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Unit 4 Natural Resources

Canadas Fishing Industry Introduction Fish in oceans, lakes, and rivers of Canada were a renewable resource, and therefore replaced themselves. During the 1980s, Canadas fishing industry seemed to have a bright future. But the collapse of the fisheries during the 1990s changed all of this. Ocean fishing is Canadas oldest industry, beginning in early 1500s. When ships from Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal came to Canada every summer to get fish. Over time these fishing sites became fishing villages located on the coast of Newfoundland. Today, commercial fishing makes up only about 0.15% of the total value of the economy. Canadian commercial fishing occurs in three areas: the East Coast, the West Coast, and freshwater inland lakes. Fishing in the East Coast is higher than in the West Coast, and freshwater production is smaller than both. More than 50% of the Canadian catch is exported, due to the fact that we as Canadians do not eat very much fish. The East Coast Fishery Until recently, the ocean waters of the East coast were one of the worlds greatest fishing grounds. Due to the large amount of plankton that grows here it attracts many fish. Crisis in the East Coast Fishery In the 1980s the amount of ground fish being caught in the East coast dropped. A drop of fish population had dropped before in history, but that was expected. This drop of fish population had been unexpected. Why the East Coast Fishery Collapsed People have suggested that there are five major conditions responsible for the collapse of the fishery. 1. Overfishing The catch allowed by the federal government each year appears to have been too high. Their scientists may have overestimated the number of fish becoming adults each year. 2. Improved Fishing Technology After World War II, larger, more powerful, engine-drawn trawlers were developed. Technological developments, such as sonar and satellite navigation systems, helped fishers to locate schools of fish faster and more accurately. 3. Uncontrolled Foreign Fishing By the late 1960s, the foreign fishing fleets of countries such as Russia and Japan caught far more fish than sustained yield methods would have allowed. 4. Destructive Fishing Practices When trawlers were trying to catch one kind of fish, for example, cod, many other types of fish may have become caught in the nets. These unwanted fish, which were already dead, were usually just thrown away. 5. Changes in Natural Conditions Water temperatures have dropped and ocean salinity levels have changed since the mid-1980s. The fish may have changed their migratory routes to avoid areas where these changes have occurred. Second, the decline of sealing industry in the late 1970s caused an increase in the seal population. This reduced ground fish populations because the seals ate large quantities of small fish called capelin, which is major food source for cod. Seals may also be eating large amounts of cod. The West Coast Fishery

The West coast fishery is based on top of the salmon population. The Collapse of the West Coast Fishery The Atlantic fishery alerted scientist that there was a huge drop in the salmon population and a fishmanagement plan was brought to action. There are several different beliefs to why the fishing industry collapsed. 1. Overfishing During the 1990s, Canada and American salmon-fishing boats were catching over 800,000 tonnes of fish per year between California and Alaska. The salmon could not survive this massive yearly catch. 2. Changes in the Environment Due to global warming, the water is warming and the salmon do not like waters that are over 7C. Since the Pacific waters are warming this would force the salmon to move further northward. 3. Lack of a Salmon Fishing Treaty For a while Canada and American have been trying to come to an agreement on how much salmon can be caught. Canada says too much is being caught though Alaska disagrees putting Canada and American in different perspectives of the situation. Mr. Durks Questions Answered Q: When did Canadas fishing industry collapse (year)? A: Canadas fishing industry collapsed in the 1990s due to drop in fish population. Q: Why did the fishing industry collapse (East and West Coast?) A: The East coast fishing industry collapsed due to lack of cod, and also number of fish allowed to be caught being too high. The West coast fishing industry collapsed due to lack of salmon, since the amount of salmon being caught was really high, and Canada and America not seeing eye to eye on the problem. Q: What fish did they rely on the most? A: The East coast relied on cod the most; this is why there is such as shortage of cod in the Newfoundland fishing area. The West coast relied on salmon the most, and since both Canada and America were relying on the salmon they were quickly decreased in numbers.

