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AOE 5104 Advanced Aero- and Hydrodynamics Dr. William Devenport and Leifur Thor Leifsson

Top surface

Bottom surface

2

Applies to large aspect ratio unswept wings at small angle of attack. Developed by Prandtl and Lanchester during the early 20th century. Relevance

Example of a phenomenological model in which elementary ideal flows are used to represent real viscous phenomena Basis of much of modern wing theory (e.g. helicopter rotor aerodynamic analysis, extends to vortex lattice method,) Basis of much of the qualitative understanding of induced drag and aspect ratio

Biot Savart Law: Velocity produced by a semi-infinite segment of a vortex filament

V=

4h

1868-1946

1875-1953

Werle, 1974, NACA 0012, 12.5o, AR=4, Re=10000

Cessna Citation

Aircraft Data Velocity = 165 knots Wing Area = 29 m^2 Wing Span = 16 m Mean Aerodynamic Chord = 2 m Weight = 8000 kg Chord Reynolds Number = 1.18E7

l,

y

-s

Outwash

pu<pl

pu pl

Vortical wake

Inwash

Downwash

changing angle of attack just enough to produce variation of lift across span

8

Wing Nomenclature

Induced drag

l,

di

s

A

Section A-A

-s

-w

Area S b

A

CL =

C Di =

L 1 V2 S 2

Di 2 1 2 V S

Geometric angle of attack Downwash angle -w=-w (y) Downwash velocity c=c (y) Chordlength S Planform area s Half span b Span c = S/b Average chord 2/S Aspect ratio AR=b/c=b Sweep angle of chord line l Lift per unit span Drag per unit span dv

= (y) = (y)

d s -s y y1

dy1

Assume role up of wake unimportant Assume wake remains in a plane parallel to the free stream Model wake using single vortex sheet starting at the quarter chord Strength of d vortex shed at y1=

dy

dy1

y1

dy y1

dy1

4 ( y1 y )

w( y ) =

4 ( y

dy y1

1

dy1

y)

10

di

Assume flow over each section 2D and determined by downwash at chord, and thin airfoil theory Sectional lift coefficient

-w

Cl =

So,

V l = 1 2 = 2 ( 0 ) 1 V2 c 2 V c 2

= V ( 0 )c + wc

d v V w

l V

L V dy

s

Di wdy

s

L 2 CL = 1 2 s dy V S 2 V S

D 2 C Di = 1 i 2 2 wdy V S s 2 V S 11

Wake model

l,

w( y ) =

4 ( y

dy y1

1

dy1

Section model

y)

-s 0

s y

= V ( 0 )c + wc

d dy1

y / s = cos

c = V ( 0 )c + 4 s

dy y1

y1 y

= 4U s

n =1, odd

A sin(n )

n

12

= 4U s

n =1, odd

A sin(n )

n

s y

-s 0

y / s = cos

c

4s ( 0 ) sin = cn An sin( n ) + sin 4s n =1, odd

2 CL = s dy V S

w( y ) =

2 C Di = 2 wdy V S s

1. Decide on the number of terms N needed for the sine series for 2. Select N points across the half span, evenly spaced in 3. At each point evaluate c, , 0 and write down the corresponding monoplane equation 4. Solve the resulting N equations for the N unknown coefficient An 5. Evaluate (y) and then the integrals for w(y), L and Di, and thus the aero coefficients

4 ( y

dy y1

1

dy1

13

y)

= 4U s

n =1, odd

A sin(n )

n

-s 0

s y

y / s = cos

c

4s ( 0 ) sin = cn An sin( n ) + sin 4s n =1, odd

12

CL =

2 s dy V S

w( y ) =

C Di =

2 2 s wdy V S

10

4 ( y

dy y1

1

dy1

4

y)

14

2 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0

Other results

Substituting

= 4U s

CL =

n =1, odd

A sin(n )

n

into

2 dy V S s

2 C Di = 2 wdy V S s

2 CL C Di = (1 + ) AR

w( y ) =

4 ( y

dy y1

1

dy1

y)

gives

C L = ARA1

n =3, odd

n( A

/ A1 ) 2

nA sin(n )

n

So,

Lift increases with aspect ratio For planar wings at least lift goes linearly with angle of attack and lift curve slope increases with aspect ratio (to 2 at ) ? Drag decreases with aspect ratio and goes as the lift squared. Downwash tends to be largest at the wing tips ? Drag is minimum for a wing for which An=0 for n3 ?

15

So the minimum drag occurs for a wing for which An=0 for n3. For this wing:

= 4U sA1 sin( )

w = A1 V

y 4V A s + s = 1 1

2

since

= arccos( y / s)

2 CL C Di = AR

and

c=

V ( 0 ) V A1

16

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