ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux

JUDO RON 56 - Demystifying Judo Competition
Aim Many new judo students and current classmates are about to witness an array of judo Shiai involving designated judoka from several provinces who will participate at the Canadian Nationals in July 2012 and watch the Canadian delegation perform at the highest levels of competition at the London Olympics in August 2012. In the case of the Canadian National Championships, some of you will be first time spectators from the bleachers. As for the Olympics and the Paralympics, most of us will be viewers glued to our seat for many hours, watching in awe the performance of so many good judoka. Unless clear cut IPPON are successful, the declaration of winners or the attribution of second and third place ranking will be difficult to render. From our different point of views and bias, we may have a tendency to offer a different opinion as to the outcomes of the contests and which will likely contrast from the referee or the judges. In the next few paragraphs, I would like to summarize the evolution of the Judo Contest rules and exposed some of the scoring tables as well as the principal factors to consider when one is watching judo Shiai.

Judo contest rules evolution For the first eighteen years in the growth of the Kodokan (1882-1899) there were no written rules for judo competition or Randori per se. At least no written ones have been discovered. We know that Randori was one of the two training methods of the Kodokan and kata being the other one. In accordance with Dr Kano educational philosophy and safety concerns there must have been some agreed set of guidelines for Randori in order to prevent serious injuries. Syd Hoare, a reputed judo historian and senior sensei, mentioned in a lecture given at the Bath University in August 2005 that Dr Kano, when addressing the Japanese Education Society in 1888 identified four various types of Randori prevalent amongst the jujitsu schools. The first concentrated on flexible throwing techniques. The second focused on throws but used more strength. The third relied upon strangulation techniques and twisting of the arms while the fourth concentrated on restraining an opponent and depriving him of his freedom to move.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux

Earlier contests Ancient documents have reported that during the 1870-90 periods, there existed a set of contest rules used by the Shinki-Ryu Rentai Jujitsu School that were mostly applied for in-house contests and for matches against other schools. A point system had been set to keep count of the major and minor throws. There were a scale of points given in accordance with the effectiveness and types of throws performed. The award merit scale varied from 3 to 15 points. The bigger points were recorded for Sutemi-waza and big throws as those done closer to the centre of gravity of the opponent such as the inner thigh lift and shoulder throws. Foot techniques and other performances done from a further distance were given lesser scores ranging in value from 5 to 8. Other minor standing techniques obtained 3 points. The Katame-waza or ground techniques were rewarded with only 1 to 3 points. After the foundation of the Kodokan by Dr Kano in 1882, the Institution was frequently challenged by other Jujitsu schools. (Although the name Judo was attached to the Kodokan, it was still regarded as a Jujitsu school during its infancy years). Dr Kano accepted the challenges in accordance with set rules elaborated by him and recognized by the challengers. Syd Hoare had no doubt as to the provenance of those rules: “Dr Kano imposed his early Randori rules on any Jujitsu challengers that came his way by force of his character and personal prestige.” After the 1895 general meeting assembling all the known jujitsu masters sponsored by the Dai Nippon Butokukai (The Japanese Martial Virtues Society), competitions rules were set by the governmental body as a mean to control both the engagements and the delivery of courses applicable to all the registered martial arts schools. In 1899 Dr Kano was asked by the Butokukai chairman to produce a draft of the jujitsu competition rules and was appointed chairman of the committee to deliberate on them. He quickly came up with his draft jujitsu competition rules and within a short space of time obtained his committee consensus and then the Butokukai membership at large accepted them. Not long after this event (1900), the Kodokan accepted these rules as in house guidelines and added small amendments to better manage its own competition and Randori. The two sets of rules have prevailed until the modern competition rules were changed to meet the growth of Judo on the international scene. The current IJF rules for competition are now set as competition directives.