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Water Resources and Farming Systems under Krishna River sub basin between Nagarjuna Sagar and Prakasham

Barrage, Andhra Pradesh, India


R. Vijaya Kumari1, M. Devender Reddy2 and Prem Binderban3 1 & 2 Water Technology centre, Acharya N.G.Ranga Agriculture University, Rajendranagar , Hyderabad and 3 Alterra, ILRI, WagenenginUniversity, Nederlands ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken in Krishna river sub basin (between Nagarjuna Sagar and Prakasham barrage) with an objective of Assessment of current farming systems and opportunities to introduce alternative farming systems. The sub basin covers 192 mandals in 17 revenue divisions of 7 districts i.e., Mahaboobnagar, Khammam, Nalgonda, Warangal, Ranga Reddy, Krishna and Guntur. Survey was conducted with 135 farmers in 27 mandals under 16 revenue divisions.
The size of the land holding differed with source of irrigation. The size of the land holding was greater under rain fed situation followed by canals and tube wells. The predominant cropping situations observed are paddy-paddy sequence under canal irrigation in black soils (22.2%). It was followed by cotton under rain fed situation (21.5%) and paddy paddy sequence (12.6%) under tube well.According to source of irrigation cotton was predominant under rain fed conditions (36.3%) followed by paddy paddy sequence under canal irrigation and tube wells (25.9%). Higher gross and net returns were obtained by growing chilli under different irrigation sources followed by sugarcane, cabbage and cotton.The farming system returns were high where ever they were under canal+ tube well or open wells. The returns were higher with agriculture + dairy + goat/sheep with open wells + tube wells + canal followed by agriculture and dairy with tube well, canal and rain fed. The average annual income of large farmers was high in Guntur district (Rs. 2, 77,748) followed by Khammam and Krishna districts. It was mainly contributed by Agricultural crops and sheep and goat rearing. From the survey, it can be concluded that the adoption of agriculture with diary and sheep or goat rearing under irrigation will be more remunerative than agriculture alone.

Introduction The Krishna River has its origin near the west coast of India and its delta is located in the State of Andhra Pradesh at the east coast. The watershed comprises an area of 250,000 km 2, being equivalent to approximately 8% of the surface area of India as a whole. In Andhra Pradesh, rice is a major crop that uses excessive amounts of water per kilogram of rice produced. The reliance on rainfall is high, but the low and erratic nature of the monsoons in this tropical semi-arid zones leads to moisture deficit for crop production. The farmers receive irrigation water, but they have little control over its availability.

The cropping pattern in a region depends on environment, soil type, rainfall, irrigation facilities, nearness to markets and profitability. Besides these, the socioeconomic conditions of farmers in the region will also decide the farming system. Among these, the rainfall and irrigation plays major role that influence the crops, cropping system, and farming systems. Generally, crops and cropping systems can be selected to reduce water requirement. Keeping these facts in view, a study was undertaken by ANGRAU in association with ALTERRA, ILRI, Wageneningen University, Nederlands in Krishna sub basin between Nagarjuna Sagar and Prakasham barrage with an objective of - Assessment of current farming systems and opportunities to introduce alternative farming systems.
Survey methodology The sub-catchments that discharge into the Krishna River between the Nagarjuna Sagar Project and the Prakasham Barrage of Vijayawada (36000 km2) were selected as study area. Given the objectives of the project, the most relevant farming systems in the study area through a survey and assess the freedom of choice for farmers in setting up their faming systems considering both market and non-market factors and also internal and external factors that influence farm activities under scope for improvement of agricultural benefits by allocative water management have been studied. . A questionnaire was developed to collect farm data that allow analyses for addressing predetermined objectives. The entire sub catchment covers total 192 mandals in 17 revenue divisions of 7 districts i.e., Mahaboobnagar, Khammam, Nalgonda, Warangal, Ranga Reddy, Krishna and Guntur. Among these districts the highest number of mandals were observed in Nalgonda district (59 Mandals), followed by Warangal (32 Mandals), Ranga Reddy (28 Mandals), Guntur (26 Mandals), Khammam (26 Mandals), Krishna (16 Mandals), Mahaboobnagar (5 Mandals) (Table 1). Survey was conducted in 27 mandals under 16 revenue divisions and a total of 135 farmers were surveyed during May 2006-Mar 2007. The percentage of sample farmers to total selected in each district of the study area is presented in Figure 1.

