This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Michell W.R. Bresljn
Published by: Volunteers in Technical Assistance 1815 North Lynn St. Suite 200 P.O. Box 12438 VA 22209 USA Arlington, Paper copies are $ 4.75.
Available from: Volunteers in Technical Assistance 1815 North Lynn St. Suite 2CO P.O. Box 12436 VA 22209 USA Arlington, Reproduced by permission Technical Assistance. of Volunteers in
Reproduction of this microfiche document fcrm is subject to the same restrictions of the original document.
in any as those
TURBNE I !
TA I /HATER
IWELL WiNKI) TURBINECONSIDERATIONS
APPLICATIONS: AC OR DC ELECTRIC GENERATION--AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS, S:jCH AS, THRESHERS, WINNOWER, PUMPING, ETC. MACHINERY WATER
SKILLS/LABOR/TIME: Construction time and labor resources required to complete this The most important project will vary depending on several f;ictors. consideration ir, availability of people interested in doing this The project may in many circumstances be a secondary or project. will of course increase the time necessary This after work project. The construction times given here are at to complete the project. best an estimation based on limited field experience. 5k.1111 divisions are given because some aspects of the someone with experience in rnctalworking and/or welding. adequate facilities are available before construction SKILLED LABOR -- 40 hours UN:;KILLED LABOR -- 40 hours WELDING -- 8 hours SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: @Very efficient and simple @Virtually no maintenance scan operate over a range conditions Disadvantages: *Requires certain construction @Special governing generation @Welding equipment @Electric grinding @Wood bearing will COST ESTIMATE:* *Cost estimates country. s15c serve - $6OO(US) only as amount device of skill in for turbine AC electric needed to of build wJ.ter and flow operate and head (depending project Make begins.' require sure
on site conditions)
with cutting attachments needed machine needed have to be replaced periodically including and will materials vary and frrJm labor. to
The M!chel efficient to generate
or Banki Lcirbfne means of harnessing electricity as
a small stream as a number
easily constracted, highly to proviae enough power of mechanical devices.
The turbine consists of two main parts --the runner or wheel and the Curved horizontal blades are fixed between the cii-cular end nomzle. plates of the runner. Water passes from the nozzle through the runner twfce ir, a narrow jet before it is discharged into the tail race. Once the flow and head of the water site have been calculated, the wheel presented here can be lengthened blades oc the 30cm diameter as necessary to obtain optimum power output from the available water source. The efficiency of the i\""chell turbine is 80 percent or greater. coupled with its adaptability to a variety of water sites and its simplicity and low cost, needs, make it the most suitable water turbines for small power development. The turbine itself vides power for direct current; a governing device is necessary Provide alternatfng current. This, power of ~11 proto
ARRANGEME;4T ,A ?'ICHEL, "3ANKI) TlJRBINE r3F F:R SW-HEAZ USE WITHOUTMTROL (31 1
TIMBER SATE of this drive type for low-head an AC or DC genera- YER C1ENEF. Figure 15 shows an arrangement of a turbine use without control. This installation will tor with a belt drive. are made of plate steel nipe is cut to form the welding equipment and a repair farm machinery and and wellflow. be lubri- The nature of the turbine avoids the need for a complicated sealed housing. The bearings have no contact with the water as they are located outside of the housing.AToFi 9 . Ordinary steel blades or buckets of the runner.Both of the main parts of the Michell turbine and require some machining. they can simply cated and don't need to be sealed. / T'JRBINE TAILWATER . Accn-Las to small machfne shop like those often used to automotive parts is necessary.
The . through the soil of the the use several of a times. in or on which another . of proceeding deviation cl. Direct Current another in Head . or p'pe for soil through . Weir its .A dam in flow. to pressure. as ot energy causing 2 stream. average water source engine actuated by the reaction or impulse or cf fluid (such as water) subject to pressure with a series of curved vanes on a central or river to raise the water level or divert a stream 3 . energ:/ t!-~at reversal: known as cycles.nsidered or from one point interruption.Electrical t'ime or space of average a body current without of water.Any etc. losses height . at . Current recurring part of Electrical intervals a machine TUREINE 'ts part direction revolves.A conduit conducting achieved rolled over height water.IYKHELL (SANKI) Alternating at regularly bearing slides.The Headwater Net Head frfction Penstock Rolled steel - height a water minus source the Height of of a pipe a body of water or water channel.A rotary both of a current and usually made rotating spindle.Compaction of Earth or heavy wood cylinder .The utilize& Tailrace (Tailwater) the point it is Turbine .
The first consideration in terms of site is ownership. if an electrical generator is needed. it may be easier example. Installation of an electricity generating unit. or not a oroblem. the property questions must be investigated. for example ore that needs a dam in addition to the site for the hovsing. for example. However.available high head - water supply is (50-1OC meters) constant relatively and re?idble. despite relatively high initial costs. large lots of land are few and it is likeiy tha t more than one owner will have to be consulted.access fuel sources is limited cost lines or to reliable or non-existent fuel? is high fossil of Coal. good idea fin81 decision However. expense. by the applications extension. Other . If ownership is not alreadv clearly held. fh. PRE-CONSTRUCTION CONSI!lEUiT!GMS water power sj t es currently comprises one of Development of small the most feasible areas for applica:i on of alternative energy techIf water power is needed to produce only mechanical nologies.! Micheli turbine.rrther into the potential cf a Michell turbine. fcr which the power can be used may be determined by the quality of tie site. access to a lot of land.rine lj the feasibility site for use of any kind and 2) the Sower obtainable from of the of the tire site. tilz is going to require consideration of a combination of factors. energy s for and less expensive to construct a waterwheel or a windmiil. Oil. can require and reservoir. and purpose. the expense of installation. may be feasible and indeed economical under one or more of the following conditions: to transmission . with easy to achieve need exists for only a small dam built into a river or stream and for a relativeY.II. a careful analysis site is necessary-in order to deterl. and even. for powering a grain thresher. can change the entire water table and/or water usage patterns in the area and is a step to be taken only after careful consideration. 5 .q short (less than 35m) penrtock conducting water to the turbine (channel) for a Ii one or more of the above seems to be the case. If ownership is clear. Damming. including any rights which may belong to those rfhose property borders on the wate?. For the amount of power which can be obtained. including site potential. In many developing countries. SITE SELECTION This is perhaps the most critical factor. it is probably to look fl.