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Past rules for Randori have been discarded as the Randori was viewed as a form of combat exercises to make personal improvements and not be used to declare any champion of sort. Scoring considerations Tracing some records kept during the period 1895 to 1924 it is noted that most contests were called Sambon Shobu (3 Ippon matches) but in fact they were fought for the best of three Ippon). The first contestant to secure two Ippon was declared the winner. This method of scoring slowly changed with time to accommodate the growing numbers of contestants. Gradually contests were fought for just one Ippon and the set time limit was reduced. (Some matches were known to last for 20-40 minutes...) The ultimate scoring of the IPPON was awarded for the clean drop of the opponent on his back with some exceptions arising from techniques issued from traditional Jujitsu schools who continued to throw down the opponents on any part of the body. The allotted points reflected the Jujitsu throws as being too simple and less effective while the Kodokan Judo throws were appraised higher as they were considered technically more complex and efficient. Katame-waza techniques were permitted but not popular as they received only minor points and most were used to immobilize the opponents face down and prevent them to stand up within a reasonable time. Dr Kano’s ground work techniques favored positioning oneself to always see the opponent’s face in order to detect the first signs of submission and or prevent serious injury. Strangulations were rarely applied in contest as they require suitable hold on the collars and lapels to be effective. Under the rules applicable at that time, Kansetsu- waza could be applied to any joint but because of the high risks of injury, they were soon restricted and permitted to be applied only at the elbow joint. With the redesign of the judogi in the early 1900’s there were new opportunities to apply bigger techniques done at closer range. At the first World judo Championships in Tokyo in 1956 and later at the 1964 Olympics, the judo competition rules were again revised to improve the management of the fights with due considerations to the various countries participating. All the changes lead to the current IJF rules for competition.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux

Tachi Waza and Technical Evolution. Is there a limit or a restriction as to what technique can be used to throw down the opponent? We have to accept the evolution of different techniques over time and that at various periods, there came under scrutiny and did receive an appropriate name or classification in order to standardize their teaching and award the same merit to the waza. As we have said, the various Jujitsu schools practiced different forms of Randori within and against others schools as far back as 1745-59 period. The value of Randori to test supremacy and mastery was greatly encouraged by the different military schools of the time and was still practiced when Dr Kano learned the art under the Kito and Takenaka Ryu in the late 1870. Effective throwing techniques were limited to less than two dozen. The words Randori and Shiai were interchangeable. When Dr Kano introduced his modified techniques in the original Kodokan syllabus, he believed in the superiority of Tachi waza over ground techniques and identified them as effective teaching tools over the Katame waza. He anticipated developing his curriculum with a ratio of about 70% Tachi- waza and 30% groundwork. When he designed the competition rules, that % ratio reflected his favoritism for the standing techniques. Technical Compendium The vast collection of Kodokan judo techniques has branched out into three distinct sectors: throwing techniques, grappling (hold down, strangles, arm-bars) and striking or Atemi-waza. The number of techniques has varied with the years: in 1895 there is 15 throws officially identified, in 1920 the whole Gokyo is made up of 40 techniques; !940 there was 48, in 1987 there was 67 accepted formal techniques of throwing taught at the Kodokan with 32 Katame-waza variations. Various reviews have added or deleted some techniques/ variations and the latest compendium of throwing techniques was made by Toshiro Daigo, the chief instructor at the Kodokan in 2005 where 64 Tachi waza are officially listed under five classes: TeWaza (15), Koshi- Waza(11), Ashi- Waza(21), Ma-Sutemi- Waza(5), and Yoko- Sutemi waza(15). As of today, there are 35 official techniques named and associated with the Katame Waza: 15 hold-downs, 15 strangulations and 5 arm locks.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Numerous variations for both standing and ground techniques exist but have not been given an official name or a classification other than to say they are unorthodox. They are referred to as Kuzure/variations or modifications. Current Venue and Rules With this background in mind, let us precede with the current competition rules. The following paragraphs will highlight some of the most important directives. For a complete picture of the rules, please refer to the IJF official directives. Shiai-Jo/ the Venue The judo contests are held in a competition area made of tatami or similar acceptable material. It measures a minimum of 14m x 14m and up to 16m x 16m. The surface is normally green or yellow in colour.

