FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007

Copioli & Patton
page 1
Robot Drive System Fundamentals
April 12th, 2007
FRC Conference, Atlanta, GA
Ken Patton, Team 65 (Pontiac Northern + GM Powertrain)
Paul Copioli, Team 217 (Utica Schools + Ford/FANUC)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 2
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 3
Drive System Requirements
(Know what you want it to do!)
Before you start designing your machine, you must know
what you want it to do
The game rules and your team’s chosen strategy will help
you decide what you want it to do
By spending some time and deciding for sure what you
want it to do, you will be able to make good decisions
about what design to choose
This needs to be a teameffort
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 4
Some Features That Help Provide
Good Drive System Attributes
Attribute Good Features to Have
high top speed high power, low losses, the right gear ratio
acceleration high power, low inertia, low mass, the right gear ratio
pushing/pulling ability high power, high traction, the right gear ratio, low losses
maneuverability good turning method
accuracy good control calibration, the right gear ratio
obstacle handling ground clearance, obstacle "protection," drive wheels on floor
climbing ability high traction, the right gear ratio, ground clearance
reliability/durability simple, robust designs, good fastening systems
ease of control intuitive control method, high reliability


T
R
A
C
T
I
O
N
T
R
A
C
T
I
O
N
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 5
Some Features That Help Provide
Good Drive System Attributes
Attribute Good Features to Have
high top speed high power, low losses, the right gear ratio
acceleration high power, low inertia, low mass, the right gear ratio
pushing/pulling ability high power, high traction, the right gear ratio, low losses
maneuverability good turning method
accuracy good control calibration, the right gear ratio
obstacle handling ground clearance, obstacle "protection," drive wheels on floor
climbing ability high traction, the right gear ratio, ground clearance
reliability/durability simple, robust designs, good fastening systems
ease of control intuitive control method, high reliability
G
E
A
R
I
N
G
G
E
A
R
I
N
G
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 6
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 7
Traction Fundamentals
Terminology
The friction coefficient for any given contact with the floor, multiplied by
the normal force, equals the maximum tractive force can be applied at
the contact area.
Tractive force is important! It’s what moves the robot.
normal
force
tractive
force
torque
turning the
wheel
maximum
tractive
force
normal
force
friction
coefficient
=
x
weight
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 8
Traction Fundamentals
The Basic Equations
• F
friction
= µ * F
normal
• Experimentally determine µ:
• F
normal
= Weight * cos(u)
• F
parallel
= Weight * sin(u)
F
n
o
r
m
a
l
F
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
Weight
u
F
p
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
When F
friction
= F
parallel
, no slip
F
friction
= µ * Weight * cos(u)
F
parallel
= Weight * sin(u) = µ * Weight * cos(u)
µ = sin(u) / cos(u) µ = tan(u)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 9
Traction Fundamentals
“Friction Coefficient”
Friction coefficient is dependent on:
Materials of the robot wheels (or belts)
Shape of the robot wheels (or belts)
Material of the floor surface
Surface conditions
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 10
Traction Fundamentals
Wheel Materials
Friction coefficient is dependent on:
Materials of the robot wheels (or belts)
Shape of the robot wheels (or belts)
Material of the floor surface
Surface conditions
High Friction Coeff:
soft materials
“spongy” materials
“sticky” materials
Low Friction Coeff:
hard materials
smooth materials
shiny materials
It is often the case that “good” materials wear out much
faster than “bad” materials - don’t pick a material that is
TOO good!
Advice: make sure you have tried & true LEGAL material
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 11
Traction Fundamentals
Shape of Wheels (or Belts)
Friction coefficient is dependent on:
Materials of the robot wheels (or belts)
Shape of the robot wheels (or belts)
Material of the floor surface
Surface conditions
Want the wheel (or belt)
surface to “interlock”
with the floor surface
On a large scale:
And on a small scale:
(see previous slide)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 12
for breaking the rules
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 13
Traction Fundamentals
Material of Floor Surface
Friction coefficient is dependent on:
Materials of the robot wheels (or belts)
Shape of the robot wheels (or belts)
Material of the floor surface
Surface conditions
This is not up to you!
Know what surfaces (all
of them) that you will be
running on.
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 14
Traction Fundamentals
Surface Conditions
Friction coefficient is dependent on:
Materials of the robot wheels (or belts)
Shape of the robot wheels (or belts)
Material of the floor surface
Surface conditions
In some cases this
will be up to you.
Good:
clean surfaces
“tacky” surfaces
Bad:
dirty surfaces
oily surfaces
Don’t be too dependent on the surface condition,
since you cannot always control it. But … don’t
forget to clean your wheels.
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 15
Traction Fundamentals
“Normal Force”
weight
front
The normal force is the force that the wheels exert on the floor, and is
equal and opposite to the force the floor exerts on the wheels. In the
simplest case, this is dependent on the weight of the robot. The normal
force is divided among the robot features in contact with the ground.
normal
force
(rear)
normal
force
(front)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 16
Traction Fundamentals
“Weight Distribution”
more weight in back
due to battery and
motors
front
The weight of the robot is not equally distributed among all the contacts
with the floor. Weight distribution is dependent on where the parts are
in the robot. This affects the normal force at each wheel.
more
normal
force
less
normal
force
less weight in front
due to fewer parts
in this area E
X
A
M
P
L
E
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
O
N
L
Y
O
N
L
Y
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 17
Traction Fundamentals
Weight Distribution is Not Constant
front
arm position in front
makes the weight
shift to the front
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
O
N
L
Y
O
N
L
Y
arm position in
rear makes the weight
shift to the rear
normal
force
(rear)
normal
force
(front)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 18
"Enhanced" Traction
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 19
Traction Fundamentals
“Weight Transfer”
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
E
X
A
M
P
L
E
O
N
L
Y
O
N
L
Y
robot accelerating
from 0 mph to
6 mph
inertial forces
exerted by
components
on the robot
more normal force is exerted
on the rear wheels because
inertial forces tend to rotate
the robot toward the rear
less normal force is exerted
on the front wheels because
inertial forces tend to rotate
the robot away from the front
In an extreme case (with rear wheel drive), you pull a wheelie
In a really extreme case (with rear wheel drive), you tip over!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 20
Traction Fundamentals
Consider “Transient” Conditions
transient = changing with time
What happens when the robot bumps into something?
What happens when the robot picks up an object?
What happens when the robot accelerates hard?
What things can cause the robot to lose traction?
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 21
Traction Fundamentals
Number & Location of Drive Wheels
many variations, and there is no “right” answer
simple
rear wheel drive
simple
front wheel drive
simple
all wheel drive
simple
center drive
6 wheel
drive
tracked drive
Drive elements can:
steer (to enable turning or “crabbing”)
move up and down (to engage/disengage,
or to enable climbing)
** Can combine some of these features together **
Advice: Don’t make it more complex than it has to be!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 22
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 23
FIRST Motors
1. Motor Characteristics (Motor Curve)
2. Max Power vs. Power at 40 Amps
3. Motor Comparisons
4. Combining Motors
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 24
Motor Characteristics
• Torque v Speed Curves
– Stall Torque (T
0
)
– Stall Current (A
0
)
– Free Speed (e
f
)
– Free Current (A
f
)
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
e
f
A
f
A
0
K (slope)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 25
Slope-Intercept (Y=mX + b)
• Y=Motor Torque
• m=K (discuss later)
• X=Motor Speed
• b=Stall Torque (T
0
)
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
e
f
A
f
A
0
K (slope)
What is K? … It is the slope of the line.
Slope = change in Y / change in X = (0 - T
0
)/(e
f
-0) = -T
0
/e
f
K = Slope = -T
0
/e
f
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 26
(Y=mX + b) Continued ...
• Y=Motor Torque
• m=K = -T
0
/e
f
• X=Motor Speed
• b=Stall Torque = T
0
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
(b)
e
f
A
f
A
0
K (-T
0
/e
f
)
Equation for a motor:
Torque = (-T
0
/e
f
) * Speed + T
0
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 27
Current (Amps) and FIRST
• What are cutoff Amps?
– Max useable amps
– Limited by breakers
– Need to make assumptions
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
e
f
A
f
A
0
Cutoff
Amps
Can our Motors operate above 40 amps?
- Absolutely, but not continuous.
When designing, you want to be able to perform continuously;
so finding motor info at 40 amps could prove to be useful.
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 28
Torque at Amp Limit
• T
40
= Torque at 40 Amps
• e
40
= Speed at 40 Amps
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
e
f
A
f
A
0
Cutoff
Amps
Current Equation:
Current = (A
f
-A
0
)/e
f
* Speed + A
0
Motor Equation:
Torque = (-T
0
/e
f
) * Speed + T
0
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 29
Power - Max vs. 40 Amps
Speed
T
o
r
q
u
e
,

