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TECHNOLOGY BEHIND CRICKET BROADCASTING
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER IN COMPUTER APPLICATION
MCA 4th Semester Reg. No: Email: Submitted to:Mr. Mrs.
DEPARTMENT OF MASTER IN COMPUTER APPLICATION NM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY BHUBANESWAR
It gives me immense pleasure to salute the personalities those who have helped me in preparing this seminar report. I am especially indebted to my department and my teachers who all have given their ideas and valuable time in preparing the report. They stood behind me as a friend rather than a guide. I am deeply indebted to our H.O.D. Mr. xxxxxxxxx, Mrs. xxxxxxxxxx, & other teachers for their valuable guidance & encouragement. I would like to express my sincere thanks to my friends who let me to present myself to the other students and has helped me in documenting the report. Last but not the least I am thankful to my friends and colleagues who have given their valuable ideas in completing the report.
NAME: MCA : Roll No:
5 OB Van…………………………………… 6 Video management……………….. 17 3 ....CONTENTS SLNO 1 2 3 TOPICS PAGE NO Abstract …………………………………… 4 Introduction ……………………………….. 9 4 Details……………………………………. 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Hawk eye camera………………………… 9 Virtual advertisement……………………. 6 Video store………………………… 7 Cameras…………………………… 8 The graphics………………………. 13 IT at stand………………………………... 6 Sound management………………. 11 Virtual spectator………………………….. 12 IT at stumps ……………………………. 8 The sound…………………………. 14 Analyzing team performance …………… 15 Conclusion………………………………..
not to your house.12 18 References………………………………. The outside Broadcasting or OB Van for short is the heart of any cricket telecast. Other tasks may also include inserting the logo of the channel on the screen. From the OB Van the feed including the graphics are broadcasted to a satellite. All signals both video and audio come to the OB Van. So the Earth Station takes care of this task. And finally the feed comes to your house. not yet they are sent to an “Earth station “. Have you ever thought how it happens? Ever thought how the pictures travel millions of miles and comes to you? It is the technology behind it which gives us the live telecast of the match. there’s one simple reason: The broadcaster needs to do business and the business comes from advertisements. are processed there and then broadcasted. You may wonder why they can’t directly broadcast it to your home. Among others. And you thought a flick of a switch on your remote would start a cricket match! 4 .. ABSTRACT TECHNOLOGY BEHIND CRICKET BROADCASTING Thousands of miles away Sachin Tendulkar played a cover drive and the very next moment (actually its 4 seconds after he hit it) you saw in on your screen. The station can be nearby in the same vicinity or could be millions of miles away. The feed is then fed to various cable operators through a satellite again.
The kind of technology that goes into making this possible is not funny. Here’s how it all 5 . and not to mention the human skill and effort required along with it.Introduction Thousands of miles away Sachin Tendulkar played a cover drive and the very next moment (actually it’s 4 seconds after he hit it) you saw in on your screen. Have you ever thought how it happens? Ever thought how the pictures travel millions of miles and comes to you? These days we take it for granted that whenever / wherever any cricket match is played we can enjoy it in the comfort of our living room couch.
A typical OB van could be divided into three major parts.Outside Broadcast Van(OB Van) The outside Broadcasting or OB Van for short is the heart of any cricket telecast. are processed there and then broadcasted. All signals both video and audio come to the OB Van. Video Management Sound Management Video Store Video Management: 6 .
The video store has a collection of Video Tapes (VTs) and could also have an EVS system. The sound engineer has a sound mixer.The first part takes up the major part of the van. which could be graphics from graphic workstations. slow motion replays. They have a video mixer and a wall of monitors in front of them. which is broadcasted to the Earth station. and is where the director sits with technician. Sound Management: The next portion is where the sound is managed. field mocks. The wall of monitors also contains two other monitors other than those form the video feeds – the Preview monitor and Program monitor. These may also contain feeds from previous matches. etc. which could be used for comparison. The monitors accommodate all the video feeds from various sources. etc. EVS is live event system (slow motion disk based editor) used for slowmotion pictures and replays in the match. the stump microphone. He is also supplied with a dirty feed monitor to help him with the synchronization of sound on instructions from the director. video feeds from cameras and videotapes. which is being fed with all the audio feeds from various sources like: commentators. Who manages all this ?: 7 . The VTs are a collection of pre-made CG videos to be used upon wicket fall. The former shows the clean feed (only the video feed without the graphics) that is seen before broadcast. The video mixer may be accompanied by two or more computer operators for scoring the games and giving appropriate graphic feeds to be layered over the video feeds. The latter contains the dirty feed (mixture of video and graphics). Video Store: The last portion of the van is the Video store. He has them in different channels and can control them individually.
