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**Wheel-rail contact elements incorporating irregularities
**

C.J. Bowe*, T.P. Mullarkey

Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland Received 25 November 2003; accepted 17 March 2005 Available online 22 August 2005

Abstract The aim of this study is to simulate the dynamic vertical response of a vehicle traversing rigid rails and a railway bridge. This is achieved by using the authors’ wheel-rail contact element (WRC) to model the dynamic interaction that exists between a sprung wheel, using a Hertzian spring, and the rail. The objective in creating these elements was to model the rail and wheel irregularities, which was not a feature of the contact elements within the ANSYS ﬁnite element program. In this paper the numerical results generated using the authors’ WRC element are identical to the results generated using the commercial contact element of ANSYS for a smooth rail condition. In the case of irregular rails, the numerical results generated using the authors’ WRC elements compare very favourably with the results from the literature. q 2005 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wheel-rail contact element; Hertzian spring; Rigid rails; Irregularities

1. Introduction In recent years, research on the dynamic response of trains and railway bridges has become an important topic in civil engineering. Engineers and researchers have a responsibility for ensuring the safe passage of trains traversing rails and railway bridges by carrying out extensive research on existing structures. Much of the dynamic response that the bridge and vehicle experience can be attributed to the contact that exists between the wheel and the rail. Therefore, by modelling the different wheel-rail conditions, one can better understand the dynamic response of vehicles and railway bridges. Many researchers such as Cheng et al. [1], Yang and Wu [2] and Yau et al. [3] have developed their own vehiclebridge elements, whereby the vehicle is the assembly of an unsprung mass for the wheel and sprung mass for the vehicle body. In these systems, the wheel is assumed to be in direct contact with the rail at all times; hence, the wheel and rail have the same deﬂection and wheel-rail separation is not possible on a rigid rail. In doing so, these systems must also

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C353 91 524411x3086; fax: C353 91 750507. E-mail address: cathal.bowe@nuigalway.ie (C.J. Bowe).

include the additional convective accelerations due to the wheel as it travels along the beam. In the authors’ model, the wheel is represented by a sprung mass, thus a Hertzian spring exists between the wheel and the rail and is simulated by means of the WRC elements. In this case, the wheel and beam no longer have the same deﬂection; hence the additional convective accelerations due to the wheel are not required. The authors’ technique involves modelling each wheel as a Hertzian spring perpendicular to the surface of the rail. Each WRC element consists of three stiffness matrices to simulate the action of the wheel on the ﬂexible rail, whereas only one stiffness matrix is required to represent the action of the wheel on the rigid rail. The appropriate non-zero values, inputted into the stiffness matrices, relate to the position of a wheel on a particular element using its shape functions. The WRC elements use the extension in the Hertzian spring at each time-step to calculate the contact force that exists between the wheel and the rail. Wheel-rail separation occurs when the extension in the spring becomes positive, thus all stiffness matrices related to that particular wheel are made equal to zero. Introducing irregularities into the model tends to affect the behaviour of the train as it travels along the rails. Authors such as Au et al. [4], Chu et al. [5] and Wiriyachai

0965-9978/$ - see front matter q 2005 Civil-Comp Ltd and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2005.03.026