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
T
0
e
f
A
f
A
0
Power Power = Torque * Speed
Must give up torque for speed
Max Power occurs when:
T = T
0
/2 & e= e
f
/2
What if max power occurs at
a current higher than 40A?
Power is Absolute - It determines the Torque Speed tradeoff!
Paul’s Tip #1: Design drive motor max power for 40A!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 30
Motor Comparisons
• Chiaphua Motor
• Fisher-Price Motor
Let’s Look at Some FIRST Motors
We will compare T
0
, e
f
, A
0
, A
f
, T
40
, e
40
, max power
(P
max
), amps @ max power (A
pmax
), and power at
40 amps (P
40
).
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 31
Motor Comparisons
T0 Wf A0 Af Pmax T40 W40 P40
N-m RPM Amps Amps Watts N-m RPM Watts
CIM 2.45 5,342 114 2.4 342.6 0.80 3,647 305.5
Mabuchi F.P. 0.642 24,000 148 1.5 403.4 0.18 17,500 322.5
Motor
Motor Equations:
1. 2006 Fisher-Price: T = (-0.64/24,000) * e + 0.64
2. 2002-07 Chiaphua: T = (-2.45/5,342) * e + 2.45
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 32
Combining Motors
Using multiple motors is common for drive trains. We will look
at matching the CIM and the Fisher-Price.
I try to match at free speed, but you can match at any speed
you like!!
e
f
FP / e
f
Chiaphua = 24,000/5342 ~ 9/2 = Gear Ratio
We will use an efficiency of 95% for the match gears.
More to come on Gear Ratio & Efficiency a little later!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 33
Combined Motor Data
T0 Wf Pmax T40 W40 P40
N-m RPM Watts N-m RPM Watts
F-P & CIM 5.19 5,337 725 1.7 3,642 648
CIM & CIM 4.9 5,342 685 1.6 3,647 611
CIM, CIM, & F-P 7.64 5,339 1068 2.63 3,644 1004
Motor
Motor Equations:
1. F-P & CIM: T = (-5.19/5,337) * e + 5.19
2. CIM & CIM: T = (-4.9/5,342) * e + 4.9
3. CIM, CIM, & F-P: T = (-7.64/5,339) * e + 7.64
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 34
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 35
Gearing Fundamentals
“Torque” and “Power”
Torque is the ability to exert a rotational effort. In this case,
the ability to make a wheel turn.
Torque determines whether or not you can get the job done.
Power is the rate at which energy is delivered. In this case,
the rate at which wheel torque is being transferred to the
floor.
Power determines how fast you can get the job done.
(some oversimplified definitions)
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 36
Types of Drive Mechanisms
2. Spur Gears
Efficiency ~ 95% - 98%
GR = N
2
/N
1
N
1
N
2
1. Chain & Belt
Efficiency ~ 95% - 98%
GR = N
2
/N
1
N
2
N
1
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 37
Types of Drive Mechanisms
3. Bevel Gears
Efficiency ~ 90% - 95%
GR = N
2
/N
1
N
2
N
1
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 38
Types of Drive Mechanisms
4. Worm Gears
Efficiency ~ 40% - 70%
# Teeth on Worm Gear
GR = -------------------------------
# of Threads on worm
Worm gear
Worm
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 39
Types of Drive Mechanisms
5. Planetary Gears
Efficiency ~ 80% - 90%
SUN GEAR
(INPUT)
RING GEAR
(FIXED)
PLANET GEAR
CARRIER
(OUTPUT)
N
ring
GR = ------- + 1
N
sun
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 40
Gearing Basics
• Consecutive gear stages multiply:
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
• Gear Ratio is (N
2
/N
1
) * (N
4
/N
3
)
• Efficiency is .95 *.95 = .90
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 41
Gearing Basics - Wheel Attachment
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
• Gear 4 is attached to the wheel
• Remember that T = F * R
w
• Also, V = e * R
w
• T
4
= T
1
* N
2
/N
1
* N
4
/N
3
* .95 * .95
• e
4
= e
1
* N
1
/N
2
* N
3
/N
4
• F = T
4
/ R
w
• V = e
4
* R
w
Motor Shaft
Wheel Diameter - D
w
D
w
= R
w
* 2
F
push
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 42
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 43
Design Condition
• Assumptions
•4 wheel drive, 4 motors.
• Weight is evenly distributed.
• Using all spur gears.
• Terms
• W = Weight of robot
• W
t
= Weight transferred to robot from goals
•T
out
= wheel output Torque
• Find the gear ratio & wheel diameter to maximize
push force.
The maximum force at each wheel we can attain is ???