horsepower) 1. Gross mined Power. the amount of power available can be determined. is going to be lost when it is transmitted from the generator to the pJace of and because of turbine and generator inefficiencies. therefore. Measuring head. is deter- formuJa: GROSS POWER Gross Power (English Mlnitnum Water Gross Power (metric units: Flor horsepower) (cubic = meters/second) 75 X Head (meters1 = X Gross Head (feet) feet/second) 8. Power. These directions have been geared so that they can be carried out in field conditions without a great deal of complex equipment. of sandy.7455 kilowatts). lignting. etc. of penstock or required to give desired site Site sketch sketched in) Water condition topographical acid. by the or power following available directly from the water.Site analysis Minimum Maximum consists flow flow head length (with of coJlecting the fol!owinq basic data: Avai Jable @Pipe head) line (length eli:vations. the the turbine setting condition the water amount of and of (determines (minimum and type) temperature maximum) Appendix I contains more detailed information and the instructions <the site analysis including directions for: needed to complete flow.) map with muddy. (clear. application For a small water power installation of the type considered here% it is usually safe to assume that the net or useful power (power actually delivered for heating. etc. and head Josses. Once such information is collected.000 Flow (cubic . condition (the size the soil combine to affect moves through the channel power available) @Minimum Air tailwater Soil the ditch and the the speed at which and. expressed in terms of horsepower or kilowatts (one horsepower equals 0.) will be only half of the available gross power.8 .
there if work is done built to direct than the stream there is sufficient intake of a pipe Dams may be of earth. for example. Remember that while some sites appear to to being harnessed for producing electrical greater number of sites which can be used For example. transmission lines--and related costs for operation and maintenance and the cost. and upon the length of the channel required. or ff there seems to be some questton concerning need for a dam. EXPENSE related to site considerations is cost. wooc!.et a higher head (A dam may not be required if naturally.000 *kFT HEAD is obtained by deducting energy losses A good assumption are dfscussed in Appendix I. Any discussion of site or cost. but both types of current cannot always be used for the same purposes and one requires installation of more expensive equipment than the other. It may be more possible to justify the expense for one purpose but not for another. or stone. the size and type of dam. a d'scussion of altercating (AC) and direct current (DC) is necessary. however. calculating losses is 805.NET POWER(available Net Power (Englfsh at the turbine units) = shaft) Minimum Water Net Power (Metric units) Flow X Net Head* X Turbine Efficiency 8. A turbine can produce both.) from the gross head. without financial support. must be done in light of the purpose for which the power is desired. or if there is enough water to cover the leading to the penstock. for turbine efficiency lend themselves power. depending. it fs always wise to consult an expert. It should be clear from the previous discussion that some sites are going to require investing a great deal more money than others. transformers. If a dam is needed. Construction of dams and penstocks can be very expensive.upon. a dam can be them suItable. CloseJy . &PLICATION Before going into a longer discussion of po:ent'aJ for application of turbine-produced power. concrete. Appendix II provides informatlon on construction of small dams. Add to these construction expenses. can be prohibitive.8 = Effici'ency These losses when natura?ly are a far to make water into provides head or channel Minimum Water Flow X Net Head* X 'turbine 75/1. the cost of the electrical equipment--generators. a channel intake or to g.
such as farm machinery and household appliances having AC motors. hydro-electric power is becoming more cost-effective. however. are low in cost DC power is jest as Good as AC for prf)duci?g electric light and heat. the cost of developing low-output water power sf tes should be checked against the costs of other possible alternatives. With a constant flow of water intc the turbine. wfll sometimes be greater than tne demand for power. Before proceeding. to be regulated. engines variety general. whether the to regulzticg cozt of converting install an AC or DC flow of water into the motors to use DC elec- The demand for yower will vary from . is costs. and .Zi. the power output Therefore. In the capital expenditure for this type OF bower plant low compared to a hvdro-electr+i plant. However.t of flow regulation needed for producing AC. in view of the increasing cost of utility supplied electricity. Operating on the other hand. does not have in a storage battery. This equipment is expensive: in a small water type shut-off devices. the flow Flow regulation requires governors and complex valvenot be stored. ?re v?ry Tow fcr hydrn-electric high for generated power.ALTERNATING OR I~IRECT CURRENT in cost the deciding of Two factors to consider power unit are (1) the turbine for AC and (2) tricfty. and qdnerator combined. it is often uneconomical to develop small and medium-sized sites. the regulating equipment would cost more thaiI a turbine power site. *Generators =J Diesel engines and internal-combustion are avallable in i3 wide variety of si?es and use a of fuels. oil. But for electrical appliances. gasoline. flow of water in'to the either excess power must be stored or the turbine must be regulated according to the demand for power. of tiater must be regulated because AC canIn producing AC. such as: *Electric Utility . or wood. water tends to generate au:omatically a picture of "free" Flowing power in the eyes of the observer.In areas where transmission lines can furnish unlimited amounts df reasonably priced electric current. Excess power can be stP"red Direct-current generators and storage batteries because they are mass-produced. The cost of converting appliances must be weighed against the ccr. The flow of water to a DC prodticlng turbine. But there is always a cost to producing power from water sources. for example. DC motors must be installed.r:e to time during the day.
J. Ohio lcw James Leffel Springfield. wide range of application for all water power sites providing head to be run through the and flow are suitable. No other turbfne to as large a range of water flow. The amount of water turbine determines the width of the nozzle and the width of the These widths wheel. L'SA 45501 Drees & Co..i medium head Available for any desired condition I i I I low 1 to 1000 low low & Co. power will While a 30cm diameter wheel has been chosen for this manual because the Michell turbine has a this size is easy to fabricate and weld. Any reputable dealer Jr manufacturer Eubler Switzerland . Werl.work has been done . Application Power (horsepower) Cost per Kilowatt Manufacttirers high head 1 to 500 j .Extensive Eguipof solar energy for such things as water pumping. is adaptable TABLE III SMALL HYDRAULIC TURBINES TYPES Michell Biiki i- Impulse j I I t ! Centrifugal Pump Used JS T:rrhine' Qt@. ment now available may be less costly than water power development in regions with long hours of intense sunshine. If it site. indeed seems it is yield feasible necessary enough to pursue de*Jelopment to calculate in aetail power for the specific of the small water whether the site purooses planned.‘~. Ossberger-'urbinenfabrik 8832 Weissenburg Bayern. may vary from 5cm to 36cm.“:c . Germany Can be do-it-yourself project is small weld and machine shops are availsble. Germany 9fficine Taverne.?n the : tilization Solar .
JIL.iAGE FEANUT . It 'seems useful to which must be gone provide through Front an to Viec . up and the twice the the losses water channeled ..Turbine of and Nozzle example determine the decision-making process the size of the turbine needed.) Village a ditch stream-can lC0 feet be dammed long. HtibLER Power tions enough to per minute replace (r?m) the motor =or peanut thresher a 2-l/2 'rtP 1800 revoluhorsepower are about through Gross poker needed is about 5 HP (Roughly of the motor to be repiaced assunling that l/2 of the total power available.- - -e-I- -0 B2 FIGURE 14. APPLICATION: .! .
