing equipment through improved utilize The availability. by then. which should and take also into account the effective use of such production equipment through minimisation of losses not only due to breakdowns. Whereas the practical application of maintenance preventive nowadays (Nakajima has taken preventive maintenance to routine include maintenance and periodic inspections. and it was awarded the 1971 Distinguished Plant Prize (PM Prize) for the development and effective implementation.) includes condition-based maintenance. such assets are plant machinery. of TPM by the Japanese Institute of Engineers (JIPE). plant and equipment modification for improved reliability maintainability. had already developed quality circle activity with all Moreover. the maximisation of plant and of effectiveness equipment in the pursuit of economic effectiveness and achievement of optimum cycle life cost of production equipment. It recognized the use of small group voluntary activity the promoting the adsorption of PM and getting the total involvement of plant personnel for productive maintenance of plant and equipment. Takahashi has identified three specific and for the advocation and subsequent adoption of TPM in Japan. This essentially was the origin of the third important of TPM feature which is the use of company-led small group Based on activity. which must building include in of reliability and maintainability features and the extension of useful the life of the assets.productivity through a highly motivated workforce which can Improving achieved through job enlargement in which all workers are given a range be challenging jobs in order to develop their skills at different crafts. These tasks are aimed at new prevention (MP). This was the origin of the second important of TPM feature which involves activities to maximise equipment effectiveness. adjustments. these four losses add up to a significant amount. and or .2 MOTIVATION AND IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF TPM 6 Having discussed in chronological sequence the origins of the three features of important TPM. adjustment. Nippondenso. but also due to poor quality and the losses due to set-up. maintenance. development of reliability and maintainability specifications for and equipment and designing-out-of-maintenance. possible plant and equipment and modifications which will result in significant savings.

One of of the practical and time-tested ways of inducing involvement and a sense of belonging in workman is through active participation. in the final analysis. such as preventive replacement of the components. the manufacturing organisations have to ensure much levels higherof equipment availability. This will not only leave the maintenance department free to attend to more pressing tasks which require higher levels the skills. these persons perform tradesmen. methods and procedures. Higher levels of performance require commitment to the job. a. minimisation of set-up. backdrop. idling and stoppages. adjustment. idling and minor stoppages and speed losses are major and challenges to any manufacturing organisation and these challenges call for reforms improvements in standards. and this. maintenance or quality control inspectors. equipment quality. This active participation and quality circles and ZD groups are its different forms.predictive preventive maintenance. periodic checks and inspections and as adjustments and repair. in The will turn. these challenges require the active participation and and of all employees in the organisation. of production operators will then cherish their machines and tools with care and this. periodic lubrication. processes.inculcate in them a sense of belonging to the organisation. In the context is TPM. This. are getting critical for lack of backloggedavailable manpower. the need for a high level of motivation in the persons who carry out the essential tasks. Such reforms and improvements cannot be carried out by a few technical people working in production and/or maintenance departments. adjustment. which. important tasks which directly affect equipment availability. comes from a conscious effort through a synchronization leading hand. the maintenance department is called in to take necessary preventive action to avoid a long shutdown). but also bring back in the production operators the pride of craftsmanship. Thus. minimisation of quality loss. wherein the maintenance fitter not only identifies the plant/equipment. Moreover. head and heart and from creative work which is beneficial to the larger group. is what is meant by autonomous maintenance and a key ingredient of TPM is that the production perform basic maintenance tasks on their own operators The objectives of maximisation of equipment availability. is resulting in greater incidence of failures and loss of equipment As against this availability. let us consider a situation wherein the production operators basic maintenance activities on their own machines. the routine activities which are carried out to keep the machines in good running order. he also identifies with the production operators and the quality with control inspectors. but These persons should they also for ever attempt to reach higher levels bf performance. as we had noted earlier. must not only do their allotted task to the best of their capability. who are also a part of the same group. involvement In the preceding paragraphs we have discussed the need for having a highly workforce. The maintenance departments are finding it difficult to attend to minor routine such tasks. voluntary small group of people who meet to discuss problems with housekeeping. attending to such routine tasks is resulting in a situation wherein necessary preventive maintenance activities. This sense of belonging to the organisation also inculcates in the employee the s aense of belonging to the larger group. whether they are production operators. product quality and the productivity. in turn. such including cleaning of the machines. the integration simpler and routine maintenance tasks with the production work not only enlarges of production job and makes it more interesting but also fosters in the production operators the c aommitment to the plant. with this the maintenance tradesmen are also able carry out their tasks properly and under a more congenial atmosphere and this brings with it to f aeeling of job satisfaction in them. wherein he voluntarily joins a group of people the who sit down to discuss their problems and suggest better ways of doing what they are doing. and speed losses do not come under the purview of preventive maintenance. in turn. or activities. we call these PM circles (and PM subof circles). motivated that is. equipment overhauls and necessary plant modifications. Moreover.you fix' altitude wherein the production operators only run be machines and the maintenance department attends to all maintenance activities. at the minimisation of quality losses and set-up. motivation and a sense of belonging to organisation. Thus innovative ideas and suggestions for reforms and improvements must be preceded by an attitudinal change in the workmen to involvement. minor To be able to stay in business. They not only maintain their perform machines in good running order but also are capable of detecting potential problems before a own major breakdown occurs (at which time. availability and productivity and to suggest reforms and improvements. Total Productive Maintenance 7 . Such high levels of equipment availability cannot achieved with the `I operate . After all. plant modifications and designing-out-ofactivities aimed maintenance. equipment.