F
max
= F
friction
= µ * (W + W
t
) {on a flat surface}
Now T = F * R
w
----> F = T
out
/ R
w
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 44
Design Condition Continued
• T
out
= T
40
* GR * eff
The above gives you the best combination of gear ratio and
wheel diameter for maximum pushing force!
F
friction
= T
out
/ R
w
: µ * (W + W
t
) = T
40
* GR * eff / R
w
µ * (W + W
t
)
GR/R
w
= ---------------------------
T
40
* eff
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 45
Design Condition Continued
O.K. So what is my top speed?
0.9 * e
free
* t * 2 * R
w
V
max
[m/sec] = ------------------------------
60 * GR
Where e
free
is in RPM, R
w
is in meters.
The 0.9 accounts for drive friction slowing the robot down.
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 46
Design Condition Applied to
Kit Transmission Design
Actual kit gear ratio is
50/14 * 50/14 * 28/21 = 17
Given (constraints):
W = 130 lb
W
t
= 0 lb
µ = 0.8
eff = 0.86
T
40
= 2 * 1.18 ft-lb
R
w
= 4 in
0.8 * (130 + 0)
GR/R
w
= ---------------------------
2 * 1.18 * 0.86
GR = 17
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 47
Design Condition Applied to
Kit Transmission Design
O.K. So what is my top speed and pushing force?
0.9 * 5342 * t * 2 * 4/12
V
max
[ft/sec] = -------------------------------- = 10 ft/sec
60 * 17
2 * 1.18 * 17 * 0.86
Fmax [lb] = -------------------------- = 103.5 lb
4/12
F
max
available = 0.8 * (130 + 0) = 104 lb
close
enough!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 48
Gearing Fundamentals
Robot Drive System Simulation
12/25/2003 FIRST DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATOR v3
USE AT YOUR OWN RISK, NO WARRANTY IMPLIED
KEN PATTON GM POWERTRAIN TEAM 65
GEAR RATIO INPUT DATA Nmotor Nmotor Tmotor Pmotor current
60 gearbox ratio (drill motor speed : output speed) (rpm) (rad/s) (Nm) (kW) (A)
15 drive sprocket # of teeth 0 0 2.850 0.000 468
15 driven sprocket # of teeth 3934 412 2.304 0.949 376
7868 824 1.757 1.448 285
GEARBOX CONSTANTS 11802 1236 1.211 1.496 193
0.900 gearbox efficiency (not rest of driveline) 15736 1648 0.664 1.094 101
0.2 gearbox spin loss at output side (Nm) 19670 2060 0.118 0.242 10
ROBOT INPUT DATA EFFIC CONSTANTS
0.1016 drive wheel radius (m) 12.25 Fstatic (N) 0.000156 I @motor 0.05 timestep
58.98367 mass of robot (kg) 0.95 ndriveline 0.005 I @wheels
0.93 ntires
robot robot distance all motors robot robot Approx
time v v traveled Ngb,out Tgb,out dv/dt dv/dt Current Nmotor Fpush
(sec) (m/s) (mph) (m) (rpm) (Nm) (m/s^2) (g) (A) (rpm) (N)
0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0 143.10 20.714 2.113 444.4 0 1221.8
0.05 1.036 2.32 0.052 97 99.29 14.309 1.460 308.3 5841 844.0
0.1 1.751 3.92 0.139 165 69.02 9.884 1.008 214.3 9875 583.0
0.15 2.245 5.02 0.252 211 48.12 6.828 0.697 149.4 12662 402.7
0.2 2.587 5.79 0.381 243 33.67 4.717 0.481 104.6 14588 278.2
0.25 2.823 6.31 0.522 265 23.70 3.258 0.332 73.6 15918 192.2
0.3 2.986 6.68 0.671 281 16.80 2.251 0.230 52.2 16836 132.8
0.35 3.098 6.93 0.826 291 12.04 1.555 0.159 37.4 17471 91.7
0.4 3.176 7.10 0.985 298 8.76 1.074 0.110 27.2 17909 63.4
0.45 3.229 7.22 1.147 304 6.48 0.742 0.076 20.1 18212 43.8
0.5 3.267 7.31 1.310 307 4.91 0.513 0.052 15.3 18421 30.2
0.55 3.292 7.36 1.474 309 3.83 0.354 0.036 11.9 18566 20.9
0.6 3.310 7.40 1.640 311 3.08 0.245 0.025 9.6 18666 14.4
0.65 3.322 7.43 1.806 312 2.56 0.169 0.017 8.0 18735 10.0
0.7 3.331 7.45 1.973 313 2.21 0.117 0.012 6.9 18782 6.9
0.75 3.336 7.46 2.139 314 1.96 0.081 0.008 6.1 18815 4.8
0.8 3.340 7.47 2.306 314 1.79 0.056 0.006 5.6 18838 3.3
0.85 3.343 7.48 2.474 314 1.67 0.038 0.004 5.2 18854 2.3
0.9 3.345 7.48 2.641 314 1.59 0.027 0.003 4.9 18865 1.6
0.95 3.346 7.49 2.808 315 1.53 0.018 0.002 4.8 18872 1.1
1 3.347 7.49 2.976 315 1.50 0.013 0.001 4.6 18877 0.7
1.05 3.348 7.49 3.143 315 1.47 0.009 0.001 4.6 18881 0.5
1.1 3.348 7.49 3.310 315 1.45 0.006 0.001 4.5 18883 0.4
1.15 3.349 7.49 3.478 315 1.44 0.004 0.000 4.5 18885 0.2
This motor curve is used, based on the
inputs in the motors spreadsheet.
ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION
VELOCITY TRACE
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ELAPSED TIME (sec)
V
E
L
O
C
I
T
Y