8 inches .5 rpm (ft.3i fall The X 1. Zi2. (a = 2.2 radius results of 1.4 = 1. 365 or approximately 6:l.8 = = l/2 = 2i0 X 2.l feet = G. + . a pui'ey arrangement will be needed for stepping up speed.80 = 6.(El) = 10.25 (Bz = width of rcnner between lists to 1 inch = 9.Total @Available difference minimum in elevation rate: is 2. driving a 3 inch pulley 011 a generator shaft llrlill give :~s lG30 . ana head loss. total for 100 Shown on nomograph ditch is: negligible loss) as 1.: Lhan enough for the peanut huller at var:i'ng speeds giving different Many peanut threshers wi: 1 operate kg output of hulled pean::ts.36 -r Formulas for principal width of nozzle Niche11 = horsepower dimensions: X /head turbine (El 1 = 210 x flow Runner outside diameter = 9.2 = .1 X CE 1 The but horsepower the rpm is generated not high is more enough.S 25 feet cubic feet/second of 2. Therefore an 18" diameter pulley attached to the turbine shaft. So fcr a hulier whit? gives maximum output at 2-l/2 HP and 1300 rpm.8 efficiency 2. = 365. In this example. the pulley ratio needed to step up speed is ll300 $ .er outside diameter 73.1 water Net power = -. SO% efficiency X net = 6.8 + 1 incn Rotational speed (revolutions inches per minute) 73.000 fzet.4 feet/second feet flow Soil of (Appendix eArea Bottom aliydraullc Calculate feet for of vel(3city ditch permits a water Table II gives n = G.8 13 xb.-- flow head X turbine 8.36 horsepower Minir"llr.7 +&.37 feet ft.8 X 25 X .2 square = 1.rpm. Fall Power remaining produced is by approximately turbine at 17 feet 25 feet.G3Gj flow width in ditc.1 Xihead Runr.
g.5cm X 1.5cm . 4 Hub 4.4. for oak. of turbine llgnum weave) l6cm end SHAFT or bush size pipe depdns bearings for hub for high speed'use or long pieces material buckets* vitae or substitute) steel to shaft enclose for rods depends on can form be purchased of scrap at new.TOOLS AND Although of these Materials -Steei MATERIALS materials materials for plate plate width) used in construction can be found in the a 30cm diameter Michell X 6Smm thick (quantity pipe (e.5cm Flanges diameter for solid attaching steel pillow appropriate of the 2 8 . many junir yards. 2 blocks bearings -Chicken hardwood w!re (1.nuts diameter and for bolts length flanges site conditions. *Measurements Tools: ------'-----Welding Metal Electric Drill Compass Pencil T-sqirare Hammer C-clamps Work file on water equipment with cutting attachments or manual bits grinder Gnd metal (template included in this handbook bench Protractor ... turbine: 4Gcm X 10cm Q5mm thick water mm Steel nozzle -- 1Ocm diameter ..5cm pipe 25mm diameter (to to be used steel SW 6cm diameter or larger the wood bear‘ings).. ---a.
5mm thick plate stee?.5cm turbine is prov-ided at the end of this slots are shaded to show how Two of the bucket book. -- PREPARE --- Cut out the on cardboard Trace around haif or the circle heavy half from paper. cjrcle :he template the steel and plate. COMSTRUCTIO~~ THE END ?:ECES An actual size template Use 6. msunt it on '- S-EEL PLATE COca x iCCcm 13 . for a 30.II I. the buckets are installed.
-- Repeat the‘shaft./ I / i ----- Turn the circle. a full Cut out the 10 spaces.+ *Al 1 buckets be oriented counterclockwise. Make two template circles bucket over on the slots and steel trace plate again in to this complete way. the tracing process as before to fiii in the area for . Place template should on the steel plate template and so that trace in the there are on the bucket's.
. using the the Zmm hole attachment makes -- shown Steel Plate CUTTING TI'E c.is of the wheel 15. equal to and a Zmm diameter hole at the radi.5cm diameter circle This prepares for the axle. the . that from or 'tray.25~~.f yoti prefer. Cut out a 4. other end at a point Measure carefully. circle. of the use wheel. illustration). up with This torch. the metal plate. center .cTES --- Cut the a metal bucket slots saw and file with them the out iorci.-- Drill wheei guide 3 Zmm ?ole where the for cutting !n the steel plate in The hcle X is formed. the b/-ill center serve of as the a ---- Take a piece a hole near Driil the of one scrap metal 20cm end the width of long by 5cm uide and dri?l the opening in the torch."!C !'L. Line the 2mm hole in the (see attach with a nail it easy to cut a perfect Cut the end plates as scrap meta.
Take a iOcm diametcidetermined and cut Cut pipe length-wise as a guide as shown given in the template as a guide.l the back CI~ angle iron to serve (Bucket measurements of this manual will serve Guide for torch END VIEW -- Cut .~ONSTRZC? Calculate ThiF: EUCYETS the length of = buckets using the following formula: X r/Aear(ft. i.four buckets from each section of pipe will be lpft over but it width or ang e for use as 2 bucket. of will pipe.) h. P fifth piece not be the correct _ WIDTH 3F EACH PIPE SECTION IS 63mn (See bmplate) .) using a piece in i?lurtr2t40n.\s been + (3.ates 210 X Flow (Cubic 'eet/second) m!e??%ameter ofxrbine (inchesj to pipe tne once ?fie bucket length :enaths you require.0cm) Width of Buckets Uexween End ?l.
se 20mm holes hubs to each through end hub using -- Attach the long bolts 20mm diameter X 3cm and nuts. ting with a torch may warp the buckets. so that shaft. end piece.5cm matching wheel. The distance from each end piece the shaft should be 30cm. a few a hammer will straighten out warp. HUB ATTACHMENT EDGE VIEW -- Slide shaft through the hubs and space the end the buckets. of of each the of -em Gut the Place the 4. Insert runs Spot a bucket perfectly weld the and align the end pieces parallel with the center bucket to the end pieces.) (NOTE: sharp raps cut- with ASSEMBLE THE WHEEL a shaft from shaft should 4. width The total length of the wheel.5ct-v didmeter be 6Ocm plus diameter the hole the steel. Drill four metal hubs of the hub the piece on the center with the hole and end piece. pieces to the the to fit end of blade --- 17 .Mm File each of the buckets to medsUre 63mm wide.
