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1HighHigh-Performance, Green Buildings
Tom Lawrence, Ph.D. P.E., LEED-AP Lawrence Ph D P E LEEDlawrence@engr.uga.edu
Introduction and greetings from the University of Georgia
Green Buildings Overview, Standard 189 - 2
Copyright ©2009 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning g g g Airg Engineers (ASHRAE). All rights reserved. No part of this presentation may be reproduced without written permission from ASHRAE, nor may any part of this presentation be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording or other) without written permission from ASHRAE.
ASHRAE Standard 189.1
Overview of proposed ASHRAE Standard 189.1 for “High-Performance, Green “HighHigh Buildings”
- What is it? - Why have it? - Hi hli ht Highlights
Sponsors and Project Committee
Consensus process Sponsor and co-sponsors: co- ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Air- USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) - IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America)
Project committee: 35 voting members; variety of disciplines, industries & organizations
Standard 189.1: Intent
What Standard 189.1 is:
- a standard d d - applies to all buildings except low-rise residential lowbuildings (same as ASHRAE Std 90.1) p g - intended for adoption into model building codes
What Standard 189.1 is not: - not a design guide - not a rating system
Even if not adopted by your local authorities, this Standard is an indication of future industry trends
Purpose “The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum requirements for the siting. design. 8 . Adapt with minor modifications 55 (current version) Adapt Section 2 .1: Relation to Other ASHRAE Standards 90. with modifications Adapt.1 (current version) 62.Standard 189. occupant comfort and well being. g g construction. . q siting.1 (current version) Adapt. and community sensitivity. green buildings to: (a) balance environmental responsibility.” needs.1 (current version) 90. resource efficiency.” needs. and plans for operation of high performance. and being comm nit sensiti it (b) support the goal of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
more effort) 10 . very few calculations) x.2: x 2: Compliance x.3: Mandatory (required for all projects) ( i df ll j t ) x. but p . flexibility.4: Prescriptive path (simple option.1 Basic Structure For Each Section x.1: Scope x.5: Performance path ( (more sophisticated. minimal choices. y.Organization and What it Covers Similar Si il to other ASHRAE standards and LEED h d d d 9 Standard 189.
Light “pollution” limitations [max lumens per site.Urban heat island [shaded or higher solar reflective index materials] .Prescriptive] l b Prescriptive] .1 Chapter Ch t 5 . hydrozoning & smart irrigation controllers 12 .Sit Sites: Discourages unmitigated sprawl Prohibited development activity .Highlights of Standard 189. backlight and glare limits] 11 Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Mandatory Provisions Site water use: bio-diverse plantings for use: bio60% of improved landscape.Flood plains.Amount of impervious surface area [max % of total site to be impervious . wetlands. fish & wildlife habitat Other areas that are addressed: .
Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Mandatory Provisions Building water use: use: (§6.S.000 Btu/h) ( . efficient drift eliminators . U S EPA WaterSense or ASME Standards.3 gal/cfm OA 14 . EPA 6. / ) Annual condensate collection Georgia: ~12.) HVAC Systems (§6 3 2 3): (§188.8.131.52) plumbing fixtures & fittings per U.3) 6.Condensate collection from units >19 kW (65.3.S.Subsystem metering above thresholds .184.108.40.206 gal/cfm OA Sacramento: ~1.2.Cooling tower cycles of concentration limit. Standards with specific limit on flow amount or rate (§6 3 2 2) appliances per U.3): 3): .2.6 gal/cfm Outdoor air or about 100 liters water/(l/s) Iowa: ~6.2) US EnergyStar. EnergyStar. with water use factor for dwelling unit or public access 13 Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Mandatory Provisions (cont.
) Roofs (§6 3 2 4): (§6.3.2.NO potable water spray on roofs for thermal conditioning or watering vegetation 15 Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Mandatory Provisions (cont.2. Metering of water source(s) and primary water use systems above threshold use rate 16 .Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Mandatory Provisions (cont.) Consumption measurement: measurement: Measurement devices with remote communication to data management system (with storage and retrieval capability) .3.Heavy use (> 1000 gal/day) leased areas regardless of size (e g laundry) (e.Leased spaces totaling 50.g..000 ft² (5000 m²) 50 000 .4) 6.4): 4): .