To accommodate the numbers of participants, the competition venue can have more than one contest area adjoining each other. Each competition area is also divided into two zones. The demarcation between these two zones is called the danger zone and is normally in red colour of 1meter wide, forming part of or attached to the contest area, and parallel to the four sides. The area within and including the danger zone, is called the contest area and measure 8m x 8m and up to a maximum of 10m x 10m depending upon the type of facility. The area outside the danger zone is called the safety area and is normally of 3 meters wide.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
These measures are important to the players and the judges as strategies and tactics are developed to make maximum use of the space for preparing an attack or imposing a defense. Stepping in or out of a designated area can be costly for either contestants. We will identify some faults to avoid in upcoming paragraphs. The Masters of the Mat There should be no doubt as to who is the master of the mat. Generally, the contest is conducted by one referee and two judges (sitting in corners). The referee and judges will decide all the outcomes. They are assisted by minor officials such as: contest recorders and time keepers who are normally located on the edges and outside the safety zone. The Beginning and the End Judo contests have retained the ethical values set by Dr Kano; as such, it is a must for all contestants to properly bow (standing salute) onto and off both the competition area and the contest area at the start and end of each contest. When they enter the competition area, after bowing onto the contest area the contestants move forward to their respective marks and must bow simultaneously towards each other and take a step forward. There is no room for additional handshakes or other gestures. It is at that critical moment that the referee will signal both by voice and by a hand signal that the contest is starting. Once the contest is over and the referee has awarded the result, the contestants simultaneously take a step back to their respective markings and must bow to each other. There should always be respectful signs of composure from both players during these conclusive moments. Rules pertaining to the Costume You will note that the examination of the length of the costume will be done prior to the matches, if not the referee will conduct a last check and demand that the contestants be appropriately dressed in white or blue judogi depending on the order of the call and that all crests or insignias are displayed in accordance with the rules. He will also measure the length and the free space at the wrist and ankle areas. Being improperly dressed may occasion a fault and even a disqualification as some players have been known to switch judogi and present themselves at the last minute on the mat with a smaller or shrunken costume thus preventing the opponent to make a proper kumi kata.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Time of start /stop of matches At times, there is confusion as to when a technique is to be scored properly when attempted towards the end of a match. Whatever technique used must be accomplished within the given time limit. The overall timekeeper (real contest time) starts the clock on hearing the announcements Hajime or Yoshi and stops it on hearing the announcements Matte or Sonomama. Judoka lagging behind in points will try last minutes efforts to impress the judges for a decision or score. The same is applicable for Osaekomi, the timekeeper will starts the clock on hearing Osaekomi and will stop the time on hearing Sonomama and restarts it on hearing Yoshi. When hearing “toketa” or “matte” he will stops the clock and indicates the number of seconds elapsed to the referee or on expiry of the time for Osaekomi (25 seconds where there has been no previous score or 20 seconds where the person being held in the Osaekomi has had a Waza-Ari or Keikoku awarded against him). There is normally an audible signal or a flag raised. There is NO SCORE for anything done outside the time limit. All techniques must have begun before the termination signal. Other officials Visual signals are sometime difficult to interpret this is why an electronic board is used to take into account, the gains and faults from both contestants and will usually display the names of the judoka, their back number and or their country of origin. Decision and Gesture Refereeing is a difficult task and the selected officials have had previous experiences in combat and have reviewed the rules in the last hours preceding the competition. You will note that there are constant consultations amongst the officials as the contest proceeds. While announcing an opinion and making the appropriate gesture, the referee should bring at least one judge within his line of sight in order to be immediately aware of any differing opinion. However the referee must make sure not to lose sight of the contestants who are continuing their match. Each judge is bound to indicate his or her opinion by making the appropriate official gesture, whenever their opinion differs from that of the referee on a technical evaluation or for a penalty announced by the referee.