It is possible to fabricate wood bearings. - Turn the turbine another bucket shaft. The slide rail should be carefully clamped SC that it is exactly parallel to the turbine shaft. The bearings should be either pillow or bush bearings for high-speed applications. or guide. Each bearing should be clamped to the workbench so that the whole thing can be slowly rotated as in a lathe. on the shaft making sure it ha If a revolution with is aligned the and insert center -- Spot weld the second bucket to the end pieces.w. buckets will be aligned parallel to the center Weld the hubs to the shaft (check measurements). but because of the high speed such bearings would not last. Once these that all the shaft.) pieces (it is of the wheel much easier than from -- Mount the turbine on its bearings. it is easier to make sure buckets are placed. The cutting tool is an electric or small portable hand grinder mounted on a rail and allowed to slide along a second rail. TOP VIEW 18 . me mm Weld remaining buckets to the end to weld the bucket from the outside the inside.
me Rotate the turbine sic . it Balance the turbine so it will may be necessary to weld a couple of small metal washers The turbine is on the top of either end of the turbine. balanced when it can be rotated in any position without rolling. view of a proper ly positioned .5cm buckets between the discs. The following illustration nozzle in relationshio to shows a front the tdrbine. This process takes several hours will not quite touch.iy so that the high part of each Low parts blade comes into contact with the gr.) than the lenqth of the The nozzle should be 7.Determine formula: runner nozzle sire by using the following 210 X Flow (cubic feet/second! outs'de diameter (inches] Xi/head to 3c!-r less (ft. TURBINE i'kZZiE -.inder. Make sure are flush the with bucket blades the outside are ground of the end so that pieces. and must be done carefully. the edges --- not roll on its edges.
way to construct the nozzle if 15cm steel pipe is unavailable. .- Cut curved steel pipe sections of if available. 15cm -m Wake sure that the pipe mensions of the nozzle -- is first cut as calculatea to the correct previously. Bend steel plate to the necessary curvature if 15cm pipe is unavailable.5mm plate around a steel cylinder This may be the only (or hardwood log) 15cm in diameter. diagram provides minimum dimensions fcr proper turbine The following installation. (outside diameter) width/di- em construction nozzle -.TURBINE for the AND NOZZLE of from the nozzle.5mm steel plate . This process will take some time and ingenuity One way of bending steel plate on the part of the builder.FRONT VIEW Use 6. is to sledge hammer the 6.
ALTERNATE 21 .2601 f”hN -- DETAILS OF MICHELLNOZZLE TOP PORTION SHOWS ON DOTTED CONSTRUCTION FOR LINE PENSTOCK.
Fashion water seal. dsin~ 6. Locdte the bearings and attached. tne proper nozzit.53~~) (one for each side) and weld to the inside of the turbine housing between the b~using and shaft. (4. wood. foundation oilings to This the housing should insure to whic5 concrete. turbine measurements with bolts.‘ steel plate. bine ions tion arJ here fcp nozzle of coficrete. in stalia and front view of a t:Joical meters). -- Attach to the Fake the hardwood the nozzle nozzle.a . tC tn: 3eari?g:. will be attached turbine of -- bearings or with -- Move the turbine. snow a side view 13~ "!ead use (l-3 L Iii B Timber I F Headwater j--l---==---------. to the foundaticn --- on the ou '-side of the turbine housing. 22 -- . . Some water will still come through the housing but not enough to interfere with efficiency.5mm steel elate trilled -3mm longer than turbine :haft... bearings attach the f.I I gate I h !.-- Build the structure to hcuse 'f he tur The ill lustrat 0.p st and correc: th?n orient ths turbine olacement._ .
.. 'IIEW SEAL ANDRE?PING.I t .I L I I ! TURBINE INNER SIDE OF HOUSING/ . LOCATION OF DR I “E PULLEY ’ f / I .! I _. -. U_. (DRIVE PULLEYr)P'?iTEP FORCLARITY) 23 . ‘L. / ti /:M.-r / P'JCHELL TURBINE UNOBSTRUCTEZ OF TURBINE.
. GATE there is easy access to the TIMBER GENERATOR %A% LbiATER /-.-- Construct turhlne for turbine repair housing and so that maintenance. I 24 PWHELL TUiWNE CNERALL VIEW .: -./.
100 mete:.j. If mainto oc. aeta! showing unobs:ruited view of trashrack at penstock intake.h? ?rnstockis>rtain tenance on the turbine is ne:esqary.lnsttill6t.s). suddenly as a rupture ill r. 6. gradgaliy cut the water flow.: 25 .:ur. I? made fron." the turb'ne hcusing is applications (4-. YICHELL '!!RE!.* shut-off valve allows control off the water flow Never shut of water flow to these turbines.on for high head The illustrations belox sho:~ .5mm steel plate. 1 :gate.1 turbine rhis I=?'.
which are not the bearings for as long as possible. very wire screen (1. that is not mounted exactly will wear the bearings or a turbine quickly. It may be necessary to clean the screen from time turb line Another alternative to chicken wire is the use of thin tii t ime. . case of non oil-impregnated bearings is a must in order to preserve Bearings.IV. MAINTENANCE maintenance-free.which may have to be replaced only wearable parts are the Lubrication in the from time to time depending on the wood used.5cm X 1. time once or twice a week.5cm weave) located behind the conA ch icken gate will help to keep branches and rocks from entering the trol housing. spaced so that a rake can be used to clean the leaves stee 11 rods or sticks. should be lubricated If oil-impregnated bearings are used. oil-impregnated and depending on wood chosen. The Michell (Banki) turbine is relatively The bearings . An unbalanced turbine between lubrication will be much langer.
tion (include voltage energy devices). The cost to controi the flow of water. Co. Wince of Dyna Tech. Intended watts if per which generator arid. Be prepared to supply-the following information: -------AC or DC oper.. at water rates. contact manuA list of companies is provided here. 989 S. site calculated to figure generator in watts or horsepower woul d be half of power at water site (rpm) of turbine without pulleys 1. since it cannot be stored. For information on the type of generator to purchase. manufacturer often will be able to recommend an appropriate generator. Wisconsin Port Wellsville. Menkato. Yinneapoiis. desired). tropical. Chapman Road. Kohler. McCulloch. if supplied with enouqh information upon which to make a recommendation. etc.).. ( Power available and maximum flow Power available (conservative Revolutions and belt. Kohlen. Kato. (future will at consumption be used lowest flow Long range and addition use of electrical of electric under temperate.e.ELECTRI CAL GENERATION It is beyond the scope of this manual to go into electrical generation Depending on the generator and using the Michell (Banki) Turbine. 421 High Rendale 2201 E. accessories you choose the turbine can provide enough rpm for Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC). 200 E.. New New York 70573 USA York and Nelson Streets. Street. Gnan. the Climatic condition i. minute or present possibie consumption of (include frequency electrical energy in of electrical use). 14895 USA 28 . Minnesota Ohio 45802 USA 56001 USA 55432 USA Iowa 3 1102 USA 3201 3rd Avenue N. 53044 USA Chester. GENERATORS/ALTERNATORS Lima Electric. 1400 73rd Avenue NE. The facturers directly. Minnesota Sioux City. Howelite. Lima. Brooklyn Avenue. 7th S feet. Direct Current will be the less expensive of the two as the energy AC requires accessories can be stored in batteries and then used.. of producing AC can be prohibitively expensive.