All cameras are connected to a video mixer inside the out – Broadcast (OB) van. not to your house. The director and the operator sitting on the mixer can switch to any of these cameras while broadcasting. and managing all this is no mean feat. there’s one simple reason: The broadcaster needs to do business and the business comes from advertisements. The station can be nearby in the same vicinity or could be millions of miles away. The Graphics: 8 . From the OB Van the feed including the graphics are broadcasted to a satellite. And you thought a flick of a switch on your remote would start a cricket match! Details: The Cameras: Starting with the video capturing . These could be as small as a stump camera and as advanced as the super slow motion camera used behind the bowlers arm to provide high quality replays. Other tasks may also include inserting the logo of the channel on the screen. Among others. An interesting fact here regarding being in touch: Harsha Bhogle may be listening more to director’s remark then he is actually commenting on the match. The feed is then fed to various cable operators through a satellite again. there are at least 16-21cameras used on the cricket field placed at different locations to bring you the various views. And finally the feed comes to your house. In reality he is the man who decides what you see. Can you believe that. You may wonder why can’t they directly broadcast it to your home.Here the director is the boss. All people involve are in direct contact with each other using headsets for communication. not yet they are sent to an “Earth station “. So the Earth Station takes care of this task.
the stump microphones. Not only that but the operator can key in the data and make an AD-HOC graphic based on the data provided to him by the scorer. These may include play statistics. wagon wheels showing where the player scored his run. It typically uses 3-4 machines. All these graphics are generated dynamically from the data capture by the scoring laptop. The sound sources may include the commentators. This is then supper imposed on the live action happening on the field.Graphics is one of the most exciting parts of the whole match production saga and uses computers in more ways than one. For instance. or CG when a new batsman comes to play). microphones 9 . Graphic displayed when a wicket falls etc. etc. (e. The system can also use a moving graphic instead of the live broad cast.g. ESPN STAR sports uses a software called Namadgi. The ADHOC machine gives you the entire special graphics that you see on the screen. One is a laptop PC running Win 2K(any network enabled OS) for keeping track of the score. There are various sound sources that are controlled by a sound controller using an audio mixer. The other machine i. made specifically for a broadcast company. The layout for this graphics is predefined and the information updated dynamically form the data base on the server. in various channels located in the OB Van and then broadcasted. The Sound: Imagine a match without Sidhuisms. It’s connected to a MS-SQL server database via TCP/IP. The graphic are then send to the vision mixer in either analog or digital format. A skilled data entry operator records each ball bowled in a cricket match on custom made software. the sound sparks.e. The sound in the broad cast of a cricket match is as important as the video if not more. The other computers are an AD-HOC machine and Score-Ticker Machine.
The person controlling the sound also has access to the final feed which is being broadcasted. The cameras giving the video feed. replace.on the fields etc. How Hawk Eye Works This technology uses a special image-processing system that helps umpires take LBW decisions One of the most difficult. the umpire has to juggle with many variables— 10 . and sometimes controversial. As we have seen above there is a lot happening all together. the graphic machines providing all the indulging graphics. To take the final call on a batsman. decisions that an umpire has to take on the cricket field is for LBW (leg-before wicket). super slow motion. historic data base management etc.
This is updated 100 times every second. The images captured are then processed by software to produce a 3-D image. are placed around the playing field (see picture). They track the ball’s entire trajectory. Some of the esoteric statistics that can be generated by this system are: the areas where a particular bowler pitched and how much swing or spin a particular bowler generated. The cameras are used in two sets. The six fixed JAI monochrome cameras. The future path is predicted using a parametric model. 11 . right from the point where it is released from the bowler’s hand to the point the ball is considered dead. and a multichannel frame grabber handles each set. it just gives a “can’t help” message to ensure its accuracy never goes below acceptable limits. In some cases where the system’s accuracy is questionable. Hawk Eye aims to aid the umpire by giving inputs on the physics of the ball by tracking and predicting its motion. hit the batsman in line with the stumps or whether it would have hit the stumps. Hawk Eye incorporates both image analysis and radar technology. It uses a special image-processing system from Roke Manor Research (a Siemens R & D company) and commercial off-theshelf hardware along with six specially placed cameras. The system is able to locate the ball in 3-D and can predict the motion with a claimed accuracy of 5mm. and most importantly whether the player was making a genuine effort to play the shot. with 120 MHz frame rate.Whether the ball pitched outside the leg stump.