Wheel-rail contact elements 2. Wheel modelled as a sprung mass. Fig. 2 indicates that the coordinate system adopted in this study has x positive along the beam element. Point forces and moments on the nodes represent this force on the beam. three additional stiffness matrices are created between local node 1 and local node 2 of the beam. The interaction between the spring and beam element over which it is travelling has to be in accordance with Newton’s third law.1. the authors are obliged to use this facility to input the three additional stiffness matrices. 2. (2). For twodimensional problems. we can state the following: ULy2 2 2 2 2. 2) are the nodal displacement vector and FLxi. jZ1. VB ðxÞ Z VB1 N1 ðxÞCqB1 G1 ðxÞCVB2 N2 ðxÞCqB2 G2 ðxÞ where N1 ðxÞ Z 1C2ðx=lÞ3 K3ðx=lÞ2 G1 ðxÞ Z xf1K2ðx=lÞCðx=lÞ2 gN2 ðxÞ Z 3ðx=lÞ2 K2ðx=lÞ3 G2 ðxÞ Z xfðx=lÞ2 Kðx=lÞg The length of the beam element is denoted by l and the distance travelled along the element is given by x. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 Wheel Centre Wheel Centre Rail Sprung mass Fig. 2. 1. Bowe. the user can create a stiffness matrix between any pair of nodes. [6] have discussed the effects of irregularities on the rails. the deﬂection in the x. Smooth rails The technique involves modelling a wheel as a Hertzian spring with one node at the centre of the wheel and the other node on the rail as illustrated in Fig. ULxi. the latter being equal to minus one times kL11. " # " # cos2 q sin q cos q 0 0 kL11 Z kH ðq Z 908 Þ Z kH 2 0 1 sin q cos q sin q The vertical displacement at any point along the beam can be calculated using Eq. it can cause a sharp impact load to the structure. kL22 is equal to kL11. 2) are the nodal force vector of the Hertzian spring (also referred to as a link). jZ1. V and q. where N1 and N2 are the transverse displacement shape functions and G1 and G2 are the rotational shape functions. hence. Free-body diagram of the wheel-rails contact element.J. In the authors’ model the irregularities are created using the summation of a series of sine curves and are represented indirectly using forces and moments applied to the ﬂexible rail and wheel as well as modifying the equation for extension. kL11 is a symmetrical matrix. The origin of the coordinate system is at local node 1 of the beam. respectively.P. T. et al. jZ1. rotation about z-axis are denoted as U. From the free-body in Fig. The beam acts with a vertical force on the spring. between local node 1 of the beam and local node 2 of the spring and ﬁnally between local node 2 of the beam and local node 2 of the spring. 2. the nodal forces in the wheel-rail contact element can be expressed as follows 9 8 9 8 > ULx1 > > FLx1 > > > > > > > > " #> > > > > kL11 kL12 < ULy1 = < FLy1 = Z (1) kL21 kL22 > ULx2 > > FLx2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > . The subscripts B and L denote beam and spring. FLyi (i. respectively. When the wheel travels on the rigid rail. To simulate the spring.828 C. In ANSYS. : . kL12 is equal to kL21. Again the forces and moments used are related to the position of a wheel on a particular element using its shape functions. The spring is always perpendicular to the surface. In Fig. y positive upward and z positive outwards. travelling from left to right. y plane and (2) (3) y ULx2 3rd stiffness matrix θB1 UB1 0 1 1 2nd stiffness matrix Hertzian Spring 1 2 1 UB2 x 1st stiffness matrix z VB1 VB2 θ B2 Fig. the spring acts with an equal and opposite force on the beam. . Because local node 1 of the spring is located at position x on the beam. Certain irregularities can lead to wheel-rail separation and as the wheel regains contact with the rail. 1. 2) denotes a 2!2 stiffness matrix. only the force applied to the wheel is taken into account. thereby simulating the vertical effects of the wheel. the reader can see a free-body diagram for the WRC element and one beam element representing part of the rail. ULyi (i. : ULy2 FLy2 where kLij (i.