270 Park Avenue. Joplin. of Clevite Corp. Paul. Box 3140. Chio 44101 USA Pennsylvania 19103 USA New York 10017 USA 5 Penn Center. Philadelphia. Exide. Box 47... Division Industries.~ Iowa 50208 USA Ohio 44903 USA Brooklyn. Plaza. Firs.Sears and Roebuck 1225 1st Avenue East. P. 5200-02 Newton. Company. Gould New Jersey 07015 USA St. Indiana 46011 USA Missouri 64801 USA Box 6949. New York 11232 USA Winpower. Cleveland. New York. Mansfie?d. 0. . Anderson. BATTERIES Bright Star. P. Electric Avenue. Ideal Empire Electric. Clifton. 615 1st Street. Box 2439. Minnesota 55101 USA 13urgess Division Delco-Remy. Willard of GM. Ever Ready Union Carbide Corp. 6C2 Getty Avenue. Eggle-Pichen ESB Inc.. 0.
90” FILE OR GRIND BLADES TO DIAMETER OF WHEEL __-I_----- -- -- -- -- ---- -- _- --- - .
-.SITE ANALYSIS DATA SHEET MEASURING MEASURING MEASURING USING GROSS HEAD FLOW HEAD LOSSES A NOMOGRAPH CHANNEL WIDTH AND DEPTH DETERMINING DETERMINING PENSTOCK LENGTH THIS APPENDIX IS MEANT TO PROVIDE. FOR A DETAILED A GUIDE SITE TO MAKING THE NECESSARY ANALYSIS.APPENilIX 1. . CALCULATIONS IN ONE PLACE.
11. water available in. (or meters). see II). 7.DATA SHEET 1. to plant to meters). and speed of direct. OR TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP WITH SITE SKETCHED IN. meters) muddy. belt the machinery or gear drive to is be driven desired . Describe Minimum or fall of of pipe required water soil tailwater feet condition condition elevation (clear. to feet feet per per of Maximum. dam to power be used. 4. Table in above pond feet dam in in where feet needed sandy. 6. acres (or (or meters). power and Indicate whether or acceptable. Give the type. cubic meters per second). 1. - ATTACH SITE SKETCH WITH ELEVATIONS. Minimum second flow of (or cubic water available in cubic meters per second 1. 12. 15. 10. 5. 9. temperature. will Approximate area square kilometers). 14. questions cover information which. will usually be needed later. If it can possibly be given early in the project. in feet (or (or meters). water line in head. 13. Approximate Distance be used Approximate Minimum Maximum Estimate air air depth of of pond the from power in feet (or distance temperature. although not necessary The following in starting to plan a water power site.flow second (or cubic Head Lenqth get-the Describe acid). from electricfty power plant. 8. 2. 3. this will save time later.
desired voltage. indicate whether direct For electric current. acceptable or alternating current is required. can manual flow r enulation _ AC plants) or if regulation be used (with by an automatic DC and governor . Say whether very small is needed. number of phases and frequency.2. current Give is the 3.
consists level fastened parallel to a telescopic Scale .F~EASL'RING GROSS HEAD METHOD ?NO. SURVEYOR'S LEVEL 2. b. 12 feet a spirit in length. level reservoir SCALE AND DETAIL OF SCALE on a tripod is dam on which placed down stream from the headwater level is b. 1 Eqtiipment a. until the tailwater level is n l- FEADWATEf -j-----r --- ---DI’ I z!!s&- -TAILWAiEil YEASURING HEADWITH SURVEYOR'S LEVEL (TOTAL GRCSS HEAC= A + B + C + II) . Surveyor's the power marked. The horbontal circle. Procedure a. 1. After taking a reading. it at a suitable distance This process is repeated reached. Surveyor's leveling instrument .use wooden board approximately of sight. the level is turned 180" in a rscsle is placed downstream from and a second reading is taken.
C. The process is repeated level is reached. 2 is fully be used reliable. No.’ /” 30AR3 CARPENTER ‘5 b. = H2 + H3 + t!4 + H5 + Hg .HI 35 "E. b.METHOD NO. the distance to a wooden peg set into the ground is measured with a scale. Equipment a. At the downstream end of the horizontal board. Place board horizontally at headwater level and place level on top of it for accurate leveling. 0 .RPEtITED'S HEAT LEVEL . Procedure a.~SURlEIB 'rl!TH 'P. step wise until the tailwater LEVEL iCALE --’ UC/ -OTAL GROSS YEAD ti. 1 This method and need only 1. Scale Board Ordinary and wooden carpenter's plug leve SCALE AND DETAIL OF SCALE LEVELING BOARD AND PLUGS IN STOKES 2. HORIZONTAL . but when a surveyor's is more level tedious is not Method than avai lable.
A small pond is formed upstream from the weir. 1 For smail streams with a capacity of less than one cubic build a temporary dam in the stream.f" 1 to the ffrst. When there is no leakage and all water is flowing through the weir opening.. Saw the edges of the opening on a slant to produce sharp edges on the upstream side.r is made from boards. Flow (cubic 2 feet/second) = Volume oz Bucket (cubic F+!?:ng Time (seconds) feet) For medium streams with a capacity of more than one cubic foot per second. the weir method can be used. it takes to fill the bucket. other METHOD NO. use a "swimming Channel the water into a pipe and catch it in a bucket of known Determine the stream flow by measuring the time capacity. Cut a rectangular opening in the center. if the flow in a stream is reduced below the minimum level required. Investito determine the level of flow at both gate the stream's flow hi story Too often planners have overlooked the fact that maximum and minimum. Stream METHOD NO. The wei.x\ 36 ._ . hole" created by a natural dam.I 'p .MEASUWG FLOW measurements should take place at the season of For power purposes. (1) place a board across the stream and (2) place another narrow board level (use a pi carpenter's level) and perpendicular . Seal the seams of the boards and the sides built into the banks with clay or sod to prevent leakage. lowest flow in order to gnarantee full power at all times. I '. or foot per second. m or scrap lumber. streams or sources of power may offer a better solution.