Table 1: Selected Mandals in Krishna River sub basin for primary data collection
District Guntur Narsaraopet Khammam Mahaboob nagar Nalgonda Khammam Jadcherla Miryalaguda Suryapet Bhuvangiri Krishna Rangareddy Vijayawada Nuziveed Chevella Hyderabad East Warangal Vikarabad Mulugu Warangal Jangaon Mahabubabad Narsampet Revenue Division S No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Mandal Pedakurapadu Rompicherla Gurazala Durgi Khammam urban Madhira Wyra Shadnagar Vemulapally Huzur Nagar Athmakur Nothanakal B.Ramaram Mothkur Chandarlapadu Veerullapadu Gampalagudam Pargi Shabad Kandukur Ibrahimpatnam Tandur Mulugu Hasanparthy Raghunathpally Maripeda Kanapur Number of farmers interviewed 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 135

Fig 1 District wise sample farmers in the study area

Warangal 19%

Guntur 15% Khammam 11%

Rangareddy 19% Krishna 11% Nalgonda 21%

Mahaboobnagar 4%

Results Rainfall: Normal rainfall in the districts of selected Krishna river basin ranged from 604.7 mm (Mahaboobnagar) to 1124.0 mm (Khammam), the highest amount of rainfall is being recorded in Khammam district (Table 2). Table 2: Normal rainfall in the districts of selected Krishna river sub basin District Normal rainfall (mm) Guntur 851.0 Khammam 1124.0 Mahaboobnagar 604.7 Nalgonda 1091.0 Warangal 1048.1 Ranga Reddy 781.5 Land holdings: The secondary data shows that the marginal farmers were identified only in Ranga Reddy district with an average land holding of 0.4 ha (Table 3 and 4). The small farmers were identified in all the districts except Khammam district with an average land holding of 1.8 ha. The large farmers are observed in all the districts surveyed where the size of land holding ranged from 3.2 to 4.5 ha. Nalgonda district have more number of large farmers (26) followed by Warangal (20) and Guntur (19) districts (Fig 2). The average land holding of sample farmers in this basin ranges from 2.7 4.8 ha. Among the sampled farmers, 82.2% are large farmers, 23% are small farmers and only 1% is marginal farmers. Except in Rangareddy district, in all other surveyed districts, large farmers are 80-100%. There are no small farmers in Khammam district and small farms constitute only 5% in Guntur and 36% in Rangareddy district, while in all other districts it ranged from 13 to 20%. Table 3: District wise number of farmers with different size of the land holdings in study area District Marginal farmers Small farmers Large farmers Total Guntur 1 (5)* 19 (95)* 20 (14.8)** Khammam 15 (100) 15 (11.1) Krishna 3 (20) 12 (80) 15 (11.1) Mahaboob nagar 1 (20) 4 (80) 5 (3.7) Nalgonda 4 (13.9) 26 (87) 30 (22.2) Ranga Reddy 1 (4) 9 (36) 15 (60) 25 (18.5) Warangal 5 (20) 20 (80) 25 (18.5) Total 1 (0.7) 23 (17.0) 111 (82.2) 135 (100) * Figures in parenthesis are percentage to total number of sample farmers in each of their respective district ** Figures in parenthesis are percentage to total number of sample farmers in all the districts

Fig 2 District wise categorisation of sample farmers


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Number of sample farmers

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboob Nalgonda nagar Ranga Reddy Warangal Large farmers Small farmers Marginal farmers

Table 4: District wise Average land holding size (hectares) of sample farmers in study area District Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboob nagar Nalgonda Ranga Reddy Warangal Pooled Source of income: The main source of income in this region is Agriculture (Table 5). Among 135 farmers surveyed, the main occupation of 71 farmers (52.6%) is agriculture followed by a combination of Agriculture and business. A very less number of farmers are dependent on livestock management (5%). Only a few farmers of Krishna, Nalgonda, Rangareddy and Warangal are dependent on livestock based farming system (Fig 3). Table 5: Income sources of sample farmers in the study area (2007) Agriculture is main occupation 12 (60) 11 (73.3) 2 (13.3) 2 (40) 16 (53.3) Business is main occupation Agriculture and Business 7 (35) 4 (27) 9 (60) 2 (40) 12 (40) 1 (3.3) 2 (13.3) 2 (13.3) 1 (20) 1 (3.3) Agriculture and Dairy Agriculture and Goat raring 1 (5) Marginal farmers Small farmers 2 1.7 2 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.8 Large farmers 4.5 4.0 3.3 5.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.7 Pooled 4.3 4.0 2.9 4.8 3.2 2.7 2.9 3.4