: . This generalised force consists of vertical forces and moments applied to the nodes. : : K K 0000 0 0 0000 0 0 8 9 >0> > > > > > > > > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > >G > < 1= 2 (9) The substitution of Eq. which contain the There are three matrix terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (9).> > > > > > >1> >1> qB2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : . (6) come from Eq. The force imparted to the wheel axle by the spring is KFLy2. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 829 ULy1 ZVB ðxÞ (4) three stiffness matrices used by the WRC elements: 38 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 >UB1 > > > > 7> 6 > > 6 0 N1 N1 N1 G1 0 N1 N2 N1 G2 7> VB1 > > > > > 7> 6 > > > > 7> 6 > > >q > 6 0 G N G G 0 G N G G 7< = 6 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 27 B1 7 6 Z½kH 6 FLy1 7> >0> > > > 60 0 0 0 0 0 7>UB2 > > > > > > > > 7> 6 > > > > > > > 7> 6 > > > > N2 > > 6 0 N2 N1 N2 G1 0 N2 N2 N2 G2 7> VB2 > > > > > > > > 5> 4 > > > > > > . where FLy2 is derived from Eqs. > > > > : > > > > > > > > ULy2 : .C. K K 2 2 38 3 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 > UB1 > 0 0 0 000 > > > 6 6 7> 7 > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7> V > 60 0 0 0 0 07 > B1 > > 6 6 7> 7 > > > > 6 6 7> 7 > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7> 60 0 0 0 0 07 <q > = 6 6 7 7 B1 7 7 C½KkH 6 Z½KkH 6 6 6 7> 7 > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7> ULx2 > 60 0 0 0 0 07 > > > 6 6 7> 7 > > > 6 6 7> 7 > > 6 0 N1 G1 0 0 0 7> U > 6 0 N 2 G2 0 0 0 7 > Ly2 > > 4 4 5> 5 > > > > : .J. the second term represents the stiffness matrix between local node 1 of the beam and local node 2 of the spring element and the third term represents the stiffness matrix between local node 2 of the beam and local node 2 of the spring element. . G2 G2 (8) The right-hand side of Eq. : > : G2 qB2 0 G2 N1 G2 G1 0 G2 N2 G2 G2 9 9 38 38 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 > UB1 > 0 0 0 0 0 0 > UB2 > > > > > > > 7> 7> 6 6 > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 N1 0 7> V > 6 0 0 0 0 N2 07> V > > > > > > B1 > > B2 > 7> 7> 6 6 > > > > > > > > 7> 7> 6 6 > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 G 0 7> 6 0 0 0 0 G 07> = = <q > <q > 6 6 1 7 2 7 B1 B2 7 7 6 6 C½KkH 6 C½KkH 6 7> 7> > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7>ULx2 > 6 0 0 0 0 0 07> ULx2 > > > > > 7> 7> 6 6 > > > > > > 7> 7> 6 6 > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7>U > 6 0 0 0 0 0 07> U > > Ly2 > > Ly2 > > > 5> 5> 4 4 > > > > > > > > . K 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 000 2 38 9 9 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 > UB1 > > UB2 > > > > > > > > 6 7> > > > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7> V > > > > > > VB2 > > B1 > 6 7> > > > > > > > > > > 6 7> > > > > > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7< <q = 6 7 qB1 = B2 6 7 C½kH 6 ð10Þ ! 7 > > > > > > 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7> ULx2 > > > ULx2 > > > > > 6 7> > > > > > > > 6 7> > > >U > > 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 7> U > > > Ly2 > > > > > 4 5> Ly2 > > > > > > > > > . (6). (5) and (2) resulting in the following: 8 9 >0> > > > > > > > > >0> > > > > > > > > > > > > <0= 8 > > > > > < 8 9 > VB1 > > > > > > > >q > < B1 = Ã 8 9 >0> > > > > 9> > > > > > >> 0 > > > >> > >> > >> > >> > =< 0 = FLy2 Â C½kH ULy2 Z ½KkH N1 G1 N2 G2 >V > > > > >> > > B2 > >0> > >> 0 > > > > > > >> > > > > > > >> > > > > > > >> > : > > : . Bowe. : : K K 000000 . (4) into Eq. : FLy2 ULy2 Since it is assumed that the Hertzian spring element remains perpendicular to the surface at all times. (1) gives the following: 9 8 9 8 > ULx2 > > FLx1 > > > > > > > > " #> > > > > kL11 kL12 < VB ðxÞ = < FLy1 = Z (5) kL21 kL22 > ULx2 > > FLx2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > . The right-hand side of Eq. 8 9 8 9 > 0 > > 0 > > > > > > > > > > > > > >N > >N > > 1> > 1> > > > > > > > > > > > > ( ) > > > > < G = < G =Â Ã VB ðxÞ 1 1 Z k KkH FLy1 (6) > 0 > > 0 > H ULy2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >N > >N > > 2> > 2> > > > > > > > > > > > > : . (5). (7) can also be rewritten as: 8 9 8 9 9 8 >0> >0> > > > > > > > > > > > > > VB1 > > > > > > > > > N1 > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >q > > > > > > > B1 > > > > > > " #> > >G > >G > > = < 1 = < 1 =Â Ã N1 G1 N2 G2 0 < VB2 Z kH KkH FLy1 > >0> >0> > > > > > > 0 0 0 0 1 > > > > > > > > > > >q > > > > > > > B2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > N2 > > N2 > > > > > > > > . which in turn is equal to minus one times the left hand side of Eq. (6). : . G2 G2 ( ) VB1 N1 ðxÞCqB1 G1 ðxÞCVB2 N2 ðxÞCqB2 G2 ðxÞ ! ULy2 Eq. . (2). . (8) is developed further.P. : . T. : . G2 G2 In Eq. VB(x) is replaced by the right-hand side of Eq. the horizontal displacement on both nodes are equal. The force imparted to the beam by the spring is equal to KFLy1 located at position x. The ﬁrst term represents the stiffness matrix along the beam element. : . > . resulting in the following equation: 8 9 8 9 > 0 > > 0 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > N1 > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >G > >G > < 1 = < 1 =Â Ã Z kH KkH FLy1 > 0 > > 0 > > > > > > > > > > > > > (7) > > > > > > > > > > > > > N2 > > N2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : . giving rise to the following equation.

(14)–(16) are . Both the x and the irregularity function f are shown in this ﬁgure. where q is equal to 908 for the spring and where Eq. (10) contains three matrix terms. : . The horizontal distance from the left support of the beam to the spring is denoted as x. thus inﬂuencing the behaviour of the train. : ULy2 9 8 > ULx1 > > > > > > > V ðxÞ > = < B > Â Ã Z 0 K 0 1 1 ð11Þ > ULx2 > > > > > > > > > . it can cause a sharp impact load to the structure. Irregular rails As a wheel traverses a rail with irregularities. f. thus all stiffness matrices related to that particular wheel are set equal to zero when the extension is positive. Eqs. The wheel-rail contact force in the spring is evaluated by multiplying the extension by the spring stiffness. Free-body diagram of the WRC element with irregularities. the force imparted to the beam by the spring is equal to minus one times the left hand side of Eq. (6) to include the effects of irregularities on the rails yields the following equation: 8 9 >0> > > > > > > > > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > >G > < = 1 FLy1 Z k KkH >0> >0> H ULy2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > N2 > > N2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : . 2. while a positive extension (tension) means that there is no contact. (14). (4) has been incorporated. : . (12) fZ N X jZ1 ULy2 y x θ B1 UB1 1 0 1 2 2 2 ULx2 f (x ) Hertzian Spring 1 UB2 2 x VB2 z VB1 θ B2 Fig. (16).830 C. T. Its equation for extension cannot include function f. The Hertzian extension is given by Eq. is the summation of several sine curves as given in Eq. A free-body diagram showing irregularities on the rail can be seen in Fig.2. : qB2 ð15Þ (12) Â FLy2 Z½K H N1 k where aj and gj are the amplitude and wavelength. G2 G2 (14) 8 9 >0> > > > > > > > > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > >G > < = 1 Â ( ) x Ã VB ðxÞCf ð Þ aj sin 2px gj where the irregularity function f ð Þ has been isolated on the x right-hand side. of the jth wave and N is the number of sine curves. In this model the irregularity function. the extension in the spring is calculated at each timestep to determine if the wheel is in contact with the rail. respectively. Modifying Eq. resulting in symmetrical stiffness matrices for the Hertzian spring. An inspection of Fig. (9) and (10) are combined. For programming purposes Eqs. 3. (11). This ﬁgure shows the Hertzian spring following the proﬁle of the irregularities on the rail. and the third term by itself represents the effects of the rigid rails. : ULy2 In the model. Once again.J. Certain irregularities can lead to wheel-rail separation and as the wheel regains contact with the rail. 3 tells us that Eq. A negative extension (compression) indicates that contact exists between the wheel and the rail. (10) to include irregularities yields the following: 9 8 > VB1 > > > > > > > >q > < B1 = Ã >V > > B2 > > > > > > > . This equation explains why the contact element of ANSYS is unsuitable for modelling irregularities. updated at each timestep. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 The right-hand side of Eq. G2 G2 8 9 8 9 >0> >0> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > N1 > > N1 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ( ) > > ( ) >G > >G > < 1 =Â < 1 =Â x Ã VB ðxÞ Ã f ð Þ k KkH k KkH Z C > > H >0> H ULy2 >0> > > 0 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > N2 > > N2 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : . 3. Bowe.P. (4) must be modiﬁed as follows: ULy1 Z VB ðxÞ C f ðxÞ (13) G1 N2 G2 C ½kH ULy2 C ½kH f ðxÞ The Hertzian extension in the spring is now modiﬁed by the irregularity function f and takes the form of Eq. the vertical position of the wheel changes in accordance with the proﬁle of the irregularity. Modifying Eq. 9 8 > ULx1 > > > > > > > > > Â Ã< ULy1 = extension Z K q K q cos q sin q cos sin > ULx2 > > > > > > > > > .