Measure the depth of the water above the bottom edge of weir with the help of a stick on which a scale has been Determine the flow from the table below.5 1o:o :*z 4 feet . the cross-sectional area of the stream is determined.6 the 9 feet . 3 Although it The float method is used for larger streams.5 8.24 .0 5.0 inch 2 inches inches 4 inches z inches 10 inches Inches 12 METHOD NO. Connect the 2 upstream posts by a level wire rope points.89 2. water velocity by throwing pieces of wood into the water and measuring the time of travel between two fixed points.40 1. Use the following formula to calculate the flow: 37 .48 1.72 2. along the wires and measure the water depth for each section. it is Choose a point in the adequate for practical purposes.06 3.0 1.2 5.8 5.0 1X 20:o 26. FLOW VALUE (Cubic Feet/Second) Weir Width Overflow Height 3 feet .56 4. Erect posts on each bank at these 30 feet or more apart.32 .67 1. is not as accurate as the previous two methods.56 1. In this way. Divide the stream into equal sections the downstream posts.5 16.7 16.34 3.0 12.7 1i. stream where the bed is smooth and the cross section is Measure fairly uniform for a length of at least 30 feet. marked.9 9.2 22.9 3.i 13:3 5 feet .2 K 23:3 8 feet .8 30.8 1G 15:2 20.7 6 feet .64 1.5 4.7 10. Follow the same procedure with (use a carpenter's level).0 7 feet .
Stream Flow (cubic feet/second ) = Average Cross-Sectional X Velocity (feet/second) Flow Area (square feet \I THE FLOAT METHOD OF MEASIJRING FLOW 38 .
Head. Overflow of Headrace Penstock Turbine Inlet Valve Water Turbine Electric Generator Tailrace For Eartn Hydraulic .T f Zhanneis Tad-us = 0.T water Leve: TL-'Vi '. Radius Masonry c?rRot:: .MEASURINGHEAD LOSSES is a function of the "Net "Net Power" "Gross Head" less the "Head Losses. i: 4. 12.I I WI2 > i--w---+ W = Bottom Width \ / 39 / wXATER C. 5. River Dalm with Spillway Intake to Headrace Headrace Intake to Turbine Penstock Trashrack 7." The The illustration The her(a loss fromflow Head" shows losses are through "Net is the a the the A TYPICAL INSTALLATION FOR A LOW-OUTPUTWATERPOWERPLANT 1.. open-channel losses plus the friction pensto ck. Hydraulic Concrete.iANNELS 1 3ti:LZ:NG . 10. 6.25 W -.'.. 11. 9.- = 3. 8.31 W Water Level * For Timber." typical small water power installation.
dhich also determines the required slope of the channel.r.030 0. of channels made of timber.0 4. The hydraulic radius is equal to a quarter of the channel width. The head loss in open channe'ls is given in the nomograph.030 0.030 0. The ooint on 'he reference line is connected to the hydraulic radius and this line is extended to the head-loss scale .015 0. TABLE II Material of Channel Wall Maximum Allowab?e Water Velocity (feet/second) 0. At the height is one half of the channel width at the bottom.030 0.033 except Fine grained sand Course sand Small stones Coarse stones Rock Concrete with sandy water Concrete with clean water Sandy loam. a straight line . for To use the nomograph. The friction effect of the material of construction is called velocity.016 0.8 3. below which the walls of a channel will not erode are given.2 7. 65% clay Clay lioam.4 2::: 10. mason!.2 2.3 (Smooth) Value of "n" 0. concrete.033 0. Design them so that the water level built at a 45' angle.is drawn from the value of "n" through the f:ow velocity to the reference line.0 1. 4@ . earth-walird channels where it is 0.04.31 times the width at the bottom. should Design them so that the water be constructed perpendicularly.0 20. 95% clay 100% clay Wood Earth bottom with rubble sides (Jagged) 0. water level the width is twice that of the bottom.030 0. or rock. Various values of "N" and the maximum water " N" .030 0.030 0. Earth walls should be level height is one half of the width.6 1. 40% clay Loamy soil. 85% clay Soil loam.8 5. Open Channel -Head Losses The headrace and the tailrace in the illustration are open The walls channels for transporting water at low velocities.016 0.030 0.A.030 0.
concrete. the total width of the .1 lo. for example.31) the width of the channel that needs to be built. in doing this. masonry. The hydraulic radius is one quarter (.015 2 1. In the case where "N" is .009 . or rock channel.0 Q) nro20 fu z 0.lOO 0. If you are building a timber.150 Fall of Channel (or Slope) in feet per 1000 feet of Channel Length (The total fal: is equal to the Loss of Head in Feet through the Channel) To use the graph.5 0. draw a straight line from the value of "N" through the flow velocity through the reference line tending to the hydraulic radius scale.OlO 5 -0.USING A NOMOGRAPH determining the and head. 10 7 F I .030. the water nomograph the of lost power site is used to capabilities determine: bring the and/or in water terms After carefully of water flow 1) 2) the width/depth of to the spot/location the amount of head channel needed to the water turbine.25) or (.2 /!-O. the hydraulic radius is 5 feet or 6 inches.5 cubic feet/second. and water flow is 1.
d.75 inches and top width of 39 inches. that water flow is 4 cubic feet/second.5 inches.ould be approximately 2 Building a wood feet-or for a wood channel.5 feet through the point on the reference line extending this to the head-loss scale which will determine the slope of the channel. a width 04 8 feet. of at width depth Using Suppose. 25 or 2 feet If the channel is made of earth.5 feet and so forth. be 1. 50 feet long. channel of this dimension would be prohibitively expensive. In this case about 10 feet of head will be lost per thousand feet If the channel is 100 feet long. you could build a channel with a hydraulic head.31. however. radius of . the loss would only of channel. with of at least 9. .cing some water However. the bottom least 1 foot. To determine the amount of head or 6 inches. 5 feet that will be lost. the graph the optimum hydraulic radius . a smaller channel can be built by sacrif. Now draw a straight line from the hydraulic radius scale of . For example. draw a straight ?fne from the value of "N" through the flow velocity of 4 feet 3 /second to the reference line.with a depth channel would be 6 inches times . of the channel would be 6 times .0 feet --if r 42 . or 19.