(
m
/
s
)
velocity
ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION
DISTANCE TRAVELED TRACE
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ELAPSED TIME (sec)
D
I
S
T
A
N
C
E

T
R
A
V
E
L
E
D

(
m
)
distance traveled
ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION
0.000
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
3.000
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
torque
power
available on the web at
www.huskiebrigade.com
see John V-Neun's
presentation and
team 229's website
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 49
Simulation Results
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Elapsed Time (sec)
R
o
b
o
t

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)
drills 80
drills 60
drills+CIMs 60
drills+CIMs+FPs 50
motors used
gear ratio
@ drill
top
speed
(m/s)
time to top
speed
(sec)
current
@ 1 sec
(A)
2 drills only 80 2.29 0.45 2.8
2 drills only 60 3.03 0.9 6.4
2 drills + 2 CIMs 60 3.35 0.53 4.6
2 drills + 2 CIMs + 2 F-Ps 50 4.08 0.66 7.1
Example results for 130 lb robot
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 50
Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements
2. Traction Fundamentals
3. FIRST Motors
4. Gearing Fundamentals
5. System Design Condition
6. Practical Considerations
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 51
Reliability
Keep it simple!
- makes it easier to design and build
- will get it up and running much sooner
- makes it easier to fix when it breaks
Get it running quickly
- find out what you did wrong sooner
- allow drivers some practice (the most important thing)
- chance to fine-tune
- chance to get the control system on the robot
- when testing, make sure weight of machine is about right
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 52
Reliability, cont'd
Strongly consider assembly + disassembly
- think about where wrench clearance is needed
- visualize how it will be assembled, repaired
- provide access holes to enable motor swaps
Use reliable fastening systems
- often this is where things break, come loose, etc.
- take special care where shaft alignment is concerned
Support shafts appropriately
- reduced deflections will reduce friction
- reduced friction will improve durability & controllability
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 53
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 54
Best New Drive System Component!
chain tensioner
Team 1140 got this
from McMaster-Carr
THANK YOU Team 1140!!
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 55
Drive System Fundamantals
QUESTIONS?
FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007
Copioli & Patton
page 56
Drive System Terms
1. Gear Ratio: Can be described many ways
- Motor Speed / Output Speed
2. Efficiency - Work lost due to drive losses
- Friction, heat, misalignment
3. Friction Force - Tractive (pushing) force generated
between floor and wheel.
4. W is rotational speed & V is linear Speed (velocity)
5. N1 is # of teeth on input gear/sprocket
6. N2 is # of teeth on output gear/sprocket
we already cover these in detail

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton

Robot Drive Systems
1. Drive System Requirements 2. Traction Fundamentals 3. FIRST Motors 4. Gearing Fundamentals 5. System Design Condition 6. Practical Considerations

page 2

Drive System Requirements (Know what you want it to do!)

