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Human Resource Management: An Asian Perspective (Second Edition)

Chapter 6: Employee Testing and Selection Multiple Choice 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. Hiring workers who have criminal backgrounds without proper safeguards is considered _____. improper hiring negligent hiring appropriate depending upon the job negligent intent unwise, but not illegal (b; moderate) Which of the following is an example of a reliable test? a. one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test b. one that yields one score on a test and a different, but better score on the same test taken on a different occasion c. one that yields the same score from two different people taking the test on the same occasion d. one that yields different scores from two different people taking the test on different occasions one that includes questions that are not repetitive in any way (a; difficult) If a person scores a 90 on an intelligence test on one day and scores 130 when retested on another day, you might conclude that this test is _____. valid invalid reliable unreliable inconsistent (d; moderate) If a person scores a 78 on a test on one day and scores a 79 when retested on another day, you might conclude that this test is _____. valid invalid reliable unreliable inconsistent (c; moderate)

e. 3. a. b. c. d. e. 4. a. b. c. d. e.

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5. a. b. c. d. e. 6.

_____ is used as an estimate of reliability when one administers the same test to the same people at two different points in time and then compares the test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1. Equivalent form estimate Retest estimate Internal consistency Internal comparison estimate Criterion validity (b; moderate) Which of the following describes using a retest estimate to assess reliability? a. administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1 b. administer a test with x number of item designed to assess a topic; then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to the items vary together c. administer different tests to different people and compare test scores of the different people d. administer the same test to different people and compare test scores of the different people e. administer a test with content based on what a person actually needs to know to do the job in question well (a; difficult) _____ is used as an estimate of reliability when one administers two tests deemed to be equivalent by experts and then compares the test scores from the two tests. Equivalent form estimate Retest estimate Internal consistency Internal comparison estimate Criterion validity (a; moderate) _____ is used as an estimate of reliability when one administers a test with x number of item designed to assess a topic; then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to the items vary together. Equivalent form estimate Retest estimate Internal consistency Internal comparison estimate Criterion validity (c; moderate)

7. a. b. c. d. e. 8. a. b. c. d. e.

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9.

Which of the following describes using an internal consistency as an assessment of reliability? a. administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1 b. administer a test with x number of item designed to assess a topic; then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to the items vary together c. administer different tests to different people and compare test scores of the different people d. administer the same test to different people and compare test scores of the different people e. administer a test with content based on what a person actually needs to know to do the job in question well (b; difficult) When repetitive questions appear on a questionnaire, which form of reliability is likely being measured? retest estimate internal consistency equivalent form test validity criterion validity (b; moderate) Which of the following describes using an equivalent form estimate to assess reliability? a. administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1 b. administer a test with x number of item designed to assess a topic; then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to the items vary together c. administer two tests deemed the same by experts and then compare participants test scores for test one and test two d. different tests to different people and compare test scores of the different people e. administer a test with content based on what a person actually needs to know to do the job in question well (c; difficult)

10. a. b. c. d. e. 11.

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12.

Which of the following describes using an internal comparison estimate to assess reliability? a. administer the same test to the same people at two different points in time and compare their test scores at time 2 with the scores at time 1 b. administer a test with x number of item designed to assess a topic; then statistically analyze the degree to which responses to the items vary together c. administer different tests to different people and compare test scores of the different people d. administer the same test to different people and compare test scores of the different people e. administer a test with content based on what a person actually needs to know to do the job in question well (b; difficult) Which of the following is not a reason that a test might be unreliable? questions may not represent material tests used to estimate equivalence may not have been equivalent testing conditions could vary the test may not predict actual performance all are reasons for unreliable tests (d; difficult) The first step in the validation process is to _____. choose the tests to measure attributes of job analyze the job administer tests relate test scores and job criteria cross-validate (b; easy; p. 197) The second step in the validation process is to _____. choose the tests to measure attributes of job analyze the job administer tests relate test scores and job criteria cross-validate (a; easy) The final step in the validation process is to _____. choose the tests to measure attributes of job analyze the job administer tests relate test scores and job criteria cross-validate (e; easy)

13. a. b. c. d. e. 14. a. b. c. d. e. 15. a. b. c. d. e. 16. a. b. c. d. e.

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17. a. b. c. d. e. 18. a. b. c. d. e. 19. a. b. c. d. e. 20.