. =.Headrace __A.'-* I i.: 1.. 1 "orizontal Section Through Intake at centerline of Pipe Slot for Timber Intake equal 5 of Gate Waterlevel -- in. grass and t-ash which Such a trashrack can easSly 3e manufacmight clog up the intake. \ &vj . Concrete SECTIONAL ELEVATION: INTAKE TO 'ENSTOCK ?F SMALL WATER TURBINE 43 . a slot is provided in the concrete into which a timber trashrack.q 4. Downstream from the tured in the field or in a small welding shop. vertical bars must be spaced in such a way that the tee-:h of a rake can penetrate the rack for removing leaves.a'.. gate can be inserted for shutting off the flow of water to the turbine.' ..Pipe Head Loss and Penstock Intake of vertical bars The trashrack is a weldment consisting of a number The held together by an angle at the top and a bar at the bottom.!/ w .
the water velocity and flow rate scales gives the required pipe size Head loss is given for a lCO-foot pipe length. From the nomograph. it is possible to make pipe from native material. the pipe depend on the cost and availability of labor and the availability of material.8 2 1 J NOMOGRAPH FOR HEAD LO S IN STEEL PIPES 44 . for example. A straight line drawn through the required pipe size is determined. and pipe head loss.The pipe must The penstock can be constructed from commercial pipe. SO -1 l?-11 -1 1Oi g2 i B1 20000 10000 c F 501 --I -I I i 7- I. loss from the chart multiplied by the actual length divided by 100. I 1. be large enough to keep the head loss small. If commercial pipe is too exoensive. concrete and ceramic pipe or The choice of pipe material and the method of making hollowed logs. the actual head loss is the head For longer or shorter penstocks.
SMALLDAMCONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTIONTo: EARTH DAMS CRIB DAMS STONE DAMS CONCRETE DAMS THIS APPENDIX IS NOT DESiGNED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE.APPENDIXIL -. FOR THINKING AND PLANNING WHILE DAM CONSTRUCTION TO THE COMPLEX. IT IS MEANT ABOUT PROJECTS TO PROVIDE BACKGROUND AND PERSPECTIVE DAM EFFORTS. IT IS CAN RANGE FROM THE SIMPLE TO CONSULT AN EXPERT. FOR EXAMPLE) SAVVY AND AN ENVIRONMENTALIST FOR A VIEW OF THE IMPACT CERNED AGRICULTURALIST OF DAMMING. FOR THEIR CONSTRUCTION ALWAYS BEST ENGINEERS OR CON- OR EVEN SEVERAL. .
or keys. Each ditch should be filed with three or four inches of wet clay compacted by stamping it. The earth will be worn away by it. size to carry off excess water because water can never be allowed to flow over the crest of an earth dam. in the rock. crete to prevent seepage and erosion. The crest of the dam may be just wide enough for a footpath or may be wide enough for a roadway. with each ditch about a foot deep and two feet wide extending under the length of the dam. from seeping between the dam and the earth and finally undermining the dam. with a bridge placed across the spillway. 46 .q than bedrock. One way of preventina seepage is to blast and clean out a series of ditches. A spillway must be lined with boards or with conand be destroyed. which compacts well and is impervious to water.EARTH DAMS An earth dam may be desirable where concrete is expensive and timber It must be provided with a separate spillway of sufficient scarce. Still water is held satisfactorily by earth bJt moving water is not. The upstream half of the dam should be of clay or heavy clay soil. the dam will erode If it does. The downstream side should consist of lighter and more porous soil which drains quickly and thus makes the dam more stable than if it were made entirely of clay. Concrete Side Walls for Spillway CONCRETESPILLWAY FOR EARTH-FILL DAM construction occurs in places The yreatest difficulty in earth-dam It is hard to keep the water where the dam rests on solid rock. of wet clay can then be More layers added and the compacting process repeated each time until the clay is several inches highe.
Maximum Water Level Original Surface Plowed Dam Earth Compacted in 6" Layers A.‘ .<Trench Concrete Yali Piling for Core Dam Earth Compacted in 6" Lakers Sheet EARTH-FILL DAF" .
is covered with planks.FCu- 30hNS'REAM ?LPNK./' Water Level Planks Heel of !lam z-. 'oe of Dam Priming D!anks CR:B 3k'I h!...\. The and somet'lmes the downstream side. . cut planking... are used as an apron to guide the water which overflows the dam The dam itself serves as a spillway in back into the stream bed.. The apron consists of a series of steps for slowing the water gradually. The water coming over the aoron falls rapidly. to six-inch tree trunks are placed two to three feet apart and Stones fill spiked to others placed across them at right angles. Downstream planks face is sealed with clay to prevent leakage.. Water Lev21 -_-. Planking /' -. Planks . I Toe Priming of Dam Planks N Priming Z’ DOWNST?EPM ?LANKING CR!B ZAM 1iTH 'lanks .NG . the spaces between timbers. The upstream side (face) of the dam.. this case. _-- .Heel of Dam ' i 5-L .CRIB DAMS The crib dam is very ezonomical where lumber is easily available: Fourit requires only rough tree trunks. and stones. and it is necessary to line the bed below with stones in order to prevent erosion.
longileakage. These priming planks rock they make it more stable and watertight. priming planks which prevent water from seeping under the dam. / . Thus each successive plank is forced. but where the dam does not rest on cannot and need not be drivea. The lower ends of the priming planks are pointed and they must be placed one as shown in the illustration below. Chestnut and oak are considered to be the best material. closer against the preceding plank resulting in a solid wall. These are tudinal rows of planks are driven into the stream bed.must be embedded well into the as other types. as well embankments and packed with impervious material such as clay or heavy earth and stones in order to anchor them and to prevent At the heel as well as at the toe of crib dams. The lumber must be free from sap. should be driven as deep as possible and then spiked to the timber' of the crib dam. PRIMING PLANKS 49 . force may be required. after the other as shown. priming planks they also anchor it. considerable A simple pile driver will serve the purpose. In order to drive the priming planks. Any rough lumber may be used. Crib dams. and its size should be approximately two inches by six inches. by the act of driving it. and If the dam rests on rock.
It can be up to ten feet It is made of rough stones. The layers should be bound in height. A stone dam can also serve as a spillway. I Water Level -: Upstream -- STONE DAM Small concrete than to height.-. dams should The apron is the energy of have a base with a thickness 50% greater designed to turn the flow slightly upwards the water and protect the downstream bed from I - SMALL CONCRETE DAM . CONCRETE AND MASONRY DAMS Concrete without special and masonry dams more than 12 feet high should not be built the advice of a competent engineer with experience in this Dams of less height require knowledge of the soil field. The base of the dam should footing to prevent leakage and shifting. dissipate eroding. condition and bearing capacity as well as of the structure itself. The dam must be built down to a solid and permanent by concrete. have the same dimension as its he5ght to give it stability.
CONVERSION TABLES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY .fiPPENDIXIII.