Canadas Seal Hunt Each year, in North Atlantic Canada, on the ice flows of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Newfoundland and North Eastern Labrador, thousands of seals of different species come to rest from a long migration from the North. Every year, licensed hunters from the surrounding Canadian provinces participate in the seal hunt where they travel on boats, armed with hakapiks (club/spear/hook-like hunting tool), and proceed to taking as many seal pelts as needed. To a person who knows nothing about the issue, it doesnt sound like there is anything wrong, however, the retrieval of graphic photography, the revelation of the seal death tolls and seemingly horrific video footage has triggered an enormous eruption of controversy concerning this issue. Questions concerning the morality, practicality, ethics and humanity have been come into question against means of tradition and motivation. The main species of seal hunted in this event is the harp seal. When European explorers first came to Canada, it was said that there was 30 million plus population of this type of seal inhabiting Atlantic Canada. Since then, that population has dropped to 1.8 million by the year 1950 partially as result of mass hunting to aid crashing markets and the overall economy. Today, the harp seal population is at an abundant 5.8 million as it continues to be the main seal hunted, providing the bulk of the pelts at 98%. Shockingly, over a two year span from 2002-2004, 961,418 harp seals were killed in their habitats; too many for the activists who consider them murdered. Save the Seals! A common saying and message found easily over the internet, on signs, billboards and t-shirts. The anti-seal hunt opinion of people who oppose the hunt is founded beliefs that the hunt is a massacre and it violates nature as an abuse and animals rights as the killing method is not seen as humane. To activists, the hunt is primitive, disgusting and that it shames the human race as stewards. But this is not what is thought by all. The obvious flip side of the issue rests on the hunters, themselves, who kill the seals for their products that can be sold and consumed, and supporters. To them, the hunt is a hallowed tradition a century old, a strong reason for them to do it because it probably helped their elders to escape economic hardships, and a contributor to their annual income. Also, others arguments find their roots at the fact that the seals are not, and are not nearing, bearing the endangered title and that similar slaughters happen in beef and chicken slaughter houses across the continent while avoiding activist heat. Professional seal-hunters consider the hunt completely human, justified and even natural. There were no issues with native people who hunt seals; no complaints that were lodged targeted their hunting rights. In light of this controversy, a survey was issued by the government. Results uncannily turned out virtually even: 48% supported the seal hunt, 47% were in the opposition of it and 5% chose not to respond. Observers considered the seal hunt an ethical paradox. In conclusion, the seal hunt is a sophisticated problem, like many global issues, intended to be solved with sharing perspectives and compromise. Mr. Durks Questions Answered Q: What is the Seal Hunt?

A: The seal hunt is a tradition, were seal hunters take the lives of seal and sell their products that can be sold and consumed. Q: How do they hunt the seals? And what are the seals used for? A: They hunt seals by using a weapon called a hakapik and killing the seal with one (sometimes more) swift hit to the head. The seals are used mostly for their pelts, but are also used for their meat. Q: Describe some of the concerns from activists against the seal hunt. A: Activists will often describe the hunt as inhumane, a massacre, and murder. Q: What are some of the positive economic effects of the seal hunt? A: By killing the seals in the hunt we are helping to protect endangered species of fish. It may seem like the killing of seals is inhumane and primitive though the seals population is actually rising.

Business of Farming Introduction In the history of Canadas agriculture, people used to depend on agriculture for all their food. Though now due to technologic advances the 25% of food we used to get from agriculture has dropped to 11%. Classes of Farmland Class 1: Land has deep soils and is excellent for farming. It has no climatic or land limitations. 0.5% of Canadas land area. Class 2: Land is very good farmland. It has no serious climate or land limitations. 1.8% of Canadas land area. Class 3: Land is good farmland but has some climatic or land limitation that make some farming activities impossible. 2.7% of Canadas land area. Class 4: Land is at the break-even point for commercial agriculture because of a short growing season, poor soil conditions, or other significant limitation. 2.7% of Canadas land area. Class 5: Land has serious limitations for agriculture, such as a very short growing season, hilly landscape, thin soil, or poor drainage. Class 5 lands may be used for grazing or producing hay. 3.7% of Canadas land area. Class 6: Land is similar to Class 5 except that limitations are more severe. These lands can only be used for rough grazing; crops cannot be grown successfully. 1.8% of Canadas land area. Class 7: Land has no capability for farming or was not classified. 86.8% of Canadas land area. Land: The Basic Resource Land is a renewable resource in the sense that if properly used it can support new crops year after year.

Atlantic Canada

Unsuitable (Class 7) Fair/Poor Farmland (Classes 4, 5, & 6) Good Farmland (Classes 2 &3) Excellent Farmland (Class 1)

British Columbia
Unsuitable (Class 7) Fair/Poor Farmland (Classes 4,5, &6) Good farmland (2,3) Excellent farmland (Class 1)

Western Canada
Unsuitable (Class 7) Fair/Poor Farmland (Classes 4,5, & 6) Good farmland (Classes 2 & 3) Excellent Farmland (Class 1)

Central Canada
Unsuitable (Class 7) Fair/Poor Farmland (Classes 4, 5, & 6) Good Farmland (Classes 2 & 3) Excellent Farmland (Class 1)