Which of the following tasks is not part of demonstrating content validity? demonstrating that the tasks a person performs on the test are represent the tasks performed on the job demonstrating that the tasks on the test are a random sample of tasks performed on the job demonstrating the conditions under which the person takes the test resemble the work situation demonstrating that the scores on the test are a good predictor of criterion like job performance all of the above are part of demonstrating content validity (d; difficult) A(n) _____ aims to measure an array of possible predictors for job performance. test validity test criterion test battery job analysis assessment rating (c; moderate) To use _____, one administers a test to employees presently on the job and then compares their test scores with current performance. concurrent validation predictive validation correlation analysis expectancy assessment test batteries (a; moderate) To use _____, one administers the test to applicants before they are hired. The applicants are then hired using existing selection techniques but not the new tests in development. Later, job performance measures are compared to the test scores under development. concurrent validation predictive validation correlation analysis expectancy assessment test batteries (b; moderate) Which method of test validation is considered more dependable? content validation criterion validation predictive validation concurrent validation face validation (c; difficult)

a. b. c. d. e. 21. a. b. c. d. e.

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22. a. b. c. d. e. 23. a. b. c. d. e. 24. a. b. c. d. e. 25. a. b. c. d. e. 26. a. b. c. d. e. 27. a. b. c. d. e.

Which statistical tool is used to determine if a significant relationship exists between the predictor scores and the performance criterion? regression analysis discriminant analysis correlation analysis canonical correlational analysis confirmatory factor analysis (c; moderate) The process of cross-validating a test involves all of the following except _____. using a new sample of employees administering more tests evaluating the relationship between scores and performance assessing predictive validation analyzing a scatter plot of scores versus performance (e; moderate) Which form of validation emphasizes the use of judgment as a validation tool? criterion validation predictive validation content validation concurrent validation all of the above (c; moderate) All of the following are considered pink collar jobs except waitress secretary nursing teaching psychologist (e; easy) Traditionally female professions are referred to as _____ jobs. purple collar white collar pink collar blue collar none of the above (c; easy) _____ tests include tests of general reasoning ability and tests of specific mental abilities like memory and inductive reasoning. Motor ability Personality Achievement Cognitive Physical ability (d; easy)

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28. a. b. c. d. e. 29. a. b. c. d. e. 30. a. b. c. d. e. 31. a. b. c. d. e. 32. a. b. c. d. e.

Tests that measure a range of abilities including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability are called _____. aptitude tests intelligence tests achievement tests personality tests comprehensive tests (b; easy) Joh is being tested on static strength, dynamic strength, body coordination and stamina during the selection period at a goods delivery company. The company is using _____ tests. aptitude personality motor and physical abilities achievement comprehensive (c; moderate) _____ tests include tests like finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and reaction time. Motor ability Personality Achievement Cognitive Interest (a; easy) _____ tests measure a persons level of introversion, stability, and motivation. Motor ability Personality Achievement Cognitive Physical ability (b; easy) Most people are fired due to _____. lack of qualifications lack of aptitude nonperformance lack of necessary motor abilities cognitive abilities (c; moderate)

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33. a. b. c. d. e. 34. a. b. c. d. e.

Because nonperformance is usually the result of _____, it is important to measure motivation and interpersonal skills as well as cognitive and physical abilities during the selection process. attitude motivation temperament all of the above none of the above (d; moderate; p. 206) Which of the following is not a type of projective technique for measuring aspects of an applicants personality? Make a Picture Story House-Tree-Person Thematic Apperception Test Forer Structured Sentence Completion Test All of the above are projective (c; moderate) The Big Five personality dimensions include all of the following except neuroticism optimism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness (b; moderate) _____ represents a tendency to exhibit poor emotional adjustment and experience negative effects such as anxiety, insecurity, and hostility. Neuroticism Extraversion Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to experience (a; easy) _____ represents a tendency to be sociable, assertive, active, and to experience positive effects such as energy and zeal. Neuroticism Extraversion Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to experience (b; easy)

35. a. b. c. d. e. 36. a. b. c. d. e. 37. a. b. c. d. e.

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38. a. b. c. d. e. 39. a. b. c. d. e.

Mak has recently applied for a position in pharmaceutical sales. Which personality characteristic is most predictive of Maks likelihood of success in a sales position? neuroticism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness openness to experience (b; moderate) Which personality characteristic refers to the disposition to be imaginative, nonconforming, and unconventional? neuroticism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness openness to experience (e; moderate) Which personality characteristic refers to the tendency for one to be trusting, compliant, caring, and gentle? neuroticism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness openness to experience (d; difficult) Which personality characteristic captures a combination of achievement and dependability? neuroticism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness openness to experience (c; difficult) While some personality characteristics are associated with success in different types of jobs, which one characteristic tends to be associated with job performance across types? neuroticism extraversion conscientiousness agreeableness openness to experience (c; difficult)

40. a. b. c. d. e. 41. a. b. c. d. e. 42. a. b. c. d. e.

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43. a.

e. 44. a. b. c. d. e. 45. a. b. c. d. e. 46. a. b. c. d. e. 47. a. b. c. d. e.

