Biogas in the Netherlands
From a Innovation System perspective
Name: Sanne de Groot Mike van Paassen Aram Tardast Jaap van der Veen Jan-Willem Versluis
Student number Leiden 1190431 1197622 1174959 0702447 0564559
Started IE in: sep 2011 sep 2011 feb 2012 sep 2011 sep 2011
Background: Architecture Chemical Engineering Social and behavioural sciences Chemistry Chemistry
6 Method selection 2.3 Backcasting 4 Multi Level Perspective applied on biogas 5 FIS applied on biogas 6 Backcasting applied on biogas
.4 Stakeholders 2.2 Functions of Innovation Systems 3.technical history of biogas development 2.2 Technological Map 2.5 Research questions 1.3 Bounding the topic 1.5 Socio.Table of Content
Abstract Table of contents 1 Introduction 1.3 The anaerobic digestion and electricity production technology: 2.2 Topic description 1.1 Technology description 2.1 Multi Level Perspective 3.6 Report structure 2 Context 2.4 Problem definition 1.1 Relevance 1.7 Choice of methodology 3 Theory of methodological framework 3.
5 phase 5 7 Conclusions
.2 phase 2 6.3 phase 3 6.6.1 phase 1 6.4 phase 4 6.
the complete worldwide energy supply cannot be substituted by alternatives at once.
1. because the electricity and heat produced needs to be economically feasible. a transition from fossil fuel -based production towards a more sustainable. crops or food waste to produce biogas and other byproducts. Agricultural waste is focused on as the source for biogas production. The future developments will be analysed with a future vision for 2050.Chapter 1 Introduction
1.based production of energy resources is needed.5 million tons available organic waste and 4. Introduction 1. it needs to compete with other technologies that use agricultural waste.5 million tons of animal manure is 125 million m3 natural gas equivalent or a saving of 4 PJ (Escobar and Heikilä. Next. 2008). Thus.
1. which has a lower global warming potential. backcasting
. in other words by converting agricultural waste (biomass) in anaerobic conditions into gas.1 Relevance of the topic
The essential role and dependence of energy within our society forces us to continuously search for energy (re)sources. a process that decomposes organic matter like manure. cleaned and upgraded to pipeline quality gas for injection into existing natural gas systems or cleaned to create compressed natural gas for vehicle fuels. for instance for heating the digesting process. but one solution for this problem is using the waste to produce biogas. is a problem. To ensure a sufficient energy supply in the future. Potential renewable energy in the Netherlands from anaerobic digestion of the 1. The gas can be combusted to produce electricity or combined heat and power (CHP). 1999). Stakeholders involved in the biogas niche. The focus in this report is on biogas production from 2000 until now in the Netherlands. a current problem area which is the agriculture in the Netherlands because it is becoming more and more intensive and leading to more waste which is an issue that is worth taking a closer look at. The heat produced.2 Topic description
Biogas is a product of the anaerobic digestion. Besides this economic opportunity. relevant regimes and landscape will be included in the research by using the multilevel perspective framework and Function of innovation systems analysis to gain insight in the biogas innovations as background for the research and then by looking at the past and the current situation of biogas(present). Since fossil fuels are being depleted. because methane is converted into carbon dioxide. It has to compete with the fossil fuel based electricity generation and other RES sources. there are also problems with this technology. Unfortunately. creating our current dependency on fossil fuels.3 Bounding the topic
However. sustainable alternatives are becoming popular (WRR. To see what motors of change and back holders of change exist in the production by looking at some realized and halted projects that will be analyzed to draw conclusions from. For instance a large excess in manure and an increase of greenhouse gas emissions. can be used for other means. there is also environmental gain. they compete for the same resource.
in anaerobic digestion from agricultural waste. The agricultural sector is dominated by the conventional food industry. Regulations for the conventional food industry also apply for organic agriculture.5 Research question
From these problems and our scope on biogas our research question has raised which is as follows. Regulations bound the amount of manure that can be distributed on the soil and steer towards injection in the soil.will be used in order to make recommendations about the future and the full potential of biogas in the Netherlands. with the temperatures rising on earth due to emissions of greenhouse gases by human activities there is a need for carbon neutral energy. loss of biodiversity and smell but locks out competing niches like organic agriculture.
1. What are the possibilities for anaerobic digestion from agricultural waste in 2050? 5. How can the past. Problems in the energy sector are more transparent.
1.4 Problem definition
The goal of this report is not just about increasing the amount of anaerobic digestion but to solve current problems in the agricultural and energy sector. The European Union has set the target to generate 20% of our total energy demand in a renewable way. biogas produced from biomass by anaerobic digestion is renewable and therefor more favourable. Who are the different stakeholders involved in anaerobic digestion from agricultural waste? 3. present and future socio-technical innovations. Environmental and social problems are locked in the current system. In what way can the past. Thereby it decreases the dependence of the Netherlands from politically unstable areas like the Middle-East. The lock in of conventional agriculture affects the behaviour of farmers that are reluctant to change and the absence of market creation. What are the recommendations to the different stakeholders involved in anaerobic digestion from agricultural waste?