1): (§6. residential common areas.1): ) . public recreation facilities Allow for plant establishment period Use municipal reclaimed water if available within 200 ft 18 .4.Limitations on potable water for irrigation Maximum of 1/3 of total landscaped area (except golf courses.Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Metering 17 Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Prescriptive Option Site Water Use (§6. no potable water use) Can exclude dedicated athletic fields for schools.4.
4.2): g (§6.2): ) .Cooling Towers Based on water quality Makeup Water >200 mg/l hardness YES 3½ cycles for water NO 5 cycles for water Exception: Maximum blowdown concentration of 1.4.500 mg/l total dissolved solids or 150 mg/l silica 19 Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Performance Option Site water use reduction: reduction: Potable water for irrigation <35% of landscape water demand (based p ( on Eto) Eto) Building use: use: Proposed use < [mandatory + prescriptive] 20 .Chapter 6 – Water Use Efficiency Prescriptive Option Building Water Use (§6.
12007 INCLUDING PROCESS Appendix G from Standard 90.190.1 is incorporated as a Normative Appendix Metering for verification Peak load reduction Other areas increase stringency beyond g y y Standard 90.1 22 .Energy – Chapter 7 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Energy – General Highlights: gy g g Basic goal 30% lower than Standard 90.
ASHRAE Energy Goals ASHRAE goal to have net-zero energy and netcarbon by 2030 36000 Energy Reduction Proposal En nergy (kBtu/y yr) Standard 90.1 AEDG ASHRAE BOD Goal Standard 189 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year 23 General Compliance Path(s) 24 .
account for local shading 25 26 .2) On(§ Provisions for future installation with minimum rating of 3.0 kWh/m2/day).7 W/ft² (13 Btu/hr-ft²) W/ft² (13 Btu/hr-ft²) [40 W/m²] x roof area in ft² [m²] W/m²] ft² [m²] Exception f areas with low incident solar E ti for ith l i id t l (4.On-site renewable power (§7.3.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Mandatory Requirements: y q .
Key systems (Table 7.Energy sources (T bl 7.3.3733 .): Remote or automatic reading meters (§220.127.116.11Meters communicate to central recording y system Data storage for minimum 36 months Exception: Residential portions of buildings complying with this Standard 27 Energy Metering Thresholds 28 .Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Energy – Mandatory (cont.3-2) 7.3.3) criteria based on size .3-1) E (Table 7.3.
1 builds from 90.1from 90. 189.190 1 (9% due to renewables) renewables) Average EUI = 50 kBtu/ft² kBtu/ft² Standard 189.1-2007 90.2% lower than Standard 90.1 30.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (General) From DOE Study – Std.1-2007… 29 · Higher in heating dominated climates · 9% from renewable energy 30 .
Section 5 with modifications … difi ti Replaces Table 5.P h Purchase of green power i terms of f in f “7 kWh/ft²-yr [75 kWh/m²-yr]” annually until kWh/ft²kWh/m²cumulative purchase of 70 kWh/ft²-yr kWh/ft²[750 kWh/m²-yr] kWh/m²31 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) P i i O i (B ildi E l ) Comply with Standard 90.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option Prescriptive Option: Renewable Energy .Low incident solar regions (18.104.22.168-1 thru 8 on building envelope 5.2) 32 .1. for example: 90 1 (§7 4 2) 7. topography .On-site renewable energy system with On“6 kBtu/ft²‐yr [20 kWh/m²‐yr]” kBtu/ft² yr [20 kWh/m²‐ ]” [20 kWh/ ² Exception (meet both of these): .0 kWh/m²/day) kWh/m²/day) or account for local buildings.5in 90.
Climate Zones 33 Corresponding International 34 .
Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Example comparisons: Example: (§7 4 2) 7.1: Std.5 R=3 5 (SI) R=4 4 R=4. 90.1 R-25 More stringent SHGC M ti t Climate zone 5 Std.40 0. 189.4) ) Overhang: PF >0.2.1 Insulation above deck R-20 R- Std 189 1 189.4.Climate zones 1-5 1- 36 .4 Example for <40% window area: 0.4.2.Permanent projections: west.5) ) Exception for cases with <250 hours per year direct sunlight .2) Climate zone 3 Std 90 1 90.5 (§7.35 all orientations 0 35 ll i t ti 35 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Vertical fenestration <40% gross wall area (§7. east & south .1: Std 189 1 R=3.4.
1) (§7 4 2 6) 7.9) Exception Buildings adjacent to or shaded by other buildings 38 .6) 37 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Fenestration area and SHGC complies with p (§7.4.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) SHGC Multipliers (different than Std 22.214.171.124.
4.3 HVAC 90. with modifications .1 Section 5.1 (defines areas of envelope to be sealed.1 (current version) ( General Concept: Based on Standard 90.1 (current version) ) 126.96.36.199 10) Complies with Normative Appendix B to control air leakage in and out Detailed D t il d on construction documents t ti d t Not required for semi-heated spaces that semicomply with Std. but modify to gain improved energy performance over code minimum standards Adapt.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Building Envelope) Continuous air barrier requirement (§7. gasketed or weather-stripped) k t d weather.4. caulked.t i th d) 39 §7. 90.3.
1 (current version) Standard 90.1-2007: 40 people/100 m² 90 1 2007: and area >50 m² 25 people/ 100 m m² If with CO2 sensors.3 HVAC §7.§7 4 3 1 Minimum equipment efficiency 7.4.1 42 . OR .3 HVAC Brief mention of modifications to Std. install per §8.1 (current version) 90.3 p § Note: Type of DCV used is not specified in Std. 189.3.4.Higher efficiency levels Greater of the efficiency per Energy Star (if applicable) or Tables C 1-15.3.2 Lowers occupancy threshold for demanddemand-controlled ventilation (DCV) 90. 90.EPAct baseline → more on-site renewable and on- peak load reduction. pp ) 1Includes new definition of chiller efficiency formula from ARI Standard test conditions 41 §7.1.1 Either use equipment with efficiencies of: .4.1 .2.§7.4.3.
3 Duct sealing level A everywhere §7.Rooftop units <5 tons: two stage (first stage economizer then second stage adds mechanical) .4.000 Btu/h (19 kW) .4 Expanded economizer Standard 90.1 90 1 requirement .3 HVAC More on Economizers .3 HVAC §7.Exempted 3A and 4A .Li it on total capacity of systems without Limits t t l it f t ith t economizers If req’d.4.3.§7.4.VAV supply air temp reset by at least 5º F (3º C) 5º 43 §7.Capacity > 65. capacity without economizer = 480.Less flexibility on high limit shutoff control 44 . max.4.3.000 Btu/h or 140 kW .
Volume reheated re-cooled or remixed not to reheated.4.Exceptions: Based on IEER part-load efficiency.4.000 Btu/hr (16 kW) capacity 45 §7.§188.8.131.52 Expanded economizer req’t .3 HVAC §7.4. reexceed design OA flow rate or 15% of total peak supply p pp y §7. or full load EER / SEER Water cooled units with heat transferred with building (water-source heat pumps) and less (waterthan 184.108.40.206 Fan power limits .3.5 Zone controls for limit on reheat .10% 46 .3 HVAC §7.
3 HVAC §7.4. Volume of outdoor air per Std.2 stages for DX >65 000 Btu/h (19 kW) >65.§7.1 p .Provisions to bypass to allow air economizing 48 .000 kW).3. DX units > 110.Air handling or fan coil units with CHW coils and >5 hp (3.000 Btu/hr (32 kW) supply fans 2-speed or VSD 247 §7.3 HVAC §7. 62.7 System controls .3.4.60% energy recovery effectiveness (enthalpy) .Single zone. ½ of full fan speed 2.4.8 Expand energy recovery req’t .4.7 kW) motor have il d h (3 7 t h reduced fan speed option 1. .