6. Three-dimensional model of the Boyne Viaduct railway bridge. Each vehicle consists of a vehicle body supported by a pair of bogies.J. Bowe. 4. Train model updated at each timestep. one only considers the centre span of the Boyne Viaduct railway bridge located in Drogheda. Ireland. Six-axle locomotive and four-axle railway carriage. while k2 and c2 denote the (16) 3. 5. The three-dimensional model of the bridge comprises a simply supported truss as shown in Fig. 4. The bridge has a clear span Fig. but the rail to the left and right of the bridge is rigid. Sleeper and ballast effects are ignored in the model. . while elastic beam elements are used to model the bogie and vehicle body components. y θz x y θx z vehicle body k2 k1 mw kH l2 c1 mw c2 secondary suspension bogie primary suspension k2 c2 k1 c1 mw Hertian spring mw mw mw kH wheelset l2 l3 l2 l2 l4 Fig.77 m and a total mass of approximately 275 tonnes. Three-dimensional locomotive model. Lumped masses mw are used to model the wheel masses. 5. The three-dimensional vehicle model considered in this paper comprises a six-axle locomotive and a single fouraxle railway carriage as illustrated in Fig. The primary spring stiffness and damping is given by k1 and c1. with each bogie supported by axles and ﬁnally a pair of wheels supports each axle.2.C. In our model the rail on the bridge is ﬂexible. All members in the bridge are modelled using three-dimensional elastic beam elements. Bridge and train model 3. Bridge model As a case study.P. with each suspension consisting of a spring and dashpot. Fig. Â extension Z 0 K 1 0 1 9 8 ULx1 > > > > > > > < VB ðxÞ C f ðxÞ > = Ã > > > > : ULx2 ULy2 > > > > . Fig. The bogies are connected to the axles through primary suspensions and to the vehicle body through secondary suspensions.1. 3. T. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 831 of 80. 6 presents a three-dimensional locomotive model.