. help to reduce the non-renewable resource use and the current agricultural problems in the Netherlands? The sub questions are: 1. What are the motors of change and back holders of change for anaerobic digestion from agricultural waste? 4. present and future developments be analysed? 2. Regulations try to reduce the problems with current technology optimisation. Furthermore fossil fuels are depleting. Problems in organic agriculture are different from conventional agriculture so uniform regulations remove the level playing field. Biogas is such a carbon neutral technology and therefor is able to solve the problem of climate change partially. This produces a manure surplus. This diminishes the problems of eutrophication. To meet these targets it will be necessary to make use of all renewable energy sources available including biogas.
European policies have guided the search of Dutch policies on manure surplus reduction and renewable energy for 2020. In order to gain insight in the biogas innovations of the last ten years the Functions of Innovation Systems (FIS) has been used. Finally conclusions will be drawn in chapter 7 and a section in which the results are discussed will be provided. To make anaerobic digestion help to reduce the non-renewable resource use and current agricultural problems the frameworks of multi level perspective. Mobilization of resources is still an important function because biogas production still depends on subsidies to be cost effective. Problems in the energy sector are fueling the search for alternative energy sources. The motors of change are currently function 7. The distinction within functions in different indicators has further helped to structure the information. Entrepreneurial activities. Knowledge development. function 2. Support of advocacy coalitions. a socio-technical history of biogas and a methodology section in which the chosen frameworks will be introduced. Support of advocacy coalitions has resulted in platforms that bring together stakeholders that are important for the renewable energy innovation system. This has led to a clearer image of the motors of change and back holders of change. Entrepreneurial activities have increased to meet manure surplus reduction regulations even though they have not always turned out to be profitable. Theory. These frameworks will be worked-out in further detail in chapter 3. present and future socio-technical innovations in anaerobic digestion applications from agricultural waste in the Netherlands. function 5. In chapter 4 an analysis on the biogas regime will be performed by using a multilevel perspective. Subsequently in chapter 5 the FIS framework will be applied followed by the application of back-casting in chapter 6. function 6. technologies that are using biogas or involved in biogas production.1. Energy transition platforms have been developed to gather important stakeholders in the biogas infrastructure to collaborate and set visions in the future of biogas. Publication of positive results has resulted in knowledge diffusion. In the Netherlands the large amount of agricultural waste and especially manure sparked a lot of interest in biogas. function 3.
The focus of our research were the past.6 Structure of the Report
The outline of this report is as follows. The FIS framework has proven useful in our case to structure the complex system with clearer boundaries. The report consists of 7 chapters. the stakeholders involved. Guidance of the search. the six chapters coming up describe what work is done and why it is performed. Mobilization of resources 1. Chapter 2 contains an explanation of the technology used for biogas processing.
. Functions of Innovation Systems (FIS) and backcasting have been used. Anaerobic digestion technology has developed knowledge with the support of advocacy coalitions. Knowledge diffusion.
a cause for the fact that no rigid choices seems to be made. This latter is currently one of the main issues. What should happen is not necessarily what will happen because of many uncertainties.Back holders of the innovation system are Market formation.
. However there is a competition for biomass feedstock as the supply is limited. Further research is encouraged on the integration of biogas infrastructures with other industrial streams. Since then policy has become less strict and has made anaerobic digestion more profitable. In the end it is the market that should take initiative suggested by the government.3. What has to be done by the government is to define a clear common objective related to biogas production and additionally some accountable targets. As a result the prices for feedstock have increased. Therefore the ‘effective’ potential of biogas needs to be clear. It is the government who has responsibility to some major terms and conditions. Backcasting was used in order to make recommendations about the future of biogas. The challenge is to realize the potential of biogas production to reach a more sustainable state in the agricultural and energy regimes. Biogas is currently more expensive to produce than natural gas and consumers are in general not aware of the environmental benefits. Backcasting is a useful framework to raise awareness to develop towards a certain direction. Potential of biogas production from agricultural wastes is limited by the amount of available waste flows as indicated in chapter 7. The government is coping with many objectives and interests. Market formation is currently not an important motor of change because there is no willingness to pay for biogas. especially since the required biomass feedstock is also available to other energy production processes. Policy to limit the amount of manure surplus until 2004 has restricted the use of biomass feedstock for co-digestion. Market formation with the indicator of demand from energy consumers and awareness to take away the not in my back yard phenomenon will be necessary for the implementation of the anaerobic digestion technology. indicators counteract resistance and not in my back yard in the function Support of advocacy coalitions and indicator biomass feedstock in the function mobilization of resources.2. Recent developments have decreased the role of mobilization of resources with subsidies being reduced and biomass feedstock getting scarce. Insecurity of government policy and the lack of a long term vision has not led to the desired scale of implementation of anaerobic digestion. This has resulted in lower profitability of biogas production. Furthermore the lock in effect of the energy regime is a back holder of the development of innovation that threatens their current practices.
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