0.4 0.4

District Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboob nagar Nalgonda

Total 20 (14.8) 15 (11.1) 15 (11.1) 5 (3.7) 30 (22.2) 5

Ranga Reddy Warangal Total

11 (44) 17 (68) 71 (52.6)

3 (12) 3 (2.2)

8 (32) 5 (20) 47 (34.8)

1 (4) 3 (12) 7 (5.2)

2 (8) 7 (5.2)

25 (18.5) 25 (18.5) 135

Fig 3 District wise income sources of sample farmers


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Number of sample farmers

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboob Nalgonda nagar Ranga Reddy Warangal Agriculture + Goat raring Agriculture + Dairy Agriculture + Business Business Agriculture

Agriculture is the main source of income for 52.6% of the sampled farmers, agriculture along with business, dairy and goat rearing is the main source of income for 47, 7 and 7% of the farmers respectively. Irrigation source and number of farmers: The main source of irrigation in this basin is tube wells and canals. Drip irrigation was followed only in Ranga Reddy district. The large farmers of Nalgonda and Warangal districts mainly depends on rain fed Agriculture and tube wells. Irrigation source and size of land holding: The size of the land holding differed with source of irrigation (Table 6). Irrespective of the district, the size of the land holding is the highest under rain fed situation followed by canals and tube wells. Under open wells the maximum size of land holding (2.8 ha) was observed in Guntur district, under tube wells the maximum size of land holding (2.1 ha) was observed in Ranga reddy and under rain fed situation the size of land holding was maximum in Mahaboobnagar district (5.2 ha). The average size of holding under ground water is 0.4 ha, but for small farmers it is 1.3 ha and for large farmer 1.5 ha. Under surface water, the average land holding for marginal, small and large farmers is 0.4 ha, 1.4 ha and 2.5 ha respectively. Table 6: Iirrigation source wise average land holding (hectares) of sample farmers District Guntur Source of irrigation Ground water Open well Tube well Drip Surface water Tank Marginal farmers Small farmers 2.8 Large farmers 2 Pooled 2.8 2

Khammam

Ground water

Surface water

Krishna

Ground water

Canal Rain fed Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed

0.8

2.9 2.7 0.8 1.7 1.1 3 2.8 0.8 1.4 2.4

2.8 2.7 0.8 1.7 1.1 3 2.8 0.6 1.2

0.4 0.4

Surface water

2.4

2.3 1.7 1.2 2.2

2.3 1.9 1.2 2.1

Mahaboob nagar

Ground water

Surface water

Nalgonda

Ground water

Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed Open well Tube well Drip Tank Canal Rain fed

1.6

1.2 0 1.2

6.2 0.9 1.1 2.6 3.4 1.8 1.4 2.3 2.4

5.2 0.9 1.1

Surface water

0.8 0.8

3 1.6 1.4 2.13 2.4 2 1.15 0.9 1.0 2.7 1.1 1.9

Ranga Reddy

Ground water

0.4

2 2

Surface water

0.4

Warangal

Ground water

1.2 1.1 0.8

1.3 0.8 1 2.7

Surface water

1.1 0.4 1.3 1.9 1.5

Pooled

Ground water

Surface water

0.4

1.4

2.5

Irrigation source, Soil types and crops grown: In this basin the soil types observed are black, red, sandy black, red sandy and sandy loam soils (Table 7). The predominant cropping situations observed are paddy-paddy sequence under canal irrigation in black soils (22.2%), it was followed by cotton under rain fed situation (21.5%) and paddy paddy sequence (12.6%) under tube well. Under rain fed situation cotton, red gram, and castor are grown in Kharif season. Cropping situations were less under tank irrigation/ bore wells/rain fed condition in red or sandy soils. Table 7 Existing cropping patterns under different irrigation sources in study area Source of irrigation Canal Rain fed Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Tank Tube well Tank Rain fed Canal Rain fed Tube well Rain fed Tube well Canal Tube well Tube well Tube well Drip Rain fed Tube well Bore well Bore well Bore well Canal Canal Number of situations 30 29 17 14 12 12 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Soil type Black Black Black Red Red Black Sandy black Black Sandy loam Black Sandy black Black Sandy loam Sandy black Sandy black Black Sandy black Black Sandy black Sandy black Red Sandy loam Red Black Sandy loam Sandy loam Black Sandy clay