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Should the referee express an opinion of a higher degree than that of the two judges on a technical result or a penalty, he must adjust his evaluation to that of the judge having expressed the higher evaluation. If his opinion of a lower degree than that of the two judges on a technical result or penalty, he must adjust his evaluation to that of the judge having expressed the lower evaluation. When one judge express an opinion of a higher degree and the other judge an opinion of a lower degree than that of the referee, the referee will maintain his original opinion. It is possible that the referee request a time out to entertain a discussion with his minor officials. Other discussions are possible and necessary only if the referee or one of the judges has clearly seen something which has not been visible to the other two, and which could change the decision. Expressing different values Should both judges express a judgment different from that of the referee, and the referee not have noticed their signals, they should stand up, maintaining their gesture until the referee is informed of this and rectifies his evaluation. Should, after an appreciable time (a few seconds) the referee not have noticed the standing judges, the judge who is closest to the referee must immediately approach him and inform him of the majority opinion. When a contestant performs near the edges, the judge must, by the appropriate gesture, express his opinion about the validity of any action on the edge or outside of the contest area. Familiar Gestures interpretation To understand the actions, you need to watch the signals as they are performed by the referee. The most frequent are as follow: (see annex for graphs taken from ccsfjudo.org) Ippon: shall raise one arm with palm of hand facing forward, high above the head. Waza-ari: shall raise one of his arms with palm of hand facing downwards, sideways, to shoulder height. Waza-ari-awasete-Ippon: First waza-ari, then Ippon gesture. Yuko: shall raise one of his arms, with palm of hand facing downwards, 45 degrees from his body. Koka: shall raise one of his arms bent with thumb towards the shoulder and elbow at the side of the body.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Osaekomi: shall point his arm out from his body down towards the contestants while facing the contestants and bending his body towards them. Osaekomi-toketa: shall raise one of his arms to the front and wave it from right to left quickly two or three times while bending the body towards the contestants. Hiki-wake: shall raise one of his hands high in the air and bring it down to the front of his body (with thumb edge up) and hold it there for a while. Matte: shall raise one of his hands to shoulder height and with his arm approximately parallel to the tatami, shall display the flattened palm of his hand (fingers up) to the timekeeper. Sonomama: shall bend forward and touch both contestants with the palms of his hands. Yoshi: shall firmly touch both contestants with the palms of his hands and bring pressure on them. Special signals for correction or requesting decision To indicate the cancellation of an expressed opinion: the referee shall repeat with one hand the same gesture while raising the other hand above the head to the front and wave it from right to left two or three times. Hantei: In preparation of calling Hantei, the referee shall raise both hands forward at 45 degree with the correct flag in each hand, and then at the announcement of Hantei he shall raise the flag high above his head to indicate his opinion. Kachi (to indicate the winner of a contest): he shall raise one hand, palm in, above shoulder height towards the winner. To direct the contestant(s) to re-adjust the judogi: cross left hand over right, palms facing inwards, at belt height. To indicate the recording of a medical examination by the doctor: signal with hand opened towards the contestant and with the other hand, raise the index finger towards the recorder for first examination and the index and the middle-finger for the second examination .

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Penalty-oriented signs To award a penalty (shido, chui, keikoku, hansoku-make): point towards the contestant with the index finger extended from a closed fist. Non-combatively: rotate, with a forward motion, the forearms at chest height then point with the forefinger at the contestant. False attack: extend both arms forward, with hands closed and then make a downward action with both hands. Danger zone penalty: point towards danger zone, whilst raising the other hand above head, forward, with fingers opened, then point towards contestant to be penalised. Apprehension: When it is not clearly apparent, the referee may after the official signal, point to the blue or white tape (starting position) to indicate which contestant scored or was penalised. Directive: To indicate to the contestant/s that he may sit cross-legged at the starting position, if a lengthy delay in the contest is envisaged, the referee should signal towards the starting position with an open hand, palm upwards. Should both contestants be given a penalty, the referee should make the proper gesture and point alternately at both contestants (left forefinger for contestant on his left and right forefinger for contestant on his right). Should a rectification gesture be required, it shall be done as quickly as possible after the annulment gesture. Ceremonial announcement To indicate the winner, the referee will return to his position at start of the contest, take one step forward, indicate the winner then take one step back. When signaling acts considered of negative Judo (passivity or prohibited acts), the referee will cross the wrists in front of the body at about shoulder height with the hands extended, then point to the contestant to be penalised.