Soil Sampling Soil samples were taken from soil profile up to 1m depth for deep soil and up to the

bed rock for shallow soils at five different levels (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 4060cm, 60-80cm, 80-100cm). A profile was dug at least six places in each aspect and soil samples was collected at above stated intervals and transported to laboratory for analysis.

Bulk density (BD): Soil cores of 4 cm in diameter and 10 cm long was used for collecting the bulk density data of each soil layer. The weight of soil samples were measured after oven drying 24 hours at constant temperature of 105 0C in the laboratory.

Soil organic carbon (SOC): The Walkey-Black method (Jackson, 1958) was applied to measure the soil organic carbon percent. Total soil organic carbon was calculated using the formula given below. (Chabbra et.al, 2002): SOC = Organic carbon content%*soil bulk density (kg/m3)*thickness of horizon (m) Further, it was expressed in t/ha ....................................

Soil sampling Soil profiles were dug down to the bedrock from different land uses, and samples were collected from 0_ 15, 15_ 30, 30_ 50, 50_ 70, and 70_ 80 cm depths.
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and slope positions.000 scale topographic maps (20 m counter interval) were used to locate and cross-check the elevation of sampling points. Soil organic carbon. forest. aspect.s. Simultaneously. Tan et al. Oven dry weight of soil samples was determined for moisture correction. / . slope. nutrients and pH. Qualitative information of ground cover was noted as dense.. 1986). No profile was found more than 80 cm deep. The dried soil was passed through a 2 mm sieve and weighed. / / / Soil analysis Bulk density (BD). The total number of soil samples collected from the profiles of respective land uses was 21.. The SOC in the soil samples was determined by a colorimetric method (Anderson & Ingram. SOC. and grazed systems. 1986). and available K by Thomas (1986) method. Slope at the sampling point was measured by Abeny’s level. 20 and 18. and volume of stones recorded for stone correction. Handheld GPS along with 1:25. Surface soil (0_ 15 cm) data were also collected from vertical transects from 1000 to 3200 m a. respectively were dug during spring 2002. irrigated rice. medium and sparse. 1982).Five. six. respectively. soil samples for determining bulk density were also collected using brass cores of 50 mm diameter and 60 mm in length (volume 118 cm_3). 1993) and pH was determined with a pH meter in 1:2. major nutrients and pH were determined as key parameters. Among soil chemical properties. The SOC was calculated using the following equation (Morisada et al. About 1. 25. six and four profiles in upland maize and millet.0_ 1. 2004). SOC calculation .l. available P by Olsen and Sommers (1982) method.5 soil:water ratio (McLean. Total nitrogen was determined using Kjeldahl method (Bremner & Mulvaney. surface soil samples (0_ 15 cm) were collected along a 5 km horizontal stretch representing different vegetation. Soil BD was determined using a core sampling method (Blake & Hartge.5 kg of soil samples was collected for each depth and stored in polythene bags. 2004. In addition to profile samples. and aspect was determined by handheld Silva compass. at random elevations and later grouped at vertical intervals of 200 m. Bulk density and SOC data of the surface 0_ 15 cm soil from the watershed were plotted and a regression line between BD (Mg m_3) and SOC was calculated.

20–40. At each site. All the soil samples were taken to the laboratory at Kathmandu University. managed dense Shorea forest (DS).Carbon stock (kg m_2) in each depth of dominant land uses of the watershed was estimated by multiplying the BD and the depth of soil. The average SOC and nutrient stocks per unit area up to 0_ 80 cm soil depth were computed for upland maize and millet. These sub-samples were mixed together to make bulk samples of about 2 kg. and a part of the air-dried soils was ground manually with wooden blocks and passed through a 2-mm mesh. / / Soil sampling Soil samples were collected in four replicates from all major land-use types. arranged in an S-shape. Khet. prior to determination of physical and chemical properties. soil sub-samples were collected from five different points. The same procedure was used to calculate the major nutrient stock (kg m_2) in the soil profile. namely Bari. The soil samples were air-dried in the shade. Summation of SOC stock at each depth gave SOC stock in each land use type in the watershed. The SOC concentration was determined by dry combustion of oven-dry soil samples (Nelson and Sommers 1982). pine mixed forest (PS). Nepal. and grazed systems. irrigated rice. Soil analysis Soil bulk density was determined using the soil core samples (Blake and Harte 1986). Soil samples were collected from 0–10. Pits of 40 cm · 40 cm were excavated and core soil samples for bulk density were collected with core ring samplers (5 cm in diameter and 6 cm high) from each depth. and Schima–Castanopsis (SC) forest. maintaining about 25–50 m distance between the sampling points. for further processing and analysis. Soil pH (soil:water ratio 1:1) was determined using a pH electrode (McLean 1982). Soil texture was determined using the hydrometer method (Gee and . and 0_ 70 cm for forestland. degraded forest (DF). and 40–70 cm soil depths. 10–20.

available phosphorus with a modified version of Olsen’s method (Olsen and Sommer 1982). C-stock ¼ d _ BD _ C-content ð1Þ where. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl digestion–distillation method (Bremner and Mulvaney 1982).Bauder 1986). the units of C-stock are kg m–2. and the units of C-content are g g–1. and available potassium and cation exchange capacity (CEC) by extraction with ammonia acetate (Thomas 1982). d is the soil layer thickness (m). . BD is the bulk density (kg m–3). The carbon stock in each soil depth of each of the dominant land-use types of the watershed was estimated by multiplying the C stock in each unit area (kg C m–2) by the total area covered by a particular land use. Calculation of carbon stocks Carbon stocks were calculated using the following equation (Wairiu and Lal 2003). Summation of C stocks in each horizon gave the C stock in each land-use type of the watershed.

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