amid quality maintenance control. Divisional/Departmental PM Committees establish the PM policies Committees. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … Activity C Think of your company's maintenance management activities. who is typically also a volunteer. namely maximising equipment effectiveness and establishment of a system total of PM covering the whole life of equipment. After all. as earlier. There is an overlap and the shop manager/foreman wino is m a ember of the Divisional/ Departmental PM Committee is the PM circle leader. was the adoption of the life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment. are linked tip ward to the Corporate PM Committee. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … Activity B Productive maintenance is a superset of preventive maintenance. maintenance tradesman etc and and headed by a leader. Which one is practice now: Preventive maintenance or Productive in maintenance? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … 17. materials management/purchasing. as ensuring equipment and implementing a programme of maintenance for the entire life of the capacity He goes on equipment. design produces at the design rate and results in quality product at these speeds and rates'.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management Involvement of the workmen on the shop-floor is not enough since. the organisation has to ensure the involvement of all functions in the organization. in turn. PM Corporate PM Committee establishes the company PM policies and objectives The oversees the activities of the various Divisional/Departmental PM and Similarly.3 ELIMINATING SIX BIG LOSSES We had noted that the first of the three motives for the advocation and subsequent adoption of TPM. but also towards time other losses limit the which effectiveness of production equipment. marketing/sales. Efforts at improving the overall performance of plant and machinery must not only be at losses directed due to ineffective maintenance. minimisation quality loss and the minimisation of four other types of losses cannot be of without the achieved involvement and active participation of all employees in the To be able to organisation. Explain with own your experience. is Activity A What is preventive maintenance? Is it different from productive maintenance? examples Give . objectives for the division/department and oversee the activities of the PM and which circles come under them. effectively deal with these challenges. as identified by Takahashi. the discussed objectives of maximisation of equipment availability. explains the first two clauses of the formal definition of TPM. This implies efforts aimed at the maximisation of equipment utilisation not just (and the maximisation of 8 . namely design/engineering. the formal definition of TPM clearly states that the aim of TPM is the maximisation of effectiveness equipment and as a further clarification. to state that ensuring equipment capacity implies efforts directed ensuring that the equipment performs to its specifications 'operates at its at speed. production. PM The sub-circles come under the overall direction and guidance of a PM circle consist of volunteers who may be operators. in equipment. it is also noted that this implies efforts directed at the improvement of the overall effectiveness of production Wireman. his book on TPM. Thus the promotion and adsorbtion of TPM requires development of the TPM Promotion System which links the various PM subthe and PM circles circles to the Departmental PM Committees and the Departmental Committees.