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Signals from the Judges To indicate that he considers a contestant making a throwing technique has stayed within the contest area, the judge shall raise one of his hands up in the air and bring it down to shoulder height with his thumb upwards and keep his arm extended along the boundary line of the contest area and momentarily hold it there. To indicate that in his opinion one of the contestants is out of the contest area, the judge shall raise one of his hands to shoulder height with his thumb upwards and arm extended along the boundary line of the contest area and wave it from right to left, or vice versa, several times. To indicate that in his opinion a score, penalty or opinion given by the referee has no value, the judge will raise his hand above his head and wave it from right to left two or three times. To indicate that his opinion differs from that of the referee, the judge(s) will make one of the signals that could be attributed for the value of the action. In Hantei situations the judges must hold the flags in the proper hands. After the referee has announced Hantei the judges shall immediately raise either the blue or white flag above their heads in order to indicate which contestant they consider merits the decision. Following Ground techniques When the judges wish to have the referee to announce matte in ne-waza (e.g. no progress), they should signal by rising both hands to shoulder height with palms facing upwards. Should one contestant have one of his feet, hands or knees outside the contest area while standing or more than half of his body outside the contest area while doing Sutemi-waza, he shall be considered as being outside the contest area. Exceptions: When one contestant throws his opponent outside the contest area, but he stays within the contest area long enough for the effectiveness of the technique to be clearly apparent, the technique shall be recognised. When a throw is started with both contestants inside the contest area, but during the throw, the contestant being thrown moves outside the contest area, the action may be considered for point scoring purposes if the throwing action continues uninterrupted and the contestant executing the throw stays within the contest area long enough for the effectiveness of the action to be clearly apparent.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
In Katame-waza the action is valid and may continue so long as either contestant has any part of the body touching the contest area. In the case of Osaekomi on the edge: should the one part of the contestant still touching the contest area, become airborne (i.e. it is raised up and loses contact with the mat), the referee must announce Matte. As the red danger zone is part of the contest area, any contestant whose feet are still touching the red danger zone in the standing position should be considered as being within the contest area. When performing Sutemi-waza, a throw is considered valid if the thrower has one half or more of his body within the contest area. (Therefore, neither foot of the thrower should leave the contest area before his back or hips touch the mat.) If the thrower falls outside the contest area whilst making a throw, the action will only be considered for scoring purposes when the opponent's body touches the mat before him. Therefore if a thrower's knee, hand or any other part of his body touches the safety area before his opponent's any result obtained thereby should be disregarded. Scoring Osaekomi Points allocated are: For obtaining Ippon: total of 25 seconds. For Waza-ari: 20 seconds or more but less than 25 seconds. Yuko: 15 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds. Koka: 10 seconds or more but less than 15 seconds. (An Osaekomi of less than 10 seconds will be counted the same as an attack.) When the contestants attempt to change from standing position to ne-waza without the employment of a continuous technique (Hikkomi), the referee will order both contestants to resume the standing position. For the effective employment of Hikkomi techniques, Kansetsu-waza or Shime-waza, to enable a score, there shall be no interruption in the movement into ne-waza and the offensive must be maintained. Note that: When one contestant tries to pulls his opponent down into ne-waza without taking advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the referee shall announce matte, stop the contest and award a penalty of Shido.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Overall decision The referee will award the contest when one contestant has scored Ippon or equivalent. Where there has been no score of Ippon or equivalent, the winner shall be declared on the basis of: one waza-ari prevails over any number of yuko, one yuko prevails over any number of koka. Before the announcement of hantei, the referee and judges must have assessed which contestant they consider to be the winner, taking into account the recognisable difference in the attitude during the contest or the skill and effectiveness of techniques. Golden score If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule. Golden Score is a sudden death situation where the clock is reset to matchtime, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins. If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by Hantei, the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges. Let us recap. What constitute the “IPPON?” The referee shall announce Ippon when in his opinion an applied technique corresponds to the following criteria: a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant largely on his back with considerable force and speed. b) When a contestant holds with Osaekomi-waza the other contestant, who is unable to get away for 25 seconds after the announcement of Osaekomi. c) When a contestant gives up by tapping twice or more with his hand or foot or says maitta generally as a result of a grappling technique, Shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. d) When a contestant is incapacitated by the effect of a Shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. Note: Equivalence: Should one contestant be penalised hansoku make the other contestant shall be declared the winner. Application but no score: Using kansetsu-waza in order to throw the opponent will not be considered for point scoring purposes.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