Kharif Paddy Cotton Paddy Red gram Castor Chillies Cotton Paddy Paddy Cotton Subabul Paddy Cotton Chillies Chillies Cotton Paddy Paddy Paddy Vegetables Orchard Castor Chillies Paddy Paddy Paddy Paddy Paddy

Rabi Paddy Paddy

Summer

Paddy Paddy

Pulses

Paddy Pulses Paddy

Paddy Paddy Vegetab les Sugarca ne Black Dhanchia

Per cent 22.2 21.5 12.6 10.4 8.9 8.9 7.4 7.4 7.4 6.7 5.9 5.2 4.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2

gram Sandy black Black Red sandy Black Black Black Black Red Sandy red Sandy clay Black Red Black Sandy Red sandy Sandy loam Red Black Loamy Sandy loam Black Red Black Red sandy Red sandy Black Red sandy Black Black Sandy black Black Sandy black Red Red Tank Rain fed Rain fed Bore well Open well Tube well Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Canal Rain fed Rain fed Open well Bore well Open well Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Tank Rain fed Canal Canal Canal Tube well Canal Tube well Rain fed Paddy Red gram Red gram Vegetables Vegetables Cabbage Chillies Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton + Red gram Cotton + Red gram Green gram Jowar Maize + Red gram Maize + Turmeric Paddy Paddy Paddy Red gram Subabul Subabul Sugarcane Castor Chillies Chillies Chillies Cotton + Maize Cotton + Maize Cotton + maize Cotton + Maize Paddy 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Paddy Maize

Paddy Paddy Paddy

Sugarca Fallow ne Greengram Maize Sunflo Jowar wer

Black Black Red Black Sandy black Sandy clay Black Sandy clay Black Sandy black Red Sandy black Black

Canal Rain fed Rain fed Tank Tube well Tube well Tube well Open well Tube well Tube well Tube well Tube well Rain fed

Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Paddy Paddy Paddy Paddy Sugarcane Sunflower

Maize Vegetab les Maize Maize Cabbag e Green gram Ground nut Green gram Paddy

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

Irrigation source wise crops grown in different seasons: According to source of irrigation cotton was predominant under rain fed conditions (36.3%) in this region followed by paddy paddy sequence under canal irrigation and tube wells (25.9%). Maize based cropping system; Jowar/vegetable based cropping is less under all irrigation sources in this region. Under rain fed conditions the crops predominantly grown are cotton followed by red gram, castor, subabul and chillies. Under canal irrigation the crops grown are paddy, cotton and maize. Under tube wells the crops grown are paddy, cotton and vegetables. Soil type and cropping systems in different seasons: Based on soil type, in the black soils, the paddy paddy sequence was predominant (45.9%) followed by cotton (31.9%). But in red soils the mostly preferred crop is red gram (10.4%). In sandy soils the mostly cultivated crops were vegetables, chillies and castor. The lowest numbers of situations were observed in black soils with maize and green gram cultivation. Returns: Highest gross and net returns were obtained by growing chilli under different irrigation sources followed by sugarcane, cabbage and cotton (Table 8). The lowest benefits were obtained by growing green gram and jowar. The highest BC ratio was obtained by growing paddy paddy sequence under open well in black soils. It was followed by paddy paddy sequence in sandy loam soils under open well situation and cotton + red gram cropping under canal irrigation in black soils. The average annual income of large farmers was high (Rs. 2, 77,748) in Guntur district (Table 9). It was mainly contributed by agricultural crops and sheep and goat rearing. It was followed by Khammam and Krishna districts. The lowest income was obtained in Mahaboobnagar district. However, the small farmers of Krishna and Nalgonda districts were realizing more income than the other districts.