availability. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … Total Productive Maintenance 9 . This is obtained by subtracting the total estimated for rework of defective/nonconforming products from the net operation time Thus time. the six big losses and the method of calculating these constituents from the shop.terns used in the figure are as explained below: i) Loading time is the available time on the equipment for work. such as time lost due to meetings.and this Wireman calls 'startup/restart loss'. are breakdown losses. Find out C . significant causes of reduction of equipment the utilisation. dies and accessories. and these. namely. and also breaks in production schedule or planned production stoppages for planned/preventive maintenance work. 'quality rate'. tools. with the and product quality performance of the production equipment (this. Activity Darry out an analysis of machine utilisation in your organisation. and adjustments to the equipment.1. and take less than 10 minutes. and operating it at a reduced speed or at a reduced rate of production are subtracted from the operation time to get the net operation time. iv) Value-added operation time is the net operating time during which actual addition value is carried out. or at less than full (design) load-this Wireman calls `reduced capacity 5) loss'. or equipment performance. and. the time required to make tap for the quality losses is subtracted from net the operation time to get the value-added operation time. which have to do the availability of the equipment. In thermal power plant terminology. due to idling and minor stoppages of equipment. three The 17. in TPM terminology. and there are six significant causes of reduction of equipment utilisation. the rate at which the equipment is performing. in keeping with the performance rate). and quality rate and overall equipment effectiveness performance = availability x performance rate x quality Note: Theserate. An example of this would be a 210 MW thermal power unit being operated at 150 MW because two out of six pulverizers are down. called 2) Setup and adjustment 3) losses. These three constituents. data are given in Fig. scheduled or breaks or tea/coffeeprecautionary rest periods. due to poor product quality . setup of equipment. on rare occasions.due to defects in process and production of Losses defective 6) items.ability). to reduced yield from the startup of the equipment to the point of stable Loss due production . outages such are called partial outages. The term 'design load' has also been included to take account of process plant equipment which are derated either and/or operated at low loads for various reasons. These are as follows: 1) Losses due to ineffective maintenance. constituents are also measures of equipment three effectiveness. Losses 4) Loss due to operation at reduced speed. or at the design load. Thus the equipment effectiveness has three constituents. The reduction of equipment utilisation has three constituents. or at the design rate of production.equipment avail . Such downtime is time lost includes due to equipment breakdowns. in TPM is called the literature. overall rate. or the time the machine down for reasons other than given above under (i). These are the six major equipment losses and the stress it places on the elimination these of major losses is one of the three identifying characteristics of TPM. These adjustments are carried out generally by operators. The time its lost due to idling and minor stoppages of the machine. iii) Net operation time is the time the equipment or the machine is operated at design speed. scheduled production stoppages for non reasons. This is the total production/productive time available minus the necessary time for planned essential activities. maintenance ii) Operation time is loading time minus the downtime.

Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management 10 .

2: Difference between Chronic and Sporactic Losses There are many other differences between chronic and sporadic losses. are sudden and unexpected occurrences and these occur only occasionally. Ave find that one may summarize by noting that problems. get to be perceived as normal. or an unexpected. 17. or defects. cause The for a sporadic problem can be easily found out. on the other hand.2. is done to get rid of the cause. as opposed to restoration. are sporadic 11 . Thus chronic losses call innovation. or by process. Chronic breakdowns. or come to be recognized. The effect chronic losses is most acutely felt in the cases of equipment breakdowns and of quality productproblems. Chronic losses are caused by conditions. which. On the other hand. This is because chronic problems are usually due to multiple causes and these causes primarily usually difficult to find since they are hidden in the structure of the equipment are also and the operational and maintenance practices. satisfactory condition. or phenomenon. differences leave been summarized in the form ofa table and this is given as Table The 17. As opposed to this. or causes. losses can thus be removed the restoration – are pair or corrective action which restores the equipment. or sporadic defects. Sporadic. or different. The figure illustrates a case wherein after the chronic had loss been recognized. occur repeatedly over a long period of time and keep on occurring till something radical. or repeatedly over a long period of time. for Fig. a sudden. From the table. or conditions. necessary efforts had been made to bring the level of loss down to the desired optimum level. and such losses only become obvious. of such breakdowns. which is either deep seated and continued over a long time. occurs occurrence which occurs rarely is referred to as sporadic. or chronic defects. Chronic is used to refer to an undesirable condition. over a period of time. Sporadic breakdowns. are usually due to a single cause (recall control charts and existence of an `assignable cause'). when they are compared with the optimum conditions. or sporadic defects. 17.17. Sporadic breakdowns.1.4 CHRONIC AND SPORADIC LOSSES Total Productive Maintenance What we will discuss in this section relates to all the six major losses. simple restoration the actions are usually ineffective when it comes to chronic problems. The difference chronic betweenand sporadic losses is illustrated in Fig. to its original.