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton

Before you start designing your machine, you must know what you want it to do The game rules and your team’s chosen strategy will help you decide what you want it to do By spending some time and deciding for sure what you want it to do, you will be able to make good decisions about what design to choose This needs to be a team effort
page 3

Some Features That Help Provide Good Drive System Attributes
Attribute high top speed acceleration Good Features to Have
high power, low losses, the right gear ratio high power, low inertia, low mass, the right gear ratio

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton

TR AC TI ON

pushing/pulling ability high power, high traction, the right gear ratio, low losses maneuverability accuracy obstacle handling climbing ability reliability/durability ease of control
page 4

good turning method good control calibration, the right gear ratio ground clearance, obstacle "protection," drive wheels on floor high traction, the right gear ratio, ground clearance simple, robust designs, good fastening systems intuitive control method, high reliability

Some Features That Help Provide Good Drive System Attributes
Attribute high top speed acceleration Good Features to Have
high power, low losses, the right gear ratio high power, low inertia, low mass, the right gear ratio

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton

GE AR IN G

pushing/pulling ability high power, high traction, the right gear ratio, low losses maneuverability accuracy obstacle handling climbing ability reliability/durability ease of control
page 5

good turning method good control calibration, the right gear ratio ground clearance, obstacle "protection," drive wheels on floor high traction, the right gear ratio, ground clearance simple, robust designs, good fastening systems intuitive control method, high reliability

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Robot Drive Systems 1. Drive System Requirements 2. Gearing Fundamentals 5. Traction Fundamentals 3. FIRST Motors 4. Practical Considerations page 6 . System Design Condition 6.

multiplied by the normal force. Tractive force is important! It’s what moves the robot.Traction Fundamentals Terminology torque turning the wheel FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton weight maximum tractive force = friction coefficient x normal force tractive force normal force The friction coefficient for any given contact with the floor. equals the maximum tractive force can be applied at the contact area. page 7 .

no slip al Ffriction = * Weight * cos() Fparallel = Weight * sin() = * Weight * cos()  = sin() / cos() page 8  = tan() .Traction Fundamentals The Basic Equations • Ffriction =  * Fnormal • Experimentally determine : • Fnormal = Weight * cos() • Fparallel = Weight * sin() FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton n ctio Ffri l alle par F  orm Fn Weight When Ffriction = Fparallel.

Traction Fundamentals “Friction Coefficient” Friction coefficient is dependent on: Materials of the robot wheels (or belts) Shape of the robot wheels (or belts) Material of the floor surface Surface conditions FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton page 9 .

Traction Fundamentals Wheel Materials Friction coefficient is dependent on: Materials of the robot wheels (or belts) Shape of the robot wheels (or belts) Material of the floor surface Surface conditions FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton High Friction Coeff: soft materials “spongy” materials “sticky” materials Low Friction Coeff: hard materials smooth materials shiny materials It is often the case that “good” materials wear out much faster than “bad” materials .don’t pick a material that is TOO good! Advice: make sure you have tried & true LEGAL material page 10 .

Traction Fundamentals Shape of Wheels (or Belts) Friction coefficient is dependent on: Materials of the robot wheels (or belts) Shape of the robot wheels (or belts) Material of the floor surface Surface conditions FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Want the wheel (or belt) surface to “interlock” with the floor surface On a large scale: And on a small scale: (see previous slide) page 11 .

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton for breaking the rules page 12 .

Traction Fundamentals Material of Floor Surface Friction coefficient is dependent on: Materials of the robot wheels (or belts) Shape of the robot wheels (or belts) Material of the floor surface Surface conditions FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton This is not up to you! Know what surfaces (all of them) that you will be running on. page 13 .

Traction Fundamentals Surface Conditions Friction coefficient is dependent on: Materials of the robot wheels (or belts) Shape of the robot wheels (or belts) Material of the floor surface Surface conditions FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton In some cases this will be up to you. since you cannot always control it. page 14 . Good: clean surfaces “tacky” surfaces Bad: dirty surfaces oily surfaces Don’t be too dependent on the surface condition. But … don’t forget to clean your wheels.

page 15 . The normal force is divided among the robot features in contact with the ground. In the simplest case. this is dependent on the weight of the robot.Traction Fundamentals “Normal Force” weight FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton front normal force (rear) normal force (front) The normal force is the force that the wheels exert on the floor. and is equal and opposite to the force the floor exerts on the wheels.

page 16 . This affects the normal force at each wheel. Weight distribution is dependent on where the parts are in the robot.Traction Fundamentals “Weight Distribution” more weight in back due to battery and motors EXAM PL ON L Y E FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton less weight in front due to fewer parts in this area front more normal force less normal force The weight of the robot is not equally distributed among all the contacts with the floor.

Traction Fundamentals Weight Distribution is Not Constant arm position in rear makes the weight shift to the rear FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton arm position in front makes the weight shift to the front EXAM PL ON L Y E front normal force (rear) page 17 normal force (front) .