220.127.116.11 HVAC §7. C) 10 and 11) §7.4.§7.10 and .12 Unoccupied hotel/motel >50 guest rooms 49 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (cont.) §7 4 5 Power 7.3.9 Kitchen hoods add variable speed (significant impact on energy) §7.11 Minimum duct and pipe insulation increased (Tables C-9.Peak load reduction Reduce peak capacity of the building through demand-limiting or load demandshifting measures ( g (5%) ) 50 .3.5 .4.4.
Classrooms.2) 7 4 6 2) .4.1 (§7. lecture.6.4. training. motel hallways Hotel .6.1) 7 4 6 1) Occupancy sensor controls (§7.8 W/ft² or 8 W/m² 0 8 W/ft² Egress lighting control.6.Hotel. < 0 1 W/ft2 (1 W/m²) 0.3) reduce power to <50% for: .4.Lib Library stacks t k Exception: HID lit areas < 0.Offices <250 ft² (25 m²) ft² m²) .Storage stack aisles .Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Lighting) Interior lighting power to be 10% less than ASHRAE Standard 90. conference or meeting rooms (<1000 ft² or 100 m²) ft² 51 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Lighting) (§7 4 6 3) Occupancy sensor control to 7.1 W/m² W/ Additional allowed if w/ auto shut-off shut- 52 .
zones outdoor lighting (§7.6.5 Performance Based Option: Demonstrated equivalent performance in both energy cost and CO2 equivalent compared to if using the Prescriptive path Proposed ≤ Mandatory + Prescriptive Path Using Normative Appendix D i i di “Performance Option for Energy Efficiency Efficiency” 54 . or dimming .Continuous dimming.4.5) .Stepped switching with autoauto-off 53 Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) §7.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Prescriptive Option (Lighting) AutoAuto-controls for daylight zones.
25 55 Indoor Environmental Quality Mandatory Key Items to ASHRAE members: Outdoor airflow Tobacco smoke control Outdoor air monitoring monitoring Filtration and air cleaning Refers to and modifies 56 .5.Highlights for Energy (Chapter 7) Performance Based Option: §7.4 Annual Load Factor/ Peak Electric Demand Same or less peak electric demand as if following the prescriptive path g p p p Minimum annual electrical load factor of 0 25 0.
Permanently mounted.3.2) .1. damper position t t l i l d iti feedback allowable instead 57 Indoor Environmental Quality §8. 62.(b) Ozone cleaners for outdoor air in building projects located in non-attainment areas for nonozone.2. air cleaner racks.3.1.CO2 monitoring instead if system i i i d serves only densely occupied spaces . (Ozone removal efficiency = 40%.1 IAQ Minimum ventilation design outdoor airflow rate per Standard 62. using Ventilation Rate Procedure Outdoor air delivery monitoring .(a) Particulates .2.3 Filtration .1. direct outdoor airflow measurement ±15% of minimum outdoor airflow .1 §6.1.Indoor Environmental Quality §8.C Constant volume air supply. 62. access doors sealed to eliminate bypass pathways yp p y 58 . MERV 13 when project located in “non-attainment” area for PM2. per Std.(c) Filter frames.Minimum MERV 8 upstream of cooling coils.1) h d ) .5 “non(Modifies d ( d f and strengthens Std.1 §6.
with signage .Indoor Environmental Quality §8.No smoking inside.No smoking within 25 feet (7. 55 Sections 6.Comply with Std.5 m) of entrance.4 Environmental Tobacco Smoke E i t lT b S k Control . outdoor air i d i intakes or k operable windows 59 Indoor Environmental Quality Other M d t Oth Mandatory: Thermal Comfort .1.3.1 and 6.2 (Design d (D i and Documentation) Mat M t systems at t t building entrances Envelop acoustical design (sound (sound transmission rating criteria) 60 .