The make-up of Waza-ari The referee shall announce waza-ari when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds to the following criteria: (a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant, but the technique is partially lacking in one of the four elements necessary for Ippon. (b) When a contestant holds with Osaekomi-waza the other contestant who is unable to get away for 20 seconds or more, but less than 25 seconds. Equivalence: Should one contestant have been penalised Keikoku, the other contestant shall receive waza-ari immediately. Osaekomi criteria The referee shall announce Osaekomi when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds with the following criteria: (a) The contestant being held must be controlled by his opponent and must have his back, both shoulders and one shoulder in contact with the mat. (b) The control can be made from the side, from the rear or from on top. (c) The contestant applying the hold must not have his leg(s) or body controlled by his opponent's legs. (d) At least one contestant has any part of his body touching the contest area at the announcement of Osaekomi. (e) The contestant applying the hold must have their body in either the kesa or the shiho position, i.e. similar to the techniques kesa-gatame or kami-shiho-gatame. Should a contestant who is controlling his opponent with an Osaekomi, change without losing control, into another Osaekomi, the Osaekomi time will continue until the announcement of Ippon (or waza-ari or equivalent in the case of waza-ari-awaseteIppon) or toketa or matte. When Osaekomi is being applied, if it is the contestant who is in an advantageous position who commits an infringement meriting a penalty, the referee shall announce matte, return the contestants to their starting positions, award the penalty (and any score from the Osaekomi), then recommence the contest by announcing hajime.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
When Osaekomi is being applied, if it is the contestant who is in a disadvantageous position who commits an infringement meriting a penalty, the referee shall announce sonomama, award the penalty, then recommence the contest by touching both contestants and announcing Yoshi. If both judges agree that an Osaekomi exists, but the referee has not announced Osaekomi - they should indicate with Osaekomi signal and, by the "majority of three" rule, the referee shall announce Osaekomi immediately. The referee shall announce matte in the case of "Osaekomi on the edge", when the one part of the contestant still touching the contest area, becomes airborne (i.e. it is raised up and loses contact with tatami). Toketa should be announced if, during Osaekomi, the contestant being held succeeds in "scissoring" the other contestant's leg, either from above or from below the leg. If in ne-waza after the announcement of sonomama the penalty to be given is hansokumake, matte should be announced, hansoku-make awarded and the contest ended with sore-made. In situations where Uke's back is no longer in contact with the mat, (e.g. "bridging"), but Tori maintains control, the Osaekomi shall continue. Prohibited acts and penalties Because of the limited time imposed and the desire to have positive judo displayed, the rules are very strict as to what constitute a penalty or fault. The infringements are listed in four groups intended to be guides for the officials. Penalties are not cumulative. Each penalty must be awarded at its own value. The awarding of any second or subsequent penalty automatically cancels an earlier penalty. Whenever a contestant has already been penalised, any succeeding penalties for that contestant must always be awarded at least in the next higher value than his existing penalty.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Prohibited acts and corresponding penalties: Shido is given to any contestant who has committed a slight infringement: such as Negative Judo: to intentionally avoid taking hold in order to prevent action in the contest. To adopt in a standing position an excessively defensive posture. (5 seconds). To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent. (FALSE ATTACK) .To stand, both feet completely within the danger zone UNLESS it is a beginning of an attack, executing an attack, countering the opponent's attack or defending against the opponent's attack. (Generally more than 5 seconds). In a standing position, to continually hold the opponent's sleeve end(s) for a defensive purpose (5 seconds) or to grasp by "screwing up" the sleeve. In a standing position, to continually keep the opponent's fingers of one or both hands interlocked, in order to prevent action in the contest. (More than 5 seconds). To intentionally disarrange his own judogi or to untie or retie the belt or the trousers without the referee's permission. To indiscriminately pull the opponent down in order to start ne-waza. To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent's sleeve or bottom of his trousers, or to grasp by "screwing up" his sleeve. Invalid Gripping "Normal" gripping is in general to hold with the left hand any part of the right side of the opponent's jacket above the belt and with the right hand any part of the left side of the opponent's jacket above the belt. In a standing position to take any grip other than a "normal" grip without attacking is not valid. (Generally within 3 to 5 seconds) Non-Combat In a standing position, after kumi-kata has been established, not to make any attacking moves is a possible fault. Miscellaneous infringements From a standing position, to take hold of the opponent's foot/feet, leg(s) or trouser leg(s) with the hand(s), unless simultaneously attempting a throwing technique. To encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the opponent's body. To take the judogi in the mouth. To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent's face. To put a foot or a leg in the opponent's belt, collar or lapel is subject to a fault.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux

Chui is awarded to any contestant who has committed a serious infringement (or having been penalised shido commits a second slight infringement). To apply Shime-waza using the bottom of the jacket or belt, or using only the fingers. To apply leg scissors to the opponent's trunk (dojime), neck or head. (Scissor with crossed feet, while stretching out the legs).To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip. To bend back the opponent's finger(s) in order to break his grip. From Tachi-waza or ne-waza to go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area. Keikoku is normally awarded to any contestant who has committed a grave infringement (or who having been penalised Chui, commits a further slight or serious infringement). To attempt to throw the opponent by winding one leg around the opponent's leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards onto him (kawazu-gake). To apply kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint. To lift off the mat an opponent who is lying on the mat and to drive him back onto the mat. To reap the opponents supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as harai-goshi etc. To disregard the referee's instructions. To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or referee during the contest. Hansoku Make is awarded to any contestant who has committed a very grave infringement (or who having been penalised Keikoku, commits a further infringement of any degree). A contestant will receive the penalty of Keikoku when he makes any action which may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo? To fall directly to the mat while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as waki-gatame.To "dive" head first, onto the mat by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Uchi-mata, harai-goshi, etc. To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other's movement. To wear any hard or metallic object (covered or not). Referees and judges are authorised to award penalties according to the "intent" or situation and in the best interest of the sport. It is customary that before awarding hansoku-make, the referee must consult with the judges and make his decision in accordance with the "majority of three" rule. Where both contestants infringe the rules at the same time, each should be awarded a penalty according to the degree of the infringement.
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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
Where both contestants have been awarded Keikoku and subsequently each receives a further penalty, they should both be declared hansoku-make. (If awarded such a fault, the contestants will not be permitted to carry on any other match in the competition) Adjustment and tolerance Taking a high grip on the opponent's collar is regarded as "normal" even if the hand is gripping on the opposite side of the opponent's jacket, providing the hand passes behind the opponent's head. A contestant should not be penalised for holding with an abnormal grip if the situation has been brought about by his opponent ducking his head beneath the holder's arm. However, if a contestant is continually "ducking" this way, the referee should give consideration as to whether he is adopting an "excessively defensive posture" No-action. May be taken to exist when in general, for approximately 25 seconds, there have been no attacking actions on the part of either or both contestants. Noncombativity should not be awarded when there are no attacking actions, if the referee considers that the contestant is genuinely looking for the opportunity to attack. The act of "encircling" means that the belt or jacket must completely encircle. Using the belt or jacket as an "anchor" for a grip (without encircling) to say - trap the opponent's arm should not be penalised.

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
To be on the Look-out Now that we better understand the principal rules, we have to be vigilant to watch for unusual adaptation and interpretation of the rules by both the contestants and the officials. Knee drop techniques, Hikkomi and sacrifice throws are on the increase and so are the unorthodox techniques. In the past year, we have seen during the Judo Grand Slams and Grand Prix events that contestants have constantly modified their technical routines to develop a mixture of fundamental techniques with individual Tokui- waza taken from strange repertoires. We are bound to witness the usual struggle to dominate the Kumi kata in order to make use of close range and high techniques. The reliance upon mental superiority with identifiable preferences for going for the first score and maintenance of both the initiative and focus throughout will surely influence the use of follow up techniques to ensure dominance in Katame- waza. Conclusion I hope that everyone will enjoy these high performance events and learn some valuable lessons. I close with the following Zen meditation subject: “The goal of each activity should be to appreciate the moment. There is no end other than that. It is not the result or even the process that matters, just savour the moment.” Ronald Désormeaux Judo Teacher, Hart House Dojo, University of Toronto, June 2012 References
Toshiro Daigo, Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques, Kodansha Tokyo, 2005 Syd Hoare, Judo Competition, Bath University Lecture, August 2005 Editorial Committee, Contest Rules, Illustrated Kodokan Judo, Kodansha, Tokyo, 1955 IJF, Competition Rules, www.Intjudo.EU Note: This article is protected by copyrights © and registered with the National Library of Canada. For republication, contact the author at Ronalddesormeaux@gmail.com Annex: Judo Referee’s Hand signals

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux
ANNEX: Judo Referee’s Hand signals (from CCSFJUDO.org)

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ZUIHITSU-Random notes on Judo by Ronald Désormeaux

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