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5) Canciu, Ana-Maria (gr. 5) NOW Statement of Purpose
19th December, 2011
1. Historical Context ( Alina Tătaru) The National Organization for Women (NOW) is the largest feminist organization
in the United States. It was founded in 1966 and has a membership of 500,000 contributing members. The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.
NOW was founded on June 30, 1966, in Washington, D.C., by 28 women and men
attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women, the successor to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. It had been three years since the Commission reported findings of women being discriminated against. However, the 1966 Conference delegates were prohibited by the administration's rules for the conference from even passing resolutions recommending that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination.
The founders included Betty Friedan, the author of The Feminine Mystique (1963),
Pauli Murray, the first African-American female Episcopal priest, and Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman to run for president of the United States of America. The movement spawned by Friedan's book is embodied in NOW, the National Organization for Women, which works to secure political, professional, and educational equality for women. Founded in 1966 with Betty Friedan acting as an organizer, NOW is a public voice for equal rights for women. It has been extremely effective in enacting rhetorical strategies that have brought about concrete changes in laws and policies that enlarge women's opportunities and protect their rights.
During the 1970s feminist leaders promoted the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution. After Congress approved the amendment in 1972, it was quickly ratified by 28 states, and its passage seemed assured. However, a Stop ERA campaign, led by Phyllis Schlafly, crushed the progress of the legislation. By 1973, of the needed 38 states, 35 had ratified the amendment, but no remaining state would ratify the ERA.
Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray wrote the organization's Statement of Purpose in 1966
(the original was scribbled on a napkin by Friedan). The statement described the purpose of NOW as "To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men."
that other forms of oppression such as classism and ableism work together with these three to keep power and privilege concentrated in the hands of a few. mothers/caregivers economic rights. . color. includes protections against exploitation in the workplace. District of Columbia: commonly referred to as Washington. This brochure also states: "NOW is one of the few multi-issue progressive organizations in the United States. family law. and disability oppression. These national leaders are responsible for implementing policy as formulated by the annual National Conference. judicial nominations. for coordinating national actions. Bylaws: can refer to a law of local or limited application passed under the authority of a higher law specifying what things may be regulated by the by-law." Global issues: According to NOW's bylaws. It can also refer to the internal rules of a company or organization. promotes the reunification of families. including disability discrimination. Glossary: Ableism: is a form of discrimination or social prejudice against people with disabilities. however. national origin. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): is an independent federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. by the national Board of Directors. women in the military. NOW does some work on other issues of importance to women and children globally. handicapism. Terry O'Neill. immigration. same-sex marriage. NOW stands against all oppression. religion. media activism. age.. "the District". disability rights. Board of Directors: is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. health and body image. promoting women-friendly workplaces. young feminist programs and more. was elected in 2009. and for providing membership services. beginning with Betty Friedan in 1966. sexism and homophobia are interrelated. Justice for immigrant women: NOW supports "real 'immigration reform' legislation that provides a path to citizenship. is the capital of theUnited States. and by national issues committees. and doesn't include fences. The national level of the organization is led by four elected national officers. NOW has had ten national presidents. It is known by many names. walls or border prisons. or simply D. sex. Classism: is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class. perceived intelligence. global feminism. education. recognizing that racism.C. welfare. physicalism." NOW also works on the issues of affirmative action. disability (such as alcoholism) and retaliation for reporting and/or opposing a discriminatory practice. NOW's primary focus is on domestic American issues. the currently serving national president. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race.
