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Due Tuesday, May 8 1. Let Dν be an irrep of dimension dν∑ a ﬁnite group G, and Ci be some conugacy class of in G. Consider the matrix Biν = g∈Ci Dν (g) consisting of the sum of the matrices which correspond to the elements of the conjugacy class Ci . (a) Using Schur’s lemma, show that this matrix is a multiple of identity: (Biν )kl = λν δkl . i (b) The coeﬃcient λν is called the “Dirac character” of the class Ci . By taking i traces relate the Dirac character to the ordinary character χν = χν (Ci ). i (c) Using the irreducibility criterion considered in class, obtain a formula for the dimension dν in terms of the order of the group |G|, the number of elements |Ck | in the conjugacy class Ck , and the λν . k 2. Properties of projection operators. Recall the deﬁnition: nµ ∑ [ µ ]∗ µ Pij = D (g) D(g). |G| g∈G ij

(1)

**(a) Prove the multiplication rule for projection operators that was given in class:
**

µ µ Pij Piµj ′ = δ µµ δji′ Pij ′ . ′

′ ′

(2)

**(b) Show that the projection operators satisfy the following equation:
**

µ D(g)Pij

=

nµ ∑ k=1

µ µ Dki (g)Pkj .

(3)

3. Recall that the dihedral group Dn consists of rotations by multiples of 2π/n about an n-fold axis, as well as π rotations about n 2-fold axes orthogonal to the n-fold axis. This is the symmetry group of a regular n-gon. Find the conjugacy classes of the dihedral group D4 by considering its elements as permutations ∈ S4 of the vertices of the square. What is the subgroup of S4 that is isomorphic to D4 ? 4. Show D4 A1 A2 B1 B2 E that the e C2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 −2 character table for the dihedral group D4 is 2C4 2C2 2C′2 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 1 −1 −1 −1 1 0 0 0 1

You may ﬁnd it useful to read sections 1. a rotation by π). see section “Course Documents”.Here the notation for the conjugacy classes is as follows: C2 stands for a class that 4 consists of a single element that is the square of a four-fold rotation (that is. scans of which are posted on chalk. and 2C4 stands for a class with two elements that are both rotations by π/2. Assume that the springs are rigidly attached to the blocks (rather than pivoted. connected by four identical springs so that they form a square with the blocks at the vertices. 5. 2 . for example).17 from this book. This problem is taken from Georgi (problem 1. Find the geometric meaning of these classes (why are there diﬀerent classes with 2-fold rotations?) and identify them with the ones found in problem 3 as classes of permutations. so that the square has some rigidity. etc. A mechanical system consists of four identical blocks sliding on a frictionless plane.F).16 and 1. Analyze the normal modes using the 8-element symmetry group of the square.

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