since the of cause-and-effect relationship is rather simple to trace and such losses are generally due to a single cause. A closer look at the table would show the reader that five out of the six big losses have been included in the table and the only loss which has not be explicitly included the is startup loss. the startup loss is also included since yield loss is also f aorm of quality loss.2. implementation of corrective action(s). there are some setup and adjustment losses which are (whereas hidden the others are quite obvious).' in keeping with the teachings Taiichi Ohno of Toyota.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management conspicuous. the type of analysis required is simple and straight-forward. in addition to breakdowns and chronic defects. As to this. Usually logical step-by-step deduction would be adequate.1:Differences between Chronic and Sporadic Losses 12 The characteristics of different types of equipment losses are given in Table 17. the type of analysis required for chronic of problems is usually intricate and complex. As a . Moreover. have easily identifiable causes and therefore call for simple and designed easily corrective actions which can be implemented by line personnel. the true ' cause can be detected by asking why five times. design of experiments of analysis of variance etc. for sporadic problems.. Coming to the type of analysis required. such as correlation analysis. calls for the involvement of specialists in and planning and identifying. However. together with the need for the application the sophisticated techniques. This. chronic problems are hidden and are usually due to a complex combination opposed causes. the table shows us that. Table 17. Implicitly. idling and minor stoppage and speed Losses are also chronic hidden. We have noted earlier that the difference between sporadic and chronic losses is clearly felt (or seen) incases of equipment breakdowns and quality productinadequate ILS. It also calls for detailed knowledge of system/process and the equipment. As opposed to this. and in most cases.

you fix' syndrome. However. are eliminate. neglected and also some of the actions which can be taken to reduce. list out the with sporadic equipment defect and chronic defect. operating (or actual) speed is compared with the design speed. Two examples of chronic losses have been cited by Shirose.moving away from the `I operate. Shirose cites the case in setup whichcurrently takes 1 hour. a prerequisite to of TPM . 13 . Table 17. operators perform about from percent twenty of the work that is performed by the maintenance technicians prior to implementation of TPM. In this the speed loss of 50 strokes per minute will remain hidden till such time that case.5 AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE The Japanese refer to autonomous maintenance as self-initiated maintenance. or design capacity of the the press. We will use the term autonomous maintenance in this the primarily because this is the term that is used in the TPM literature nowadays andbook also is understood quite well by the practitioners.matter of fact. term The self-initiated maintenance also highlights the fundamental change of which is attitude. The second example is one of setup loss. It also highlights the fact that the operation function does not replace work maintenance function and the operators takeaway only a part of the work load the the maintenance technicians. gives He the example of a punch press which has been operating at 200 strokes per minute although it has been designed to run at 250 strokes per minute. The job that fact these two functions have to work together for the maximisation of effectiveness equipment has been brought out quite clearly in the preceding chapter. this change of altitude implies cooperation and the of the fact that recognition operations and maintenance arc inseparable when it comes to the of looking after the maintenance of production equipment and machines. and if possible. why these losses must. The above clearly brings out the importance of chronic problems/conditions. uses the term team-based maintenance and this term is probably more Wireman since it brings appropriate out the need for the operator and the maintenance technician to as a team. will the hidden loss of 30 minutes become evident. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … 17. He states that if the setup time can be brought down 30 to minutes by improvement in the technical and operating procedures and then only methods. briefly examine how such chronic losses occur. We discussion therefore.2: Characteristics of Equipment Losses Total Productive Maintenance Activity E With respect to your company's maintenance management. idling and minor stoppages and reduced speed operations are also overlooked and considered normal exactly in the same way as chronic and chronic breakdowns defects. As per Wireman. these chronic losses.

