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AP Biology: Period 2

Zhang, Emily Class #: 35 111021 Homework #8: Chapter 7

1. Explain why phospholipids are amphipathic molecules. Amphipathic: o Polar and Nonpolar Phospholipids: o Head is hydrophilic (polar) o Tail is hydrophobic (nonpolar)

Amphipathic molecules are both polar and nonpolar. Phospholipids have hydrophilic heads which are polar and hydrophobic tails which are nonpolar, so they are classified as amphipathic molecules. 2. Explain what freeze-fracture techniques reveal about the arrangement of proteins in membranes. Freeze fracture: o Heads up o Tails in the middle o Proteins in between the membrane Freeze fracture showed that the heads were facing out and the tails were sandwiched in the middle. There were also large proteins found between the membrane. 3. Describe the fluidity of the components of a cell membrane and explain how membrane fluidity is influenced by temperature and membrane composition. Fluidity: o Membranes which are unsaturated lipids have a lower cooling temperature o Kinks in tails keep them from being packed so closely o The colder it is, the closer they are packed together, the slower they can change sides with its adjacent side.

Fluidity is the ability of the lipid bilayer to be able to switch sides with the part adjacent of it. The kinks in the tails of unsaturated lipids keep them from being packed so closely, so the colder it is, the closer they are packed together, and the less they move around (making it less fluid).

4. Explain how cholesterol resists changes in membrane fluidity with temperature change. Cholesterol: o Restrains movement of phospholipids (keeps them solid) o Solid at room temp. o Lowers temperature needed for the membrane to solidify (keeps them from freezing)

Cholesterol restrains the movement of phospholipids, keeping them solid, but at the same time lowers the temperature needed for the membrane to solidify, which keeps them from freezing. 5. Distinguish between peripheral and integral membrane proteins. Peripheral: o Not embedded in lipid bilayer o Appendages loosely bound to surface of membrane Integral: o Penetrate hydrophobic core of membrane o Completely span membrane

Peripheral proteins are not embedded into the bilayer and have appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane. Integral proteins penetrated the hydrophobic core of the membrane, and completely span the membrane. 6. List six major functions of membrane proteins. Transport Enzymatic activity Signal transduction Cell-cell recognition Intercellular joining Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix

The 6 major functions of membrane proteins are to help with transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to the cytoskeleton and ECM. 7. Explain the role of membrane carbohydrates in cell-cell recognition. Membrane carbohydrates:

o Bind to surface molecules o Immune system o Rejection of foreign objects Membrane carbohydrates bind to the surface of molecules, help with the recognition and rejection of foreign objects, and the immune system. 8. Explain how hydrophobic molecules cross cell membranes. Hydrophobic molecules: o Dissolve in lipid bilayer

Hydrophobic molecules dissolve in the lipid bilayer, which is how they can easily cross the cell membrane. 9. Distinguish between channel proteins and carrier proteins. Channel proteins: o Hydrophilic channel o Certain molecules use as a tunnel through membrane o Aquaporins Carrier proteins: o Hold onto molecules o Change shape to release molecules in/out membrane

Channel proteins are hydrophilic channels which certain molecules use as a tunnel through the membrane. An example would be aquaporins. Carrier proteins hold onto molecules and change shape through phosphorylation and release molecules in/out of the membrane. 10. Define diffusion. Explain why diffusion is a spontaneous process. Diffusion: o Tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out evenly into the available space o Molecules have thermal motion o Each molecule bounces around randomly o The more there are, the more they bounce around o Eventually they get spread out from hitting each other

Diffusion is the tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out evenly into the available space. Molecules bounce around randomly when in liquid form and

the more molecules there are, they more they bounce off of each other. Eventually they will all be equally spread out, so this uses the thermal motion all molecules already possess. 11. Explain why a concentration gradient of a substance across a membrane represents potential energy. Concentration gradient: o Potential energy: Energy due to an objects environment o Molecules move down its concentration gradient by diffusion

Potential energy is the energy an object possesses due to its environment. Molecules move down its concentration gradient by diffusion because they are packed closely together, so concentration gradient can be represented by potential energy. 12. Distinguish among hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. Hypertonic: o More water o Water rushes out Hypotonic: o Less water o Water rushes in Isotonic: o Equal amount of water o No net change in water

When a cell is hypertonic to its environment, it means there is more water inside the cell so the water rushes out. When it is hypotonic, there is less water inside so the water will rush in. When a cell is isotonic to its environment, there is an equal amount of water on each side so there is no net change in water movement. 13. Define osmosis and predict the direction of water movement based on differences in solute concentrations. Osmosis: o Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane o If cell is hypertonic, water will go out of the cell o If cell is hypotonic, water will go into the cell o If cell is isotonic to environment, no net change

Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. If a cell is hypertonic, water will go out. If it is hypotonic, water will go in, and if it is isotonic, there will be no net change. 14. Describe how living cells with and without cell walls regulate water balance. Osmoregulation: o Control of water balance o Contractile vacuole: forces water out as fast as it enters o Wall helps maintain water balance

Cells without walls have contractile vacuoles which foce water out as fast as it enters through osmosis. Cells with cell walls use their walls to help maintain water balance inside. 15. Explain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion. Transport proteins: o Na+ binds to transport protein o ATP phosphorylized o Inorganic phosphate group changes shape of protein, forcing Na+ out o K+ binds to protein o Phosphorylized o Changes protein shape back o Molecules moved against concentration gradient

Na+ binds to the transport protein and the phosphorylation of ATP occurs, changing the shape of the protein so the Na+ is released against its concentration gradient. The K+ then binds to a protein and ATP is phosphorylized again, changing the protein back to its original shape, releasing the K+ against its concentration gradient. 16. Distinguish among osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport. Osmosis: o Diffusion of water against a semi permeable membrane o Passive Facilitated diffusion: o Use of transport proteins o Active

Active transport: o Cells energy used

Osmosis is the diffusion of water against a semi permeable membrane. None of the cells energy is used here. Facilitated diffusion utilizes transport proteins and is a type of active transport. Active transport uses the cells energy. 17. Describe the two forces that combine to produce an electrochemical gradient. Electrochemical gradient: o Chemical force: Effect of membrane potential on ions movement o Electrical force: Effect of membrane potential on ions movement 18. Explain how an electrogenic pump creates voltage across a membrane. Electrogenic pump: o Every 3 sodium pumped out, 2 potassium pumped in o Results in net charge of 1+ 19. Describe the process of cotransport. Cotransport: o Two molecules bind at the same time o Gradient of one solute's concentration forces molecule to go the other way The process of cotransport starts with two molecules binding at the same time. The gradient of one solutes concentration forces the molecules to go in a different direction. 20. Explain how large molecules are transported across a cell membrane. Exocytosis: o Transport vesicle buds from the Golgi apparatus o Moves along microtubules of cytoskeleton to plasma membrane o Membranes fuse o Contents of vesicle then spill on the outside of the cell o Repeat going back in

Exocytosis is when the transport vesicle buds from the golgi apparatus and moves along microtubules to the plasma membrane. From there, the membranes fuse together and the contents of the vesicle spill onto the the outside of the cell. This process is repeated going back into the cell. 21. Distinguish between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Pinocytosis: o Cell drinking Receptor-mediated endocytosis: o Ligands bind to receptor site bind with cholesterol o LDL particles enter when combined

Pinocytosis is cell drinking. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is when ligands bind to receptor sites which bind with cholesterol.