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Table 8: Average economics (Rs/ha) of different cropping systems in study area Source No. of of sample Cropping pattern Cost of Yield Gross S.No Soil type irrigation farmers cultivation (q/ha) returns Kharif Rabi Kharif 1 Black Canal 31 Paddy Paddy 22601 51 37823 Tube 2 Black well 16 Paddy Paddy 20906 52 38198 Red 3 Red Rain fed 14 gram 9071 11 20625 4 Red Rain fed 12 Castor 9563 14 21333 5 Black Tank 13 Paddy Paddy 18608 49 35492 Sandy 6 oam Canal 3 Paddy Paddy 23000 60 42500 Open 7 Black well 3 Paddy Paddy 16167 52 33792 Open 8 Red well 1 Paddy Paddy 17875 53 33750 Sandy Open 9 loam well 4 Paddy Paddy 17880 54 35419 Tube 10 Red well 2 Paddy Paddy 22250 50 34375 Sandy Tube 11 loam well 7 Paddy Paddy 21964 51 36393 Sandy Tube 12 black well 3 Paddy Paddy 22758 53 39233 Bore 13 Black well 2 Cotton 32000 34 74250 14 Black Canal 4 Cotton 26813 30 45750 15 Black Rain fed 20 Cotton 28244 29 63838 16 Red Rain fed 2 Cotton 29563 31 57500 17 Sandy Rain fed 10 Cotton 31363 28 58350 Net returns 15227 17292 11554 11771 16885 19500 17625 15875 17539 12125 14429 16475 42250 45542 35469 27938 26988 BC ratio 0.67 0.83 1.27 1.23 0.91 0.85 1.09 0.89 0.98 0.54 0.66 0.72 1.32 1.70 1.26 0.95 0.86 11 Cost of Yield Gross Net BC cultivation (q/ha) returns returns ratio Rabi 20338 54 39575 19238 0.95 18180 53 38434 20255 1.11

17740 20583 16167 19875 19050 19125 18143 19750

52 58 55 55 60 55 52 49

37437 38292 40175 40650 41600 38000 37432 33083

19696 17708 24008 20775 22550 18875 19289 13333

1.11 0.86 1.49 1.05 1.32 0.99 1.06 0.68

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

loam Black Black Sandy Clay Black Black Black Black Black Black Red Sandy Sandy Black Sandy Black Sandy black Red sandy Sandy black Black Sandy loam Red

Tank Tube well Tube well Tube well Canal Canal Rain fed Tube well Tank Rain fed Rain fed Tube well Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed

7 8 3 4 2 4 12 2 1 4 5 5 1 3 4 4 4 1

Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton + Maize Cotton + Red gram Chillies Chillies Chillies Chillies Chillies Chillies Chillies Subabul Subabul Subabul Castor Castor

26000 29063 30917 26250 26125 27188 45094 40313 48500 39563 32350 42800 32750 23333 18750 20000 12438 12375

26 27 30 28 30 23 48 44 50 41 44 44 38 50 63 56 15 13

52857 62031 72500 63250 75000 48313 169479 175000 200000 150000 138000 152750 112500 65000 82656 73594 21688 21250

26857 32969 42417 37000 48875 21125 124490 134688 151500 110438 105650 109950 79750 41667 63906 53594 9250 8875

1.03 1.13 1.37 1.41 1.87 0.78 2.76 3.34 3.12 2.79 3.27 2.57 2.44 1.79 3.41 2.68 0.74 0.72 12 17875 9563 50 12 15250 21375 10875 11813 0.61 1.24

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

sandy Sandy loam Black Sandy Red Red Sandy black Red Black Sandy Black Red Sandy loam Red Sandy loam

Rain fed Rain fed Rain fed Tank Rain fed Rain fed Canal Rain fed Tube well tube well Rain fed Tube well

6 3 5 5 3 4 3 5 4 4 5 4

Castor Red gram Red gram Red gram Red gram + Maize Red gram + Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize

12427 9542 9850 10125 8750 8313 16917 16167 13250 14000 15150 16438

15 11 14 11 11 12 46 46 50 49 49 54

21615 20833 24900 20100 21250 19875 17667 27500 26094 27219 26275 30500

9188 11292 15050 9975 12500 11563 9750 11333 12844 13219 11125 14063

0.74 1.18 1.53 0.99 1.43 1.56 1.69 1.83 1.96 2.09 2.22 2.36 17333 13313 46 43 27500 23688 10167 10375