Consider also that plants globalisation and opening up of our economy will bring with it competition and this. performed by maintenance production operators and the maintenance tasks which are performed generally by them under TPM include the following: 1) Cleaning.operating procedures are not strictly adhered to and the operating standards are not maintained by the production operators.. The incidence of breakdowns equipment will also be much lower. Because of this. does not get the time to attend to these tasks and is too busy taking care of equipment breakdowns. Let usservicing. into the organisation sanity. This thinking is so strong that if of more the knowledgeable practitioners and maintenance professionals in India are asked define TPM. The The departments do not get along well. the availability of our equipment. on equipment breakdowns. the production equipment suffer. cases. Thus maintenance autonomous will not only take away a part of the workload of the maintenance but also bring department. the most likely answer will turn out to be as follows: to 'a model wherein the routine preventive maintenance tasks are taken care of by equipment operators leaving the maintenance department enough time to attend the ' other essential and pressing maintenance to What exactly is autonomous maintenance? Autonomous maintenance is functions. Thus we may conclude that autonomous maintenance is necessary for factories and process plants. let alone the question of working together as a team. The maintenance department will find time important tasks. operators will learn to take care of their equipment and machines and use them The This will properly. makes This matter worse and the maintenance departments find it all the more difficult to out the carry preventive maintenance tasks and ensure that the basic equipment conditions maintained. equipment inspections and servicing are not performed. of equipment Maximisationavailability and extension of the useful life of production equipment become have essential and these objective cannot be achieved with the 'I operate. Add to this the fact that the equipment operating conditions are. analysis of past failures. at the need for autonomous maintenance. periodic replacement of wearing parts. The accelerated deterioration brought on by excessive loading. This also has a negative effect on the condition production equipment and. in most are poor. the condition of the equipment worsens and this. As a. cooperation and a sense of belonging to the organisation. of maloperation and operating errors will also be prevented. tightening of bolts and fasteners. such as. of relationship between the operations and maintenance departments is adversarial.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management 14 Autonomous maintenance has become synonymous with productive maintenance and and whenever one hears of TPM. The periodic preventive maintenance tasks of lubrication. in turn. strengthening of for weak points and reliability and maintainability improvement activities. turn. production facilities and process plants for far too long.to remember is that autonomous maintenance is carried out to prevent deterioration accelerated of equipment and also to slow down the process of natural deterioration. you fix' of the past. cleaning. autonomous maintenance is essential for our of the six reduction big losses and accordingly we cannot have TPM without maintenance autonomous . result of this. gives rise to a larger number of breakdowns. Because these essential tasks are not performed. plants and production facilities is that the basic conditions equipment are not maintained. therefore. Moreover. . periodic 3) Minor repairs/adjustments and inspections. The very basis-of autonomous maintenance is the prevention of deterioration and this has neglected in our factories. most in cases. also ensure the use of improved operating procedures and maintenance operating standards. the picture that emerges in one's mind is that TPM maintenance being performed by equipment operators. predictive maintenance. lubrication and 2) Daily and bolting. The main reason for us poor the availability of equipment. Autonomous maintenance can help us to attain these attitude The thing objectives. Why do we need briefly look maintenance autonomous and can we really have TPM without autonomous maintenance? Let consider the actual state of affairs in our industrial organisations. and production facilities is poor and things are getting worse every day. been Autonomous maintenance will enable the maintenance of basic equipment conditions with and if also bring back into the production operators the pride of craftsmanship. in will call for use of sophisticated and automated equipment and plants. Increasing number of breakdowns also results in inadequate restoration activity and use of patch up repairs. two One blames the other for the poor condition of production equipment. The maintenance department.