"Enhanced" Traction FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton page 18 .

you pull a wheelie In a really extreme case (with rear wheel drive).Traction Fundamentals “Weight Transfer” robot accelerating from 0 mph to 6 mph EXAM PL ON L Y E FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton inertial forces exerted by components on the robot more normal force is exerted on the rear wheels because inertial forces tend to rotate the robot toward the rear less normal force is exerted on the front wheels because inertial forces tend to rotate the robot away from the front In an extreme case (with rear wheel drive). you tip over! page 19 .

Traction Fundamentals Consider “Transient” Conditions transient = changing with time What happens when the robot bumps into something? What happens when the robot picks up an object? What happens when the robot accelerates hard? What things can cause the robot to lose traction? FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton page 20 .

Traction Fundamentals Number & Location of Drive Wheels many variations. and there is no “right” answer FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton simple rear wheel drive simple front wheel drive simple all wheel drive simple center drive 6 wheel drive tracked drive Drive elements can: steer (to enable turning or “crabbing”) move up and down (to engage/disengage. or to enable climbing) ** Can combine some of these features together ** Advice: Don’t make it more complex than it has to be! page 21 .

System Design Condition 6.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Robot Drive Systems 1. FIRST Motors 4. Traction Fundamentals 3. Drive System Requirements 2. Gearing Fundamentals 5. Practical Considerations page 22 .

Motor Characteristics (Motor Curve) 2. Power at 40 Amps 3. Max Power vs. Combining Motors page 23 . Motor Comparisons 4.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton FIRST Motors 1.

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Motor Characteristics Torque. Current • Torque v Speed Curves – – – – Stall Torque (T0) Stall Current (A0) Free Speed (f) Free Current (Af) T0 A0 K (slope) Af Speed f page 24 .

T0)/(f-0) = -T0/f K = Slope = -T0/f page 25 .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Slope-Intercept (Y=mX + b) Torque. Current • • • • Y=Motor Torque m=K (discuss later) X=Motor Speed b=Stall Torque (T0) T0 A0 K (slope) Af Speed f What is K? … It is the slope of the line. Slope = change in Y / change in X = (0 .

.. Current • • • • Y=Motor Torque m=K = -T0/f X=Motor Speed b=Stall Torque = T0 T0 (b) A0 K (-T0/f) Af Speed f Equation for a motor: Torque = (-T0/f) * Speed + T0 page 26 .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton (Y=mX + b) Continued . Torque.

Current • What are cutoff Amps? – Max useable amps – Limited by breakers – Need to make assumptions T0 A0 Cutoff Amps Af Speed Can our Motors operate above 40 amps? . but not continuous. f When designing. page 27 .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Current (Amps) and FIRST Torque. you want to be able to perform continuously. so finding motor info at 40 amps could prove to be useful.Absolutely.

Current • T40 = Torque at 40 Amps • 40 = Speed at 40 Amps Current Equation: Current = (Af-A0)/f * Speed + A0 Motor Equation: Torque = (-T0/f) * Speed + T0 T0 A0 Cutoff Amps Af Speed f page 28 .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Torque at Amp Limit Torque.

It determines the Torque Speed tradeoff! page 29 .Max vs. 40 Amps Torque.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Power . Current Power = Torque * Speed Must give up torque for speed Max Power occurs when: T = T0/2 & = f/2 What if max power occurs at a current higher than 40A? Power T0 A0 Af Speed f Paul’s Tip #1: Design drive motor max power for 40A! Power is Absolute .

40. amps @ max power (Apmax). A0.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Motor Comparisons Let’s Look at Some FIRST Motors • Chiaphua Motor • Fisher-Price Motor We will compare T0. page 30 . max power (Pmax). f. T40. Af. and power at 40 amps (P40).

342) *  + 2. 2006 Fisher-Price: T = (-0.45/5.500 P40 Watts 305.80 0.4 T40 N-m 0.45 0.64/24.5 Pmax Watts 342.000 A0 Amps 114 148 Af Amps 2.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Motor Comparisons Motor CIM Mabuchi F.5 Motor Equations: 1.18 W40 RPM 3.000) *  + 0.4 1.5 322.647 17.45 page 31 .642 Wf RPM 5.P.342 24.6 403. T0 N-m 2. 2002-07 Chiaphua: T = (-2.64 2.

We will look at matching the CIM and the Fisher-Price. I try to match at free speed. but you can match at any speed you like!! f FP / f Chiaphua = 24.000/5342 ~ 9/2 = Gear Ratio We will use an efficiency of 95% for the match gears.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Combining Motors Using multiple motors is common for drive trains. More to come on Gear Ratio & Efficiency a little later! page 32 .

644 P40 Watts 648 611 1004 Motor Equations: 1.337) *  + 5. & F-P T0 N-m 5. CIM & CIM: T = (-5.63 W40 RPM 3.9/5.7 1.9 3.64 page 33 .642 3.342 5. CIM.337 5. CIM.19 T = (-4. F-P & CIM: 2.339) *  + 7.19 4.64 Wf RPM 5.342) *  + 4.6 2.19/5.647 3.9 7. & F-P: T = (-7.339 Pmax Watts 725 685 1068 T40 N-m 1.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Combined Motor Data Motor F-P & CIM CIM & CIM CIM.64/5. CIM.

Drive System Requirements 2.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Robot Drive Systems 1. Traction Fundamentals 3. FIRST Motors 4. System Design Condition 6. Practical Considerations page 34 . Gearing Fundamentals 5.