7. while ﬁgure (b) compares the solution using the WRC elements with Biggs’s [8] analytical solution.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0. (b) comparing the WRC element with analytical solution [8].2 time t is arranged in such a manner that the vehicle is at the left hand support at tZ0 s.0020 –0.0005 WRC ELEMENT –0. Model validation for a single mass In order to validate the system. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element. The distance between the axles of a single bogie is l2.1 0.1.303 t/m and a Poisson’s ratio nZ0.2 0.0010 –0.6 0.1.2 0.6 0.e.9 VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) (b) ANALYTICAL (5 modes) WRC ELEMENT TIME (sec) Fig.1. such that the bridge has a length lZ25 m.2..5 0. moment of inertia IZ2. In Sections 4.0005 0. The gravitational and damping effects of the bridge are ignored.1. The Hertzian spring stiffness kHZ1595 kN/m.0015 –0. 9. the authors compare their use of the WRC element with their use of the commercial node-to-surface contact element in ANSYS (CONTAC48). Bowe. Wheel as a moving sprung load As shown in Fig.8 0.5 0.0000 0 –0.0005 VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) secondary spring stiffness and damping. Young’s modulus of elasticity EZ2.3 0. Simply supported beam subjected to a moving sprung load.3 are similar to those of Yang and Wu [2].8 0.4 0.1.1–4.7 0. between centres of two bogies is l3 and between wheels of a single axle is l4.9 TIME (sec) 0. T.2 0.5 0. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0. The bridge properties adopted in Sections 4. mass per unit length mZ 2. Fig.3 0 0.7 0. The deﬂection and TIME (sec) Fig.0025 ANSYS CONTAC48 0. The three-dimensional railway carriage model is similar to the locomotive model expect that it has two axles instead of three per bogie as described in Esveld [7].0000 0 –0. In the authors’ model. (b) comparing the WRC element with analytical solution [8]. respectively. Results 4. The Hertzian spring stiffness.3 0.3 0.0005 –0.4 0.2 –0.1 0. 7.2 0.6 0.0020 –0.0010 –0.4 0.0 –0.2 –0.9 (b) ANALYTICAL (5 modes) WRC ELEMENT 4.1 0. These horizontal links do not interact with the suspension springs.5 0. In each case.3 0 0.5 0. VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) 0.4 0.7 0.J. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element. the vertical acceleration at mid-point of the beam are plotted as a function of time in Figs.7 0.6 0.9 (a) WRC ELEMENT ANSYS CONTAC48 TIME (sec) 0.0 –0.3 0. is given by kH. Horizontal links are required between the vehicle body and the bogie and also between the bogie and axles to prevent the structure from becoming a mechanism.1. Each example uses the Newmark time integration method [9] with 200 equal time steps to solve the transient analysis.0025 0. Vertical displacement at mid-point of beam due to a moving sprung load. The wheel traverses the bridge at a constant speed cZ27.1. where the ﬁrst 5 modes of vibration are used to determine the deﬂection and acceleration of the beam.6 0. the wheel is given a zero mass and the point force PZ56.1 –0. ﬁgure (a) compares the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element. (b) Comparing the WRC element with analytical solution [8].8 0.4 kN is attached to the centre of the wheel i. (a) 0.6 0. 8.78 m/s.9 m4.8 0. 4. also known as the wheel-rail contact stiffness.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0. They also compare their results with some simple analytical solutions developed by Biggs [8]. 8 and 9.1–4.0015 –0. .832 C.3 0. a simply supported beam is subjected to a moving sprung load P travelling at speed c from left to right. local node 2 of the spring. Vertical acceleration at mid-point of beam due to a moving sprung load.87!106 kN/m2.1 –0. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element.P.

1 0. (b) ANALYTICAL (2 modes) WRC ELEMENT One should notice from the plots a striking similarity between the solutions using the WRC element and the ANSYS CONTAC48 element.2 –0.0000 0 –0. Simply supported beam subjected to a moving sprung mass.P. 13.5 0.3 0.0020 –0.0005 WRC ELEMENT –0.0030 ANSYS CONTAC48 0.0010 –0.2 0. and (2) the analytical solution [8] models the wheel as an unsprung VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) (a) 0. (b) comparing WRC element with analytical solution [8].4 0.0005 WRC ELEMENT –0. 12. (b) comparing the WRC element with analytical solution [8]. whereas there are some slight deviations between the analytical solution [8] and the solution using the WRC element. 0.2 0.75 t traversing the beam at a constant speed. Fig.2 –0.8 .5 0.0000 0 –0.0010 –0. 10 presents a simply supported beam subjected to a moving sprung mass MwZ5.0005 0.6 0.3 0.0005 ANALYTICAL (2 modes) –0.1.0000 0 –0.1 0.6 0.0025 ANSYS CONTAC48 0.0005 TIME (sec) VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0.0 –0.6 0. (b) comparing the WRC element with analytical solution [8].3 0. From inspection.7 0. VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) Fig. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element.6 0.6 0. the analytical solution [8] consists of the ﬁrst two modes of vibration. The contact force due to the motion of the wheel varies somewhat from the weight of the wheel.4 0.3 0.6 0.1 0. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0.1 0.2 0.0025 –0.C. TIME (sec) VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0.8 0. 4. In Fig.1 0.0 –0.0000 0 –0.7 0.3 0. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) 833 0.8 0.J.0020 –0. while the vertical displacement and acceleration of the sprung mass as a function of time are shown in Figs. T. 10.9 (a) WRC ELEMENT ANSYS CONTAC48 TIME (sec) 0.4 0.2 0.0030 ANALYTICAL (2 modes) WRC ELEMENT 0.6 0.6 0.5 0. respectively.9 .0015 –0.0025 WRC ELEMENT 0.4 0.9 (b) TIME (sec) TIME (sec) Fig.5 0.4 0. Again. 13 and 14.0005 TIME (sec) Fig.1 0.0005 –0. Wheel as a moving sprung mass Fig. one can see that the results from the WRC element and ANSYS CONTAC48 element are very similar again.7 0.3 0. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element.5 0.0025 –0. equally the numerical and analytical solutions are strikingly similar. Vertical displacement of the wheel due to a sprung mass.3 0 0.0010 –0. 11 and 12.9 .3 0.2.0015 –0.1 –0. In this example.0020 –0.5 0.5 0. Vertical displacement at mid-point of beam due to a sprung mass.7 0. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element.0005 (a) 0.4 0. Two reasons for the inaccuracy in the analytical solution are as follows: (1) too few modes are used to describe the deﬂection of the beam.5 0. a plot of the contact force between the wheel and the rail is presented. respectively.0020 –0. Bowe. one compares the deﬂection and vertical acceleration at midpoint of the beam as a function of time in Figs.4 0.7 0.8 0.0015 –0. (b) comparing WRC element with analytical solution [8].3 0 0.2 0.4 0.1 0. Vertical acceleration at mid-point of beam due to a sprung mass. .8 0. 11.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 –0.2 0.3 0.0015 –0.0010 –0.9 (b) 0.7 0.8 0.9 0. 15.