Which of the following best describes how the work sampling technique is executed? applicants submit work samples from previous jobs b. applicants are tested on their ability to perform several tasks crucial to performing the job of interest c. applicants are tested on their ability to perform a range of tasks related to several positions in a company d. applicants are asked to respond to questions about how they would perform various tasks applicants are given video-based situational interviews (b; moderate) A _____ is a two or three-day simulation in which 10 to 12 candidates perform realistic management tasks under the observation of experts who appraise each candidates potential. work sampling event video-based situational testing management assessment center personality test retreat (c; moderate) Typical simulated exercises used in management assessment centers include all of the following except _____. the in basket leaderless group discussion tests of motor abilities interviews management games (c; moderate) Which of the following is an advantage of using management assessment centers in the selection process? cost of development time required to administer and assess results use of managers as assessors peer evaluations of candidates use psychologists as performance assessors (d; difficult) Which of the following is an indirect method for predicting job performance during the selection process? intelligence tests miniature job training and evaluation management assessment center work sampling technique video-based simulation technique (a; moderate)

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48. a. b. c. d. e. 49. a. b. c. d.

Which of the following is a direct method for predicting job performance during the selection process? intelligence tests motor abilities tests personality tests work sampling technique interests inventories (d; moderate) An employers selection process is likely to include any of the following methods except testing reference checks honesty testing substance abuse screening e. all of the above may be included in an employers selection process (e; easy) Employers may conduct background investigations and reference checks to verify a candidates _____. age marital status identification ethnic background all of the above (c; moderate) In most Asian countries, which of the following is not usually verified by an employer before hiring a job candidate? legal eligibility for employment education age credit citizenship (d; moderate) Which of the following is not a possible motivation for a current employer to give a fair reference to an employee who is applying for a different position with another company? fear of legal consequences desire to improve employees chances for a new job desire to remove employee from company respect for employee privacy all are possible motivations (d; difficult)

50. a. b. c. d. e. 51. a. b. c. d. e. 52. a. b. c. d. e.

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53. a. b. c. d. e. 54. a. b. c. d. e.

Which selection tool is considered the least useful by HR managers? interview reference letters application form academic record psychological tests (b; moderate) One of the most useful features of an applicant tracking system is its ability to report metrics including _____. applicant EEO data applicant source statistics time taken to fill cost to hire all of the above (e; easy) Graphology, a tool for assessing basic personality traits, is also called _____. numerology astrology handwriting analysis reasoning analysis polygraph output assessment (c; moderate) What type of screening is used to reduce absenteeism and establish a baseline for future insurance claims? physical examinations personality tests handwriting analysis drug testing all of the above (a; moderate) True/ False

55. a. b. c. d. e. 56. a. b. c. d. e.

57. 58. 59.

Under equal employment opportunity laws, employers must use nondiscriminatory selection procedures. (T; easy) Effective selection depends to a large degree on the concept of validity but not reliability. (F; moderate) A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions. (T; easy) An internal comparison estimate measures internal consistency. (T; easy) Equivalent form estimates compare test scores from the same test administered at two points in time to determine test equivalence. (F; moderate) 91

60. 61.

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62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68.

Test validity answers the question, Does this test measure what its supposed to measure? (T; easy) Reliability confirms that one is measuring what one intends to measure. (F; moderate) Validity confirms that one is measuring something consistently. (F; moderate) There are six steps in the validation process beginning with analyze the job and concluding with revalidation. (F; easy) A test battery is based on a combination of several tests that can then measure an array of predictors. (T; easy) Concurrent validation is the most dependable way to validate a selection test. (F; moderate) To use predictive validation, one administers the test to applicants before they are hired. The applicants are then hired using existing selection techniques but not the new tests in development. Later, job performance measures are compared to the test scores under development. (T; moderate) If there is a correlation between test and job performance, one can develop an expectancy chart to illustrate the relationship between test scores and job performance graphically. (T; moderate) Criterion validity emphasizes judgment. (F; moderate) Developing, validating, and using selection standards including selection tests generally require a qualified psychologist. (T; easy) Selection tests must be validated in the organization that uses them regardless of the validity shown in other similar organizations. (F; moderate) Selection tests are used as supplements to other tools like interviews and background checks. (T; moderate) EEO guidelines and laws apply to application forms and selection tests but not to interviews. (F; easy) A selection test may be used as long as it does not discriminate. (T; difficult) The American Psychological Associations standards for educational and psychological tests are legally enforceable worldwide. (F; easy) Cognitive tests are the most difficult tests to evaluate and use. (F; moderate) Interest inventories are useful for career planning because they compare the interests of the test taker to the interests of those people in various occupations. (T; moderate) 92

69.

70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78.

Human Resource Management: An Asian Perspective (Second Edition)

79. 80. 81.