The advantage of such a system is that different advertisements can be inserted for different regions thereby giving the broadcaster more advertisers. Roke Manor. While the viewers of the video broadcasts will see the board shown to them specifically. The company. In this. is also developing similar technologies for tennis. but are inserted virtually Virtual advertising is the electronic insertion of advertising images during live TV broadcasts of sports and entertainment events.Besides aiding the umpire in taking a decision. Virtual Advertising In future ads you see on stadium billboards may not really exist. baseball and snooker. advertisements. Who can forget all those virtual replays shown from various angels of a player being called for an LBW? The application of Hawk Eye goes much beyond cricket. For example. the Hawk Eye is also used to give a more enhanced feed to TV viewers. digital images. electronic boards can replace peripheral boards in a stadium and show a Pepsi board in India and Coco-Cola in Europe. football. the actual board may be 12 . and logos are super-imposed on live video or inserted into a completed movie or television show.
All this work is done is real time so that the viewers could see the video live with the virtual advertisements. These techniques analyze the video and look for patterns in the video. So there has to be a way to locate and track designated insertion locations in the live video. These patterns are then compared with the stored patterns of the desired locations. these points in the video are located in replaced by virtual advertisements. like the billboards on the field. For the hardware. Virtual Spectator Using 3-D graphics to broadcast additional match information 13 . All this is possible with virtual advertising. Shockwave 3D player. They can also be used to insert synthesized messages onto the playing field or other empty spaces. Imaging Allan Donald running on a virtual advertisement strip while taking his run up or Sachine Tendulkar hitting a six directly into a virtual glass of some cola product. a scalable 3D engine for generating graphic Web content. The technology has been used in Major League Baseball in the US and may soon be used in cricket games also. pattern recognition techniques are used. To locate insertion points in the video. Alias Power Animator.totally different or may not be present at all. dedicated video processors are used with high performance graphic workstations like the Silicon Graphics ONYX2. Wavefront. Intel internet 3D graphics. standard off-the-shelf 3D. These enable the real time rendering and processing of video. 3D Studio MAX. Virtual advertisements have to be inserted at specific points in the video. Macromedia Shockwave player. Requirements: To create the digital advertisements of products. Once there is a pattern match.
some new type of graphics were being shown on TV. These views were fairly realistic representations. an aerial photograph of the ground and the surrounding area is taken. This actually showed the path taken by the ball before it crossed the boundary. and its operator works out the various graphics based on data coming from the first machine. generated by a 3-D rendering machine called Virtual Spectator. The BNC cable comes to the video mixer directly and that director uses the feed as needed.If your remember. The Virtual Spectator system consists of two machines. These graphics may include field placements on the screen. These photographs are then used to make a 3-D model of the stadium in 3D studio MAX. etc. Instead of tardy 2-D wagon wheels for the shots played. Before a match starts. People wearing team colors are also photographed. This is mapped to 3-D player models created on the screen. The graphics are fed to the broadcaster through a BNC cable using digital down converter that takes the DVI monitor feed from the computer and grabs a particular area of the screen and converts it to industry standard SDI. it showed color-coded 3-D views of a wagon wheel. where the ball was hit and how high it bounced. proposed field placements. fielders’ positions. some time back when India was being thrashed by the Kiwis in Newzeland. like score. One is used to record live data from the match. and the placement of fielders on the ground depicting a ‘theoretical’ area of influence. 14 . Pictures are also taken by somebody standing on the pitch. wagon wheels. The data-entry operator sits in high position to get the whole view of the ground. The other machine is used to provide feed to the broadcaster.