when the extension in the Hertzian spring becomes positive.02 –0.5 1.4 0.2 0.15 0. 18.3 C.5 2.15 –0.12 W1.20 ANALYTICAL (2 modes) WRC ELEMENT 0.10 –0.005 –0. the contact force is zero. 0.1. 19.5 0. 19 that as the wheel regains contact with the rail it generates a large impact load. The wheel traverses the simply supported beam between the times tZ0.01 m. The vertical displacement of the beam (at mid-point) and the wheel as a function of time is plotted in Figs. which are ignored in the analytical solution.05 –0.10 –0.0 –0.2 0.001 –0.00 0 –0. thus requiring the additional convective accelerations. (b) Comparing WRC element with analytical solution [8].P. Fig.06 –0.3.02 0.08 –0. 17 is much greater than the corresponding value in Fig.3 0. (a) Comparing the WRC element with ANSYS CONTAC48 element.834 VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) 0. One can also see from Fig. Vertical displacement of the travelling bouncing wheel. 17. Wheel-rail contact force due to a sprung mass.3 0.00 0. no contact exists between the wheel and the rail.9 WRC ELEMENT ANSYS CONTAC48 TIME (sec) 0.00 –0.5 1. Model validation for a pair of masses separated by a spring for a wide range of speeds The WRC element models the wheel of a vehicle as sprung mass involving a Hertzian spring.20 0.05 VERTICAL ACCELERATION (m/s2) (b) Fig.2.0 2. whereby the wheel is modelled as a travelling sprung mass with an initial positive extension resulting in a zero contact force. Vertical displacement at mid-point of the beam due to the travelling bouncing wheel.15 –0. In this model.004 –0.9 Fig.1 0.006 Whee on rigid rail Wheel on rigid rail WRC ELEMENTS ANSYS CONTAC48 0. In this section.04 –0.10 0.0 1.8 s and at all other times the wheel travels on the rigid rail.8 0.10 0. 4.6 0.7 0. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 (a) 0.6 0. while the contact force between the wheel and rail is shown in Fig. excellent agreement can be seen between the solution using the WRC element and ANSYS CONTAC48 element results.001 0 0. 11.5 –52 –54 –56 –58 Weight of the wheel –60 WRC ELEMENT ANSYS CONTAC48 TIME (sec) TIME (sec) Fig.15 0. T.J. 16. Rigid rail and simply supported beam subjected to a travelling bouncing wheel.9 VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0.10 –0.4 0. . VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0. Again.002 –0. –50 0 0. respectively.4 0. As mentioned earlier.20 0.9–1. A travelling bouncing wheel In the following example one examines the effects of wheel-rail separation. 4.1 0. Bowe.003 –0. 15. TIME (sec) mass.1 0. rigid rails are located on either side of a simply supported beam as shown in Fig.8 0. 14.002 0.8 0.2 0.0 –0. and all stiffness matrices related to that particular wheel are put equal to zero.0 2.20 0 0. 17 and 18. thus the maximum deﬂection of the beam shown in Fig.5 TIME (sec) Fig.05 0.7 0.7 0.5 0. Vertical acceleration of the wheel due to a sprung mass.6 0.05 –0. 16. while the initial vertical extension is 0.003 0.5 0.0RC ELEMENTS ANSYS CONTAC48 CONTACT FORCE (kN) 0. much greater than the weight of the wheel.5 2. The initial horizontal position of the wheel at time tZ0 s is located at a distance lrZ25 m from the left support of the beam.