2.. First part of the text (Irina Pârvan): In 1960. Rhetorical Strategies: strategies through the art of discourse. American women were discriminated by the entire society. In the implementation of the Act.. made them fight for their liberty and for equality between man and women. 397-400. advocating such measures as the creation of nationwide childcare . in 1923.htm Mary Beth Norton. It was founded in 1966 and has a membership of 500.000 contributing members.org/docs/democracy/demo.S. NOW did not shy away from controversy. Major Problems in American Women's History (1989). The organization consists of 550 chapters in all 50 U. In the 1966 Statement of Purpose. were kept as households in their houses. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and. NOW resolved to fight the iniquities of women being consistently marginalized in politics. Betty Friedan's groundbreaking work. states and the District of Columbia. The expectation of women serving the role of wife and mother in American society hindered any tangible progress.Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution. trapped under a glass ceiling of socially constructed gender roles. Status of women: is the study of the role that women have played in history. ed. and their most important job was to take care of their children. but denounced the ideology that created them. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed in response to what many women saw as neglect of the concerns and condition of women during the Civil Rights Movement. and all but barred from the professions and higher education. NOW not only targeted the surface-level problems. Women continued to be spurned from equal economic and political participation. NOW expounded upon its rejection of traditionally conceived gender roles in which the man acted in the public sphere while the woman was relegated to a life of domesticity.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women http://usinfo.wikipedia. Phyllis Schlafly: is a Constitutional lawyer and an American politically conservative activist and author who founded the Eagle Forum. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination. She is known for her opposition to modern feminism ideas and for her campaign against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. paid only a percentage of what men earned. They were excluded from politics. had given a voice to widely held feelings in 1963 and NOW sought to mobilize an increasingly conscious female population. The fact that women’s rights were denied. together with the methods needed to study women. Bibliography: http://en. men were paid better than them. it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. extension of equality to women lagged behind advancements experienced by African Americans. NOW: The National Organization for Women (NOW) is the largest feminist organization in the United States. The Feminine Mystique.
In 1966. prompted her to begin research for The Feminine Mystique. opportunity for women. . 2006) was an American writer. media. Kennedy's executive order 10980 signed December 14. Kennedy as part of his New Frontier Program. 1961. politics. activist. A leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States. The organization postulated that women possessed the same abilities to contribute on every level of society as men. It charged the commission with "the responsibility for developing recommendations for overcoming discriminations in government and private employment on the basis of sex and for developing recommendations for services which will enable women to continue their role as wives and mothers while making a maximum contribution to the world around them. thereby burdening. and NOW sought to help blaze a trail for equal opportunity in education. The Equal Pay Act of 1963: is a United States federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act. including racial segregation. and the workplace. aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex It was signed into law on June 10. the national interest in security and defense of a more "efficient and effective utilization of the skills of all persons. it burdens commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce. She originally intended to publish an article on the topic." Glossary: Betty Friedan: (February 4. Friedan was asked to conduct a survey of her former Smith College classmates for their 15th anniversary reunion. it prevents the maximum utilization of the available labor resources it tends to cause labor disputes.. It was created by John F. and feminist. which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men".Congress denounces sexual discrimination for the following reasons: It depresses wages and living standards for employees necessary for their health and efficiency. and obstructing commerce. and advertising.facilities that would alleviate women from having to sacrifice ten to fifteen years of their life in childrearing.February 4. In 1957. The Feminine Mystique: published February 19. 1963 by John F. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools. 1921 . and it constitutes an unfair method of competition. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States. In passing the bill. affecting. Civil Rights Act of 1964: was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women. by W. her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique is often credited with sparking the "second wave" of American feminism in the twentieth century. conducting interviews with other suburban housewives. Norton and Co. The Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW): was established to advise the President of the United States on issues concerning the status of women." and the value of home life and family. as well as researching psychology. President John Kennedy created the President's Commission on the Status of Women which spoke for women's basic rights. but no magazine would publish her article. the results.W. 1963. not a book. in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives. is a nonfiction book written by Betty Friedan. Friedan founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women. at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations").