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Table 9: Average annual income (Source wise) of farmers in Krishna river basin districts (Rs/unit farm)

Marginal farmers Ave rage Far m size (ha) Avera ge Farm size (ha) 2 1.7 2 1.9 0.4 71,800 71,800 1.7 2 63,446

Source wise average income Small farmers Avera ge Farm size (ha) 4.5 4 79,267 36,200 68,663 32,500 18,000 1000 23,333 30000 1,02,600 66,200 1,01,163 81,646 3.3 5.6 3.5 3.3 3.2

Large farmers

District Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboob nagar Nalgonda Ranga Reddy Warangal

Agricul tural crops

Dairy

Sheep & Goat

Poultry

Total

Agricul tural crops 74,250

Dairy

Sheep & Goat

Poultry

Total 74,250

Agricul tural crops 2,58,801 1,47,835 1,33,492 56,288 99,695 1,03,207 1,11,199

Dairy 15,263 19,400 10,000 12,500 20,862 14,667 16,750

Sheep & Goat 70,000 70,000 60,000 37,500 2,154 1,579

Poul try

Total 2,77,748 1,71,901 1,53,492

500 300 517

1,06,413 1,22,722 1,17,873 1,29,604

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Farming systems In small farms, agriculture + dairy + poultry have been found to give higher annual returns followed by agriculture + dairy and agricultural + goat farming (Table 10). Further, the agriculture under canal irrigation was found to give higher returns than that of tube wells and rain fed conditions. Under canal irrigation, agriculture + dairy were found to give higher returns over tube wells + rain fed. The returns were lower in case of open wells + tube wells + tank. Agriculture + dairy and poultry under open wells and canal condition was higher than that under open well, tube well and tank. Under large farms, agriculture under tube wells recorded higher returns and this was followed by tube well + canal + rain fed. The agriculture + dairy has given higher returns over that of agriculture + dairy + goat/ sheep or agricultural + goat/sheep + poultry. Agriculture + dairy under tube well + canal + rain fed have given higher returns over that under open wells + tube wells + canal. The agriculture + dairy + sheep/goat under open well, tube well and canal was found to give higher returns over that under tube well and tank. Agriculture and sheep/goat under canal + rain fed condition, agriculture + dairy + poultry under open well and canal was found to give higher returns. The farming system returns were high where ever they were under canal+ tube well or open wells. The highest returns were found to be high with agriculture + dairy + goat/sheep with open wells + tube wells + canal followed by agriculture and dairy with tube well, canal and rain fed.
Table 10: Farming systems followed under sources of irrigation and income generated by different farm sizes in Krishna basin (between Nagarjuna Sagar and Prakasham barrage), 2007
Farm size Marginal Farming system Agriculture (0.4 ha) Agriculture (2 ha) Agriculture (2 ha) Small Agriculture (2 ha) Agriculture (1.9 ha) Agriculture (1.9 ha) Irrigation source Tube well + Rainfed Tank + Rain fed Canal Rain fed Tube well No. of sample farmers 1 1 1 1 4 7 Amount (Rs/unit farm) 71800 68000 215050 85000 84230 100710 Amount (Rs/ha) 179500 34000 107525 42500 44332 53005

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Agriculture (2 ha) + Dairy (1) Agriculture (2 ha) + Dairy (1) Agriculture (2 ha) + Dairy (4) Agriculture (2 ha) + Dairy (1) Agriculture (1.9 ha) + Dairy (3.5) Agriculture (1.6 ha) + Dairy (2) Agriculture (1.9 ha) + Dairy (2.6) Agriculture (2 ha) + Dairy (2) + Poultry (3) Agriculture (1.8 ha) + Dairy (2.5) + Poultry (8.5) Agriculture (1.9 ha) + Dairy (2.3) + Poultry (6.7) Agriculture (1.2 ha) + Goat/Sheep (25) Agriculture (2 ha) + Goat/Sheep (15) Agriculture (1.6 ha) + Goat/Sheep (20) Agriculture (6.4 ha) Agriculture (3.6 ha) Agriculture (3.4 ha) Agriculture (3.2 ha) Large Agriculture (7.4 ha) Agriculture (3.4 ha) Agriculture (4.5 ha) Agriculture (3.5 ha) Agriculture (4.1 ha) Agriculture (3.1 ha) Agriculture (5.5 ha)

