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An oil burner is a mechanical device that combines fuel oil with proper amounts of air before delivering the mixture to the point of ignition in a combustion chamber. It is essential for the efficiency of the combustion process that the oil/air mixture is well homogenized and with as few pure droplets of fuel oil as possible. A fuel oil burner either
vaporize and/or atomize
the fuel oil. Fuel oil burners can in general categorized as
gun-type (atomizing ) burners (pressure gun) pot-type (vaporizing) burners rotary-type fuel oil burners
Gun-type Burners (pressure gun)
A gun-type burner atomize the fuel oil by forcing the oil through a nozzle and spraying it into to an gun-like airflow atomic nozzle. The liquid forms microscopic particles or globules which is well mixed and partly evaporated before ignited in the combustion chamber. A residential gun-type burner normally requires a oil 80 - 130 psi oil pressure. Commercial and industrial burners requires 100 - 300 psi. The gun-type is very flexible and can be used within a large range of applications, from relative small residential heaters to larger industrial heating applications.
In a pot-type fuel burner the fuel evaporates into the combustion air. There are in general
natural draft burners forced draft burners sleeve burners
In an atmospheric pot type heaters the gravity causes the oil to flow to the burner. The natural draft burner relies on the natural draft in the chimney for air supply. The forced draft burner relies on a mechanical fan and/or the chimney for air supply. The perforated sleeve burner is only used in small applications. The pot-type burner is the most inexpensive of the fuel oil burners and has the lowest operating cost. A disadvantage of the pot-type is a limited capacity. This type is in general most suited for smaller applications.
In this type of system. Rotary burners can be classified as rotary nozzle rotary cup With the rotary nozzle burner the nozzle assembly rotate at high speed and oil is supplied through the shaft. Oil-fired burners are used in many parts of the country as the basic heat source for warm air and hot water heating systems. Most of the home oil systems in use today are called pressure burners. propelled by a blower. oil is sprayed into a combustion chamber at high pressure. and ignited by an electric spark. The following types of rotary oil burners are available vertical rotary burners horizontal rotary burners wall-flame rotary burners The rotary fuel burner has in general its advantage in large applications. The rotary cup oil burner contains a cone shaped cup that rotates around a central tube where fuel oil is supplied. .Rotary fuel burners Rotary burners operates with low-pressure gravity and the fuel oil is supplied on and thrown of a rotary disc in a fine spray by the centrifugal force. The oil continues to burn as the mist is sprayed.
a pump. On the next page you'll find a list of tips to keep your furnace running smoothly. but routine maintenance can forestall many problems. Electrodes. The stack control sensor. you may want to check the thermostat. The panel is held by either hooks or retaining bolts. the motor belts. Most oil furnaces in use today are called pressure burners.© 2006 Publications International. You can access the air blower and filter through a metal panel on one side of the furnace. is positioned in the stack and held with a series of retaining bolts. check out the following links. Thermostat Maintenance: To make sure there's actually a problem with your heating system. There's not much you can do to fix an oil furnace. and the thermostat. the switches. In this type of system. Most furnaces have switches and reset buttons located on the motor or in a switch box outside the furnace housing. and other components require special tools and testing equipment and are best left to a professional for service. too. the blower. To become familiar with your oil furnace. a safety device that monitors burner operation. a transformer. These are usually identified with stampings or labels. Small Appliance Repair: Once you've tackled the furnace. Ltd. remove the access panel covering the burner blower by removing the retaining screws around the rim of the housing. air tubes. oil is sprayed into a combustion chamber at high pressure. Furnace Maintenance: Save yourself time and money by learning the steps to keep youor furnace in prime condition. Learn how to calibrate a thermostat. . an oil nozzle. a toaster or blender seems like child's play. Find out how to fix them here. The maintenance and repair work for this type of furnace is limited to simple parts: the filters. and so on. you can learn how to fix other machines in this article. An oil furnace is a complex assembly. For more articles on home repair. such as DISCONNECT SWITCH. slip the panel up and off the hooks or remove the bolts and lift the panel off. Major Appliance Repair: If the furnace isn't the only thing in your house on the fritz. RESET.