7 0. .4 1. Simply supported beam subjected to a moving vehicle using different Hertzian spring stiffness on a smooth rail. Fig.0 OLSSON [10] UNSPRUNG MASS SOFT HERTZIAN SPRING HARD HERTZIAN SPRING 0.5 VEHICLE SPEED / CRITICAL SPEED Fig. Simply supported beam subjected to a moving vehicle using different Hertzian spring stiffness on a rail with irregularities. T.7 1. The WRC element is used to model rail irregularities.125. 21. one can see that the results for the hard and soft Hertzian springs vary somewhat from the results of Olsson [10]. 22. One can see from the results that the solution for the hard Hertzian spring stiffness is almost identical with the solution of Olsson [10] at all speeds. 4.0 0.0 0. whereas the soft Hertzian spring stiffness compares better with Olsson [10] at lower speeds.2 0.5 1. In this example. Olsson [10] uses an unsprung mass system while the authors use their WRC element.1 1. 19.8 DYNAMIC / STATIC DEFLEVTION 1. whereby the hard to soft Hertzian spring stiffness has a ratio of 500. the authors use both hard and soft Hertzian springs for the WRC elements because Hertzian springs are absent from Olsson’s [10] model as shown in Fig.1 and 4.1 0.5 0.P. Again.3 0.3 1.7 1. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 0 0.4 0.5 1. unlike the examples of Sections 4. the authors compare their WRC element with the unsprung mass system of Olsson [10]. which are not a feature of the contact element of ANSYS.6 1. One now examines the dynamic effects of rail irregularities on the simply supported beam subjected to the same moving vehicle.2 1.1 are used in this example. Other dimensionless parameters used are a speed ratio (that is the vehicle speed divided by the critical speed) and a dynamic ampliﬁcation factor (ratio between the maximum dynamic deﬂection and static deﬂection of the mid-point of the bridge).05. In Fig.3 0. however. the authors compare their WRC element with the unsprung mass system of Olsson [10] under smooth rail conditions. The bridge and vehicle properties used are deﬁned in Table 1.C.3 1. VEHICLE SPEED / CRITICAL SPEED Fig. 20. 21. Boyne Viaduct subjected to a moving locomotive and carriage on smooth and irregular rails The authors will now use the WRC element to investigate the dynamic response of the Boyne Viaduct Railway Bridge subjected to a moving vehicle travelling at a constant speed.6 1.6 0.2 1.25.0 1.5 2.1 0. while the ratio of the irregularity amplitude to the static deﬂection is 0.5 1.8 1.J.0 Fig.2 0.9 835 0.2. which are twodimensional. the authors use the Newmark time integration method [9] to solve the transient analysis with 500 equal time steps.4 1.3.5 TIME (sec) DYNAMIC / STATIC DEFLECTION CONTACT FORCE (kN) 1.1 1.8 0. The bridge properties of Section 4. Bowe. the bridge to vehicle frequency ratio is 3. The dimensionless parameters adopted are similar to those of Olsson [10]. such that the vehicle to bridge mass ratio is 0.0 OLSSON [10] UNSPRUNG MASS SOFT HERTZIAN SPRING HARD HERTZIAN SPRING 0. hard and soft Hertzian spring are used for comparison purposes. The critical speed is the speed of the vehicle such that the vehicle travels a distance of twice the length of the bridge in a time equal to the natural period of the bridge. The contact force between the rail and the travelling bouncing wheel.0 –20 –40 –60 –80 –100 –120 –140 –160 WRC ELEMENTS ANSYS CONTAC48 Weight of the wheel 1. the vehicle damping ratio is 0. 20. 22. In the model. This is a three-dimensional problem.4 0.5. the unsprung wheel mass to sprung vehicle mass ratio is 0. the ratio of the bridge length to the irregularity wavelength is equal to 10. Comparing Olsson [10] unsprung model with the author sprung mass system using WRC elements. In Fig. 1.0 2.

78 1 2.522 7000 58. 24.67 s. 25. T. one can also see that. Vehicle traversing the Boyne Viaduct with rail irregularities. VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0. 5) on rail A are plotted as a function of time in Figs. Fig.8 14 18 1 Carriage 33. 23. l3 (m) Overall length of vehicle (m) Number of vehicles General properties Young’s modulus of elasticity (kN/m2) Density of steel (t/m3) Poisson’s ratio 81.14 1.77 275 3. k1 (kN/m) Damping of spring in primary suspension. 2.5 700 5. c2 (kN s/m) Hertzian spring stiffness. Vertical displacement at mid-point of the Boyne Viaduct (T1).5 s and the rear wheel of the train leaves the right support at tZ 6.850 0.2 1.958 10.40!106 2. A plot of the two rails (A and B) with irregularities out of phase is presented in Fig. Examining Figs. inﬂuenced by the irregularities on the rail using their WRC element. In Fig. taken from an animation.7 3.025 –0. 27 presents the contact force that exists between the front wheel (W1) of the train and rail A.05!108 7.836 Table 1 Model properties Bridge properties C. The vertical displacement at mid-point of the bridge (point T1 as shown in Fig. Rails A and B are indicated on Fig.0000 –0. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 Overall length of bridge (m) Self-weight of bridge (t) First natural frequency of unloaded bridge (Hz) First natural frequency loaded bridge (Hz) Train properties Mass of car body (t) Mass of each bogie frame (t) Mass of each axle together with wheels.56 14 18. Rail irregularities out of phase along bridge. It should be noted that the displacements have been increased by a factor of 10. with each irregularity having a wavelength of 40 m and amplitude of 0. Bowe. 23.J. 23 and 26. respectively. 25 and 26. In the results that follow the smooth rail is compared with the irregular rail. induced by rails with irregularities out of phase. Fig. the dynamic effects of the bridge are less signiﬁcant than those of the train. something not possible using the contact element of ANSYS.0100 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 DISTANCE (m) TIME (sec) Fig. l2 (m) Distance between two centre of bogie frames. kH (kN/m) Distance between two centre of axles.15 1.175 4.0050 Irregularity along bridge wheel of the train arrives at the left support at tZ0.94 Locomotive 90. k2 (kN/m) Damping of spring in secondary suspension.8 4100 22 1.000 –0. One can see from the image that the irregularities cause the locomotive to rolls about its long axis as it traverses the bridge. of the train traversing the Boyne Viaduct. The simulation assumes that the bridge is horizontal in the absent of gravity and bridge damping is neglected. 5) can be seen in Fig. The train model consists of a six-axle locomotive pulling a single four-axle railway carriage traversing the Boyne Viaduct railway bridge at (20 m/s) 72 km/h from left to right.01 m. . while the lateral displacement of the vehicle body (point V1 as shown in Fig. for this particular speed and irregularity. c1 (kN s/m) Stiffness of spring in secondary suspension. 24.030 –0. mw (t) Stiffness of spring in primary suspension.010 –0. From inspection of the graphs.035 Front wheel on left support Front wheel on right support 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rear wheel on right support 7 SMOOTH RAIL IRREGULARITIES RAIL A RAIL B 0.0050 –0.3 In addition the WRC element is used as a lateral spring to prevent the wheels of the vehicle from sliding laterally off the rails. 0.020 –0.88 410 Fig. 28.40!106 1. 4) and the vertical displacement of the front wheel of the train (point W1 in Fig. Time t is arranged in such a manner that the front IRREGULARITY FUNCTION (m) .005 0.005 –0.0100 Irregularity along rigid rail 0.015 –0. one can see that the front wheel of the train follows the proﬁle of the irregularity. 24.P. the authors show an image. This example studies the rolling of a railway carriage about the long axis.