There is a lack of trust between the employees and the management and to this. but also to take on added of Taking on added responsibilities. use of predictive. require updating of skills. is added a lurking suspicion atilt the of the management in the minds of the employees. like pumps and turbines-use of vibration and monitoring.5. but for a their consider moment. This. overhauls and periodic iv) servicing. ix) and restructuring of the maintenance organisation to give it the required importance power and and also to ensure prevention of failures and an attitude of proaction as 15 . maintenance technicians are also required to change under attitude. have been busy carrying out routine tasks and patch up repairs. or condition-based. collection of failure data and collection of costs of both breakdown systematic and preventive maintenance jobs and feeding these back to the department via maintenance the data processing/management services vii) department. autonomous maintenance. preventive periodic maintenance tasks including cleaning. the operators of production equipment are required Under attend to routine preventive maintenance tasks in addition to their allotted jobs to operating the production equipment This implies that the operators are not of required to cooperate with the maintenance department and help in the task only maintenance of production equipment. even learning of new skills. maintenance for critical (particularly equipment on rotating machines. factories process plants. the fact that the' maintenance personnel. acquisition of new knowledge and. Thus a most basic change of attitude is required from the them operators and production the maintenance The implementation of autonomous maintenance calls for an attitude technicians. steps should be taken to computerize the manual vi) system). the maintenance will also have technicians to learn to cooperate with the production operators and not treat as enemies. maintenance autonomous T .1 Prerequisites for Autonomous Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance Autonomous maintenance requires a change of attitude in the employees.use of wear-debris monitoring/ noise ferrography). in most of our. or job order. understanding and cooperation on the part of the employees. v) use of a maintenance planning and control system based on a work order. is of from the derived employees' sense of belonging to the organisation and the trust the employees have in the management of the organisation. in many cases. in many cases. inspections.maintenance costs too identify areas/systems requiring analysis of attention special in the form of strengthening of components and subsystems reliability and maintainability improvement and viii) efforts. the industrial relations situation is not entirely conducive for industrial implementation of TPM. and on gearboxes . In addition to this. of failure data and analysis of failure modes to identify the reliability analysis and maintainability improvements needed. periodic replacements.17. and also analysis of past failure data and failure modes to identify equipment weaknesses and then plan reliability and maintainability improvement These jobs activities. Similarly autonomous maintenance. Many eyebrows will be raised on reading this statement. in most organisations. This lack of trust has to intentions removed and this can be done by a clear demonstration of management's faith be TPM and its dedication to improvement and growth. in turn. responsibility also implies acquiring a new skill. he prerequisites for the implementation of autonomous maintenance include following the i) recognition of changes/activities: the need for planning in maintenance and implementation planned of ii) installation of history cards on all critical equipment and maintenance. to decide the best course of to action. system (it can either be a manual system or a computerized depending on the size and complexity of operations but as the size of operations system increases. In India. iii) use of preventive maintenance and proper scheduling and control of all machines. The management has to take in necessary actions to bring about certain changes in the operation of the the These changes are the prerequisites for the implementation of company. lubrication. and have and not taken on condition-based maintenance jobs which require the ability analyse condition monitoring data and based on this.

17. We will discuss the basic characteristics of groups and circles before we discuss TPM promotion. corporate. above. are as follows: 1. it may be necessary to create a maintenance bureau/ cell/ planning department). are detailed properly planned and executed (for this. as for example. Activity T Fhink of a manufacturing unit of a company and prepare a report on maintenance. 17. taking a cue from quality circle QC (or circle) activities. right at the beginning of involvement its development at the Nippondenso Company. A small group in TPM PM either can be called a group or PM circle depending on its size and its position in TPM the promotion structure (please see Fig. 2. Harmonizing group goals with the company. have then policies to be transmitted down 16 . then the management can go to are employees and seek their cooperation in the task of implementation of the maintenance autonomous . An example of the TPM policy is given also page on 14. 1-5 of Nakajima's book entitled TPM Development Program: Implementing Total Productive Maintenance. But beyond this there are a few similarities.1 Concept of TPM Promotion In TPM. At the company. or top level these policies are in the form of mission statements. Characteristics of PM Groups and Circles PM groups and circles are set up with the twin objectives of (i) tapping knowledge and abilities/skill of the employees for solving work-rutted problems and the for generating improvement ideas and suggestions. These goals and management. or corporate. The dedication to the of top management to the effort will be brought home by the expenditure of resources required for some of these activities.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management opposed to reaction and tire-fighting. PM groups are also small groups and similar in management as quality circles. or corporate. These changes will demonstrate to the employees that the management wants bring about major changes in the way the plant is being operated. which.6 TPM PROMOTION We had noted that 'T' in TPM stands essentially for total involvement. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … 17. autonomous How is it different from that of productive ……………………………………………………………………………………… maintenance? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Activity … A Gutonomous maintenance requires a change of attitude in the employees.4). and also that for this purpose. as Fig. Implementation of the five's and autonomous maintenance.6. The two size features of PM characteristic groups and circles are the two basic roles of small groups in TPM. or machine committee. of the small groups with the company. goals. goals are set by the or top and senior management personnel. harmonizing the goals and themes. machine the medium section. or of all employees at all levels. Usually groups lower down in organisational structure are often called circles. goals is very important. first shift circles and the higher PM group may be called shop shop medium section circle leaders group. The Company. TPM was evolved as 'PM with all employees participating it) (inthrough small group activities'. and ii) developing a motivated workforce and improving communication between the employees and through employee participation. in turn. Once these activities and systems installed and progressing satisfactorily. in larger process plants and manufacturing facilities. with respect Comment to your own ……………………………………………………………………………………… organisation. The new structure must be capable of ensuring that all the preventive and corrective maintenance actions. They set the organisational goals and they determine the companywide PM policies.