Power is the rate at which energy is delivered. the ability to make a wheel turn. the rate at which wheel torque is being transferred to the floor. In this case. page 35 . Torque determines whether or not you can get the job done. Power determines how fast you can get the job done.Gearing Fundamentals “Torque” and “Power” (some oversimplified definitions) FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Torque is the ability to exert a rotational effort. In this case.

98% GR = N2/N1 N1 N2 page 36 .98% GR = N2/N1 N1 N2 2. Chain & Belt Efficiency ~ 95% . Spur Gears Efficiency ~ 95% .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Types of Drive Mechanisms 1.

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Types of Drive Mechanisms 3. Bevel Gears Efficiency ~ 90% .95% GR = N2/N1 N1 N2 page 37 .

70% # Teeth on Worm Gear GR = ------------------------------# of Threads on worm FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Worm Worm gear page 38 .Types of Drive Mechanisms 4. Worm Gears Efficiency ~ 40% .

90% RING GEAR (FIXED) CARRIER (OUTPUT) FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton SUN GEAR (INPUT) PLANET GEAR Nring GR = ------. Planetary Gears Efficiency ~ 80% .Types of Drive Mechanisms 5.+ 1 Nsun page 39 .

90 page 40 .95 *.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Gearing Basics • Consecutive gear stages multiply: N2 N1 N4 N3 • Gear Ratio is (N2/N1) * (N4/N3) • Efficiency is .95 = .

Dw Dw = Rw * 2 N3 Motor Shaft Fpush page 41 • Gear 4 is attached to the wheel • Remember that T = F * Rw • Also. V =  * Rw • T4 = T1 * N2/N1 * N4/N3 * .Wheel Attachment N2 N1 N4 Wheel Diameter .95 • 4 = 1 * N1/N2 * N3/N4 • F = T4 / Rw • V = 4 * Rw .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Gearing Basics .95 * .

Gearing Fundamentals 5. Traction Fundamentals 3. FIRST Motors 4. Practical Considerations page 42 . System Design Condition 6. Drive System Requirements 2.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Robot Drive Systems 1.

• Using all spur gears. • Weight is evenly distributed.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Design Condition • Assumptions •4 wheel drive. The maximum force at each wheel we can attain is ??? Fmax = Ffriction =  * (W + W t) {on a flat surface} Now T = F * Rw ----> F = Tout / Rw page 43 . 4 motors. • Terms • W = Weight of robot • W t = Weight transferred to robot from goals •Tout = wheel output Torque • Find the gear ratio & wheel diameter to maximize push force.

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Design Condition Continued • Tout = T40 * GR * eff Ffriction = Tout / Rw: * (W + W t) = T40 * GR * eff / Rw * (W + Wt) GR/Rw = --------------------------T40 * eff The above gives you the best combination of gear ratio and wheel diameter for maximum pushing force! page 44 .

9 * free *  * 2 * Rw -----------------------------60 * GR Vmax [m/sec] = Where free is in RPM. page 45 .9 accounts for drive friction slowing the robot down. The 0.K. Rw is in meters.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Design Condition Continued O. So what is my top speed? 0.

86 GR = 17 Actual kit gear ratio is 50/14 * 50/14 * 28/21 = 17 page 46 .86 T40 = 2 * 1.18 ft-lb Rw = 4 in FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton 0.8 * (130 + 0) GR/Rw = --------------------------2 * 1.Design Condition Applied to Kit Transmission Design Given (constraints): W = 130 lb W t = 0 lb  = 0.8 eff = 0.18 * 0.

= 103.8 * (130 + 0) = 104 lb Fmax [lb] = Fmax available page 47 close enough! .K. So what is my top speed and pushing force? Vmax [ft/sec] = FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton 0.= 10 ft/sec 60 * 17 2 * 1.9 *  *  * 2 * 4/12 -------------------------------.18 * 17 * 0.86 -------------------------.5 lb 4/12 = 0.Design Condition Applied to Kit Transmission Design O.