Impact in truss bridge due to freight trains.010 –0.000 –0. The model is next validated for a pair of moving masses separated by a spring for a wide range of speeds. Impact study of cable-stayed railway bridges with random rails irregularities. Garg VK. summarised above.040 –0. the solutions using the WRC element are identical to the solutions using the ANSYS CONTAC48 element.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 –0. Enginnering Structures 1999. A versatile element for analyzing vehicle-bridge interaction response. Bridge impact due to wheel and track irregularities.02 IRREGULARITIES 0. Bowe. Finally the authors subject the Boyne Viaduct to a moving locomotive and railway carriage on smooth and irregular rails.010 VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0. 1996. [9] Bathe KJ. The authors’ results compare very favourably with Olsson’s [10] results. 1st Edition.99: 1–12.P. the WRC element compares better with ﬁve modes than with two modes. 1st Edition. [10] Olsson M. Yang YB. the authors develop their own wheel-rail contact element to simulate the dynamic interaction that exists between a sprung wheel and the rail. Kuo SR. [6] Wiriyachai A. In the case of the wheel considered as a moving sprung load. Engineering Structures 2001. Au FTK. Chu KH. Wang JJ.01 0. Bhatti MH. Fig. Englewood Cliffs.030 –0. however. If the extension become positive.050 –0. 28. References [1] Cheng YS. . the rail being smooth or irregular. They also compare their results with some simple analytical solutions developed by Biggs [8]. the contact force is put equal to zero and all stiffness matrices related to that wheel are set equal to zero.070 –0. 27. Prentice-Hall.222(5):781–801. Finite element. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1985.C. 1989. 24:529–41. Englewood Cliffs. the wheel considered as a moving sprung mass.108:648–65. Journal of Sound and Vibration 1999. and the travelling bouncing wheel. the authors can claim that the WRC element is exceedingly robust. Modern railway track. The authors compare the use of their WRC element with the use of the ANSYS CONTAC48 element. In this example. For analytical solutions. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division 1982.23:452–69. [5] Chu KH. 26. Finite element procedures. [8] Biggs JM.020 –0. Wu YS. 5.01 TIME (sec) –0. Cheung YK. Vertical displacement of the ﬁrst wheel of the train on rail A (W1). 1964. [7] Esveld C. Rolling motion of the train is evident in the case of irregularities that are out of phase on the two rails.060 –0. Prentice-Hall. [2] Yang YB. [3] Yau JD. Lateral displacement of the vehicle body (V1). 1st Edition. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 1985. T.21: 836–44. and is modelled using three stiffness matrices. This system uses a Hertzian spring to represent the wheel. modal co-ordinate analysis of structures subjected to moving loads. Engineering Structures 2002.J. [4] Au FTK.3:159–73. MRT Production. Introduction to Structural Dynamics. Based on the results. the WRC has a threedimensional formulation and it simulates the vertical and lateral interaction between the wheel and the rail.080 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SMOOTH RAIL IRREGULARITIES 837 0. On the separation between moving vehicles and bridges. The authors compare their WRC element with the unsprung mass system of Olsson [10]. –50 0 CONTACT FORCE (kN) –70 –90 –110 –130 –150 –170 TIME (sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SMOOTH RAIL IRREGULARITIES Fig. Conclusions In this paper.02 TIME (sec) Fig. Wheel-rail separation is determined by calculating the extension of the spring at each timestep. Garg VK. Contact force between the ﬁrst wheel of the train and rail A (W1). Cheung YK. Mullarkey / Advances in Engineering Software 36 (2005) 827–837 LATERAL DISPLACEMENT (m) 0. Impact response of high speed rail bridges and riding comfort of rails cars. Zheng DY. the authors use both hard and soft Hertzian springs for the WRC elements because Hertzian springs are absent from Olsson’s [10] model.

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