Minimum illuminance target: 300 lux (30 fc) on work surfaces in 75% of fc) daylight zone.Office space and classrooms .4): (§8.75 m] above floor) 62 .4 feet [0.5): (§8.4): Side daylighting Office space shading (glare) Low emitting materials 61 Indoor Environmental Quality Performance Option (§8.Indoor Environmental Quality Prescriptive Option (§8. at noon equinox zone Direct sun limitation on office worksurface Direct Di t sunlight on worksurface <20% of li ht k f f occupied hours on equinox day (worksurface = 2.5): Daylighting simulation .
5): Modeling for individual VOC concentrations for each material used.Divert 50% of non-hazardous waste.Off-site storage and sorting Offis allowed .Li it on total waste Limit t t l t generated per floor area 64 . land clearing) . sum total to show compliance with California CA/DHS/EHLB/RCA/DHS/EHLB/R-7174 (CA Section 1350) 63 Building’s Impact on Atmosphere. nondemolition debris (not counting soil.Indoor Environmental Quality Performance Option (§8.5): (§8. Materials and Resources (§ 9) (§ Mandatory Items Key to ASHRAE: Construction waste management .
Halons) Halons) Storage. discarded fluorescent lamps and ballasts 65 Construction and Operation Plans OVERVIEW All Mandatory Provisions: §10 3 1 Construction 10.3. fire suppression systems contain no ozone depleting p g substances (CFCs.3.Building’s Impact on Atmosphere. Materials and Resources (§ 9) (§ Mandatory Items Key to ASHRAE: No CFCs.1 §10. HCFCs . Storage collection of recyclable materials.2 Plans for Operation 66 .
energy & water measure d i t devices 68 . lighting. t li hti renewable energy.1 Construction Building acceptance testing Commissioning g Erosion and sediment control Indoor air quality Moisture control Construction vehicles 67 Requirements Concerning Construction §10.3.1.3.1 Building Acceptance Testing Activities prior to permit. and prior to p y occupancy Designate representative to oversee Construction documents indicate who does what Mechanical M h i l systems.Construction and Operation Plans OVERVIEW §10.
HVAC. domestic water. lighting.Construction Requirements (cont.1. except for startup testing . to include: .) §10.2 Building Project Commissioning g Full commissioning for >500 m (5.3.Permanent HVAC not used during construction.) §10.1.Flush-out or baseline IAQ monitoring Flush- 70 . irrigation. building envelope.000 ft ) m² ft²) .4 IAQ Construction Mgmt Develop and implement an IAQ Construction Management Plan.Air conveyance materials . renewable energy Designate CxA Develop OPR and Basis of Design Design reviews at 50% and ‘final’ construction documents Doing full Cx p process also satisfies the Building Acceptance Test requirements 69 Construction Requirements (cont.3. plumbing.
500 m²) or ft² (2.) IAQ Construction Management Post-construction.000 ft² (2. RH ≤60% Flush>60º Filtration if Air Quality Forecast >100 Occupancy at ‘½ flush’ possible 71 Construction Requirements (cont. 2.) IAQ Construction Management Post-construction. Flush-out: Temp >60º F (15° C).Construction Requirements (cont. prePost-construction pre-occupancy 1. Flush-out: Temp >60º F (15 C). Baseline IAQ Monitoring for 34 contaminants (next slide sample list) 1 sample point per 25. RH ≤60% Flush>60º (15° C).500 m²) or each contiguous floor area each contiguous floor area 72 . prePost-construction pre-occupancy 1.
3 4.3.Improvement in all topical areas . 3. High Performance Building Operation Site Sustainability Water Use Efficiency Energy Efficiency Indoor Environmental Quality Q y 2.Pushes the envelope 74 . 189.§10. Maintenance Service Life Transportation Management 73 Compare Standard 189.1: Voluntary vs.2 Plans for Operation 1.1 to LEED Std. V l mandatory .
Tom Lawrence. includes listserv for Standard 189.iesna.. advice … Dr.ashrae.edu 76 .usgbc. concerns.More Information Information on ASHRAE standards: www.org then follow “Standards”.uga.E. questions. LEED-AP LEEDlawrence@engr.org b Information on IESNA programs: p g www.1 Information on USGBC programs: www.org Thank you! Comments. P.
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