htm 2. The American law and the protection guaranteed by the U. .about. They organized to commence action nationally by organizations or individuals . Bibliography 1. the judiciary. They considered that it was the time for a new movement respectively . This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968. and freedom from oppression by white Americans.answers.com/topic/now-statement-of-purpose-1966-by-national-organizationfor-women 3. the churches.S. enlarged the aims of the Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity. law. industry. http://www. to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education. http://womenshistory. the political parties. therefore The National Organization for Women must begin to speak. science. religion.The African-American Civil Rights Movement: (1955–1968) refers to the movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against African Americans and restoring voting rights to them.com/od/laws/a/status_women. this equality can be reached only by accepting the challenges and responsibilities as part of the decision-making mainstream of American political. women are first and foremost human beings who must have the chance to evolve their potential. Second part of the text (Ligia Picu): NOW is the largest organization of feminist activists in the United States. the professions. economic and social life. to cease the existence of prejudice and discrimination against women in government. which lasted roughly from 1966 to 1975. particularly in the South. discussion and symposia over the status and special nature of women .economic and political selfsufficiency. true equality for all women in America and fully equal partnership of the sexes. it cannot be spoken about civil rights movement in the case of women as in the case of Negroes. to confront the conditions that averted women from benefiting the equality of opportunity and freedom of choice which is their right as individual Americans and also as human beings. the labor unions. The emergence of the Black Power Movement. and equality of civil and political rights and responsibilities on behalf of women. medicine. as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups. they also wanted to move beyond abstract ideas to certain facts . Constitution to the civil rights of all individuals must be applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination. in education.
economic. or environmental change.org/history/purpos66. and hunger strikes.Glossary : Activism: consists of intentional efforts to bring about social. The Organization do not accept the token appointment of a few women to high-level positions in government or industry as a substitute for a serious continuing effort to recruit women according to their individual abilities. One solution of this is to give active support to the common cause of equal rights for all those who suffer discrimination and to support NOW’s efforts toward equality for women. sit-ins.html 4. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians. rallies.now. NOW urged the American government to mobilize resources of ingenuity and command so that women can progress like men. strikes.org/wiki/Activism http://www. political campaigning. street marches. . economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses.wikipedia. Third part of the text (Ana-Maria Canciu): NOW considers that women's problems are linked to many broader questions of social justice. Bibliography: http://en. political.
because education is the key to effective participation in today's economy and society. This discrimination may take the form of quotas against the admission of women to colleges and professional schools. Bibliography: http://en. The Organization wants to innovate new social institutions which will enable women to enjoy true equality of opportunity and responsibility in society. Australia and New Zealand. NOW believe that it is as essential for every girl to be educated to her full potential. They also reject the assumption that these problems are the unique responsibility of each individual woman. True equality of opportunity and freedom of choice for women requires such practical and possible innovations as a nationwide network of child-care centers.wikipedia. and of denial of loans or fellowships. The: also known as the West and the Occident. Glossary: Western World. and serious participation in industry or the professions on the other. They do not accept the traditional assumption that a woman has to choose between marriage and motherhood. on the one hand. of lack of encouragement by parents. Forth part of the text (Alexandra Rusalim): .org/wiki/Western_world http://en. is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe. The decline in the proportion of women receiving higher and professional education is considered an evidence of discrimination.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women 5. rather than a basic social dilemma which society must solve. as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe. counselors and educators.
children and especially of the economic support. . they ask for an equitable sharing of the responsabilities of home. Women assure that no important political order which ignores the principle of full equality between the sexes will be accepted and they will mobilize to obtain the necessary number of votes from men and women who believe in their cause. or office which undermines their confidence in their own abilities. The text states that women will ask fo a reexamination of laws because they consider that the current state of "half-equality" between the sexes discriminates against both men and women. this bears them away from policies and practices .in church. The statement affirms that women should have an important part in the political life and even run for different positions themselves. in order to win right to be free and equal human beings. In the end the organization states that women will try to create a new image of women and obtain a self-respecting partnership with men because in that way they will get confidence in their own ability and the conditions of their life. factory. state. In the fourth part of the text the organization rejects the ideea that men should be the only support of the family. It is consisered by the organization that women have a false image with respect to the society. college. their choices. their future and their society will change.
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