0929 Square Meter = 1328 Cubic Inches = 7.OOO Sq.607 Kilometers = 0.2642 U.0 Short Ton Ton * = 640 Acres = l. Gallons = 0.0 Cubic Foot 1.48 U.3048 Meter = 3.CONVERSIONTABLES Units of Length 1 Mile 1 Kilometer = 1760 Yards = 1000 Meters = 1.764 Square Feet = 0.452 Square Centimeters = 10.S.37 Inches = 5280 Feet = 0. Meters = 43.S.0 Liter Units of Yeight 1.2046 Pounds Pounds .S.0 Metric 1.54 Centimeters = 0.3937 = 39.S.2 U.2808 Feet = 2. Gallons = 35.3861 Square Kilometers Square Mile = 144 Square Inches = 6.5899 = 0.0 British Imperia'! Gal Ion i.6 = 2.314 Cubic Feet = 264. Gallons = 1000 Cubic Centimeters = 1000 Kilograms = 1000 Grams = 2000 Pounds 53 = 2204.560 Square Feet = 2.155 Square Inch = 0. Gallons = 1.OOO.0 Cubic Meter 1.0 Kilogram 1.6214 Mile 1 Mile 1 Foot 1 Meter 1 Inch 1 Centimeter Units of Area 1 Square Mile 1 Square Kilometer 1 Acre 1 Square Foot 1 Square Inch 1 Square Meter 1 Square Centimeter Units of Volume 1.2 U.
0 Pound per square 1.0 Foot of Water square Feet of Water* Inches of Mercury* square Pou!?ds per Feet inch (PSI) of Water* foot inch centimeter .31 = 2.I Pounds per square Pounds per kilogram square 1.000 = 1.0 Horsepower 1.0 Horsepower 1.0 Kilogram 1.0 Metric 1.042 = 14.!46 Kilowatt (KW) per second per minute pounds Horsepower Metric (HP) English Horsepower (cheval-vapeur) (English) Horsepower Horsepower = 75 Meter = 0.0 Horsepower 1. Kilowatt 54 .736 :( Kilogram/Second = 736 !Jatt .0703 degrees Celsius) Inches of Water* foot 1.CONVERSION TABLES Units of Pressure 1.433 PSI = 62.223 = 0.0 Metric (English) (English) (English) (KW) = 1000 Watt = 746 Watt = 550 Fact = 33.95 = 0.355 = 14.7 = 2.0 Horsepower 1.0 Kilowatt 1.34 = 1.0 Pound per square inch inch inch inch = 144 Pound per square = 27.0 Pound per square 1.0 Atmosphere 1.0 Pound per 1.6 1.7 = 33.0 Atmosphere 1.0 Pound per * at 62 degrees Units of Power per square square inch centimeter per square Fahrenheit (16.9139 pounds Foot = 0.
of&nerqy no. together with the results of tests. necessary mathematical tables. efficiencies. Rte #2. Available from VITA.. ASE. mhusetts 02'i-39 USA. 7-11. This article describes a type of water turbine which is being used extensively in small power stations. The Banki Water Turbine. and Merryfield. Haimerl. L. and also of the various A good modifications and innovations he built into the system. Harry F. F.. Oregon: Oregon State College Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin No. of their designs and tables of friction losses. 25. Low Cost Oevelopment of Small Water Power Sites. Sources Langhorne. Cambridge. 1967. Corvallis. MN 59101 USA. Hamm. real-life account of building a low-cost water power system. January 1960. "The Cross Flow Turbine. 1977 pp. $. Probably only useful for university projects and the like.40. Milaca. Describes how one man t a Bank1 turbine from VITA plans to power and heat his Useful in that it gives a good account of the mathematihome. Adaptation Program. Dura!!. in Alt.A LISTING -- OF RECOMMENDED RESOURCE MATERIALS "Hand-Made Hydro Power". MIT. C. A highly technical description of this tur-lne. Bayern. originally fnvented by Michell. Germany. etc. Oregon State University. and several has some information on manufactured turbines available. Also contains technical drawing!. Box 90A. . Written expressly to be used in devel-ng areas. Corvallfs. Also water wheels. -- -- -- ---Mockmore. February 1949." Water Power (London). VITA. Reprints available from Ossbe'rger Turbinenfabrik.. This manual is far too technical to be understood without an engineering background. Tech. Oregon 97331 USA.A. A Translation of a paper by Donat Banki. Design of Small Water Turbines for Farms and Small Communities. 28. A highly technical manual of the designs of a Banki turbine and of axial-flow turbines. A very useful book. Mohammed. 8832 Weissenburg. especially in Germany..A. Oct. cal calculations that were necessary. this manual contains basic information on measuring water power different types of turbines and potential building small dams. Hans W.
Zerban and E.S. Avenue South.S.. New J. field of hydroCivil Engineering Engineering $30. practice in 1961. $8. London: Blackie York: A complete treatise covering the entire 1958.. New and Sons.. 1950. Especially good for reference. London: of hydro-electric Leonard Hill. 1) electric engineering.vdraulic power plants. A most complete handbook covering the entire field.50 U. 1958. $23. Three volumes. HYDRO ELECTRiC HANDBOOK. New York 10016 USA. 1221 Avenue of the Americas. New York 10016 USA. Pennsylvania 18515 USA. v. A.S. 650 Third Avenue. v. Pennsylvania: International Text Book Company.WATER TURBINES HYDRO ELECTRIC ENGINEERING PRACTICE. Brown ed. John Wiley & Son. New York. W. Scranton. New York. Nye.50 U. A concise general form.00 U. Creager and J.00 U. HANDBOOK OF APPLIED HYDRAULICS. Chapter 12 gives a concise presentation of h. 26 ed. McGraw-Hill. 0. P. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. 1952. Calvin V. $18.!. Several chapters are devdted to hydro-electric application. abridged POWER PLANTS. 2d ed. Scranton. 440 Park York.S. Ltd. POWER FROM WATER.S. New York 10020 USA. P. A comprehens4ve handbook covering all phases of applied hydraulics. H. New York: John Wiley and Son. 3) Ecotlomics.S. Justin.50 U.. $8.00 U. New York: McGraw-Hill. survey Paton. and Electrical $50. International Text Book Company.. Guthrie Gordon d Breach. v. Davis. T.00 525.A. 2d ed.S. 2) Mechanical Operation and Maintenance U. 56 . 1952.
water supply. renewable energy sources. primarily by mail. on: Documentation Seminars Services Program Opportunities Relationships Service Appropriate Resource Project Publications Volunteer Institutional Consultancy .agriculture small industries. to design and carry in such areas VITA produces handbooks construction techniques and publishes to make technology choices available Contact VITA for further information Technology Development Support as wind energy and low-cost a broad range of materials to a wide audience. better life -. and lives. seeking help with technical problems' in more than 100 developing countries. shelter. Since 1960 VITA has supplied information in the United States. VITA designs and adapts tcols. methods. VITA VITA pro'.TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT non-profit development organization based is a private. the services of a worldwide network of experts to respond to requests for assistance with farmsP communities.ple and organizations and assistance. ides have volunteered proving homes. local institutions in problem solving relationships in efforts out local solutions. who imown a VITA places priority on assisting low-income people in their and on working in areas most important to achieving efforts. and food. to per. businesses. VITA participates with local needs. programs to respond to resources and conditions.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.