'bottom up' (or bottom-to-top) small group activities and TPM implementation of improvement ideas and suggestions of the groups. so set. Total Productive Maintenance Fig. 17. organisational structure. and this. 17. complement PM enhance the orgnisational activities. Activity H the stress on globalisation in the new economic policy. namely. in turn. namely `top down' goal setting and `bottom up' improvement activities. or company. TPM promotion committee.the organisational structure. namely 'top down' goal setting and direction of activities. Implementation of ideas the suggestions of the groups is essential for the sustenance and growth of motivation in and the members. The departmental PM goals are.3. used for setting of goals for the PM groups and circles in the shops and sections and further down. For this. 17 .3. or central.goals of the PM groups and circles. to shops the and sections. what national With measures policy would you recommend in order to gear up the maintenance function keeping with the national in objectives? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… … 17. These two ingredients of the concept of TPM promotion. if necessary. calls for a integrated formal structure for TPM promotion. in turn. organisational structure . that is. at every level of the organisational structure. This brings us to the second ingredient of the concept of promotion.2 TPM Promotional Structure The effective administration of the scheme of small group autonomous activity. and these goals and policies form the basis for the determination of lie departmental PM goals and policies. For the achievement of the goals. as shown in Fig. active support and assistance improvement higher level groups right through departmental PM committee. 17. The implementation of improvement ideas and suggestions requires the involvement. through departments and departmental managers.3: Concept of TPM Promotion-`Top Down' goal setting & Direction and 'Bottom up' Improvement Activities.6. This way they help in the achievement of and organisation goals. in turn. to be achieved by the The respective PM groups and circles. the ideas and suggestions have to be implemented. it is necessary that the PM groups should be the into the corporate. the PM sub-circles. TPM promotion requires an thus. upto of companywide. This is the first ingredient of concept of TPM promotion. have. ensure that the activities of the groups and circles. the as shown in Fig. requires a formal structure.

for the other sections of the machine shop.7 SUMMARY The unit is introduced with the origin of TPM The objectives of TPM is to the equipment effectiveness. TPM has begun to recently spread out to other departments. medium machine section and the shift first for the purpose of illustration. and the quality control inspectors and are still the technicians leading players. In Fig. the TPM effort should spread to the other departments and functions of the company. and MI and MP. level. the coordinates the TPM efforts of the various functions. whereas productive maintenance must (PM) include not only routine or periodic preventive maintenance activities but also concept of maintenance prevention (MP) and design-out-ofthe Minimisation maintenance. purchasing etc. The leaders of the PM circles at the lowest. In this regard. sales and service.4. enunciated in the definition of TPM. 1) Use 2) Use of committee and 3) Fanning out from subcommittees.4. The number of committees/subcommittees will procedures from differone organisation to another. and at various levels in the organisation are properly directed. This has got an impact on and of losses of prevention equipment. idling and stopages minor and speed loss are major challenges which require the active participation involvement of all employees ill an organisation. and this is done through the use of overlapping small groups. This ensures linking of different groups. the rate at which the equipment performing and the is 18 . or divisions and departments. and a TPM promotion office for overall administration of the scheme of small group autonomous activity. to It enable the achievement of the corporate goals. shown in the figure. general PM groups are still concentrated in the production shops/department.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management TPM promotional structure of overlapping small groups is shown in Fig. with phase I concern. The TPM promotional structure is based on the following three important principles: of overlapping small groups. machine shop. The Promotion Committee is the apex body under the chairmanship of the TPM Director. There lies a difference between a preventive maximise and a productive maintenance. The reduction of equipment utilisation has three which have constituents. and standards. fanning out to the the departments such as design/ engineering. one alternative is as take to up the job of TPM promotion in two phases. Under the TPM Committee. starting from the top company. adjustment. purchasing and other administration. the uses tree production department. the TPM