Open well + Tube well + Tank Open well + Canal Tank + Rain fed Tube well + Rain fed Canal Tube well

1 1 1 1 4 1 9

72380 82700 85200 95700 112238 78600 95948 92180

36190 41350 42600 47850 59073 49125 50499 46090

Open well + Tube well + Tank Open well + Canal

161100

89500

138127

72698

Tank Tube well + Rain fed

1 1 2

93000 66200 79600 82725 84720 174175 90600 596700 168210 132735 379920 118609 101317 194650

77500 33100 49750 12926 23533 51228 28313 80635 49474 29497 108549 28929 32683 35391

Open well + Tube well + Rain fed Open well + Tube well + Tank Open well + Tube well Tube well + Tank + Rain fed Tube well + Canal + Rain fed Tube well + Canal Tube well + Rain fed Tube well Tank Canal + Rain fed Canal

2 1 2 1 2 5 13 5 3 3 5

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Agriculture (4.4 ha) Agriculture (4.1 ha) + Dairy (3.3) Agriculture (2.8 ha) + Dairy (3) Agriculture (2.4 ha) + Dairy (2) Agriculture (2.8 ha) + Dairy (3.5) Agriculture (4 ha) + Dairy (4.5) Agriculture (4.4 ha) + Dairy (8) Agriculture (3.6 ha) + Dairy (2) Agriculture (4.9 ha) + Dairy (2.7) Agriculture (3.9 ha) + Dairy (3.6) Agriculture (2.4 ha) + Dairy (4) Agriculture (3.3 ha) + Dairy (3.3) Agriculture (3.6 ha) + Dairy (3) Agriculture (2.8 ha) + Dairy (3) Agriculture (3.6 ha) + Dairy (5.5) Agriculture (4.2 ha) + Dairy (5.5) Agriculture (4 ha) + Dairy (3.3) Agriculture (3.6 ha) + Dairy (3.5) Agriculture (3.2 ha) + Dairy (5) + Goat/Sheep (25) Agriculture (2.4 ha) + Dairy (2) + Goat/Sheep (29) Agriculture (4.8 ha) + Dairy (3) + Goat/Sheep (15) Agriculture (3.5 ha) + Dairy (3.3) + Goat/Sheep (23) Agriculture (4 ha) + Goat/Sheep (30) Agriculture (6.4 ha) + Goat/Sheep (20) Tube well + Tank Canal + Rain fed Open well + Tank Open well + Tube well + Canal Tube well + Tank Open well + Tube well + Rain fed Open well + Tube well + Tank Open well + Tube well + Canal Open well + Tube well Open well + Rain fed Open well + Canal Tube well + Canal + Rain fed Tube well + Tank + Canal Tube well + Canal Tube well + Tank + Rain fed Tube well + Rain fed Tube well + Tank Tank + Rain fed Tank Canal + Rain fed Canal

42 3 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 7 2 15 1 3 2 2 10 56 1

190042 196833 205420 184500 190333 201675 222150 346413 136700 248979 91450 162013 187100 147817 183710 238800 209507 198020 129330

43191 48008 73364 76875 67976 50419 50489 96226 27898 63841 38104 49095 51972 52792 51031 56857 52377 55006 40416

245640

102350

140640

29300

3 1 1

171870 127890 363300

49106 31973 56766

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Agriculture (2.6 ha) + Goat/Sheep (27.5) Agriculture (2.4 ha) + Goat/Sheep (35) Agriculture (3.4 ha) + Goat/Sheep (29.2) Agriculture (3.4 ha) + Dairy (8) + Poultry (5) Agriculture (4.3 ha) + Dairy (2) + Poultry (4.3) Agriculture (2.8 ha) + Dairy (5) + Poultry (4) Agriculture (3.8 ha) + Dairy (3.8) + Poultry (4.4) Agriculture (3.2 ha) + Dairy (2) + Goat/Sheep (90) + Poultry (5)

Tube well + Rain fed Rain fed

2 2 6

108350 140700 164932 174300

41673 58625 48509 51265

Open well + Canal Open well + Tube well + Tank Open well + Tank

197403

45908

136150

48625

180532

47508

Rain fed

165500

51719

Table 11: District wise per unit area income generated under different farming systems in the study area (Rs/ha)
Small Mahaboob nagar Nalgonda 33100 49483