The first stump camera installation was done by the BBC the early 1990s. IN many cricket fields. Cordless cameras with radio or microwave Wired transmission is preferred over wireless transmission because the players tend to come in the way in the case of the latter. Many international cricket grounds have this facility. to remotely control them. there’s wire traveling underground.4 GHz P4 processors with GeForce 4 graphic cards for great graphic results. This was a color camera that used 410. 15 . and offered a horizontal resolution of 470 TV lines. If one camera is not enough. 42 cubic cm (80 gms) makes it possible for it to be inserted into the stumps. They placed a Hitachi KP-D8s camera in the middle stump.000 pixel CCD with micro lenses. a New Zealand company has developed the product. then two can be placed. The size of the camers. giving couch potatoes the experience of being where no spectator on the cricket field can ever imagine being. Animation research Ltd. giving the TV broad caster four different views to choose from. one with a wide-angle lens and the other with a narrow angle lens. thanks to stump cameras. Both machines used are 2. Of Bats and Stumps: How would it feel to be a stump and see a speeding bowl comes strait on to your face? TV has left nothing to imagination. transmission are also used.The software used is written in C++ with MFC ( Microsoft Foundation Classes) for the interface and Open GL for graphics. These are micro-cameras placed inside the stumps. connecting the camera to other TV equipments or even PCs.
The protocol is also available on request to write custom applications. Nothing could be farther from truth at South Africa 2003.These Hitachi cameras can connect to PCs over a RW232C line (serial port). Based on a 386 processor with 8MB memory. should the LAN connectivity fail. Allowing the fans to enter the stadium is the job of intelligent turnstiles made by Turnstar. Dimension developed the back-office operations software as well as the POS (point of sale) interfaces.0 for controlling it. and lets you control several parameters like white balance and picture control. 16 . The main companies involved in developing this are Dimension Data and Choice Technologies. The software works on Win 95/NT machines. and can then be remotely controlled using a software application specifically written for them. On the field or off it. IT at the Stands: You would be forgiven for thinking that technology has been put into place only for cricketers and that too on the greens. the turnstiles can connect peer-to-peer. you can’t escape IT anymore. these turnstiles act as intelligent doorkeepers keeping tack of and allowing people to enter and leave the stadium. Interesting is the crowd-control mechanism in operation in South Africa. If at any point. The Hitachi KP-D8s camera. for instance uses a social program written in Microsoft VC++ 5. You can even control its electric shutter speed from it. For the first time manual ticketing has been replaced by automated ones. in the stadium or in you living room. The turnstiles can scan the barcodes on the tickets and keep updating a central database over a LAN.
e-cricket pro also needs a very skilled data entry operator with a good knowledge of cricket to feed the data live during a cricket match. So a fielder is placed accordingly at backward short leg. So lets dig and find out what e-cricket pro is all about and how it helps the player and team. This is just a hypothical example of the information used by various cricket teams. he is more likely to play it to backward short leg. As with other cricket analysis software. Enter information management system for cricket. The information in these system is gathered in the same manner as the TV broadcasters captured it with some auditions here and there because of difference in application.Analyzing Team Performance: Complex information-management systems are used to analyze each player’s performance in a match When a short ball is bowled to Ganguly in his rib cage. Imagine having this kind of detailed information about each player a team is playing against. The system used is a P4 based laptop with 256 Mb RAM and External video capture box. We will look at the information management system-e-cricket pro by phoenix global solutions being used by the Indian cricket team. 17 .
are recorded. record to media and a report generation. the major ones being the data capture. A lot of tools and lot of options but are they being utilized to the fullest? Only the performance of the Indian cricket team can answer that. These video can later the burnt on a CD for various needs and for various players. When the match starts the detail of each and every ball are recorded. The most important part of it is being able to query the videos database. 18 . The database can be queried on various parameters and even gives an option of replays. toss etc. comfort zone. Each ball takes around 4 to 8 mouse clicks to record. recording each and every detail about the ball including parameters like swing. whether. At the start of the match all details including pitch condition. frame-by-frame video and split screen video. stroke type and run scored. This done the operator stats with a series of clicks GUI. As soon as the bowler comes to bowl the video recording is stated which ends when the bowl is dead.There are various modules in the software. Once recorded the data is stored in an Oracle database at the back end. During the lunch brake or at the end of the match the players and the coach can view and analyze the data.
Now we can feel that IT is the backbone of live telecast. We can now feel what we missed in the past. the excitement of stroke play by our legendry players. IT takes crucial role in broadcasting of each & every live event. 19 . As we know till we have no taste of anything what we have missed.Conclusion: Though here I discussed only about Cricket.
howstuffsworks.google.REFERENCES www.com www.com 20 .wikipedia.com www.
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