In the US, rejected applicants who receive bad references could sue the source of a reference for defamation of character. (T; easy) Most employers favor written references to telephone references because written letters provide a permanent record for the employers files. (F; moderate) Most prospective employees prove their eligibility for employment in the United States by showing a U.S. passport. (F; moderate) Essay/ Short Answer

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Why is it important to select the right employees for a position? (easy) Answer: First, a managers own performance depends in part on his or her subordinates. Second, it is costly to recruit, hire, and train employees. Third, there are legal implications to incompetent hiring. EEO laws and court decisions require nondiscriminatory selection procedures for protected groups. Courts will find employees liable when employees with criminal records or other problems take advantage of access to customers property to commit crimes. Hiring workers with such backgrounds without proper safeguards is called negligent hiring.

83.

How can employers protect themselves against claims of negligent hiring? (moderate) Answer: Employers can take the following steps to protect themselves against claims of negligent hiring. Carefully scrutinize all information supplied by the applicant on the employment application. Get the applicants written authorization for reference checks and check those references carefully. Save all records and information you obtain about the applicant. Reject applicants who make false statements of material facts or who have conviction records for offenses directly related and important to the job in question. Keep in mind the need to balance the applicants privacy rights with others need to know when damaging information is discovered. Take immediate disciplinary action if problems develop.

84.

Describe the two main ways to demonstrate a tests validity in employment testing. What third method is rarely used? (moderate) Answer: The three ways to demonstrate a tests validity are criterion validity, content validity, and construct validity. Criterion validity means demonstrating that those who do well on the test also do well on the job and those that do poorly on the test do poorly on the job. Employers can demonstrate content validity of a test by showing that the test constitutes a fair sample of the content of the job. If the content on the test is representative of what the person needs to

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know for the job, then the test is probably content valid. Construct validity is not used as often. 85. Explain the five steps in the validation process. (moderate) Answer: The five steps are to analyze the job, choose tests, administer tests, relate the test scores and the criteria, and cross-validate and revalidate. The first step is to analyze the job and write job descriptions and job specifications. Next, the tests that measure the attributes important for job success are chosen. Then, the tests are administered. The next step is to determine if there is a significant relationship between scores and performance. Before putting the test into use, the test should be checked by cross-validating and/ or revalidating. 86. Several guidelines exist for managing a testing program. List these guidelines. (moderate) Answer: The guidelines for testing programs are as follows. Use tests as supplements Validate the tests Monitor the testing and selection program Keep accurate records Use a certified psychologist Manage test conditions Revalidate periodically 87. Industrial psychologists often emphasize the big five personality dimensions in personnel testing. List and explain the meaning of the big five dimensions. What do the dimensions tell us about applicants as it relates to job success? (moderate) Answer: The big five personality dimensions are neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Neuroticism refers to a tendency to exhibit poor emotional adjustment and experience negative effects like anxiety and insecurity. Extraversion represents a tendency to be sociable, assertive, and active. Openness to experience is the disposition to be imaginative, nonconforming, unconventional, and autonomous. Agreeableness is the tendency to be trusting, compliant, caring, and gentle. Conscientiousness is comprised of two related facets including achievement and dependability. Extraversion is generally associated with success in sales. Extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are strong predictors of leadership. Neuroticism is negatively related to motivation. Conscientiousness is the most consistent and universal predictor of job performance.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

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Human Resource Management: An Asian Perspective (Second Edition)

88.

What are the advantages of using the work sampling technique for employee selection? (moderate) Answer: The work sampling technique measures how a candidate actually performs some of a jobs basic tasks. It measures actual on-the-job tasks so it is difficult for applicants to fake answers. Work samples are more clearly related to the job being tested so the test is fair. Work sampling does not include assessment of an applicants personality or mental state so it cannot be considered an invasion of privacy. When designed well, work sampling tests also show better validity than other tests designed to predict performance.

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There are several methods for measuring job performance directly. List and explain three such methods. (difficult) Answer: Work samples and simulations measure job performance directly. Several types of tests fit into direct measurement methods: 1) work sampling techniques, 2) management assessment centers, 3) video-based situational testing, and 4) miniature job training and evaluation. The work sampling technique measures how a candidate actually performs some of the jobs basic tasks. A management assessment center is a 2-3 day simulation in which 10-12 candidates perform realistic management tasks under the observation of experts who appraise each candidates leadership potential. Video-based tests are situational tests that present the candidate with several scenarios, each followed by a multiple-choice question. The miniature job training and evaluation approach trains candidates to perform a sample of the jobs tasks and then evaluates performance.

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What is a management assessment center? What else can managers use these centers for besides selection? Provide five examples of typical simulated exercises used in management assessment centers. (easy) Answer: A management assessment center is a 2-3 day simulation in which 1012 candidates perform realistic management tasks under the observation of experts who appraise each candidates leadership potential. Typical simulated exercises include 1) the in basket, 2) leaderless group discussion, 3) management games, 4) individual presentations, 5) objective tests, and 6) the interview. These centers can be used for promotion and development purposes as well as for selection.

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