Farming System Agriculture Agriculture+Dairy Agriculture+Sheep /Goat Agriculture+Dairy+ Sheep/Goat Agriculture+Dairy +Poultry Agriculture+Dairy+ Sheep/Goat+Poultry Agriculture Agriculture+Dairy Agriculture+Sheep /Goat Agriculture+Dairy+ Sheep/Goat Agriculture+Dairy +Poultry Agriculture+Dairy+ Sheep/Goat+Poultry

Guntur 37125

Khammam 107525 83450

Krishna 42500

Rangareddy 43509 45526


77500

Warangal 32711 38770

72698 Large 14387

62394 68327 56813

22639 60811

38774 55857 58625

19974 46801 31973

80096 54008

45262 40167

42964

102350

40416
28498 51719 56271

The per unit area income generated from different farming systems in each district of the study area under small and large farms is presented in Table 11 and Fig 4 and 5. It is revealed from the data that under small farms the performance of agriculture alone and agriculture + dairy is

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most remunerative in Khammam. This was followed by Rangareddy and Krishna in case of agriculture and Nalgonda and Rangareddy in case of agriculture + dairy. Whereas on large farms, the combination of agriculture with dairy and sheep/goat has out performed than any other farming systems in the study area. With regard to agriculture alone Rangareddy ranked first in income followed by Guntur and Krishna. However, in case of agriculture+dairy Guntur is leading in returns followed by Khammam and Krishna. Moreover, agriculture+sheep/goat farming were also found better returning after agriculture+dairy in many districts of the study area.
Fig 4 Annual returns from different farming systems in small sample farms of the study area
120000
Annual returns (Rs/ha)

100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboobnagar Nalgonda Rangareddy Warangal Agriculture Agriculture+Dairy Agriculture+Sheep/Goat Agriculture+Dairy+Poultry

Fig 5 Annual returns from different farming systems in large sample farms of the study area
120000
Annual returns (Rs/ha)

100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Guntur Khammam Krishna Mahaboobnagar Nalgonda Rangareddy Warangal Agriculture Agriculture+Dairy Agriculture+Sheep/Goat Agriculture+Dairy+Sheep/Goat Agriculture+Dairy+Poultry Agriculture+Dairy+Sheep/Goat+Poultry

Farmers opinion on existing farming system: Farmers are not ready to change the farming system because of availability of resources and also the irrigation facilities up to some extent (Table 11). Farmers in the study area opined that lack of labor is the major constraint in farming. Further, the farmers are adopting a particular farming system for maximizing profit under existing sources.

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Table11: Opinion of sample farmers of study area on existing farming system Number of farmers Percentage opinion 41 30.3 46 34.3 49 36.3 31 23.0 42 31.1 62 45.9 15 7 14 71 23 5 71 5 20 21 5 13 16 55 19 9 19 17 11.1 51.9 10.4 52.6 17.0 37.1 52.6 3.7 14.8 15.6 3.7 9.6 11.9 40.7 14.1 6.7 14.9 12.6

Satisfying existing farming system

He is willing to shift any other crops

Yes Some extent No Yes Some extent No Market demand Climatic conditions Local adaptability Resources available Irrigation facilities Traditional

Specific reason for existing farming system

adopting

What is the aim behind adopting the particular existing farming system Maximizes profit Daily income Minimize risk Profit & Resource Conservation Satisfaction of family needs Seasonal income Major biotic/abiotic constraints Irrigation facilities Labor Marketing Power Rainfall Weather hazards Conclusion:

From this study, it can be concluded that the size of the land holding was greater under rain fed situation followed by canals and tube wells. The predominant cropping situations observed are paddy-paddy sequence under canal irrigation in black soils (22.2%) followed by cotton under rain fed situation (21.5%) and paddy paddy sequence (12.6%) under tube well. According to source of irrigation cotton was predominant under rain fed conditions (36.3%) followed by paddy paddy sequence under canal irrigation and tube wells (25.9%). Higher gross and net returns were obtained by growing chilli under different irrigation sources followed by sugarcane, cabbage and cotton. The farming system returns were high where ever they were under canal+ tube well or open wells. The returns were higher with agriculture + dairy + goat/sheep with open wells + tube wells + canal followed by agriculture and dairy with tube well, canal and rain fed.

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