promotional structure enables cross-functional integration. design and development. senior and management levels to the production shops and production lines. has a TPM promotion committee. or Managing t he Chief Executive Officer of the organisation. development of training. will the total involvement. and so on right upto the top. 17.4. in most organisations. and the operators. organisational structure ensures that the activities of the small groups in the This functions. minimisation of set tip. 17. and for the other shops. Nakajima has taken preventive maintenance to maintenance routine include maintenance and periodic inspections. such as education and implementation of five S's and autonomous maintenance. Suzaki states that although. the production/operations department to the entire The small groups function at every level of the company. 17.. In this context. The reader will appreciate that the same kind of overlapping structure will be incorporated for the other two shifts. Notice that the structure.to do with availability of equipment. level are members of the small group at the net higher. It is responsible for directing the TPM activity of the entire company. departments and functions) communication. four promotional (they can as well subcommittees be called committees). Promotion there a number of Committees/subcommittees. It sets the TPM policy for company and it also sets the TPM goals and activities for the company as a whole. Only when this happens. of quality loss.trating on production shops and departments and in phase II. be achieved. 17. or the first. or the second. with each subcommittee committee/ being responsible for a particular topic. This is illustrated in Fig. Although TPM efforts are essentially directed at line activities. The ingredients of the concept of TPM promotion call for proper linking of the two groups small at the different hierarchical levels. and enhances (both top vertical to bottom and bottom to top) and horizonal (between shops. coordinated and linked. various like production. equipmentmaintenance tradesmen.

Total Productive Maintenance 19 .

8 SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISES 1. 1989. 12.M... "Autonomous Maintenance". 73pp. six the big losses are discusses in detail. Cambridge. 165-217. 4. 349-363. Cambridge. 2. 5. 5.Challenge to the Improvement of Productivity by Group Small Activities". January 1984. 7. Autonomous maintenance. 6.9 REFERENCES 1. 3. Chapter 4 in Nakajima. U. 4. Shirose. These three constituents. 9. 1986. "The Organisation of Maintenance in Japanese Maintenance Management International. S. 6. No. A. Maintenance Management International. "Topics in Terotechnology: An Instructional Series -10. TPM Development Program: Implementing Total Productive (Editor). of Maintenance Tradeforce". 17. Productivity Press. F. August 1982. What information is required by the him? are the following policies useful? When 1) condition monitoring 2) preventive replacement on failure 3) replacement 8 . Jr. What are the objectives of total productive maintenance? What is a Bath-tub curve? How can it be used in practice? Discuss preventive maintenance..S.Nakajima.. Motivation No. 8388 . 2. Can work sampling be used in maintenance ? Explain. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 20 . pp. Discuss the significance of Age-specific failure Rate. Industry". 2. 7. Massachusetts.Emerging Issues in Planning/ Operations Management product quality performance of a production equipment. 1970. What is the importance of preventive maintenance? chief of maintenance needs concise information concerning Every day the maintenance function. 2. "TPM . and quality rate from the equipment performance data. S.A. F. performance rate. Vol. S. 6. Juran. what would be If impact on the maintenance its function? the six big losses? What is the importance of these losses? What are Calculate the availability. S. Vol. 3 . Vol. Nakajima. 11. Chapter 8 of TPM Program: Implementing Total Productive Maintenance (Nakajima. 71-81. In what ways is preventive absolutely necessary in JIT/ kanban / pull manufacturing as opposed to maintenance push manufacturing . S. U.. pp.jobs in maintenance department popular with the young Are the graduates? engineeringWhat would you suggest to make the maintenance function attractive more ? the trend of computerization processes continue to grow.. K. Maintenance. Maintenance Management International. 9. is a model wherein the routine preventive maintenance tasks are taken care or by of equipment operators leaving the maintenance department enough time to attend other essential functions. 17.M. Goto.. Kelly. 3 . Quality Planning and Analysis: From Development Through Usage. Nakajima. Product p. and Gryna.S. The unit ends up with the concept of TPM promotion to promotional and structure. Massachusetts. pp.A. New York. 83. 4.. "TPM Small Group Activities". Productivity Press. Development Editor). 1989. pp.. Chronic Losses and Other Improvemen TPM t 10. which is synonymous with productive maintenance TPM. "Equipment Effectiveness. 4. J..