169 0.025 0.074 0.48 4.481 0.4 27.98367 mass of robot (kg) 0.1 1.8 4.4 0.3 149.22 7.336 3.159 0.038 0.012 0.com 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ELAPSED TIME (sec) distance traveled page 48 ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION .017 0.251 1.522 0.9 9.004 0.02 48.176 3.59 1.32 3.448 11802 1236 1.8 3.348 3.05 0.9 6.808 2.478 0 97 165 211 243 265 281 291 298 304 307 309 311 312 313 314 314 314 314 315 315 315 315 315 143.008 0.714 14.5 0.29 69.349 0.2 132.3 1.31 6.1 5.347 3.949 7868 824 1. NO WARRANTY IMPLIED KEN PATTON GM POWERTRAIN TEAM 65 GEAR RATIO INPUT DATA 60 gearbox ratio (drill motor speed : output speed) 15 drive sprocket # of teeth 15 driven sprocket # of teeth GEARBOX CONSTANTS 0.027 0.6 5.45 7.49 7.4 104.48 7.139 2.76 6.004 robot dv/dt (g) 2.826 0.018 0.742 0.036 1.huskiebrigade.53 1.15 0.49 0.242 current (A) 468 376 285 193 101 10 0.0 583.229 3.496 15736 1648 0.10 7.000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 torque power FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton This motor curve is used.6 52.3 11.000 2.96 1.0 6.68 6.21 1.354 0.900 gearbox efficiency (not rest of driveline) 0.884 6.05 timestep 5 ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION VELOCITY TRACE Approx Current (A) 444.6 8.331 3.49 7.91 3.381 0.113 1.45 1.95 ndriveline 0.000 1.2 37.0 402.4 43.211 1.309 9.9 4.83 3.000 0.474 1.00 2.2 20. based on the inputs in the motors spreadsheet.006 0.332 0.67 1.304 0.02 5.6 0.2 4.671 0.50 1.513 0.2 20.003 0.44 3.95 1 1.56 2.751 2.008 0.43 7.258 2.79 1.986 3.306 2.93 ntires robot robot distance all motors time v v traveled Ngb.5 Nmotor (rpm) 0 5841 9875 12662 14588 15918 16836 17471 17909 18212 18421 18566 18666 18735 18782 18815 18838 18854 18865 18872 18877 18881 18883 18885 Fpush (N) 1221.46 7.500 2.6 73.036 0.85 0.1 0.348 3.31 7.3 2.3 214.8 0.717 3.75 0.094 19670 2060 0.70 16.15 0.310 1.7 0.252 0.35 0.2 VELOCITY (m/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ELAPSED TIME (sec) velocity see John V-Neun's presentation and team 229's website ROBOT DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATION DISTANCE TRAVELED TRACE DISTANCE TRAVELED (m) available on the web at www.002 0.65 0.641 2.117 0.25 Fstatic (N) 58.49 7.343 3.013 0.052 0.985 1.664 1.850 0.04 8.7 63.92 5.118 0.345 3.052 0.640 1.081 0.000 0.340 3.500 1.1016 drive wheel radius (m) 12.587 2.49 7.9 0.267 3.143 3.292 3.098 3.45 0.346 3.000 3934 412 2.8 91.6 4.40 7.79 6.12 33.3 0.823 2.25 0.1 15.6 1.310 3.973 2.555 1.005 I @wheels robot dv/dt (m/s^2) 20.Gearing Fundamentals Robot Drive System Simulation 12/25/2003 FIRST DRIVE SYSTEM SIMULATOR v3 USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.7 0.4 0.08 2.7 278.500 0.009 0.67 23.147 1.806 1.006 0.001 0.322 3.000 0.460 1.2 0.245 0.93 7.36 7.9 4.245 2.55 0.8 844.9 14.1 0.828 4.out (sec) (m/s) (mph) (m) (rpm) (Nm) 0 0.4 308.000156 I @motor 0. Nmotor Nmotor Tmotor Pmotor (rpm) (rad/s) (Nm) (kW) 0 0 2.6 4.110 0.47 7.5 4.001 0.8 30.05 1.out Tgb.697 0.474 2.310 3.230 0.47 1.4 10.001 0.0 6.976 3.5 0.056 0.757 1.80 12.139 0.2 192.48 7.2 gearbox spin loss at output side (Nm) ROBOT INPUT DATA EFFIC CONSTANTS 0.076 0.10 99.000 1.

8 60 3.08 0.66 7.Simulation Results 4.5 3.0 0 motors used 2 drills only 2 drills only 2 drills + 2 CIMs 2 drills + 2 CIMs + 2 F-Ps top time to top current gear ratio speed speed @ 1 sec (sec) @ drill (m/s) (A) 80 2.4 60 3.03 0.29 0.0 1.5 4.5 2.1 drills 80 drills 60 drills+CIMs 60 drills+CIMs+FPs 50 0.35 0.5 0.53 4.5 1 Elapsed Time (sec) 1.5 1.0 0.9 6.45 2.0 Robot Velocity (m/s) FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton 3.0 2.6 50 4.5 2 Example results for 130 lb robot page 49 .

Practical Considerations page 50 . Traction Fundamentals 3. Gearing Fundamentals 5. FIRST Motors 4. Drive System Requirements 2.FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Robot Drive Systems 1. System Design Condition 6.

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Reliability Keep it simple! .chance to fine-tune .when testing. make sure weight of machine is about right page 51 .find out what you did wrong sooner .allow drivers some practice (the most important thing) .makes it easier to fix when it breaks Get it running quickly .will get it up and running much sooner .makes it easier to design and build .chance to get the control system on the robot .

provide access holes to enable motor swaps Use reliable fastening systems . come loose.reduced friction will improve durability & controllability page 52 . .take special care where shaft alignment is concerned Support shafts appropriately .reduced deflections will reduce friction .FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Reliability.often this is where things break. etc. cont'd Strongly consider assembly + disassembly .visualize how it will be assembled. repaired .think about where wrench clearance is needed .

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton page 53 .

Best New Drive System Component! chain tensioner Team 1140 got this from McMaster-Carr FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton THANK YOU Team 1140!! page 54 .

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Drive System Fundamantals QUESTIONS? page 55 .

FIRST Drive Systems 4/12/2007 Copioli & Patton Drive System in detail Terms we already cover these 1. N1 is # of teeth on input gear/sprocket 6. W is rotational speed & V is linear Speed (velocity) 5. Friction Force .Tractive (pushing) force generated between floor and wheel. Gear Ratio: Can be described many ways . Efficiency . N2 is # of teeth on output gear/sprocket page 56 . misalignment 3.Friction.Work lost due to drive losses .Motor Speed / Output Speed 2. 4. heat.

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